WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing physical activity

  1. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  2. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrid Merkx; Marlein Ausems; Luc Budé; Raymond de Vries; Marianne J. Nieuwenhuijze

    2017-01-01

    Objective reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural

  3. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the first year of university life in Malawi. Setting: The setting was Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi. Subjects: The subjects were first-year students (n = 47) enrolled for the 2008/2009 academic year.

  5. Physical activity is associated with changes in knee cartilage microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilaj, E; Hastie, T J; Gold, G E; Delp, S L

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an association between objectively measured physical activity and longitudinal changes in knee cartilage microstructure. We used accelerometry and T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative, restricting the analysis to men aged 45-60 years, with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-27 kg/m 2 and no radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis. After computing 4-year changes in mean T 2 relaxation time for six femoral cartilage regions and mean daily times spent in the sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity ranges, we performed canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to find a linear combination of times spent in different activity intensity ranges (Activity Index) that was maximally correlated with a linear combination of regional changes in cartilage microstructure (Cartilage Microstructure Index). We used leave-one-out pre-validation to test the robustness of the model on new data. Nineteen subjects satisfied the inclusion criteria. CCA identified an Activity Index and a Cartilage Microstructure Index that were significantly correlated (r = .82, P microstructural changes in different cartilage regions than it is with univariate or cumulative changes, likely because this index separates the effect of activity, which is greater in the medial loadbearing region, from that of patient-specific natural aging. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  7. Factors affecting perceived change in physical activity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-08-01

    reduction of physical activity (PA) during pregnancy is common but undesirable, as it is associated with negative outcomes, including excessive gestational weight gain. Our objective was to explore changes in five types of activity that occurred during pregnancy and the behavioural determinants of the reported changes in PA. we performed a secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey that was constructed using the ASE-Model - an approach to identifying the factors that drive behaviour change that focuses on Attitude, Social influence, and self-Efficacy. 455 healthy pregnant women of all gestational ages, receiving prenatal care from midwifery practices in the Netherlands. more than half of our respondents reported a reduction in their PA during pregnancy. The largest reduction occurred in sports and brief rigorous activities, but other types of PA were reduced as well. Reduction of PA was more likely in women who considered themselves as active before pregnancy, women who experienced pregnancy-related barriers, women who were advised to reduce their PA, and multiparous women. Fewer than 5% increased their PA. Motivation to engage in PA was positively associated with enjoying PA. all pregnant women should be informed about the positive effects of staying active and should be encouraged to engage in, or to continue, moderately intensive activities like walking, biking or swimming. Our findings concerning the predictors of PA reduction can be used to develop an evidence-based intervention aimed at encouraging healthy PA during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal changes in physical self-perceptions and associations with physical activity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchley, Jo; Kirby, Jo; Currie, Candace

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine adolescents' physical self-perceptions and their associations with physical activity using a longitudinal perspective. Utilizing data from the Physical Activity in Scottish Schoolchildren (PASS) study, changes in exercise self-efficacy, perceived competence, global self-esteem and physical self-worth were assessed among a sample of 641 Scottish adolescents from age 11-15 years. Girls reported lower levels of perceived competence, self-esteem and physical self-worth than boys at each age. Furthermore, girls' physical self-perceptions decreased markedly over time. Among boys, only perceived competence decreased, while global self-esteem increased. Baseline physical activity was a significant predictor of later activity levels for both genders. Findings demonstrate the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to physical activity behavior among adolescents. Among older boys, high perceived competence increased the odds of being active by 3.8 times. Among older girls, high exercise self-efficacy increased the odds of being active by 5.2 times. There is a need for early interventions which promote increased physical literacy and confidence, particularly among girls.

  9. Longitudinal changes in sedentary time and physical activity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Sarah K; Page, Angie S; Falconer, Catherine; Cooper, Ashley R

    2015-04-01

    Low levels of physical activity and high time spent in sedentary activities have been associated with unfavourable health outcomes in adolescents. During adolescence, physical activity declines and sedentary time increases, however little is known about whether the magnitude of these changes differs within or between school-time, after-school time, or at weekends. Adolescents (n = 363) participating in the PEACH (Personal and Environmental Associations with Children's Health) project provided accelerometer data at 12 and 15 years of age. Data were collected in 2008/2009 and 2012/2013. Time spent sedentary (physical activity (LPA (100-2295 cpm) and in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA: ≥ 2296 cpm) were generated for school-time, after-school time and for weekends using school-specific start and finish times. All data were analysed in 2014. The proportion of time spent sedentary significantly increased during school (+8.23%, 95% CI = 7.35 to 9.13), after-school (+6.99%, 95% CI = 5.91 to 8.07) and at weekends (+6.86%, 95% CI = 5.10 to 8.62). A parallel decrease was found in the proportion of time spent in LPA during school (-7.62%, 95% CI = -8.26 to -6.98), after-school (-7.01%, 95% CI = -7.74 to -6.28) and at weekends (-6.72%, 95% CI = -7.80 to -5.65). The proportion of time spent in MVPA remained relatively stable during school (-0.64, 95% CI = -1.11 to -0.18), after-school (0.04%, 95% CI = -0.58 to 0.67) and at weekends (-0.14%, 95% CI = -1.18 to 0.90). Objectively measured sedentary time increased between 12 and 15 years of age during-school, after-school, and at weekends, suggesting that interventions aiming to reduce the age-associated changes in sedentary time are needed in all three time contexts. Future work should identify which sedentary activities change more than others to inform interventions which aim to minimise the increase in time spent sedentary during adolescence.

  10. Stages of change toward physical activity: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Rodrigues Domingues

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to carry out a review of the literature about studies that investigated the stages of change for physical activity among adults. The search was conducted in the following electronic databases: Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Ovid, Biomed Central, Elsevier, Oxford, Sports Discus, PsycInfo e Lilacs. The terms used were: “transtheoretical model”, “stages of change”, “stages of readiness” combined with “physical activity” or “exercise”; when appropriated, the equivalent terms in Portuguese were used. Only original or reviews articles were selected, and other type of works were excluded. The issues discussed in this article addressed the background and the temporal evolution of the stages of change, ways of operationalize and analyze the stages, validity and reliability of the instruments applied to measure the stages, and the factors associated with the stages. In conclusion, the importance of the stages of change model to promote physical activity practice was highlighted. ResumoO objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar uma revisão da literatura acerca dos estudos que investigaram os estágios de mudança de comportamento para a prática de atividades físicas em adultos. Para isto, foi efetuada uma pesquisa nas seguintes bases de dados eletrônicas: Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Ovid, Biomed Central, Elsevier, Oxford, Sports Discus, PsycInfo e Lilacs. Os descritores utilizados foram: “transtheoretical model”, “stages of change”, “stages of readiness” combinados com “physical activity” ou “exercise”. Quando apropriado, empregaram-se seus termos correspondentes em português. Foram selecionados apenas artigos originais ou de revisão que tratassem sobre o assunto, sendo excluídos outros tipos de trabalhos. Os pontos discutidos neste artigo abordam os tópicos a seguir: origem e evolução dos estágios; formas de operacionalização e de análise dos estágios; validade e

  11. The physical self in motion: within-person change and associations of change in self-esteem, physical self-concept, and physical activity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Asci, Hulya; Crocker, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of within-person change, and associations of change, in global self-esteem (GSE), physical self-perceptions (PSP), and physical activity in a sample of 705 Canadian adolescent girls over three measurements points and 24 months. The Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (PSPP) was used to measure GSE and PSP, and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) was used to assess physical activity. Latent growth curve models were used to analyze the data. All PSP variables except for body attractiveness demonstrated significant average decline, but also significant was the change in between-person heterogeneity. Change in GSE and PSP was moderately to strongly related on a between-person level and weakly to moderately associated on a within-person level. Change in physical activity was related to change in the majority of the PSP variables but not to change in GSE.

  12. Predictors of physical activity change among adults using observational designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Quinlan, Alison

    2015-03-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is foundational to human health, yet most people are inactive. A sound understanding of the determinants of PA may be instructive for building interventions and/or identifying critical target groups to promote PA. Most research on PA correlates has been biased by cross-sectional or passive prospective designs that fail to examine within-person analysis of PA change. The purpose of this review was to collect and appraise the available literature on the predictors of PA change conceived broadly in terms of increases/decreases from baseline assessment as well as specifically in terms of adoption and maintenance. Eligible studies were from English, peer-reviewed published articles that examined predictors of natural change of PA over 3 months + using observational (non-experimental) data in adult samples. Searches were performed from June 2012 to January 2014 in eight databases. Sixty-seven independent data-sets, from 12 countries, primarily of medium quality/risk of bias, were identified with 26 correlates spanning demographic, behavioral, intra-individual, inter-individual, and environmental categories. Only intention and the onset of motherhood could reliably predict overall PA change. Among datasets configured to predict PA adoption, affective judgments and behavioral processes of change were the only reliable predictors, although both only have a small number of available studies. There were no reliable predictors of maintenance when compared to PA relapse. The results underscore the importance of individual-level motivation and behavioral regulation in PA change, but also denote critical social variables. These findings, however, are constrained by PA measurement bias and limited studies that employed time-varying covariation between predictor variables and PA.

  13. Year in school and physical activity stage of change as discriminators of variation in the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Con; Murphy, John J; MacDonncha, Ciaran

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females will provide insight into decreasing physical activity patterns among adolescent females. Correlates of physical activity and physical activity stage of change were assessed during 2007-2008 among 871 Irish adolescent females in years 1-6 in secondary schools (15.28 ± 1.8 years). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to identify whether differences in correlates of physical activity could be detected across year in school and physical activity stages of change. Significant differences (P physically active (partial eta range (ηp2) .21-.25) to be the most important predictors of physical activity stage of change. Females in more senior years in school and in earlier physical activity stages of change reported a significantly less positive physical activity correlate profile than females in junior years and in later physical activity stages of change. This finding supports the construct validity of the physical activity stages of change.

  14. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Department of Home Economics and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Bunda ... and medium-income countries can implement strategies, including ..... engage in more physical activity such as sport as a result of having.

  15. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. RESULTS: Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA......). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LTPA and OPA were associated......BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. METHODS: The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent...

  16. Changes in vigorous physical activity and incident diabetes inmale runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2007-04-30

    We examined the dose-response relationship between changes in reported vigorous exercise (running distance, {Delta}km/wk) and self-reported physician diagnosed diabetes in 25,988 men followed prospectively for (mean {+-} SD) 7.8 {+-} 1.8 years. Logistic regression analyses showed that the log odds for diabetes declined significantly in relation to men's {Delta}km/wk (coefficient {+-} SE: -0.012 {+-} 0.004, P < 0.01), which remained significant when adjusted for BMI (-0.018 {+-} 0.003, P < 0.0001). The decline in the log odds for diabetes was related to the distance run at the end of follow-up when adjusted for baseline distance, with (-0.024 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) or without (-0.027 {+-} 0.005, P < 0.0001) adjustment for BMI. Baseline distance was unrelated to diabetes incidence when adjusted for the distance at the end of follow-up. Compared to men who ran <8 km/wk at the end of follow-up, incidence rates in those who ran {ge} 8 km/wk were 95% lower between 35-44 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 92% lower between 45-54 yrs old (P < 0.0001), 87% lower between 55 and 64 years old (P < 0.0001), and 46% lower between 65-75 yrs old (P = 0.30). For the subset of 6,208 men who maintained the same running distance during follow-up ({+-}5 km/wk), the log odds for diabetes declined with weekly distance run (-0.024 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.02) but not when adjusted for BMI (-0.005 {+-} 0.010, P = 0.65). Conclusion: Vigorous exercise significantly reduces diabetes incidence, due in part to the prevention of age-related weight gain and in part to other exercise effects. Physical activity decreases the risk of type 2 diabetes [1-10]. Moderate and vigorous exercise are purported to produce comparable reductions in diabetes risk if the energy expenditure is the same [3,10]. The optimal physical activity dose remains unclear, however, with some [4-7] but not all studies [1,8,9] showing continued reduction in diabetes for high versus intermediate energy expenditures. The National Runners

  17. Promoting physical activity and reducing climate change : Opportunities to replace short car trips with active transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maibach, E.; Steg, L.; Anable, J.

    2009-01-01

    Automobile use is a significant contributor to climate change, local air pollution, pedestrian injuries and deaths, declines in physical activity and obesity. A significant proportion of car use is for short trips that can relatively easily be taken with active transportation options - walking or

  18. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  19. Promoting physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a narrative review of behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Kennedy, Norelee; Gallagher, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Despite physical activity having significant health benefits for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), current levels of physical activity in this population are suboptimal. Changing behaviour is challenging and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in this context have had varying levels of success. This review provides an overview of common behaviour change theories used in interventions to promote physical activity and their application for promoting physical activity in people with RA. A scoping, narrative review was conducted of English language literature, using the search terms "physical activity/exercise" and keywords, which are associated with behaviour change interventions. The theoretical basis of such interventions in people with RA was assessed using the "theory coding scheme". Six theories which have been used in physical activity research are discussed. Further, four studies which aimed to increase physical activity levels in people with RA are explored in detail. To date, behaviour change interventions conducted in RA populations to increase physical activity levels have not had a strong theoretical underpinning. It is proposed that an intervention utilising the theory of planned behaviour is developed with the aim of increasing physical activity in people with RA. Implications for Rehabilitation Interventions to promote physical activity in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) population have failed to change participants' behaviour. A small number of studies have used behaviour change theories in the development and delivery of interventions. The theory of planned behaviour is recommended as the theoretical basis for an intervention to promote physical activity in the RA population.

  20. Change in physical education motivation and physical activity behavior during middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E; Smith, Alan L; Williams, Lavon

    2008-11-01

    To test a mediational model of the relationships among motivation-related variables in middle-school physical education and leisure-time physical activity behavior. Sixth- and seventh-grade physical education students from five middle schools in the midwest United States completed a survey containing measures of study variables on two occasions, 1 year apart. Motivation-related constructs positively predicted leisure-time physical activity behavior. Enjoyment of activities in physical education and physical activity during class mediated the relationship between self-determined motivation in physical education and leisure-time physical activity. Perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness were important antecedent variables in the model, with autonomy and relatedness showing less stability over time and positively predicting self-determined motivation. Students' leisure-time physical activity is linked to motivation-related experiences in physical education. Perceptions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness, self-determined motivation, enjoyment, and physical activity in the physical education setting directly or indirectly predict leisure-time physical activity. The associations suggest that more adaptive motivation corresponds to transfer of behavior across contexts. Also, the findings suggest that the efficacy of school-based physical activity interventions, within and outside of school, is linked to the degree of support for students' self-determined motivation.

  1. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Erwin; Wanner Miriam; Zimmermann-Sloutskis Dorith; Martin Brian W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a longitudinal study...

  2. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  3. Get Active Orlando: changing the built environment to increase physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreedy, Malisa; Leslie, Jill G

    2009-12-01

    Active Living by Design's Get Active Orlando partnership (GAO) focused on downtown Orlando's Community Redevelopment Area, including the Parramore Heritage District, home to many low-income and ethnically diverse residents, including many seniors. The area had undergone substantial development, and GAO aimed to incorporate active living considerations into the city's changing landscape. Get Active Orlando conducted a baseline survey of all streets, sidewalks, and bicycle lanes in the project area and identified a sequence of plans and policies in which to incorporate changes identified in the assessment. To create more immediate opportunities for active living, the partnership initiated a senior walking program, a bicycle refurbishment and giveaway program, and community bicycle-riding events, and led a social-marketing campaign that emphasized simple lifestyle changes. Get Active Orlando influenced adoption of public policies supporting active living in Orlando, including the Downtown Transportation Plan, Streetscape Guidelines, Design Standards Review Checklist, and growth management policies. Establishment of the Mayor's Advisory Council on Active Living is testament to the heightened significance of active living in Orlando. Initial assessment data served as a strong platform for policy change. Creating connections across disciplines including land-use planning, transportation, public health, and economic development allowed GAO to secure substantial policy change to influence design of the built environment. Engaging community members, including youth, as leaders was an important factor in program success. The physical environment in Orlando's Community Redevelopment Area is beginning to change as a reflection of a new policy framework designed to support active living.

  4. Acculturation is Not Related to Physical Activity Stage of Change for Children in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Markus; Nigg, Claudio R; Renda, Gloria A; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between acculturation and physical activity stages of change is unexplored. Stages of change conceptualize behavior change as a progression through a series of five stages indicating the readiness to change behavior. The level of acculturation can be assessed using the Ethnocultural Identity Behavioral Index (EIBI) which is based on three factors: Cultural Activities, Social Interaction and Language Opportunities. The purpose of this project was to explore the relationship between parental acculturation and physical activity stages of change in Hawai'i children. Participants (N = 85; 62% female; aged 5-8 years; 22% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders, 42% Asian, 25% White, and 11% Other) completed the EIBI and a physical activity stages of change measure. Acculturation factor means were: Cultural Activities = 4 (SD = 1.26), Social Interaction = 3 (SD = 1.04), and Language Opportunities = 4 (SD = 1.29). The physical activity stages of change distribution was Precontemplation = 11 (13%), Contemplation/Preparation = 15 (18%), and Action/Maintenance = 59 (69%). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for Cultural Activities F(3, 81) = 0.77, P = .47, Social Interaction F(3, 81) = 0.93, P = .40; and Language Opportunities F(3, 81) = 1.34, P = .27 showed no significant differences between physical activity stages of change. The results of our study do not show an association between acculturation and readiness to change for physical activity. The lack of differences may be due to participants being moderately acculturated, possibly lessening the differentiation of acculturation by physical activity stages of change.

  5. Changes in physical activity and all-cause mortality in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaes, Anouk W; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    -up was associated with an increased mortality risk in subjects with and without COPD. These observational data suggest that it is important to assess and encourage physical activity in the earliest stages of COPD in order to maintain a physical activity level that is as high as possible, as this is associated......Little is known about changes in physical activity in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its impact on mortality. Therefore, we aimed to study changes in physical activity in subjects with and without COPD and the impact of physical activity on mortality risk. Subjects......, respectively) were included. COPD subjects with moderate or high baseline physical activity who reported low physical activity level at follow-up had the highest hazard ratios of mortality (1.73 and 2.35, respectively; both pphysical activity, no differences were...

  6. Longitudinal Approaches to Stages of Change Measurement: Effects on Cognitive and Behavioral Physical Activity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The transition from school to further education and work is one of immense change that impacts physical activity attitudes and engagement in adulthood. The Stages of Change (SOC) model, which resides under the transtheoretical framework, has been proposed as one way to measure and evaluate physical activity uptake and maintenance. The current…

  7. Exploring Indigenous Game-Based Physics Activities in Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptual Change and Transformation of Epistemic Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz Escaño

    2017-01-01

    "Laro-ng-Lahi" (Indigenous Filipino game) based physics activities invigorated the integration of culture in the pre-service physics education to develop students' epistemic beliefs and the notion of conceptual understanding through conceptual change. The study conveniently involved 28 pre-service undergraduate physics students enrolled…

  8. Changes in Physical Activity Involvement and Attitude to Physical Activity in a 16-Year Follow-Up Study among the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkilä Päivi; Hirvensalo Mirja; Parkatti Terttu

    2010-01-01

    We studied changes of physical activity among noninstitutionalized 65 years and older persons over a sixteen-year follow-up period. The focus of our interest was on changes in involvement, frequency, intensity, and various modes of physical activity. Furthermore, we studied changes in perceived importance, motives for, and obstacles to participation in physical activity. The results showed that the proportion of those reporting less frequent and intensive activities increased. Men were more a...

  9. Association of Longitudinal Changes of Physical Activity on Smoking Cessation Among Young Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, no longitudinal epidemiological study among daily smokers has examined the effects of physical activity change/ trajectory on smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of changes in physical activity on smoking cessation among a national sample of young (16-24 y) daily smokers. Data from the 2003-2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used (N = 1178). Using hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis, 5 distinct self-reported physical activity trajectories over 3 time periods (baseline, 12-month, and 24-month follow-up) were observed, including stable low physical activity, decreasing physical activity, curvilinear physical activity, stable high physical activity, and increasing physical activity. Nicotine dependence (Heaviness of Smoking Index) and demographic parameters were assessed via survey. With stable low physical activity (16.2% quit smoking) serving as the referent group, those in the stable high physical activity (24.8% quit smoking) group had 1.8 greater odds of not smoking at the 24-month follow-up period (odds ratio = 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.91) after adjusting for nicotine dependence, age, gender, race-ethnicity, and education. Maintenance of regular physical activity among young daily smokers may help to facilitate smoking cessation.

  10. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  11. Behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for men with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallward, Laura; Patel, Nisha; Duncan, Lindsay R

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity interventions can improve prostate cancer survivors' health. Determining the behaviour change techniques used in physical activity interventions can help elucidate the mechanisms by which an intervention successfully changes behaviour. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors. A total of 7 databases were searched and 15 studies were retained. The studies included a mean 6.87 behaviour change techniques (range = 3-10), and similar behaviour change techniques were implemented in all studies. Consideration of how behaviour change techniques are implemented may help identify how behaviour change techniques enhance physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors.

  12. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena

    2009-01-01

    = 0.02 and girls and boys. Interactions were found between change in physical activity and SES. Although the mean physical activity level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...... over time, an increase was seen among children from middle-SES groups. Moreover, in high-SES groups, an increase was observed for mean physical activity level (girls only) between study periods, whereas no change was seen for MVPA participation. CONCLUSIONS: Nine-year-old children living in Oslo......PURPOSE: To describe changes in objectively assessed physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) between 1999-2000 and 2005 in 9-yr-old children living in Oslo, Norway. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1999-2000 and 2005. The participation rate was 70.9% in 1999...

  13. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  14. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self reg...

  15. Physical activity and 5-year changes in physical performance tests and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: the Yokogoshi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Kobayashi, Ryosaku; Oshiki, Rieko; Saito, Toshiko; Oyama, Mari; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Nishiwaki, Tomoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Akihiro

    2011-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on musculoskeletal health in older adults is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between physical activity and 5-year changes in physical performance tests and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. The design was a 5-year cohort study. Subjects were 507 women (55-74 years old) living in a rural community in Japan. Physical activity assessed included housework, farm work, and moderate leisure-time physical activity within the previous week. Measurements at baseline included handgrip strength, walking time (timed "Up & Go" test) and BMD of the femoral neck and vertebrae. Five-year changes in these measures (outcome variables) were compared among groups with different levels of physical activity by analysis of covariance. Women who did not do housework performed worse in changes in handgrip strength (difference=2.22 kg, P=0.0201) and worse in changes in the walking time (difference=0.54 s, P=0.0072) than those who did housework alone. Women who spent at least 9h per week (median=24) doing farm work performed better in changes in handgrip strength (difference=0.28 kg, P=0.0334), but worse in changes in the walking time (difference=0.66 s, Pwork. However, leisure-time activity was not associated with changes in any outcome variable, and none of the physical activities predicted BMD changes. Engaging in housework and farm work are determinants of physical function in postmenopausal women, which may help them maintain independence in daily living. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahelma Eero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%. The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET. Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers. The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Results At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of

  17. Changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiluri, Tina; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea

    2011-03-01

    Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%). Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers). The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of occupational class differences at follow-up. Women in

  18. Motivational factors and stages of change for physical activity among college students in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala; Merrill, Ray M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate physical activity levels across the five stages of change for physical activity and to identify motivational factors for physical activity according to these stages of change among college students in Amman, Jordan. Analyses were based on a cross-sectional survey of 431 students, with a mean age of 21.1 (SD=0.16) and 67.5% female. Based on the recommendation that physical activity requires at least 30 minutes of physical activity 3 or more days per week, men were more likely than women to classify themselves in later stages: 7.3% vs. 9.5% in the precontemplation stage, 17.4% vs. 14.7% in the contemplation stage, 50.0% vs. 63.5% in the preparation stage, 9.4% vs. 5.6% in the action stage, and 15.9% vs. 6.7% in the maintenance stage [X2(4) = 14.04, p = 0.0072]. Seven potential motivational items for physical activity were assessed using factor analysis: experience better self-worth, prevent chronic disease, relieve stress, stay in shape, longevity, recreation/fun, and social benefits. Two factor groupings were identified from these items. The first factor included the first five items, labeled as "Physical and Mental". The second factor included the last two items, labeled as "Social and Recreational." "Physical and Mental" items compared with "Social and Recreational" items were most likely to motivate physical activity across the stages of change for physical activity. The strongest motivator of physical activity was to stay in shape. The weakest motivator of physical activity was for social reasons. The influence of the intermediate motivational factors was slightly affected by the students' stage of change for physical activity. Motivators for physical activity did not differ according to sex. These results provide important information about the motivational factors for physical activity for college-aged students in Jordan that can be useful in developing effective physical activity intervention programs.

  19. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical...

  20. Naturally-occurring changes in social-cognitive factors modify change in physical activity during early adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod K Dishman

    Full Text Available To determine whether naturally-occurring changes in children's motives and beliefs are associated with the steep decline in physical activity observed from childhood to early adolescence.Latent growth modeling was applied in longitudinal tests of social-cognitive influences, and their interactions, on physical activity in a large cohort of boys and girls evaluated annually between 5th and 7th grades.Measurement equivalence of motives and beliefs was confirmed between boys and girls. After adjustment for gender and maturity differences, physical activity declined less in children who reported the least decreases in self-efficacy for overcoming barriers to activity and perceived parental support. Physical activity also declined less in students who persistently felt they had more parental and friend support for activity compared to those who reported the largest decrease in support from friends. After further adjustment for race, the decline in physical activity was less in those who had the largest decrease in perceived barriers and maintained a favorable perception of their neighborhood environment. Changes in enjoyment and social motives were unrelated to change in physical activity.Using an objective measure of physical activity, we confirm that naturally-occurring changes in children's beliefs about barriers to physical activity and their ability to overcome them, as well as perceptions of their neighborhood environment and social support, are concurrent with age-related declines in children's physical activity. The longitudinal findings confirm these putative social-cognitive mediators as plausible, interacting targets of interventions designed to mitigate the marked decline in physical activity that occurs during the transition between elementary and middle schools.

  1. Mediators of physical activity change in a behavioral modification program for type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor-Locke Catrine E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported significant behavioral impact of physical activity interventions. However, few have examined changes in potential mediators of change preceding behavioral changes, resulting in a lack of information concerning how the intervention worked. Our purpose was to examine mediation effects of changes in psychosocial variables on changes in physical activity in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Ninety-two patients (62 ± 9 years, 30, 0 ± 2.5 kg/m2, 69% males participated in a randomized controlled trial. The 24-week intervention was based on social-cognitive constructs and consisted of a face-to-face session, telephone follow-ups, and the use of a pedometer. Social-cognitive variables and physical activity (device-based and self-reported were collected at baseline, after the 24-week intervention and at one year post-baseline. PA was measured by pedometer, accelerometer and questionnaire. Results Post-intervention physical activity changes were mediated by coping with relapse, changes in social norm, and social modeling from family members (p ≤ 0.05. One-year physical activity changes were mediated by coping with relapse, changes in social support from family and self-efficacy towards physical activity barriers (p ≤ 0.05 Conclusions For patients with type 2 diabetes, initiatives to increase their physical activity could usefully focus on strategies for resuming regular patterns of activity, on engaging family social support and on building confidence about dealing with actual and perceived barriers to activity. Trial Registration NCT00903500, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  2. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  3. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  4. Changes in leisure-time physical activity and physical and mental health functioning: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstila, A; Mänty, M; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E; Lahti, J

    2017-12-01

    Functioning will be an increasingly important issue in Finland over the coming decades as the proportion of the population aged 65 and older is growing significantly. However, the associations between changes in physical activity and subsequent health functioning are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine how changes in physical activity relate to concurrent and prospective levels of health functioning. Cohort data from the Helsinki Health Study were used. Phase 1 (n = 8960, response rate 67%, 80% women) was conducted among 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002, phase 2 in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%), and phase 3 in 2012 (n = 6814, response rate 79%). Linear mixed models were used as the main statistical method. Increasing physical activity was associated with higher concurrent and prospective levels of physical health functioning, whereas decreasing activity was associated with lower levels of physical health functioning. The associations were stronger with physical than with mental health functioning. Promoting physical activity among aging people may help to maintain their level of health functioning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Using formative research to develop CHANGE!: a curriculum-based physical activity promoting intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles Zoe R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated! intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls, 33 parents (4 male, 29 female and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female. Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a

  6. ‘Small Changes' to Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors for Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Hills

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous short- and long-term health consequences. Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary habits are consistent with an increased risk of obesity in an obesogenic environment. Relatively little research has investigated associations between eating and activity behaviors by using a systems biology approach and by considering the dynamics of the energy balance concept. A significant body of research indicates that a small positive energy balance over time is sufficient to cause weight gain in many individuals. In contrast, small changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors can prevent weight gain. In the context of weight management, it may be more feasible for most people to make small compared to large short-term changes in diet and activity. This paper presents a case for the use of small and incremental changes in diet and physical activity for improved weight management in the context of a toxic obesogenic environment.

  7. Changes in Physical Activity Domains During the Transition Out of High School: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana; Castillo, Isabel; Sallis, James F

    2015-10-01

    This study examined changes in multiple physical activity domains during the transition out of high school and psychosocial and environmental determinants of these changes. A 1-year prospective study was designed. The baseline sample was composed of 244 last-year high school students (58.6% female) from Valencia, Spain. Follow-up rate was 46%. Physical activity and potential determinants were measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and other evaluated scales in 2 waves. Total physical activity and active commuting (AC) decreased, respectively, by 21% and 36%, only in males. At time 1, access to car/motorbike (inverse), planning/psychosocial barriers (inverse), street connectivity (positive) and parental education (inverse) were significantly associated with AC (P genders, there was a decrease in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA; -35% in males, -43% in females). At time 1, self-efficacy and social support were positive correlates of LTPA (P physical activity change were identified, and these are promising targets for interventions.

  8. Do boys and girls achieve different results?" Changes in physical activity and adiposity: acorda project

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Luísa; Silva, Gustavo; Lagoa, Maria João; Martins, Clarice; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Mota, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    School-based interventions show inconsistent results in reducing obesity-related problems. Most of intervention studies are targeting girls because they have shown lower rates of physical activity and higher prevalence of obesity. ! The aim of this study was to compare the changes observed in BMI, percentage of Body Fat, percentage of Trunk Fat and Moderate to Vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels between boys and girls engaged in a school-based intervention program.Significant im...

  9. Behavior change techniques in top-ranked mobile apps for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2014-06-01

    Mobile applications (apps) have potential for helping people increase their physical activity, but little is known about the behavior change techniques marketed in these apps. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions of top-ranked apps for physical activity. Top-ranked apps (n=167) were identified on August 28, 2013, and coded using the Coventry, Aberdeen and London-Revised (CALO-RE) taxonomy of behavior change techniques during the following month. Analyses were conducted during 2013. Most descriptions of apps incorporated fewer than four behavior change techniques. The most common techniques involved providing instruction on how to perform exercises, modeling how to perform exercises, providing feedback on performance, goal-setting for physical activity, and planning social support/change. A latent class analysis revealed the existence of two types of apps, educational and motivational, based on their configurations of behavior change techniques. Behavior change techniques are not widely marketed in contemporary physical activity apps. Based on the available descriptions and functions of the observed techniques in contemporary health behavior theories, people may need multiple apps to initiate and maintain behavior change. This audit provides a starting point for scientists, developers, clinicians, and consumers to evaluate and enhance apps in this market. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  11. Changes in physical functioning in the Active Living Every Day program of the Active for Life Initiative®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Wegley, Stacy; Buchner, David M; Ory, Marcia G; Phillips, Alisa; Schwamberger, Karen; Bazzarre, Terry L

    2011-09-01

    Physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of physical functional limitations in older adults. There are limited data that evidence-based physical activity interventions can be successfully translated into community programs and result in similar benefits for physical functioning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of the Active Living Every Day program on physical functioning and physical functional limitations in a diverse sample of older adults. As a part of the Active for Life initiative, the Council on Aging of Southwestern Ohio implemented Active Living Every Day (ALED), a group-based lifestyle behavior change program designed to increase physical activity. Performance-based physical functioning tests (30-s Chair Stand Test, eight Foot Up-and-Go Test, Chair Sit-and-Reach Test, 30-Foot Walk Test) were administered to participants at baseline and posttest. Baseline to post-program changes in physical functioning and impairment status were examined with repeated measures analysis of covariance. Interactions tested whether change over time differed according to race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and baseline impairment status. Participants significantly increased their performance in all four physical functioning tests. The percentage of participants classified as "impaired" according to normative data significantly decreased over time. Physical functioning improved regardless of BMI, race/ethnicity, or baseline impairment status. ALED is an example of an evidenced-based physical activity program that can be successfully translated into community programs and result in significant and clinically meaningful improvements in performance-based measures of physical functioning.

  12. Decline in physical activity during adolescence is not associated with changes in mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L. Van Dijk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies investigating associations between physical activity and mental health in adolescents have been cross-sectional in design. Potential associations between physical activity and mental health may be better examined longitudinally as physical activity levels tend to decrease in adolescence. Few studies have investigated these associations longitudinally in adolescents and none by measuring physical activity objectively. Methods A total of 158 Dutch adolescents (mean age 13.6 years, 38.6 % boys, grades 7 and 9 at baseline participated in this longitudinal study. Physical activity, depressive symptoms and self-esteem were measured at baseline and at the 1-year follow-up. Physical activity was objectively measured with an ActivPAL3™ accelerometer during one full week. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Results were analysed using structural equation modelling. Results Physical activity levels decreased 15.3 % over a 1-year period (p < .001, with significantly (p = .001 greater decreases during grade 7 (-20.7 % than during grade 9 (-5.0 %. Overall, depressive symptoms decreased (-12.1 %, p < .001 over a 1-year period, while self-esteem did not change significantly (+2.9 %, p = .066. Higher levels of depressive symptoms at baseline predicted a greater decline in depressive symptoms (β = -.51, p < .001 and higher levels of self-esteem at baseline predicted a smaller increase in self-esteem (β = -.48, p < .001. The decline in physical activity did not appear to predict any change in depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Conclusion The decline in physical activity over a 1-year period during adolescence is not associated with a change in mental health. Further studies in adolescents aiming to investigate whether a change in physical

  13. Effect of experimental change in children's sleep duration on television viewing and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C N; Hawley, N; Davey, A; Carskadon, M; Raynor, H; Jelalian, E; Owens, J; Considine, R; Wing, R R

    2017-12-01

    Paediatric observational studies demonstrate associations between sleep, television viewing and potential changes in daytime activity levels. To determine whether experimental changes in sleep lead to changes in children's sedentary and physical activities. Using a within-subject counterbalanced design, 37 children 8-11 years old completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount during a baseline week and were then randomized to increase or decrease mean time in bed by 1.5 h/night for 1 week; the alternate schedule was completed the final week. Children wore actigraphs on their non-dominant wrist and completed 3-d physical activity recalls each week. Children reported watching more television (p television viewing and decreased mean activity levels. Although additional time awake may help to counteract negative effects of short sleep, increases in reported sedentary activities could contribute to weight gain over time. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Five-year change in physical activity is associated with changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; von Huth Smith, L; Pisinger, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether five-year changes in self-reported physical activity level were associated with changes in waist circumference, weight, serum lipids and blood pressure. METHODS: In the Inter99 study (1999-2006) in Copenhagen, Denmark, 4039 men and women (30-60 years) answered quest....... Change in physical activity level induced a significant change in HDL concentration in men only. Women's use of hormone replacement therapy may partly explain this gender difference.......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether five-year changes in self-reported physical activity level were associated with changes in waist circumference, weight, serum lipids and blood pressure. METHODS: In the Inter99 study (1999-2006) in Copenhagen, Denmark, 4039 men and women (30-60 years) answered...... questions on lifestyle and provided blood samples and anthropometric measures at baseline and after five years. Multiple regression analyses were performed with five-year value of each cardiovascular biomarker as outcome and change in physical activity level as explanatory variable. RESULTS: Approximately...

  15. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  16. Systematic review of behaviour change techniques to promote participation in physical activity among people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Adamczewska, Natalia; Howlett, Neil

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD). PsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000-01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and BCTs were coded using Michie et al., 2013, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81. taxonomy. Intervention findings were narratively synthesized as either 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising', and BCTs were judged as having potential promise if they featured in at least twice as many very/quite promising than non-promising interventions (as per Gardner et al., 2016, Health Psychology Review, 10, 89). Nineteen articles from nine trials reported physical activity findings on behavioural outcomes (two very promising, one quite promising, and two non-promising) or intervention adherence (one quite promising and four non-promising). Thirteen BCTs were used across the interventions. While no BCT had potential promise to increase intervention adherence, three BCTs had potential promise for improving physical activity behaviour outcomes: goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source. Three BCTs have potential promise for use in future interventions to increase physical activity among PWD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While physical activity is a key lifestyle factor to enhance and maintain health and wellbeing amongst the general population, adults rarely participate in sufficient levels to obtain these benefits. Systematic reviews suggest that

  17. Change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity in adults: longitudinal findings from the iConnect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To better understand the health benefits of promoting active travel, it is important to understand the relationship between a change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity. Methods These analyses, carried out in April 2012, use longitudinal data from 1628 adult respondents (mean age 54 years; 47% male) in the UK-based iConnect study. Travel and recreational physical activity were measured using detailed seven-day recall instruments. Adjusted linear regression models were fitted with change in active travel defined as ‘decreased’ (15 min/week) as the primary exposure variable and changes in (a) recreational and (b) total physical activity (min/week) as the primary outcome variables. Results Active travel increased in 32% (n=529), was maintained in 33% (n=534) and decreased in 35% (n=565) of respondents. Recreational physical activity decreased in all groups but this decrease was not greater in those whose active travel increased. Conversely, changes in active travel were associated with commensurate changes in total physical activity. Compared with those whose active travel remained unchanged, total physical activity decreased by 176.9 min/week in those whose active travel had decreased (adjusted regression coefficient −154.9, 95% CI −195.3 to −114.5) and was 112.2 min/week greater among those whose active travel had increased (adjusted regression coefficient 135.1, 95% CI 94.3 to 175.9). Conclusion An increase in active travel was associated with a commensurate increase in total physical activity and not a decrease in recreational physical activity. PMID:23445724

  18. HABITAT: A longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity change in mid-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Wendy J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the patterns and influences of physical activity change in mid-aged adults. This study describes the design, sampling, data collection, and analytical plan of HABITAT, an innovative study of (i physical activity change over five years (2007–2011 in adults aged 40–65 years at baseline, and (ii the relative contribution of psychological variables, social support, neighborhood perceptions, area-level factors, and sociodemographic characteristics to physical activity change. Methods/Design HABITAT is a longitudinal multi-level study. 1625 Census Collection Districts (CCDs in Brisbane, Australia were ranked by their index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage score, categorized into deciles, and 20 CCDs from each decile were selected to provide 200 local areas for study inclusion. From each of the 200 CCDs, dwellings with individuals aged between 40–65 years (in 2007 were identified using electoral roll data, and approximately 85 people per CCD were selected to participate (N = 17,000. A comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS database has been compiled with area-level information on public transport networks, footpaths, topography, traffic volume, street lights, tree coverage, parks, public services, and recreational facilities Participants are mailed a questionnaire every two years (2007, 2009, 2011, with items assessing physical activity (general walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, walking for transport, cycling for transport, recreational activities, sitting time, perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (traffic, pleasant surroundings, streets, footpaths, crime and safety, distance to recreational and business facilities, social support, social cohesion, activity-related cognitions (attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation, health, and sociodemographic characteristics. Analyses will use binary and multinomial logit regression models, as well as generalized linear latent

  19. Changes from 1986 to 2006 in reasons for liking leisure-time physical activity among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Bente; Littlecott, H.; Tynjala, J; Samdal, Oddrun; Moore, L; Roberts, C; Kannas, L; Villberg, J; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2015-01-01

    Reasons for participating in physical activity (PA) may have changed in accordance with the general modernization of society. The aim is to examine changes in self-reported reasons for liking leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and their association with self-reported LTPA over a 20-year period. Data were collected among nationally representative samples of 13-year-olds in Finland, Norway, and Wales in 1986 and 2006 (N = 9252) as part of the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-age...

  20. Factors predicting changes in physical activity through adolescence: the Young-HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Bauman, Adrian; Bratberg, Grete H; Kurtze, Nanna; Midthjell, Kristian

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective population-based study was to analyze predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) levels from early to late adolescence. Data presented are from 2,348 adolescents and their parents who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997) and at follow-up in Young-HUNT 2, 2000-2001 Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire and participated in a clinical examination that included measurements of height and weight. Four patterns of PA emerged in the study: active or inactive at both time points (active maintainers, 13%; inactive maintainers, 59%), inactive and became active (adopters, 12%), active and became inactive (relapsers, 16%). Being overweight, dissatisfied with life, and not actively participating in sports at baseline were significant predictors of change regarding PA among boys at follow-up. For girls, smoking, drinking, low maternal education, and physical inactivity predicted relapsers and inactive maintainers. Higher levels of education and more physically active parents at baseline seemed to protect against decreased PA during follow-up for both genders. Predictors of change in, or maintaining PA status during adolescence differed by gender. These results suggest that PA-promoting interventions should be tailored by gender and focus on encouraging activity for inactive adolescents and maintenance of PA in those already active. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  2. Implementation of behavior change techniques in mobile applications for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-04-01

    Mobile applications (apps) for physical activity are popular and hold promise for promoting behavior change and reducing non-communicable disease risk. App marketing materials describe a limited number of behavior change techniques (BCTs), but apps may include unmarketed BCTs, which are important as well. To characterize the extent to which BCTs have been implemented in apps from a systematic user inspection of apps. Top-ranked physical activity apps (N=100) were identified in November 2013 and analyzed in 2014. BCTs were coded using a contemporary taxonomy following a user inspection of apps. Users identified an average of 6.6 BCTs per app and most BCTs in the taxonomy were not represented in any apps. The most common BCTs involved providing social support, information about others' approval, instructions on how to perform a behavior, demonstrations of the behavior, and feedback on the behavior. A latent class analysis of BCT configurations revealed that apps focused on providing support and feedback as well as support and education. Contemporary physical activity apps have implemented a limited number of BCTs and have favored BCTs with a modest evidence base over others with more established evidence of efficacy (e.g., social media integration for providing social support versus active self-monitoring by users). Social support is a ubiquitous feature of contemporary physical activity apps and differences between apps lie primarily in whether the limited BCTs provide education or feedback about physical activity. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514

  4. Predictors of long-term change of a physical activity promotion programme in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Grandes, Gonzalo; Ortega Sánchez-Pinilla, Ricardo; Torcal, Jesus; Montoya, Imanol

    2014-02-04

    Further research is needed to improve the evidence regarding determinants of physical activity (PA) as a crucial step to plan higher effective intervention strategies. The goal of the present study is to identify socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of primary care (PHC) insufficiently active patients that are associated with longitudinal changes in the level of physical activity. Longitudinal analysis of baseline socio-demographic and clinical predictors of physical activity change in insufficiently active PHC patients who participated in a PA-promoting multi-centre randomized clinical trial conducted from October 2003 through March 2006. The primary outcome measure was the self-reported physical activity assessed with the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR), at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Baseline covariates included sex, age, social class, anthropometric measures and other cardiovascular risk factors or associated diseases (Diabetes, HTA, tobacco use, etc.), and stage of readiness to change PA. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate longitudinal association of studied variables on PA change over the three follow-up measurements. A total of 3691 patients (85% of the 4317 recruited in the trial) with at least one follow-up measurement were included in the longitudinal analysis. At baseline, analysed patients (mean age: 50.6 years; 64.6% women) devoted 34.7 minutes and 2.36 metabolic equivalent hours per week (MET.h/week) to moderate and vigorous physical activity. Older age, male gender, higher social class, lower BMI, diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension, and measurement season were significant predictors of PA longitudinal change. The effect of baseline readiness to change on PA dose was modified by time, showing a positive gradient in favour of those with more readiness to change that increases significantly at 12 and 24 months (p-value interaction < .0001). Identified baseline characteristics such as readiness to change and

  5. Diet and physical activity in relation to weight change among breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaw, Yong Heng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Weay, Yong Heng; Saibul, Nurfaizah; Sariman, Sarina; Hashim, Zailina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of lifestyle changes after breast cancer diagnosis and to examine the relationship between dietary and physical activity changes with weight changes in breast cancer patients. Women with breast carcinomas (n=368) were recruited from eight hospitals and four breast cancer support groups in peninsular Malaysia. Dietary and physical activity changes were measured from a year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to study entry. Mean duration since diagnosis was 4.86±3.46 years. Dietary changes showed that majority of the respondents had decreased their intake of high fat foods (18.8-65.5%), added fat foods (28.3-48.9%), low fat foods (46.8-80.7%), red meat (39.7%), pork and poultry (20.1-39.7%) and high sugar foods (42.1-60.9%) but increased their intake of fish (42.7%), fruits and vegetables (62.8%) and whole grains (28.5%). Intake of other food groups remained unchanged. Only a small percentage of the women (22.6%) had increased their physical activity since diagnosis where most of them (16.0%) had increased recreational activities. Age at diagnosis (β= -0.20, p= 0.001), and change in whole grain (β= -0.15, p= 0.003) and fish intakes (β= 0.13, p= 0.013) were associated with weight changes after breast cancer diagnosis. In summary, the majority of the women with breast cancer had changed their diets to a healthier one. However, many did not increase their physical activity levels which could improve their health and lower risk of breast cancer recurrence.

  6. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  7. Population physical activity behaviour change: A review for the European College of Sport Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biddle, S.J.H.; Brehm, W.; Verheijden, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    The academic study of sport and exercise science has expanded greatly into the arena of public health over the past 20 years or more and Europe has played a significant role in this. It is opportune to review evidence concerning ways to change population levels of physical activity for health. This

  8. Population physical activity behaviour change : A review for the European College of Sport Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biddle, S.J.H.; Brehm, W.; Verheijden, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    The academic study of sport and exercise science has expanded greatly into the arena of public health over the past 20 years or more and Europe has played a significant role in this. It is opportune to review evidence concerning ways to change population levels of physical activity for health. This

  9. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  10. Change in neighborhood traffic safety: does it matter in terms of physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel-Grimen, Birthe; Busschers, Wim; Droomers, Mariël; van Oers, Hans A. M.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood traffic safety and physical activity (PA). This study aims to contribute to this evidence by assessing the extent to which changes over time in neighborhood traffic safety were associated with PA.

  11. Changes in disability in older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis: A complex relationship with physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.; Meurs, J.B. van; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to report on factors associated with changes in disability after 5 years, with a focus on physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis (GROA). METHODS: Assessment of GROA (hand, knee, hip) and

  12. Clustering of diet, physical activity and smoking and a general willingness to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Kremers, Stef; Smeets, Tamara; Reubsaet, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    Addressing multiple health behaviours are important in preventing disease and mortality. The present study investigated the clustering of health behaviours, cognitive determinants and stages of change in 2827 adults for the lifestyle factors of physical activity, fruit, vegetable and fat consumption and smoking. The results showed that only 3% of the total population met recommended guidelines for all of the five behaviours. Behaviours were found to be weakly associated. Behaviour-specific cognitions and stages of change for the behaviours clustered more strongly, however. With respect to diet and physical activity, respondents in the preparation stage for one behaviour were likely also to be preparing to change another behaviour. Possible mechanisms for the apparent general willingness to change multiple behaviours are discussed, as well as potential implications for health promotion practice.

  13. Objectively measured active travel and uses of activity-friendly neighborhood resources: Does change in use relate to change in physical activity and BMI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara B. Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies examine how objectively measured use of local physical activity resources contributes to objectively-measured healthy physical activity and weight changes over time. We utilized objective measures to test whether changes in active travel and uses of three physical activity (PA resources–parks, recreation centers, and transit– related to changes in PA and BMI. Adults (n=536 in Salt Lake City, UT, wore accelerometer and GPS units in 2012 and 2013, before and after neighborhood rail completion. Regression outcomes included accelerometer counts per minute (cpm, MVPA (moderate-to-vigorous activity minutes/10h accelerometer wear and measured BMI; key predictors were changes in active travel and PA resource uses (former and new uses. Significant results (all p<0.05 showed that increased active travel related to increased total PA (59.86cpm and 8.50 MVPA; decreased active travel related to decreased MVPA (−3.01 MVPA. Poorer outcomes were seen after discontinuing use of parks (−36.29cpm, −5.73 MVPA, and +0.44 BMI points, recreation centers (−6.18 MVPA, and transit (−48.14cpm, −5.43 MVPA, and +0.66 BMI. Healthier outcomes were seen after commencing use of parks (29.83cpm, 5.25 MVPA, recreation centers (44.63cpm and transit (38.44cpm, 4.17 MVPA, and −0.56 BMI. Transit and park/recreational center uses were unrelated, although park users were more likely to be recreation center users. Active travel and use of three neighborhood PA resources relate to healthy activity and could be fostered by policy and design. Keywords: Recreation center, Accelerometry, Active transport, Built environment, Parks, Global positioning system

  14. Parent Readiness to Change Differs for Overweight Child Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, KE; McEachern, R; Jelalian, E

    2014-01-01

    Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the action/maintenance stage of change (SOC) in each domain. From November 2008 – August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Provide...

  15. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health.To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change.We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research.We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity.The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of generating reliable causal inferences regarding intervention

  16. Examining the Association between Intervention-Related Changes in Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight as Moderated by the Food and Physical Activity Environments among Rural, Southern Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Evenson, Kelly R; McGuirt, Jared T; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt, Olivia R; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted in rural areas assessing the influence of community-level environmental factors on residents' success improving lifestyle behaviors. Our aim was to examine whether 6-month changes in diet, physical activity, and weight were moderated by the food and physical activity environment in a rural adult population receiving an intervention designed to improve diet and physical activity. We examined associations between self-reported and objectively measured changes in diet, physical activity, and weight, and perceived and objectively measured food and physical activity environments. Participants were followed for 6 months. Participants were enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, a lifestyle intervention study conducted in Lenoir County, located in rural southeastern North Carolina. Sample sizes ranged from 132 to 249, depending on the availability of the data. Participants received four counseling sessions that focused on healthy eating (adapted Mediterranean diet pattern) and increasing physical activity. Density of and distance to food and physical activity venues, modified food environment index, Walk Score, crime, and perceived nutrition and physical activity neighborhood barriers were the potential mediating factors. Diet quality, physical activity, and weight loss were the outcomes measured. Statistical analyses included correlation and linear regression and controlling for potential confounders (baseline values of the dependent variables, age, race, education, and sex). In adjusted analysis, there was an inverse association between weight change and the food environment, suggesting that participants who lived in a less-healthy food environment lost more weight during the 6-month intervention period (P=0.01). Also, there was a positive association between self-reported physical activity and distance to private gyms (P=0.04) and an inverse association between private gym density and pedometer-measured steps (P=0.03), indicating

  17. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  18. Physical activity modifies the FTO effect on BMI change in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Keiko; Okuda, Masayuki; Okayama, Naoko; Kunitsugu, Ichiro

    2018-04-14

    Evidence of the effects of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variation and long-term effects of physical activity (PA) on adiposity in adolescents is largely scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity modulates the effects of the FTO gene on body mass index (BMI) changes in Japanese adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years. Data of 343 subjects (156 boys; 187 girls) who were enrolled in 2006 and 2007 from schools on Shunan City, Japan, were collected. Genotyping (rs1558902) was conducted, and anthropometric measurements and blood test results were recorded for subjects in the eighth grade. A second survey involving self-reporting of anthropometric measurements was conducted when the subjects were in the twelfth grade. PA was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in this survey. BMI and the standard deviation score for BMI (BMI-SDS) were calculated. BMI changes and BMI-SDS changes were compared among FTO genotypes using a multivariate model. The effect of the interaction between PA and the FTO genotype on BMI changes was significant among boys but not girls. Among boys, PA had a significant negative influence on BMI-SDS changes in those with the AA genotype and a significant positive influence on BMI and BMI-SDS changes in those with the TT genotype. These data suggest that the influence of PA on BMI changes and BMI-SDS changes varied on the basis of genotype. PA modified the effect of the FTO gene on BMI changes in Japanese boys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  20. The Associations of Maternal Weight Change with Breastfeeding, Diet and Physical Activity During the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Neufeld, Lynnette M; García-Guerra, Armando; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    To determine the association between breastfeeding practices, diet and physical activity and maternal postpartum weight. This was a secondary data analysis of a randomized community trial on beneficiaries of the Programa de Desarrollo Humano Oportunidades, recently renamed Prospera (n = 314 pregnant women), without any diseases that could affect body weight. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the association between postpartum weight change and changes in diet, physical activity and type of breastfeeding. The mean postpartum weight change from the first to the third month was 0.6 ± 2.2 kg. Women who breastfed exclusively for 3 months had a 4.1 (SE = 1.9) kg weight reduction in comparison with women who did not provide exclusive breastfeeding or who discontinued breastfeeding before 3 months (p = 0.04). There was no association between postpartum weight change and physical activity (p = 0.24) or energy intake (p = 0.06). Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with maternal postpartum weight reduction. These results reinforce the World Health Organization recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life in order to reduce the risk of weight retention or weight gain in postpartum women. It has been well established that exclusive breastfeeding is beneficial for both infants and mothers, but promoting breastfeeding as a strategy to promote postpartum weight loss is of paramount importance, especially in countries like Mexico where excessive weight in women of reproductive age is a public health problem.

  1. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B

    2015-02-01

    Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations were used. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend weight training (-0.67 cm, 95% CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33 cm, 95% CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16 cm, 95% CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08 cm, 95% CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23 kg, 95% CI -0.29, -0.17). Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency/volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  2. Predictors of changes in physical activity in a prospective cohort study of the Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate predictors of changes in physical activity, in a prospective population-based study. METHODS: Data were from the Danish Health Interview Surveys in 1994 and 2000, and included persons between 16 and 64 years of age who answered the questions on physical activity and various...... interval (CI) 1.24-3.48, and OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.34-3.71), poor self-rated health (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.25-3.58, and OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.80), and believing that one's own effort has no effect on health (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.20-2.88, and OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.00-2.65). For men, further predictors for physical...

  3. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laureen H.; Petosa, Rick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be…

  4. Situational motivation and perceived intensity: their interaction in predicting changes in positive affect from physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  5. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p men: -3.7 ± 5.4 vs. 0.4 ± 5.4 kg, women: -3.6 ± 5.5 vs. 0.3 ± 5.2 kg, both p men: -3.6 ± 3.3 vs. -0.4 ± 2.7 kg, women: -1.8 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 2.5 kg, both p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Jago, Russ; Griffith, Melissa Juliano; Islam, Noemi; Nguyen, Nga; Watson, Kathleen B

    2011-01-01

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. Evaluate outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, and adiposity. Two-group RCT; assessments occurred at baseline, immediately after Diab, immediately after Nano, and 2 months later. Data were collected in 2008-2009, and analyses were conducted in 2009-2010. 133 children aged 10-12 years, initially between 50th percentile and 95th percentile BMI. Treatment group played Diab and Nano in sequence. Control Group played diet and physical activity knowledge-based games on popular websites. Servings of fruit, vegetable, and water; minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. At each point of assessment: 3 nonconsecutive days of 24-hour dietary recalls; 5 consecutive days of physical activity using accelerometers; and assessment of height, weight, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. A repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted (analyzed in 2009-2010). Children playing these video games increased fruit and vegetable consumption by about 0.67 servings per day (pchange. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Counseling middle-aged women about physical activity using the stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Jennifer S; Sheahan, Sharon L

    2002-11-01

    To discuss application of the Stages of Change theoretical framework and provide clinical tips on exercise adherence among midlife women. Included is a checklist to assist the nurse practitioner (NP) in effectively delivering the message. Review of the current scientific literature on exercise adherence and the Stages of Change model. Middle-aged women comprise a unique population. Determining the woman's readiness for change using the Stages of Change model, NPs can routinely include appropriate exercise recommendations in their practices. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to promote healthy behaviors by counseling women in midlife about adopting an active lifestyle. Exercise counseling is an essential component of healthcare, especially among middle-aged women who are experiencing physical, emotional, and social changes.

  8. Behaviour change techniques to change the postnatal eating and physical activity behaviours of women who are obese: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M; Taylor, W; Lavender, T

    2016-01-01

    To explore the experiences of postnatal women who are obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ] in relation to making behaviour changes and use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Qualitative interview study. Greater Manchester, UK. Women who were 1 year postnatal aged ≥18 years, who had an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy, and an antenatal booking BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) . Eighteen semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews were conducted by a research midwife with women who volunteered to be interviewed 1 year after taking part in a pilot randomised controlled trial. The six stages of thematic analysis were followed to understand the qualitative data. The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy (version 1) was used to label the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) reported by women. Themes derived from 1-year postnatal interview transcripts. Two themes were evident: 1. A focused approach to postnatal weight management: women reported making specific changes to their eating and physical activity behaviours, and 2. Need for support: six BCTs were reported as helping women make changes to their eating and physical activity behaviours; three were reported more frequently than others: Self-monitoring of behaviour (2.3), Prompts/cues (7.1) and Social support (unspecified; 3.1). All of the BCTs required support from others for their delivery; food diaries were the most popular delivery method. Behaviour change techniques are useful to postnatal women who are obese, and have the potential to improve their physical and mental wellbeing. Midwives and obstetricians should be aware of such techniques, to encourage positive changes. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Oxygen Uptake Among Norwegian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated activity levels among adolescents, but no study has examined longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA level, body mass, and oxygen uptake among the same adolescents from the age of 14 to 19 years. The present study examined data from a research project that included a group of randomly selected students (N = 116 with objective measurements of PA (accelerometer data, self-reported PA level, and body mass and oxygen uptake during a 5-year period. The results show a significant decrease in the accelerometer-based PA level over time, from age 14 to 19. At 14 years of age, the minutes of moderate and/or vigorous PA was 66.7 min·day−1, but was less than half, at only 24.4 min·day−1, at 19 years of age. The self-reported activity data show a decrease in girls’ general activity level over time, while boys’ activity level during school breaks decreased strongly during the period: at age 14, 61% of the boys were classified as active, while at age 19, only 11% were physically active. Furthermore, body mass index increased during the period for both genders, while oxygen uptake decreased. Since both BMI and maximal oxygen uptake are important risk factors for future CVD, these findings point toward the importance of maintaining a high activity level during childhood and adolescence, in order to keep fit later in life.

  10. Design of Video Games for Children's Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences.

  11. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences. PMID:25364331

  12. Change in goal ratings as a mediating variable between self-efficacy and physical activity in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katherine S; Crowley, Gail M; McConnell, Eleanor S; Bosworth, Hayden B; Sloane, Richard; Ekelund, Carola C; Morey, Miriam C

    2010-06-01

    Few studies have examined the associations between exercise self-efficacy, goals, and physical activity over time. This study examines whether self-selected goals mediate the changes in exercise self-efficacy on physical activity over 12 months. Data are derived from 313 older men participating in the Veterans LIFE Study. Changes in exercise self-efficacy were significantly associated with changes in physical activity both directly (betas = 0.25 and 0.24, p goal ratings (betas = 0.19 and 0.20, p goal setting continued to partially mediate the relationship between exercise self-efficacy and physical activity when covariates were added to the models. This study extends the application of social cognitive and goal-setting theories to physical activity by showing that goals partially mediate the relationship between exercise self-efficacy and physical activity over time.

  13. Decline in physical activity during adolescence is not associated with changes in mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Verboon, Peter; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2017-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating associations between physical activity and mental health in adolescents have been cross-sectional in design. Potential associations between physical activity and mental health may be better examined longitudinally as physical activity levels tend to decrease in

  14. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Norris

    2015-09-01

    Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.

  15. Stages of change in physical activity-related behavior in adolescents from a Brazilian state capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the stages of change in physical activity-related behavior (EMCRAF and their association with gender and age. A total of 1108 high school students of both sexes, from Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, took part in this study. A questionnaire was used to assess EMCRAF. A higher proportion of boys were in the maintenance stage (48.1% and a higher proportion of girls were in contemplation (24.7% and pre-contemplation (6.4% stages. Gender factor male and age range 17-18 were protective factors, which increased the likelihood of physically active behavior. Girls aged 17-18 were twice as likely to be in the contemplation stage than boys. It is important to expand knowledge about EMCRAF in adolescents and their associations with gender and age because a considerable number of behaviors established during this period of life can last into adulthood.

  16. Changes from 1986 to 2006 in reasons for liking leisure-time physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, B; Littlecott, H; Tynjälä, J; Samdal, O; Moore, L; Roberts, C; Kannas, L; Villberg, J; Aarø, L E

    2016-08-01

    Reasons for participating in physical activity (PA) may have changed in accordance with the general modernization of society. The aim is to examine changes in self-reported reasons for liking leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and their association with self-reported LTPA over a 20-year period. Data were collected among nationally representative samples of 13-year-olds in Finland, Norway, and Wales in 1986 and 2006 (N = 9252) as part of the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Univariate ANOVAs to establish differences according to gender, year, and country were conducted. In all countries, 13-year-olds in 2006 tended to report higher importance in terms of achievement and social reasons than their counterparts in 1986, while changes in health reasons were minor. These reasons were associated with LTPA in a similar way at both time points. Health reasons for liking LTPA were considered most important, and were the strongest predictor of LTPA. The findings seem robust as they were consistent across countries and genders. Health education constitutes the most viable strategy for promoting adolescents' motivation for PA, and interventions and educational efforts could be improved by an increased focus on LTPA and sport as a social activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9-11 year old English schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantjes, Joyce A.; Jones, Andrew P.; Corder, Kirsten; Jones, Natalia R.; Harrison, Flo; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in

  18. Development of smartphone applications for nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; Cook, Amelia; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2012-08-22

    Young adults (aged 18 to 35) are a population group at high risk for weight gain, yet we know little about how to intervene in this group. Easy access to treatment and support with self-monitoring of their behaviors may be important. Smartphones are gaining in popularity with this population group and software applications ("apps") used on these mobile devices are a novel technology that can be used to deliver brief health behavior change interventions directly to individuals en masse, with potentially favorable cost-utility. However, existing apps for modifying nutrition or physical activity behaviors may not always reflect best practice guidelines for weight management. This paper describes the process of developing four apps aimed at modifying key lifestyle behaviors associated with weight gain during young adulthood, including physical activity, and consumption of take-out foods (fast food), fruit and vegetables, and sugar-sweetened drinks. The development process involved: (1) deciding on the behavior change strategies, relevant guidelines, graphic design, and potential data collection; (2) selecting the platform (Web-based versus native); (3) creating the design, which required decisions about the user interface, architecture of the relational database, and programming code; and (4) testing the prototype versions with the target audience (young adults aged 18 to 35). The four apps took 18 months to develop, involving the fields of marketing, nutrition and dietetics, physical activity, and information technology. Ten subjects provided qualitative feedback about using the apps. The slow running speed of the apps (due to a reliance on an active Internet connection) was the primary issue identified by this group, as well as the requirement to log in to the apps. Smartphone apps may be an innovative medium for delivering individual health behavior change intervention en masse, but researchers must give consideration to the target population, available technologies

  19. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP, a longitudinal study assessing social changes in a representative sample of Swiss households since 1999. Methods Data is collected yearly using computer-assisted telephone interviews. Information is obtained from each household member over 14 years of age. Participants between 14 and 24 years entering the SHP between 1999 and 2006 were included (N = 3,068. "Inactive" was defined as less than 1 day/week of at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity, "no sport" as exercising less than once a week. Age, gender, nationality, linguistic region, household income, education, membership in a sport club, reading, and Internet use were included as potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior change. Results In both young men and young women, the prevalence of inactivity, "no sport", and non-membership in a sport club was increasing with age. Women were less active than men of the same age. From one wave to the following, 11.1% of young men and 12.1% of young women became active, and 11.9% of men and 13.7% of women became inactive, respectively (pooled data over all eight waves. Non-membership in a sport club was the strongest predictor for "no sport" (ORmen 6.7 [4.9-8.9]; ORwomen 8.1 [5.7-11.4], but also for being inactive (OR 4.6 [3.5-6.0]; 4.6 [3.3-6.4]. Leaving a sport club (OR 7.8 [4.4-14.0]; 11.9 [5.9-24.1] and remaining non-member (OR 7.8 [4.7-12.9]; 12.4 [6.4-24.1] were the strongest predictors of becoming "no sport". Effects for becoming inactive were

  20. Changes in dietary habits, physical activity and status of metabolic syndrome among expatriates in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeidan, Rasmieh A; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Mandil, Ahmed A; Hersi, Ahmad S; Ullah, Anhar A

    2018-03-05

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of living in Saudi Arabia on expatriate employees and their families' behavioural cardiovascular risk factors (BCVRFs), and to examine the association between changes in BCVRFs and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1437 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, from King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the World Health Organization STEPS questionnaire to ask every participant questions about BCVRFs twice: (1) to reflect their period of living in Saudi Arabia and (2) to shed light upon life in their country of origin. Their mean age was 40.9 (11.7) years. The prevalence of BCVRFs was as follows: tobacco use in 156 (11%), physical inactivity in 1049 (73%) low intake of fruit and vegetables in 1264 (88%) and MetS in 378 (26%). Residing in Saudi Arabia had reduced physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables. There was also a significant increase in the fast food consumption. In conclusion, living in Saudi Arabia had a significant negative effect on BCVRFs. However, there was no statistically significant association between changes in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity and MetS status, except that intake of fast food was lower among participants with MetS.

  1. Impact of changes in television viewing time and physical activity on longevity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Arem, Hannah; Moore, Steven C; Sampson, Joshua N; Matthews, Charles E

    2015-12-18

    Television viewing is a highly prevalent sedentary behavior among older adults, yet the mortality risks associated with hours of daily viewing over many years and whether increasing or decreasing viewing time affects mortality is unclear. This study examined: 1) the long-term association between mortality and daily viewing time; 2) the influence of reducing and increasing in television viewing time on longevity and 3) combined effects of television viewing and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on longevity. Participants included 165,087 adults in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health (aged 50-71 yrs) who completed questionnaires at two-time-points (Time 1: 1994-1996, and Time 2: 2004-2006) and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate Hazard Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with self-reported television viewing and MVPA and all-cause mortality. Over 6.6 years of follow-up, there were 20,104 deaths. Compared to adults who watched active and watched physically active pursuits, preferably MVPA. Given the high prevalence of physical inactivity and prolonged television viewing in older adults, favorable changes in these two modifiable behaviors could have substantial public health impact. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015.

  2. Validation of the TTM processes of change measure for physical activity in an adult French sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Paquito; Romain, Ahmed-Jérôme; Trouillet, Raphael; Gernigon, Christophe; Nigg, Claudio; Ninot, Gregory

    2014-04-01

    Processes of change (POC) are constructs from the transtheoretical model that propose to examine how people engage in a behavior. However, there is no consensus about a leading model explaining POC and there is no validated French POC scale in physical activity This study aimed to compare the different existing models to validate a French POC scale. Three studies, with 748 subjects included, were carried out to translate the items and evaluate their clarity (study 1, n = 77), to assess the factorial validity (n = 200) and invariance/equivalence (study 2, n = 471), and to analyze the concurrent validity by stage × process analyses (study 3, n = 671). Two models displayed adequate fit to the data; however, based on the Akaike information criterion, the fully correlated five-factor model appeared as the most appropriate to measure POC in physical activity. The invariance/equivalence was also confirmed across genders and student status. Four of the five existing factors discriminated pre-action and post-action stages. These data support the validation of the POC questionnaire in physical activity among a French sample. More research is needed to explore the longitudinal properties of this scale.

  3. Physical activity, obesity, weight change, and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Chen, Lin Y; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) has previously been suggested to attenuate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) conferred by excess body weight and weight gain. We prospectively examined the relationship between body size, weight change, and level of PA in a biracial cohort of middle-aged men and women. Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 14 219 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AF incidence was ascertained from 1987 to 2009. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between body mass index, waist circumference, relative weight change, and PA level with incident AF. During follow-up, there were 1775 cases of incident AF. Body mass index and waist circumference were positively associated with AF as was weight loss/gain of >5% initial body weight. An ideal level of PA had a small protective effect on AF risk and partially attenuated the risk of AF associated with excess weight in men but not women: compared with men with a normal body mass index, the risk of AF in obese men with an ideal, intermediate, and poor level of PA at baseline was increased by 37%, 129%, and 156% (Pinteraction=0.04). During follow-up, PA did not modify the association between weight gain and risk of AF. Obesity and extreme weight change are risk factors for incident AF, whereas being physically active is associated with a small reduction in risk. In men only, being physically active offset some, but not all, of the risk incurred with excess body weight. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] i...

  5. Association of baseline level of physical activity and its temporal changes with incident hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Young; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2018-01-01

    Background The association between baseline and temporal changes in physical activity and incident hypertension or diabetes mellitus in initially non-hypertensive or non-diabetic subjects is rarely known. Methods Among individuals who underwent consecutive comprehensive health screenings, their physical activity level was measured using a self-reported international physical activity questionnaire. First, subjects were classified into four categories: no regular physical activity with a sedentary lifestyle; minimal physical activity (diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension, respectively. After a multivariate adjustment, sufficient baseline physical activity was associated with significantly lower risk for incident hypertension (hazard ratio 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 0.97), but the difference was not significant, and showed a lower trend in diabetes mellitus incidence (hazard ratio 0.87; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.04) in reference to no regular physical activity group. Regardless of the baseline physical activity level, subjects with a temporal increase in physical activity showed significantly decreased risk for incident hypertension (hazard ratio 0.93; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.99) and diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 0.83; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92) compared with those with a temporal decrease in their physical activity level. Conclusion Both sufficient baseline physical activity level and its temporal increase were associated with a lower risk of incident hypertension and diabetes mellitus in a large, relatively healthy, cohort.

  6. Changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and risk of falling: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, Jennifer W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wallace, Robert B; Wu, Chunyuan; Seguin, Rebecca A; Going, Scott B; LaCroix, Andrea; Eaton, Charles; Ockene, Judith K; LaMonte, Michael J; Jackson, Rebecca; Jerry Mysiw, W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Falling significantly affects quality of life, morbidity, and mortality among older adults. We sought to evaluate the prospective association between sedentary time, physical activity, and falling among post-menopausal women aged 50-79years recruited to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998 from 40 clinical centers across the United States. Baseline (B) and change in each of the following were evaluated at year 3 (Y3) and year 6 (Y6; baseline n=93,676; Y3 n=76,598; Y6 n=75,428): recreational physical activity (MET-h/wk), sitting, sleeping (min/day), and lean body mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (subset N=6475). Falls per year (0, 1, 2, ≥3) were assessed annually by self-report questionnaire and then dichotomized as ≤1 and ≥2falls/year. Logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, body mass index, fall history, tobacco and alcohol use, medical conditions, and medications. Higher baseline activity was associated with greater risk of falling at Y6 (18%; p for trend falling (1% Y3; 2% Y6; pfalling at Y3 and Y6 (p for trend falling among post-menopausal women. Additional fall prevention strategies, such as balance and resistance training, should be evaluated to assist post-menopausal women in reaching or maintaining levels of aerobic activity known to prevent and manage several chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal analysis of physical and chemical changes occuring during regeneration of activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Dejan B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature thermal process is a commercial way of regeneration of spent granular activated carbon. The paper presents results of thermal analysis conducted in order to examine high-temperature regeneration of spent activated carbon, produced from coconut shells, previously used in drinking water treatment. Results of performed thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis, enabled a number of hypotheses to be made about different phases of activated carbon regeneration, values of characteristic parameters during particular process phases, as well as catalytic impact of inorganic materials on development of regeneration process. Samples of activated carbon were heated up to 1000°C in thermogravimetric analyser while maintaining adequate oxidizing or reducing conditions. Based on diagrams of thermal analysis for samples of spent activated carbon, temperature intervals of the first intense mass change phase (180-215°C, maximum of exothermic processes (400-450°C, beginning of the second intense mass change phase (635-700°C, and maximum endothermic processes (800-815°C were deter-mined. Analysing and comparing the diagrams of thermal analysis for new, previously regenerated and spent activated carbon, hypothesis about physical and chemical transformations of organic and inorganic adsorbate in spent activated carbon are given. Transformation of an organic adsorbate in the pores of activated carbon, results in loss of mass and an exothermic reaction with oxygen in the vapour phase. The reactions of inorganic adsorbate also result the loss of mass of activated carbon during its heating and endothermic reactions of their degradation at high temperatures.

  8. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  9. Changes in physical activity, physical fitness, self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy program in outpatients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Adriaens, An; Pieters, Guido; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the current study was to explore the associations between changes in the number of binges, physical activity participation, physical fitness, physical self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral program in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). In total 34 (31 women) outpatients with BED (38.5±10.7 years) completed a 6-month 1-day per week group-based program. Participants completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire, the Physical Self Perception Profile and performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Except for physical activity at work, physical strength and self-worth perception, all parameters significantly improved after 6 months. The effect sizes ranged from -0.33 for the number of binges to 1.67 for participation in sports activities. Significant increases in leisure time physical activity were associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life, perceived sports competence and physical fitness and in perceived body attractiveness. The significant reduction in the number of binges was associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life. Future research should focus on detailing which techniques can stimulate physical activity participation in patients with BED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in Weight, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity during the School Year and Summer Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Tanaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine bidirectional associations between body weight and objectively assessed sedentary behaviour (SB and physical activity (PA during the school year and summer vacation. Methods: Participants were 209 Japanese boys and girls (9.0 ± 1.8 years at baseline. SB and PA were measured using triaxial accelerometry that discriminated between ambulatory and non-ambulatory PA, screen time measured by questionnaire during the school-term was evaluated in May and the summer vacation, and relative body weight measured in May and just after the end of summer vacation. Results: There were no significant relationships between changes in SB or PA and changes in body weight. However, higher relative body weight at baseline was associated with decreased non-ambulatory moderate PA (p = 0.049, but this association was slightly diminished after adjusting for change in SB (p = 0.056. Longer screen time at baseline was also associated with increased relative body weight (p = 0.033. Conclusions: The present study revealed that body weight might be particularly influential on non-ambulatory moderate PA while SB, PA or changes in these variables did not predict changes in body weight. Moreover, screen time during the school year is a predictor of change in relative body weight during the subsequent summer vacation.

  11. Stages of Behavioral Change for Physical Activity in High School Students: Prevalence and Associated Sociodemographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloyse E G; Silva, Diego A S

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%). Results showed that 9.6% were in the pre-contemplation stage, 18.4% in the contemplation, 17.6% in the preparation, 14.3% in the action, and 39.6% in the maintenance stages. Girls and adolescents with lower economic status were more likely to be at stages of behavioral risk. Students whose mothers had high education were more likely to be in the action stage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Psychological changes among Muslim students participating in a faith-based school physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-12-01

    Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution to school-time changes in PA among Muslim adolescents. Forty-three (27 girls, 16 boys; M(age) = 12.3 +/- 1.0 years) students at 1 Islamic middle school participated. Prebaseline and postprogram enjoyment and motivation were measured using the shortened PA Enjoyment Scale and the Situational Motivation Scale, respectively. Pedometer step counts were measured daily during a 2-week baseline and 8 weeks of Virtual Umra. The Reliable Change Index and Cohen's d were used to analyze individual- and group-level changes in enjoyment and motivation, respectively. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to analyze program and gender effects over time. Partial correlations examined the relationships between psychological correlates and PA change. One third of the sample expressed greater enjoyment postprogram (p motivation was unaffected (p > .05; range, d = - 0.02 to 0.32). RM-MANOVA revealed that boys increased their steps, whereas girls reduced their step number through the program. Enjoyment increased and extrinsic motivation and amotivation decreased. Partial correlations revealed that enjoyment and more self-determined behavioral regulations were positively associated with non-physical education (PE)-day PA change; only intrinsic motivation was positively associated with PE-day PA change. Virtual Umra was associated with increased enjoyment of PA but needs further modification to more positively impact girls' PA.

  13. Evaluation of physical activity web sites for use of behavior change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Amol; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, James F; Calfas, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) Web sites were assessed for their use of behavior change theories, including constructs of the health belief model, Transtheoretical Model, social cognitive theory, and the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior. An evaluation template for assessing PA Web sites was developed, and content validity and interrater reliability were demonstrated. Two independent raters evaluated 24 PA Web sites. Web sites varied widely in application of theory-based constructs, ranging from 5 to 48 on a 100-point scale. The most common intervention strategies were general information, social support, and realistic goal areas. Coverage of theory-based strategies was low, varying from 26% for social cognitive theory to 39% for health belief model. Overall, PA Web sites provided little assessment, feedback, or individually tailored assistance for users. They were unable to substantially tailor the on-line experience for users at different stages of change or different demographic characteristics.

  14. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONAL TRAINING ON CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARDS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. McClaran

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available More and more people seeking the expertise of personal trainers in recent years. With very few previous efforts evaluating the effectiveness of the personal training experience in the scientific literature, this study utilized movement in the Stages of the Transtheoretical Model (STM to determine the efficacy of personal training. One hundred twenty nine volunteer participants (clients (age range: 20 ' 65 years old were assigned a university senior personal trainer for a10-week program. At an initial meeting, the clients were given a form to self-assess their stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption (STM choosing one of five stages: Pre-contemplation (not intending to make changes, Contemplation (considering a change, Preparation (getting ready to make a change, Action (actively engaged in making a change but only for a short while & Maintenance (sustaining the change over time. After the initial assessment, the clients and trainer then met once a week and had targeted discussions on problem solving techniques such as determining the Benefits of Physical Activity, Barriers/Obstacles to Exercise, Support System Recruitment, Goal Setting and Relapse Prevention in addition to providing specific suggestions for the client's other exercise days during the week. At the end of the 10-week personal training program, the clients then reassessed their stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption. Of the 129 clients tested, 27 were in the maintenance (highest stage and therefore could not move up. None of these 27 clients moved down a stage. Of the remaining 102 clients, there was significant (p < 0.01 upward movement at the conclusion of the program. 61 clients (60% moved up one stage, 13 clients (13% moved up two stages, 27 clients stayed at the same stage (26% and one (1% moved down a stage. The results suggest that one-on-one personal training is an effective method for changing attitudes and thereby increasing the amount of

  15. Stage of change and motivation to healthy diet and habitual physical activity in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, E; Trento, M; Dei Cas, A; Pontiroli, A E; De Feo, P; Bruno, A; Sasdelli, A S; Arturi, F; Strollo, F; Vigili De' Kreutzenberg, S; Invitti, C; Di Bonito, P; Di Mauro, M; Pugliese, G; Molteni, A; Marchesini, G

    2014-08-01

    Lifestyle changes to healthy diet (HD) and habitual physical activity (HPA) are recommended in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Yet, for most people with diabetes, it may be difficult to start changing. We investigated the stage of change toward healthier lifestyles according to Prochaska's model, and the associated psychological factors in T2DM patients, as a prerequisite to improve strategies to implement behavior changes in the population. A total of 1,353 consecutive outpatients with T2DM attending 14 tertiary centers for diabetes treatment completed the validated EMME-3 questionnaire, consisting of two parallel sets of instruments to define the stage of change for HD and HPA, respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with stages that may hinder behavioral changes. A stage of change favoring progress to healthier behaviors was more common in the area of HD than in HPA, with higher scores in action and maintenance. Differences were observed in relation to gender, age and duration of disease. After adjustment for confounders, resistance to change toward HD was associated with higher body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio (OR) 1.05; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.08). Resistance to improve HPA also increased with BMI (OR 1.06; 95 % CI 1.03-1.10) and decreased with education level (OR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.64-0.92). Changing lifestyle, particularly in the area of HPA, is not perceived as an essential part of treatment by many subjects with T2DM. This evidence must be considered when planning behavioral programs, and specific interventions are needed to promote adherence to HPA.

  16. Changes in sport and physical activity behavior after participation in easily accessible sporting programs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, L.; Veenhof, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Dutch government stimulates sport and physical activity opportunities in the neighborhood to make it easier for people to adopt a physically active lifestyle. Seven National Sports Federations (NSFs) were funded to develop easily accessible sporting programs, targeted at groups

  17. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  18. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Aragoni da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2. Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903 from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9% and precontemplation stages (7.0%, respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade, with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup.

  19. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  20. Life satisfaction and longitudinal changes in physical activity, diabetes and obesity among patients with cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michèle; Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Le Bihan, Etienne

    2017-12-02

    Patients with cardiovascular disease who underwent coronary angiography at the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiological Intervention (INCCI) in Luxembourg were surveyed for cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco consumption). In 2013/14, their life satisfaction (LS) was also assessed. Our aim was to analyse the relationships between LS on one hand and longitudinal changes in CVRF between 2008/09 and 2013/14 and socioeconomic factors on the other. 1289 patients completed a self-administered questionnaire. Life Satisfaction, originally recorded on a 1 to 10 scale of complete satisfaction was dichotomized into two groups: ≤ 7 and. >7. We then performed logistic multiple regressions. The event on which the probability was modelled, was LS > 7. Data were adjusted on age, sex and income. Longitudinal changes in CVRF were assessed by their presence or absence in 2008/09 and 2013/14 (categories: 'no-no'; 'no-yes'; 'yes-no'; 'yes-yes'). Physical activity in 2008/09 and 2013/14 was associated with a lower LS (OR = 0.469). The same pattern was observed for obesity and physical inactivity: lower LS was related to the presence of these risks (yes-yes; no-yes) in 2013/14 (mean OR for obesity and physical inactivity in 2013/14: 0.587 and 0.485 respectively), whereas their presence or absence in 2008/09 was not related to LS. Finally, patients who suffered from diabetes in 2008 were more likely to experience a decline in LS, particularly if their diabetes was less severe in 2013/14 (OR = 0.462). The lowest LS was observed when obesity or physical inactivity was present in 2013/14, newly or otherwise. The same trend was seen in diabetes among patients who had it in 2008/9, but were less severely affected in 2013/14. In secondary prevention, CVD-related upheavals could be minimised if professionals and patients became 'Partners in Healthcare' to better adhere to healthy

  1. Changes in Physical Activity and Psychological Variables Following a Web-Based Motivational Interviewing Intervention: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Sasha L; Meyer, Barbara B; Berger, Lisa M; Brondino, Michael J

    2015-10-29

    Web-based interventions for enhancing physical activity participation are in demand for application in health care settings. Recent research suggests Web-based interventions that are based on motivational interviewing are effective to increase physical activity. It is unclear whether motivational interviewing can influence targeted psychological variables such as perceived readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in physical activity. The aims of this study were to determine whether there were changes in physical activity and psychological variables associated with readiness, willingness, and perceived ability to participate in physical activity following completion of a novel Web-based intervention. The goal of the motivational interviewing-based intervention was to increase physical activity. Twenty-three underactive or inactive urban dwelling adults were recruited at a medical office for participation in a 4-session Web-based intervention lasting approximately 15 minutes per week. Sessions were based on principles of motivational interviewing. Assessment of physical activity was conducted using pedometers immediately prior to intervention participation (pre) and immediately post intervention (post1). Self-report assessments of physical activity and psychological variables were conducted using online surveys at pre, post1, and again at one month following intervention participation (post2). Comparisons of pre and post1 pedometer recordings revealed significant increases in steps per day (t22=2.09, P=.049). There were also significant changes in total physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ(2) 2=8.4, P=.02) and in moderate intensity physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ(2) 2=13.9, Ptool to promote physical activity in health care settings. Additional research is needed to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing compared to a control condition and to refine content by considering mediation by psychological variables in a

  2. Changes in physical activity during the retirement transition: a theory-based, qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Suzanne; O'Brien, Nicola; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2015-02-21

    There are considerable inter-individual differences in the direction and degree of change in physical activity (PA) levels during the retirement transition. There is currently a limited theoretical understanding of how these differences can be explained. This study aimed to explore and compare perceptions about how theory-based factors influence PA change during the transition from employment to retirement among individuals approaching retirement and recently retired. Theory-based, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 28 adults (15 retired) within 24 months of retirement. Participants were sampled to reflect a diverse range of socio-economic and occupational backgrounds. The interview was based on the 12 domains within the Theory Domain Framework and designed to elicit anticipated or experienced retirement-related changes in PA behaviour and perceived determinants. Interview transcripts were analysed using Framework analysis to explore intra- and inter-individual perceptions of how PA changes after retirement and the factors which may influence this change. The majority of participants perceived retirement to be related to an increase in PA levels. Four themes emerged from the data regarding factors perceived to influence changes in PA behaviour after retirement: (1) resources for PA; (2) structure of daily life in retirement; (3) opportunities for PA; and (4) transitional PA phases after retirement. Retirement is associated with a number of inter-related changes and opportunities which can have a positive or negative impact on PA behaviour. The influence of these factors does not appear to be static and may change over time. A number of different transitional phases may be experienced after leaving work and each phase may have a differential impact on PA behaviour. The findings of this qualitative study contribute to the theoretical understanding of PA change during the retirement transition. Each post-retirement PA

  3. Assessing the Effects of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Behavior Change Strategies on Physical Activity in Older Adults: a Factorial Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Siobhan K; Lewis, Beth; Oakes, J Michael; Wyman, Jean F; Guan, Weihua; Rothman, Alexander J

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about which behavior change strategies motivate older adults to increase their physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative effects of two sets of behavior change strategies to motivate increased physical activity among older adults: interpersonal and intrapersonal. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 102, mean age = 79) were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to receive interpersonal (e.g., social support, friendly social comparison; no, yes) and /or intrapersonal (e.g., goal setting, barriers management; no, yes) behavior change strategies, combined with an evidence-based, physical activity protocol (Otago exercise program) and a physical activity monitor (Fitbit One™). Based on monitor data, participants who received interpersonal strategies, compared to those who did not, increased their average minutes of total physical activity (light, moderate, vigorous) per week, immediately (p = .006) and 6 months (p = .048) post-intervention. Similar, increases were observed on measures of functional strength and balance, immediately (p = .012) and 6 months (p = .003) post-intervention. The intrapersonal strategies did not elicit a significant increase in physical activity or functional strength and balance. Findings suggest a set of interpersonally oriented behavior change strategies combined with an evidence-based physical activity protocol can elicit modest, but statistically and clinically significant, increases in older adults' physical activity and functional strength and balance. Future research should replicate these findings and investigate the sustained quantity of physical activity elicited by these strategies and their impact on older adults' quality of life and falls. Trial Registration The ClinicalTrials.gov registration identifier is NCT02433249.

  4. Social support from teachers mediates physical activity behavior change in children participating in the Fit-4-Fun intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2013-05-28

    Few studies have examined the mediators of behavior change in successful school-based physical activity interventions. The aim of this study was to explore potential mediators of physical activity in the Fit-4-Fun program for primary school children. Group randomized controlled trial. Four primary schools were recruited in April, 2011 and randomized by school into intervention or control conditions. Participants included 213 children (mean age = 10.7 years ± 0.6; 52.2% female) with the treatment group (n = 118) completing the 8-week multi-component Fit-4-Fun program. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Physical activity was measured using Yamax SW700 pedometers (mean steps/day) and questionnaires were used to assess constructs from Social Cognitive Theory and Competence Motivation Theory. Hypothesized mediators measured included social support from peers, parents and teachers; physical activity self-efficacy (barrier and task); enjoyment; and perceived school physical environment. Mediation was assessed using Preacher and Hayes' multiple mediation regression SPSS macro. Action theory (A), conceptual theory (B) and the significance of the product of coefficients (AB) are reported. The intervention had a significant effect on physical activity (pFun program successfully targeted social support for physical activity provided by classroom teachers which contributed to improved physical activity in children. These results demonstrate that classroom teachers play a key role in influencing physical activity behavior outcomes in children.Trial Registration No: ACTRN12611000976987.

  5. The effect of changes to question order on the prevalence of 'sufficient' physical activity in an Australian population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Christine; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-03-01

    Population surveys are frequently used to assess prevalence, correlates and health benefits of physical activity. However, nonsampling errors, such as question order effects, in surveys may lead to imprecision in self reported physical activity. This study examined the impact of modified question order in a commonly used physical activity questionnaire on the prevalence of sufficient physical activity. Data were obtained from a telephone survey of adults living in Queensland, Australia. A total of 1243 adults participated in the computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey conducted in July 2008 which included the Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ) presented in traditional or modified order. Binary logistic regression analyses was used to examine relationships between question order and physical activity outcomes. Significant relationships were found between question order and sufficient activity, recreational walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, and total activity. Respondents who received the AAQ in modified order were more likely to be categorized as sufficiently active (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). This study highlights the importance of question order on estimates of self reported physical activity. This study has shown that changes in question order can lead to an increase in the proportion of participants classified as sufficiently active.

  6. Removing the Blinders: Toward an Integrative Model of Organizational Change in Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the change process in physical education and sports, presenting a model to incorporate in studies of radical organizational change. The integration of four theories (institutionalism, population ecology, strategic choice, and resource dependence) provides the basis for the model. The paper offers a hypothetical example and…

  7. Change in explicit and implicit motivation toward physical activity and sedentary behavior in pulmonary rehabilitation and associations with postrehabilitation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevance, Guillaume; Héraud, Nelly; Varray, Alain; Boiché, Julie

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to determine whether Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables and implicit attitudes toward physical activity and sedentary behavior would change during a 5-week pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program, and (b) to investigate the relationships between behavioral intentions, implicit attitudes, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in postrehabilitation. Out of 142 patients with respiratory disease included in this study, 119 completed 2 questionnaires measuring TPB variables with regard to physical activity and sedentary behavior, and an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitudes toward physical activity in contrast to sedentary behavior. The TPB questionnaires and the IAT were administered at the beginning (Time 1) and the end of the program (Time 2). Six months after the program (Time 3), 62 patients provided self-reported measures of their recreational physical activity and screen-based, leisure-time sedentary behavior. Over the course of pulmonary rehabilitation, perceived behavioral control and intentions toward physical activity increased, as did social norms and perceived behavioral control toward sedentary behavior; implicit attitudes were also more positive toward physical activity. Implicit attitudes at the end of PR (Time 2) were significantly associated with postrehabilitation physical activity (Time 3). TPB variables toward physical activity and sedentary behavior as well as implicit attitudes were enhanced during PR. At 6 months, implicit attitudes were significantly associated with physical activity. These results suggest that motivation, particularly implicit attitudes, should be targeted in future behavioral interventions in order to optimize the effects of rehabilitation on physical activity maintenance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A qualitative synthesis of trials promoting physical activity behaviour change among post-treatment breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Camille E; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2013-12-01

    Health outcome trials have provided strong evidence that participating in regular physical activity can improve the quality of life and health of post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Focus is now needed on how to promote changes in physical activity behaviour among this group. This systematic review examines the efficacy of behavioural interventions for promoting physical activity among post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Behavioural intervention studies published up until July 2012 were identified through a systematic search of two databases: MEDLINE and CINAHL, and by searching reference lists of relevant publications and scanning citation libraries of project staff. Eight out of the ten identified studies reported positive intervention effects on aerobic physical activity behaviour, ranging from during the intervention period to 6 months post-intervention. Only two studies reported intervention effect sizes. The identification of factors related to efficacy was not possible because of the limited number and heterogeneity of studies included, as well as the lack of effect sizes reported. Nonetheless, an examination of the eight studies that did yield significant intervention effects suggests that 12-week interventions employing behaviour change techniques (e.g., self-monitoring and goal setting) derived from a variety of theories and delivered in a variety of settings (i.e., one-on-one, group or home) can be effective at changing the aerobic physical activity behaviour of breast cancer survivors in the mid- to long terms. Behavioural interventions do hold promise for effectively changing physical activity behaviour among breast cancer survivors. However, future research is needed to address the lack of studies exploring long-term intervention effects, mediators of intervention effects and interventions promoting resistance-training activity, and to address issues impacting on validity, such as the limited use of objective physical activity measures and

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  13. Health Impacts of Increased Physical Activity from Changes in Transportation Infrastructure: Quantitative Estimates for Three Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two quantitative tools have emerged for predicting the health impacts of projects that change population physical activity: the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) and Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO-HIA). HEAT has been used to support health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, but DYNAMO-HIA has not been previously employed for this purpose nor have the two tools been compared. To demonstrate the use of DYNAMO-HIA for supporting health impact assessments of transportation infrastructure projects, we employed the model in three communities (urban, suburban, and rural) in North Carolina. We also compared DYNAMO-HIA and HEAT predictions in the urban community. Using DYNAMO-HIA, we estimated benefit-cost ratios of 20.2 (95% C.I.: 8.7–30.6), 0.6 (0.3–0.9), and 4.7 (2.1–7.1) for the urban, suburban, and rural projects, respectively. For a 40-year time period, the HEAT predictions of deaths avoided by the urban infrastructure project were three times as high as DYNAMO-HIA's predictions due to HEAT's inability to account for changing population health characteristics over time. Quantitative health impact assessment coupled with economic valuation is a powerful tool for integrating health considerations into transportation decision-making. However, to avoid overestimating benefits, such quantitative HIAs should use dynamic, rather than static, approaches. PMID:26504832

  14. Developing a research agenda for promoting physical activity in Brazil through environmental and policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo S; Kelly, Cheryl M; Parra, Diana C; Barros, Mauro; Gomes, Grace; Malta, Deborah; Schmid, Thomas; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-08-01

    To identify the highest priorities for research on environmental and policy changes for promoting physical activity (PA) in Brazil; to uncover any gaps between researchers' and practitioners' priorities; and to consider which tools, methods, collaborative strategies, and actions could be useful to moving a research agenda forward. This was a mixed-methods study (qualitative and quantitative) conducted by Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) in February 2010-January 2011. A total of 240 individuals in the PA field (186 practitioners and 54 researchers) were asked to generate research ideas; 82 participants provided 266 original statements from which 52 topics emerged. Participants rated topics by "importance" and "feasibility;" a separate convenience sample of 21 individuals categorized them. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to create concept maps and pattern matches. Five distinct clusters emerged from the concept mapping, of which "effectiveness and innovation in PA interventions" was rated most important by both practitioners and researchers. Pattern matching showed a divergence between the groups, especially regarding feasibility, where there was no consensus. The study results provided the basis for a research agenda to advance the understanding of environmental and policy influences on PA promotion in Brazil and Latin America. These results should stimulate future research and, ultimately, contribute to the evidence-base of successful PA strategies in Latin America.

  15. Psychosocial constructs and postintervention changes in physical activity and dietary outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To examine relationships among psychosocial constructs (PSC) of behavior change and post-intervention changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary outcomes. Design: Non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention. Setting: Midsized, southern United States city. Subjects: 269 prima...

  16. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  17. [Physical activity guidelines for Canadians: strategies for dissemination of the message, expectations for change and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Lawrence R; Latimer, Amy E

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity guidelines offer evidence-based behavioural benchmarks that relate to reduced risk of morbidity and mortality if people adhere to them. Essentially, the guidelines tell people what to do, but not why and how they should do it. Thus, to motivate adherence, messages that translate guidelines should convey not only how much physical activity one should attempt and why it is recommended, but also how to achieve such a recommendation. Canada's physical activity guides exemplify how guidelines can be translated. This paper (i) provides a brief overview of the challenges encountered in creating the existing guides and (ii) highlights important practical issues and empirical evidence that should be considered in the future when translating guidelines into messages and disseminating these messages. We draw on the successes of past efforts to translate the goals of physical activity guidelines and on recent literature on messages and media campaigns to make recommendations. Information to motivate people to move toward the goals in physical activity guidelines should be translated into a set of messages that are informative, thought provoking, and persuasive. These messages should be disseminated to the public via a multi-phase social-marketing campaign that is carefully planned and thoroughly evaluated.

  18. Physical activity guides for Canadians: messaging strategies, realistic expectations for change, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Lawrence R; Latimer, Amy E

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity guidelines offer evidence-based behavioural benchmarks that relate to reduced risk of morbidity and mortality if people adhere to them. Essentially, the guidelines tell people what to do, but not why and how they should do it. Thus, to motivate adherence, messages that translate guidelines should convey not only how much physical activity one should attempt and why it is recommended, but also how to achieve such a recommendation. Canada's physical activity guides exemplify how guidelines can be translated. This paper (i) provides a brief overview of the challenges encountered in creating the existing guides and (ii) highlights important practical issues and empirical evidence that should be considered in the future when translating guidelines into messages and disseminating these messages. We draw on the successes of past efforts to translate the goals of physical activity guidelines and on recent literature on messages and media campaigns to make recommendations. Information to motivate people to move toward the goals in physical activity guidelines should be translated into a set of messages that are informative, thought provoking, and persuasive. These messages should be disseminated to the public via a multi-phase social-marketing campaign that is carefully planned and thoroughly evaluated.

  19. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  3. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  4. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  5. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  6. Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between behavioral processes of change and physical activity in older breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which breast cancer survivors use behavioral processes of change has not been investigated. Additionally, the relationship between behavioral processes and other theory-based mediators of adult physical activity behavior has not been extensively studied among breast cancer survivors. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the extent to which breast cancer survivors use behavioral processes associated with physical activity behavior change, and (2) examine the inter-relationships between behavioral processes, self-efficacy, and physical activity behavior among breast cancer survivors. Sixty-nine breast cancer survivors completed surveys examining behavioral processes and exercise-specific self-efficacy. Six months later they completed a self-report physical activity questionnaire. Findings showed the majority of breast cancer survivors did not use approximately half of the behavioral processes on a regular basis, and self-efficacy completely mediated the relationship between behavioral processes and physical activity. Health care professionals may help enhance self-efficacy and ultimately increase physical activity behavior in breast cancer survivors by teaching behavior skills such as enlisting social support.

  7. Changes in disability in older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis: A complex relationship with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, E C P M; van Meurs, J B; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Hofman, A; Hopman-Rock, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to report on factors associated with changes in disability after 5 years, with a focus on physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis (GROA). Assessment of GROA (hand, knee, hip) and disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) in the Rotterdam Study (cohort RS-1, N = 7,983; with GROA, n = 821). A good outcome at follow-up was defined as improved or mild disability, and a poor outcome as worsened or severe disability. Factors potentially associated with outcome were demographics, joint complaints, other chronic health problems or limitations (body mass index, number of chronic conditions, cognition), and level of different types of PA. Some of these assessments were repeated in between 1997 and 1999 (RS-3), and between 2002 and 2004 (RS-4). A total of 309 older adults with GROA and valid measures on RS-3 and RS-4 showed mild to moderate disability, with minor increases over 5 years (follow-up N = 287 RS-3 to RS-4). PA levels decreased with increasing disability, especially in sport and walking. PA was univariately associated with a better outcome at follow-up but when adjusted for other factors (higher age, having knee pain and stiffness, and having more than two other chronic conditions) was associated with negative changes in general and lower limb disability, although not with upper limb disability. This was the first study to report that community-dwelling older adults with GROA show moderate levels of disability, and that reduced levels of disability are associated with higher levels of PA, but when adjusted for other confounders this association is lost. Further research is needed to study the complex relationships between PA and other determinants of disability. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  9. A quasi-experimental examination of how school-based physical activity changes impact secondary school student moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity over time in the COMPASS study

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Stephen; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Storey, Kate; Carson, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is characterized by low moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels. Targeting the school setting can increase MVPA among a large proportion of adolescents. However, school-based physical activity interventions for adolescents remain largely ineffective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how naturally-occurring changes to school physical activity policy, recreational programming, public health resources, and the physical environmen...

  10. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  11. Physical activity loyalty cards for behavior change: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Davis, Michael; Stevenson, Michael; Kee, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Financial incentives have been advocated by the UK and U.S. governments to encourage adoption of healthy lifestyles. However, evidence to support the use of incentives for changing physical activity (PA) behavior is sparse. To investigate the effectiveness of financial incentives to increase PA in adults in the workplace. Two-arm quasi-experimental design. Employees (n=406) in a workplace setting in Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Using a loyalty card to collect points and earn rewards, participants (n=199) in the Incentive Group monitored their PA levels and received financial incentives (retail vouchers) for minutes of PA completed over the course of a 12-week intervention period. Participants (n=207) in the comparison group used their loyalty card to self-monitor their PA levels but were not able to earn points or obtain incentives (No Incentive Group). The primary outcome was minutes of PA objectively measured using a novel PA tracking system at baseline (April 2011); Week 6 (June 2011); and Week 12 (July 2011). Other outcomes, including a self-report measure of PA, were collected at baseline, Week 12, and 6 months (October 2011). Data were analyzed in June 2012. No significant differences between groups were found for primary or secondary outcomes at the 12-week and 6-month assessments. Participants in the Incentive Group recorded 17.52 minutes of PA/week (95% CI=12.49, 22.56) compared to 16.63 minutes/week (95% CI=11.76, 21.51) in the No Incentive Group at Week 12 (p=0.59). At 6 months, participants in the Incentive Group recorded 26.18 minutes of PA/week (95% CI=20.06, 32.29) compared to 24.00 minutes/week (95% CI=17.45, 30.54) in the No Incentive Group (p=0.45). Financial incentives did not encourage participants to undertake more PA than self-monitoring PA. This study contributes to the evidence base and has important implications for increasing participation in physical activity and fostering links with the business sector. Copyright © 2013 American

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with stages of behavior change for physical activity in adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade

    2017-06-01

    To analyze prevalence and factors associated with stages of behavior change for physical activity in adolescents. A search was performed in SciELO, PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and LILACS. The search terms were "behavior change" OR "stages of change" OR "stages of readiness" OR "readiness to change" OR "transtheoretical model" OR "process to change" OR "decisional balance", and "motor activity" OR "physical activity" OR "physical exercise" and "adolescent" OR "students". After the eligibility criteria, 18 articles were selected. The highest prevalence of adolescents in the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages was found in the Germany, South Korea, and Iran while there were more adolescents in the action and maintenance in South Korea and Brazil. The evidence of association indicated that females are more likely to be in precontemplation, contemplation and preparation. The evidence was inconclusive for age (in relation to the precontemplation, contemplation, action and maintenance stages), economic status (all stages), shift of study (when stratified by gender) and body composition (all stages). No association was found with parental level of education. The findings can help to guide interventions and further research on the topic of behavior changes for physical activity in adolescents.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of single versus multiple health behavior change: promoting physical activity and nutrition among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Sallis, James F

    2004-05-01

    Targeting multiple behaviors for change may provide significant health benefits. This study compared interventions targeting physical activity and nutrition (PAN) concurrently versus physical activity (PA) alone. Adolescents (N=138) were randomized to the PAN or PA intervention or control condition (n=46 per group). Primary outcomes were change in PA accelerometer and 3-day dietary recording from baseline to 3-month follow-up. The PAN and PA interventions were efficacious in supporting boys' (pdecrement to PA promotion when a nutrition intervention was added, neither do they reveal any additional benefit. More studies comparing single versus multibehavioral interventions are needed. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  14. Physical activity, structural brain changes and cognitive decline. The SMART-MR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.; Boss, H.M.; van der Graaf, Y.; Kappelle, L.J.; Biessels, G.J.; Geerlings, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to examine the cross-sectional and prospective relationship between leisure time physical activity, brain MRI abnormalities and cognitive performance in patients with vascular disease. Methods: Within the SMART-MR study, 1.5T MRI of the brain and neuropsychological examinations

  15. The declining prevalence of overweight among Russian children: income, diet, and physical activity behavior changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household income has been shown to be positively associated with overweight among post-Soviet Russian adults. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among income, diet, physical activity behaviors and overweight among Russian children during a period of economic upheaval. Subjects inc...

  16. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-06-05

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  17. Objectively measured physical activity and longitudinal changes in adolescent body fatness: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, P J; Wijndaele, K; Corder, K; Westgate, K; Ridgway, C L; Sharp, S J; Atkin, A J; Stephen, A M; Bamber, D; Goodyer, I; Brage, S; Ekelund, U

    2016-04-01

    The data regarding prospective associations between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in youth are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between baseline levels of objectively measured PA and changes in adiposity over 2.5 years from mid-to-late adolescence. This was an observational cohort study in 728 school students (43% boys) from Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Fat mass index (FMI, kg m(-2) ) was estimated at baseline (mean ± standard deviation age: 15 ± 0.3 years) and follow-up (17.5 ± 0.3 years) by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. Habitual PA was assessed at baseline by ≥3 d combined heart rate and movement sensing. Average daily PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and the time (min d(-1) ) spent in light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA (LPA, MPA and VPA, respectively) was estimated. Multilevel models were used to investigate associations between baseline PA and change in FMI (ΔFMI). Adjustment for baseline age, sex, follow-up duration, area-level socioeconomic status, season of PA assessment, sedentary time, energy intake and sleep duration was made; baseline FMI was also added in a second model. FMI increased significantly over follow-up (0.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) , P positively predicted ΔFMI in overfat participants (P ≤ 0.030), as did VPA in initially normal fat participants (P ≤ 0.044). There were further positive associations between PAEE and ΔFMI in normal fat participants, and between MPA and ΔFMI in both fat groups, when adjusted for baseline FMI (P ≤ 0.024). Baseline PAEE and its subcomponents were positively associated with small and unlikely clinically relevant increases in ΔFMI. These counter-intuitive findings may be explained by behavioural changes during the course of study follow-up. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  18. Relations of mood with body mass index changes in severely obese women enrolled in a supported physical activity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that physical activity may affect weight reduction outcomes through associated improvements in mood. Relations of physical activity, mood, and weight change are not well understood in persons classified as severely obese (BMI > or = 40 kg/m(2)), however. This research tested these relationships in women with severe obesity. 57 women with a mean BMI of 43.8 kg/m(2) were enrolled in a cognitive-behavioral exercise support treatment with group-based nutrition information. Measurement of depression, tension, overall mood, and BMI was taken at baseline and month 6, and exercise session attendance was recorded. The treatment was associated with significant improvements in depression, tension and total mood disturbance scores as well as in BMI over 6 months. Changes in mood scores that were more positive were correlated with a greater reduction in BMI. Mean attendance in the prescribed 3 session/week exercise regimen was 46.0%, and attendance was significantly correlated with changes in tension and total mood disturbance scores, and approached significance with changes in depression scores. Findings suggested significant relations of mood and weight change as well as of physical activity and mood in severely obese women associated with a treatment of moderate physical activity. With extensions of this research, weight loss theory and treatment may benefit. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  1. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  2. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  3. CHANGING TRENDS IN LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Early sleep, early waking up, regular breakfast and light-to-moderate exercise all constitute healthy habits. Balanced diet, regular sleep and adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health in human life. Regrettably these habits are not very frequent among medical students, because of exceptionally tiring schedule, protracted studies and burden of performing well in medical colleges. The study aims to correlate the trends in breakfast habits, mid-day snacking, sleeping habits and physical activity in relation to body mass index among medical students. METHOD This was a single centre cross-sectional questionnaire based study conducted at Jubilee Mission Medical College & Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala. The target population was 1 st year MBBS students. We collected data from 234 students. The study duration was from August 2014 till September 2015. Convenient sampling was implied for the collection of data. RESULTS Mean age of participants was 20.85 ± 0.9 years, while mean BMI of participants was 24.7 ± 6.31 kg/m2. Average sleep duration was 7.1 hours ± 3.9 hours while average physical activity was 208 min/week ± 92 min/week. We observed that females (63.4% tend to skip breakfast twice more than males (27.9%. Students who had regular breakfast were found to have a lower BMI than those who did not. Moreover, those who took breakfast were found to be more physically active than those who skipped breakfast. CONCLUSION Since it was found that a regular consumption of breakfast, adequate sleep and exercise not only lowers BMI but also makes a person more physically fit. Therefore, it is recommended to start the day with a healthy breakfast having all the essential nutrients.

  4. Do Natural Experiments of Changes in Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity and Diet? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Freya; George, Emma S; Feng, Xiaoqi; Merom, Dafna; Bennie, Andrew; Cook, Amelia; Sanders, Taren; Dwyer, Genevieve; Pang, Bonnie; Guagliano, Justin M; Kolt, Gregory S; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2018-01-26

    Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and/or diet in residents, were included. From five electronic databases, 2084 references were identified. A narrative synthesis was conducted, considering results in relation to study quality. Nineteen papers, reporting on 15 different exposures met inclusion criteria. Four studies included a comparison group and 11 were pre-post/longitudinal studies without a comparison group. Studies reported on the impact of redeveloping or introducing cycle and/or walking trails ( n = 5), rail stops/lines ( n = 4), supermarkets and farmers' markets ( n = 4) and park and green space ( n = 2). Eight/15 studies reported at least one beneficial change in physical activity, diet or another associated health outcome. Due to limitations in study design and reporting, as well as the wide array of outcome measures reported, drawing conclusions to inform policy was challenging. Future research should consider a consistent approach to measure the same outcomes (e.g., using measurement methods that collect comparable physical activity and diet outcome data), to allow for pooled analyses. Additionally, including comparison groups wherever possible and ensuring high quality reporting is essential.

  5. Do Natural Experiments of Changes in Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity and Diet? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya MacMillan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and/or diet in residents, were included. From five electronic databases, 2084 references were identified. A narrative synthesis was conducted, considering results in relation to study quality. Nineteen papers, reporting on 15 different exposures met inclusion criteria. Four studies included a comparison group and 11 were pre-post/longitudinal studies without a comparison group. Studies reported on the impact of redeveloping or introducing cycle and/or walking trails (n = 5, rail stops/lines (n = 4, supermarkets and farmers’ markets (n = 4 and park and green space (n = 2. Eight/15 studies reported at least one beneficial change in physical activity, diet or another associated health outcome. Due to limitations in study design and reporting, as well as the wide array of outcome measures reported, drawing conclusions to inform policy was challenging. Future research should consider a consistent approach to measure the same outcomes (e.g., using measurement methods that collect comparable physical activity and diet outcome data, to allow for pooled analyses. Additionally, including comparison groups wherever possible and ensuring high quality reporting is essential.

  6. Stuck in a vicious circle of stress. Parental concerns and barriers to changing children's dietary and physical activity habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Åsa; Berlin, Anita; Sundblom, Elinor; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer; Nyberg, Gisela

    2015-04-01

    Dietary habits and physical activity are often the focus of obesity prevention programmes and involving parents in such programmes has proven to be effective. The aims of this study were to describe parents' concerns about their children's diet and physical activity habits and to describe barriers to change. The study used archival data gathered unobtrusively in the form of memos taken after sessions of Motivational Interviewing as part of the parental support programme, A Healthy School Start. The 74 MI-sessions were conducted from October 2010 to April 2011 with either a mother or father or both, all with children in pre-school class. Thematic analysis was applied. Three themes were identified regarding children's dietary habits: amount of food consumed influenced by behaviour in the family, eating situations influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay, and food choices influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. One theme appeared regarding physical activity: physical activity influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. Family interplay appears to be an important link between the work-life stress perceived by parents and less healthy food and physical activity habits in the home. Both lack of parental cooperation and negative parent-child interactions may act as barriers to healthy eating and physical activity and should be addressed in future intervention studies on health-related behaviours of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time regained: when people stop a physical activity program, how does their time use change? A randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjaan Gomersall

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how previously inactive adults who had participated in a structured, partly supervised 6-week exercise program restructured their time budgets when the program ended. Using a randomised controlled trial design, 129 previously inactive adults were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three groups: a Moderate or Extensive six-week physical activity intervention (150 and 300 additional minutes of exercise per week, respectively or a Control group. Additional physical activity was accumulated through both group and individual exercise sessions with a wide range of activities. Use of time and time spent in energy expenditure zones was measured using a computerised 24-h self-report recall instrument, the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults, and accelerometry at baseline, mid- and end-program and at 3- and 6-months follow up. At final follow up, all significant changes in time use domains had returned to within 20 minutes of baseline levels (Physical Activity 1-2 min/d, Active Transport 3-9 min/d, Self-Care 0-2 min/d, Television/Videogames 13-18 min/d in the Moderate and Extensive group, relative to Controls, respectively, p > 0.05. Similarly, all significant changes in time spent in the moderate energy expenditure zone had returned to within 1-3 min/d baseline levels (p > 0.05, however time spent in vigorous physical activity according to accelerometry estimates remained elevated, although the changes were small in magnitude (1 min/d in the Moderate and Extensive groups, relative to Controls, p = 0.01. The results of this study demonstrate strong recidivist patterns in physical activity, but also in other aspects of time use. In designing and determining the effectiveness of exercise interventions, future studies would benefit from considering the whole profile of time use, rather than focusing on individual activities,Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000248066.

  8. High School Students' Exercise-Related Stages of Change and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Cevdet; Tilmac, Kubra

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature has shown that the amount of sedentary time during early adolescence is low. This decrease is more pronounced among girls than boys. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze high school students' exercise-related stages of change (ESC) and physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) for overcoming barriers…

  9. Behavior Change and the Freshman 15: Tracking Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns in 1st-Year University Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary Elizabeth; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors assessed the stability of diet and physical activity and their relationship to weight changes in first-year university women. Methods: They collected anthropometric and body composition data from 101 resident women at the beginning of their first year of college and again at 12 months. The authors obtained…

  10. Effects of a Community-Based Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Physical Activity among Economically Disadvantaged Adults with Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M.; Hoen, Helena M.; Slaven, James E.; Finch, Emily A.; Marrero, David G.; Saha, Chandan; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate weight loss and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes however there is a need for innovative, effective programs to promote PA in high-risk individuals. Purpose: We examined the effect of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention implemented in partnership with the YMCA (YDPP) on changes in…

  11. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; DeMello, Madison M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0???3.3?years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6?week...

  12. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican-origin adults: implications for diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, Texas. 475 adults from 161 Mexican-origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Two-level logistic regression modeling. Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p = .010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p = .046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican-origin adults.

  13. Physical activity in leisure-time is not associated with 10-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, T.; Petersen, L.; Schnohr, P.

    2008-01-01

    -2003 (follow up), where height, weight and WC were measured. Information about overall PA in leisure-time (LTPA), walking, biking and sports activity was collected with self-administrated questionnaires at baseline. Outcomes were changes in WC and changes in WC given changes in BMI between baseline and follow...... up. The median increase in WC was 3.0 cm in men and 3.5 cm in women during follow-up, and with a considerable inter-individual variation. LTPA, walking and biking were not significantly associated with the outcomes. Inverse associations between sports activity and the outcomes were observed in both...... sexes, and these were significant in some analyses. Associations were not altered by adjustment for confounders or by exclusions of subjects with diseases and/or treatment by obesity-inducing medication. This study suggests that LTPA, walking and biking have no appreciable effects on changes in WC...

  14. [Stages of change related to fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity, and weight control in Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones H, María Angélica; Olivares C, Sonia; Araneda F, Jacqueline; Gómez F, Nelly

    2009-09-01

    In order to design effective health promotion interventions, nutritional status and the stages of change related to the consumption of fruit and vegetables, physical activity, and weight control were determined in 955 students of both genders at the University of Bio-Bio, Chile. The sample was randomly selected by campus, faculty, and career, with a level of confidence of 95% and a maximum error of 3%. Beside the descriptive analysis, to evaluate the association among nutritional status, fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity and weight control, Chi2 test was applied. Nutritional status was determined by Body Mass Index and WHO reference standards for adults. A questionnaire previously validated by INTA was applied to evaluate the stages of change. The prevalence of overweight and obesity reached 48.2% in men and 25.5% in women (pphysical activity regularly (pphysical activity.

  15. Behaviour change techniques targeting both diet and physical activity in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Kevin A; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Finucane, Francis M; Gainforth, Heather L; Quinlan, Leo R; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin

    2017-02-08

    Changing diet and physical activity behaviour is one of the cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment, but changing behaviour is challenging. The objective of this study was to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and intervention features of dietary and physical activity interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes that are associated with changes in HbA 1c and body weight. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1975-2015 describing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that focused exclusively on both diet and physical activity. The constituent BCTs, intervention features and methodological rigour of these interventions were evaluated. Changes in HbA 1c and body weight were meta-analysed and examined in relation to use of BCTs. Thirteen RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses revealed reductions in HbA 1c at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of -1.11 % (12 mmol/mol), -0.67 % (7 mmol/mol), -0.28 % (3 mmol/mol) and -0.26 % (2 mmol/mol) with an overall reduction of -0.53 % (6 mmol/mol [95 % CI -0.74 to -0.32, P 0.3 % reduction in HbA 1c : 'instruction on how to perform a behaviour', 'behavioural practice/rehearsal', 'demonstration of the behaviour' and 'action planning', as were intervention features 'supervised physical activity', 'group sessions', 'contact with an exercise physiologist', 'contact with an exercise physiologist and a dietitian', 'baseline HbA 1c >8 %' and interventions of greater frequency and intensity. Diet and physical activity interventions achieved clinically significant reductions in HbA 1c at three and six months, but not at 12 and 24 months. Specific BCTs and intervention features identified may inform more effective structured lifestyle intervention treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  18. Comparative study of change in physical activity on exercise performance and mental well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaman Mohan Harsoda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aerobic exercises training with different modes of physical activity on cardiovascular fitness and mental health. In this regard, 20 young healthy male participants (18 to 30 years were included in this study. They were divided into 2 groups, 10 in each, groups A and group B. Group A participated in combined limb exercise while Group B participated in walking exercise training under the supervision of a physical trainer. Resting and maximum pulse, resting and maximum systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Treadmill walking exercise fatigue time (TWEFT and general health questionnaire GHQ-12 were analyzed in both groups before and after the exercise training. Students paired t test was applied for pre and post data analysis. Results showed resting pulse, resting and maximum SBP and TWEFT decrease significantly (p<0.05 after combined limb exercise. Walking exercise alone causes decrease in resting pulse and GHQ score. In conclusion combined limb exercise is more beneficial than walking exercise alone. The cardiovascular fitness is improved after combined limb exercise while the mental well being is more pronounced after walking exercise alone. It can be suggested that combination of both forms of physical activity is the proper way to improve cardiovascular fitness and mental well being simultaneously, if practiced regularly.

  19. A church-based intervention to change attitudes about physical activity among Black adolescent girls: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wanda M; Berry, Diane; Hu, Jie

    2013-05-01

    To feasibility test a 12-week church-based physical activity intervention that was culturally sensitive, age- and gender specific directed at changing attitudes of Black adolescent girls' to be more physically active. A one-group pre- and posttest design was used. A convenience sample of Black adolescent girls between the age of 12-18 (n = 41). A 60-min 12-week church-based program that included interactive educational sessions followed by a high energy dance aerobics class was used. Data were collected on biophysical measures. Surveys were used to assess the following variables: attitudes, enjoyment, self-efficacy, intention, social and family support, and PA levels. Paired t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant changes in key variables. Positive changes were noted in the odds ratios for attitudes, self-efficacy, and intention. Body mass index, metabolic equivalent tasks, and fitness showed positive trends from pre to post intervention. Family support was significantly correlated with physical activity level (p Black churches aimed at Black adolescent girls are feasible. Participants evaluated the intervention very favorably. Family support may be a key factor in increasing physical activity levels in Black adolescent girls. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  1. Behavioral, demographic, psychosocial, and sociocultural concomitants of stage of change for physical activity behavior in a mixed-culture sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J; Lee, Jong-Young; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Hyo; Li, Kin-Kit; Si, Qi

    2009-01-01

    Examine behavioral, demographic, psychosocial, and sociocultural concomitants of the stages of change for physical activity behavior among college students in South Korea (n = 221) and the United States (n = 166). Measures obtained in this cross-sectional study included age; body mass index; nationality; gender; exercise behavior; processes of change; decisional balance; self-efficacy; stage of change; and predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors. The amount of variance explained for stage of change by the transtheoretical model constructs (i.e., decisional balance, processes of change, self-efficacy) ranged from 11% to 29% (all p behavior (OR = 1.04; p behavioral processes of change (OR = 1.12; p change. In terms of physical activity behavior, South Korean women were more likely than South Korean men to be in the early stages, whereas American men were slightly more likely to be in the early stages than American women when all the concomitants were accounted for. Among the psychosocial stage of change concomitants, only the behavioral processes of change were found to be important.

  2. The "Romsås in Motion" community intervention: program exposure and psychosocial mediated relationships to change in stages of change in physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenum Anne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducting process evaluations of health promoting interventions, and measuring the effectiveness of specific intervention components, may help in the understanding of program failure or success. The purposes of the present study were to examine adults' exposure to and involvement in specific components of a three year long pseudo-experimental community-based physical activity intervention, and to examine the relationship between such exposure and participation and changes in stages of change in physical activity and psychosocial mediators. Methods 1497 persons in the intervention group attended the baseline survey in 2000 (50.6% and 1204 (80.4 of baseline attendees provided data on the outcome variables of the present study. In 2003, 1089 were still living in the area, and were re-invited to follow-up assessments. Current analyses are based on the 603 persons (mean age 49 ± 10 years who provided baseline and follow-up data for the current purposes (56.6% follow-up rate. Process data, stages of change in physical activity, and potential psychosocial mediators of change in physical activity were assessed by questionnaires. The theory-based intervention was composed of communication, physical activity, environmental and participatory components. Data were analysed using frequency and descriptive statistics, Chi-square and t-tests, and regression analyses. Results Exposure and participation rates in the various intervention components varied greatly (1.5–92.7%. Participation in walking groups and aerobic exercise groups, as well as having seen the "Walk the stairs"-poster were significantly and positively related to change in stages of change in physical activity (β = .12, p = .011; β = .211, p Conclusion Findings revealed that particular intervention components, such as participation in physical activity groups, were more strongly related to forward transition in stages of change in physical activity than others. These

  3. Trends and changes in research on the psychology of physical activity across 20 years: a quantitative analysis of 10 journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Nasuti, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    To investigate content of the psychology of physical activity research over the past 20 years. Volumes of 10 journals, identified by impact factor and relevance to physical activity were audited every other year, during the period of 1990-2008. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured a physical activity outcome, and/or a psychological outcome as a result of physical activity. Data were extracted and coded based on 15 factors. The review yielded 889 studies for analysis. Total volume of studies (from 127 in the 1990s to 762 in the 2000s), and the proportionate content space allotted to journals has increased significantly across 20 years (effect size w=0.24) (Cohen, 1992). Many study characteristics (assessment of minority/high-risk groups, self-report measurement, cross-sectional designs) have not changed. There was evidence, however, of less growth in research among older adults and young children (effect size w=0.15) compared to other age groups (effect size w=0.24), a move from pure measurement studies (effect size w=0.21) to descriptive research (effect size w=0.27), and considerable growth in environmental correlates research across time (effect size w=0.41) in the 10 journals sampled. The behavioral science of physical activity has clearly increased in prominence and volume among the 10 journals sampled, but methodological characteristics of research could be improved in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Three-Year Changes in Physical Activity and Decline in Physical Performance Over 9 Years of Follow-Up in Older Adults: The Invecchiare in Chianti Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Bandinelli, Stefania; Del-Panta, Vieri; Patel, Kushang V; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    To examine the associations between cumulative physical activity (PA) and its changes over 3 years and changes over 9 years of follow-up in physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal. Community-based. Men and women aged 65 and older from the Invecchiare in Chianti study (N = 782). Physical performance was assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, and 9-year follow-up using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). PA was assessed through an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, cancer, lung disease, lower extremity osteoarthritis, depression, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Over 3 years of follow-up, 27.8% of participants were inactive, 52.2% were minimally active, and 20.0% were active, and the PA of 37.2% decreased, there was no change in PA of 50.1% and the PA of 12.7% increased. After adjustment for potential covariates, being mostly active (-1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.43 to -0.73) and minimally active (-1.33, 95% CI = -1.53 to -1.12) over 3 years of follow-up was associated with less decline in SPPB score than being mostly inactive (-2.60, 95% CI = -2.92 to -2.27). When analyzing changes, increasing PA (-0.57, 95% CI = -1.01 to -0.12) was associated with less decline in SPPB score over 9 years than decreasing PA (-2.16, 95% CI = -2.42 to -1.89). Maintaining or increasing PA levels may attenuate age-associated physical performance decline. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Active Climate Stabilization: Practical Physics-Based Approaches to Prevention of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.; Hyde, T.; Wood, L.

    2002-04-18

    We offer a case for active technical management of the radiative forcing of the temperatures of the Earth's fluid envelopes, rather than administrative management of atmospheric greenhouse gas inputs, in order to stabilize both the global- and time-averaged climate and its mesoscale features. We suggest that active management of radiative forcing entails negligible--indeed, likely strongly negative--economic costs and environmental impacts, and thus best complies with the pertinent mandate of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. We propose that such approaches be swiftly evaluated in sub-scale in the course of an intensive international program.

  6. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9–11 year old English schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantjes Joyce A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in 9- to 10-year-old British children. Methods Data were analysed from 839 children attending 89 schools in the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating behaviours: Environmental Determinants in Young People study. Outcomes variables were one year changes in objectively measured sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, with baseline measures taken when the children were 9–10 years old. School characteristics hypothesised to be associated with change in physical activity were identified from questionnaires, grounds audits, and computer mapping. Associations were examined using simple and multivariable multilevel regression models for both school (9 am – 3 pm and travel (8–9 am and 3–4 pm time. Results Significant associations during school time included the length of the morning break which was found to be supportive of moderate (β coefficient: 0.68 [p: 0.003] and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.52 [p: 0.002] activities and helps to prevent adverse changes in sedentary time (β coefficient: -2.52 [p: 0.001]. During travel time, positive associations were found between the presence of safe places to cross roads around the school and changes in moderate (β coefficient: 0.83 [p:0.022] and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.56 [p:0.001] activity, as well as sedentary time (β coefficient: -1.61 [p:0.005]. Conclusion This study suggests that having longer morning school breaks and providing road safety features such as cycling infrastructure, a crossing guard, and safe places for children to cross the road may have a role to play in supporting the maintenance of moderate and vigorous activity behaviours, and preventing the development of

  7. Beliefs about age-related changes in physical functioning across the adult life span and their relationship with physical activity levels of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Kugler, Jennifer; Rabellino, Alessandra; Stephan, Yannick

    2018-07-01

    Physical activity declines across the adult life span despite the well-established links between physical activity and health-related, psychological, cognitive, and social benefits. We contrasted the beliefs young and older adults hold about how aging affects both physical abilities and physical activity and determined whether older adults' beliefs about physical aging relate to their engagement in physical activity. Using visual rating scales, 56 young and 49 community-dwelling older adults indicated the extent to which a typical woman or typical man aged 20-90 possesses six different physical abilities and engages in three different types of physical activity. Stereotypes of physical aging were ability- and activity-specific, and older adults endorsed more positive views than their younger peers. Stereotypical beliefs predicted older adults' engagement in moderate-intensity activity. This study offers intriguing avenues for future research and suggests that better understanding physical aging stereotypes may contribute toward designing interventions that promote lifelong physical activity.

  8. Changing physical activity behaviour for people with multiple sclerosis: protocol of a randomised controlled feasibility trial (iStep-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Fortune, Jennifer; Stennett, Andrea; Kilbride, Cherry; Anokye, Nana; Victor, Christina; Hendrie, Wendy; Abdul, Mohamed; DeSouza, Lorraine; Lavelle, Grace; Brewin, Debbie; David, Lee; Norris, Meriel

    2017-11-15

    Although physical activity may reduce disease burden, fatigue and disability, and improve quality of life among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), many people with MS are physically inactive and spend significant time in sedentary behaviour. Behaviour change interventions may assist people with MS to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. However, few studies have investigated their effectiveness using objective measures of physical activity, particularly in the long term. Further, interventions that have proven effective in the short term may not be feasible in clinical practice because of the large amount of support provided. The iStep-MS trial aims to determine the safety, feasibility and acceptability of a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among people with MS. Sixty people with MS will be randomised (1:1 ratio) to receive a 12-week intervention or usual care only. The intervention consists of four physical activity consultations with a physiotherapist supported by a handbook and pedometer. Outcomes assessed at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months are physical activity (ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer), sedentary behaviour (activPAL3µ), self-reported activity and sitting time, walking capability, fatigue, self-efficacy, participation, quality of life and health service use. The safety of the intervention will be determined by assessing change in pain and fatigue and the incidence of adverse events during the follow-up period. A parallel process evaluation will assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention through assessment of fidelity to the programme and semistructured interviews exploring participants' and therapists' experiences of the intervention. The feasibility of conducting an economic evaluation will be determined by collecting data on quality of life and resource use. Research ethics committee approval has been granted from Brunel University London. Results of

  9. Changes in Objectively-Determined Walkability and Physical Activity in Adults: A Quasi-Longitudinal Residential Relocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; McLaren, Lindsay; Salvo, Grazia; Blackstaffe, Anita

    2017-05-22

    Causal evidence for the built environment's role in supporting physical activity is needed to inform land use and transportation policies. This quasi-longitudinal residential relocation study compared within-person changes in self-reported transportation walking, transportation cycling, and overall physical activity during the past 12 months among adults who did and did not move to a different neighbourhood. In 2014, a random sample of adults from 12 neighbourhoods (Calgary, AB, Canada) with varying urban form and socioeconomic status provided complete self-administered questionnaire data ( n = 915). Participants, some of whom moved neighbourhood during the past 12 months ( n = 95), reported their perceived change in transportation walking and cycling, and overall physical activity during that period. The questionnaire also captured residential self-selection, and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Walk Scores ® were linked to each participant's current and previous neighbourhood and three groups identified: walkability "improvers" ( n = 48); "decliners" ( n = 47), and; "maintainers" ( n = 820). Perceived change in physical activity was compared between the three groups using propensity score covariate-adjusted Firth logistic regression (odds ratios: OR). Compared with walkability maintainers, walkability decliners (OR 4.37) and improvers (OR 4.14) were more likely ( p walkability decliners were also more likely (OR 3.17) to report decreasing their transportation walking since moving. Walkability improvers were more likely than maintainers to increase their transportation cycling since moving neighbourhood (OR 4.22). Temporal changes in neighbourhood walkability resulting from residential relocation appear to be associated with reported temporal changes in transportation walking and cycling in adults.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  17. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  19. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venditti Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM was used to develop new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy scales. The validity of the new scales was compared with accelerometer assessments of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods New PASE and sedentary behavior change (TV viewing, computer video game use, and telephone use self-efficacy items were developed. The scales were completed by 714, 6th grade students in seven US cities. A limited number of participants (83 also wore an accelerometer for five days and provided at least 3 full days of complete data. The new scales were analyzed using Classical Test Theory (CTT and IRM; a reduced set of items was produced with IRM and correlated with accelerometer counts per minute and minutes of sedentary, light and moderate to vigorous activity per day after school. Results The PASE items discriminated between high and low levels of PASE. Full and reduced scales were weakly correlated (r = 0.18 with accelerometer counts per minute after school for boys, with comparable associations for girls. Weaker correlations were observed between PASE and minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (r = 0.09 – 0.11. The uni-dimensionality of the sedentary scales was established by both exploratory factor analysis and the fit of items to the underlying variable and reliability was assessed across the length of the underlying variable with some limitations. The reduced sedentary behavior scales had poor reliability. The full scales were moderately correlated with light intensity physical activity after school (r = 0.17 to 0.33 and sedentary behavior (r = -0.29 to -0.12 among the boys, but not for girls. Conclusion New

  20. Psychosocial Predictors of Physical Activity Change Among College Students in an Obesity Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is critical for maintaining a healthy weight, although little is known about psychological barriers to maintaining MVPA in at-risk groups. Identifying characteristics associated with poor MVPA maintenance in obesity prevention programs could improve participant outcomes. Toward this end, we examined predictors of MVPA in an obesity prevention trial for college students at risk for weight gain (n = 333; 72% female, mean BMI = 23.4 kg/m 2 ). Participants engaged in 1 of 3 weight control interventions and in 4 assessments over 12-month follow-up (ie, measured height/weight, self-reports of psychosocial characteristics, 4 days of accelerometer wear). Multilevel modeling analyses showed that across conditions, participants decreased total MVPA minutes per week over 12 months (B = -5.48, P students who show elevated impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance may improve both MVPA and weight control outcomes for these individuals.

  1. The impact of land-use changes on accessibility to forests and potential for leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2017-01-01

    Land-use changes is an ongoing process where particularly the urban expansion is taking place at a steadily increasing rate. Sometime spontaneous and in other occasions planned. Often the urban growth takes place on former forest or agriculture land. However, with the increasing awareness of natu...... to increasing accessibility to forest areas and create enhanced possibilities for a more physical active leisure time, which is important to avoid several life style related diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and circulatory disturbances....

  2. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  3. The Los Angeles Lift Off: a sociocultural environmental change intervention to integrate physical activity into the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; McCarthy, William J; Taylor, Wendell C; Merlo, Angela; Gewa, Constance; Weber, Mark D; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2004-06-01

    To present the development and feasibility testing of a sociocultural environmental change intervention strategy aimed at integrating physical activity into workplace routine. Randomized, controlled, post-test only, intervention trial. Setting. Los Angeles County Department of Health Services' worksites. Four hundred forty-nine employees, predominantly sedentary, overweight, middle-aged women of color, distributed across 26 meetings. A single 10-min exercise break during work time involving moderate intensity, low-impact aerobic dance and calisthenic movements to music. Primary-level of participation, particularly among sedentary staff; secondary-self-perceived health status, satisfaction with current fitness level, and mood/affective state. More than 90% of meeting attendees participated in the exercises. Among completely sedentary individuals, intervention participants' self-perceived health status ratings were significantly lower than controls' (OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.60; P = 0.0003). Among all respondents not regularly physically active, intervention participants' levels of satisfaction with fitness were more highly correlated with self-ranked physical activity stage of change (r = 0.588) than the control participants' (r = 0.376, z = -2.32, p = 0.02). Among the completely sedentary, control participants reported significantly higher levels of energy than did intervention participants (P < 0.01). Captive audiences may be engaged in brief bouts of exercise as a part of the workday, regardless of physical activity level or stage of change. This experience may also appropriately erode sedentary individuals' self-perception of good health and fitness, providing motivation for adoption of more active lifestyles.

  4. Effectiveness of a Behavior Change Program on Physical Activity and Eating Habits in Patients With Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Dos Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira; de Souza, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho; Almeida, Fábio Araujo

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of a behavior change program, called Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde (VAMOS), on physical activity, eating habits, and quality of life in patients with hypertension. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in 90 patients with hypertension (57.8 ± 9.9 y). They were randomly assigned to 2 groups: VAMOS group (n = 45) and control group (n = 45). The VAMOS group participated in a behavioral change program aimed at motivating changes in physical activity and nutrition behavior for 12 weeks. Physical activity, eating habits, quality of life, self-efficacy, and social support were evaluated at preintervention and postintervention. The control group increased sedentary time (407 ± 87 vs 303 ± 100 min/d; P healthy eating habits score (36.9 ± 6.6 vs 43.4 ± 5.8; P eating habits and quality of life in patients with hypertension.

  5. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  6. Changes in jaw muscle activity and the physical properties of foods with different textures during chewing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Hiroko; Magara, Jin; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Ito, Kayoko; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the activity of the masseter (Mas) and suprahyoid (Hyoid) muscles is influenced by the physical properties of food, how changes in the rheological properties of food differ between different foods during the process of food reduction, and how different salivary flow rates affect bolus-making capability during masticatory behavior in healthy humans. Ten healthy adults participated in this study. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the Mas and Hyoid muscles, and 15 g of steamed rice and rice cake was prepared as test foods. In the ingestion test, the subjects were asked to eat each food in their usual manner. The chewing duration, number of chewing cycles before the first swallow, Mas and Hyoid EMG activity, and chewing cycle time were compared between the foods. Total chewing duration was divided into three substages: early, middle, and late; chewing cycle time and EMG activity per chewing cycle of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. In the spitting test, the rheological properties of the bolus at the end of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. Finally, stimulated salivary flow rates were measured and the relationships between salivary flow rate and chewing duration, EMG activity, and changes in physical food characteristics were investigated. There were significant differences in total chewing duration and the number of chewing cycles, but not in chewing cycle time, between the foods, which had similar hardness values. The EMG activity levels of the Mas and Hyoid per chewing cycle for the rice cake were significantly greater than for the steamed rice throughout the recording periods. While Mas activity did not change among the substages during chewing, Hyoid EMG activity decreased as chewing progressed. Chewing cycle time also gradually decreased as chewing progressed. The hardness of both foods initially increased, then gradually decreased

  7. Which psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics predict changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement? A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In the context of healthy ageing, it is necessary to identify opportunities to implement health interventions in order to develop an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity and limited sedentary time in middle-aged and older adults. The transition to retirement is such an opportunity, as individuals tend to establish new routines at the start of retirement. Before health interventions can be developed, the psychological, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement should be identified, ideally with longitudinal studies. The aim of this paper was first to examine whether psychological, social and physical environmental factors at the start of retirement predict longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the first years of retirement. Second, moderating effects of gender and educational levels were examined. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 180 recently retired (>1 month, <2 years at baseline adults completed a postal questionnaire twice (in 2012–2013 and two years later in 2014–2015. The validated questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics. Multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results Higher perceived residential density (p < 0.001 and lower aesthetics (p = 0.08 predicted an increase in active transportation (adjusted R2 = 0.18. Higher baseline self-efficacy was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.13. A more positive perception of old age (p = 0.04 and perceiving less street connectivity (p = 0.001 were associated with an increase in screen time (adjusted R2 = 0.06. Finally, higher baseline levels of modeling from friends (p = 0.06 and lower

  8. A retrospective study on changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after moving to a walkable community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lee, Chanam; Lu, Zhipeng; Mann, George

    2014-12-01

    This study is to examine changes in residents' physical activities, social interactions, and neighborhood cohesion after they moved to a walkable community in Austin, Texas. Retrospective surveys (N=449) were administered in 2013-2014 to collect pre- and post-move data about the outcome variables and relevant personal, social, and physical environmental factors. Walkability of each resident's pre-move community was measured using the Walk Score. T tests were used to examine the pre-post move differences in the outcomes in the whole sample and across sub-groups with different physical activity levels, neighborhood conditions, and neighborhood preferences before the move. After the move, total physical activity increased significantly in the whole sample and all sub-groups except those who were previously sufficiently active; lived in communities with high walkability, social interactions, or neighborhood cohesion; or had moderate preference for walkable neighborhoods. Walking in the community increased in the whole sample and all subgroups except those who were previously sufficiently active, moved from high-walkability communities, or had little to no preference for walkable neighborhoods. Social interactions and neighborhood cohesion increased significantly after the move in the whole sample and all sub-groups. This study explored potential health benefits of a walkable community in promoting physically and socially active lifestyles, especially for populations at higher risk of obesity. The initial result is promising, suggesting the need for more work to further examine the relationships between health and community design using pre-post assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal study of weight, energy intake and physical activity change across two decades in older Scottish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiffany C; Gryka, Anna A; Aucott, Lorna S; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    The perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods are times of pronounced physiological change in body mass index (BMI), physical activity and energy intake. Understanding these changes in middle age could contribute to formation of potential public health targets. A longitudinal cohort of 5119 perimenopausal women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS) recruited between 1990 and 1994, with follow-up visits at 1997-1999 and 2009-2011. At each visit, participants were weighed, measured and completed socioeconomic and demographic questionnaires. Participants at the first visit were asked to recall body weights at 20, 30 and 40 years of age. We assessed trends in BMI, physical activity and energy intake across and within visits. Over 2 decades, obesity prevalence doubled from 14% to 28% of the participants, with 69% of participants being categorised as overweight or obese. Greater than 70% of participants gained >5% of their baseline BMI with weight gain occurring across all weight categories. Energy intake and physical activity levels (PALs) did not change during the 2 decades after menopause (p trend=0.06 and 0.11, respectively), but, within the second visit, energy intake increased concomitantly with a decrease in physical activity across increasing quartiles of BMI (p trend <0.001 for all). Overweight and obesity increased by over 50% over the course of 20 years. Weight gain occurred across the adult life course regardless of starting weight. The marked increase in dietary intake and decrease in PALs in middle age suggest a potential critical period for intervention to curb excess weight gain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  11. Association of change in brain structure to objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Koster, A; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n = 352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline.......0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n = 352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline...

  12. 3-year changes in physical activity and physical performance decline over 9 years of follow-up in older adults: The InCHIANTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Bandinelli, Stefania; Del-Panta, Vieri; Patel, Kushang V; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the associations of cumulative physical activity (PA) and its changes over 3-year with changes over 9 years of follow-up in physical performance in older adults. DESIGN Longitudinal. SETTING Community-based. PARTICIPANTS Men and women, aged 65 years and older, from the InCHIANTI study (N=782). MEASUREMENTS Physical performance was assessed at baseline and at 3-, 6- and 9-year follow-up with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). PA was assessed through an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for education, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, cancer, lung disease, lower extremity osteoarthritis, depression, and Mini-mental state examination. RESULTS Over 3-year of follow-up, the prevalence of participants inactive, minimally active and active was 27.8%, 52.2% and 20.0%, respectively. The prevalence of participants who decreased, no change or increased PA over 3-year of follow-up was 37.2%, 50.1% and 12.7%, respectively. Compared with participants who spent most of the time inactive and after adjustment for potential covariates (−2.60 score, 95%CI: −2.92, −2.27), being mostly active (−1.08 score, 95%CI: −1.43, −0.73) and even minimally active (−1.33 score, 95%CI: −1.53, −1.12) over 3 years of follow-up was associated with lower declines in the SPPB score. When analyzing changes, increasing PA (−0.57 score, 95%CI: −1.01, −0.12) was associated with lower declines in the SPPB score over 9 years as compared with those who decreased PA (−2.16 score, 95%CI: −2.42, −1.89). CONCLUSION Maintaining or increasing PA levels may attenuate age-associated physical performance decline. PMID:28248412

  13. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican origin adults: Implications for diet and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Design Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Setting Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, TX. Subjects 475 adults from 161 Mexican origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Measures Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Analysis Two-level logistic regression modeling. Results Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p=.010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p=.046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Conclusions Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican origin adults. PMID:22208416

  14. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  17. The period between beta-blocker use and physical activity changes training heart rate behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiane Ferraz Bandeira Alves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Society of Cardiology (SBC proposes that hypertensive subjects who use beta-blockers and practice physical exercises must have their training heart rate (HR corrected due to the negative chronotropic effect of this drug. Nevertheless, if the physical activity is performed outside of plasmatic half-life, correction may not be necessary. This study investigated the exercise chronotropic response both inside and outside the beta-blocker plasmatic half-life. Nine subjects in use of atenolol or propranolol, and six controls, carried out three walking sessions in three days according to different schedules: EX2 (two hours after drug administration, at the plasmatic peak; EX11 (eleven hours after drug administration, at the end of plasmatic half-life; and EX23 (twenty-three hours after drug administration, outside the plasmatic half-life. The walking sessions were performed on an ergometric treadmill and HR was monitored by a heart rate monitor. During the exercises, mean HRs were 97.2, 108.4 and 109 for EX2, EX11 and EX23, respectively, with the value for EX2 statistically lower than the others (p0.05. The study concludes that the attenuation of the positive chronotropic response which occurs during exercise in subjects using beta-blockers, is less evident when the exercise is performed outside the plasmatic half-life of the drug.A Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (SBC propõe que os hipertensos que utilizam beta-bloqueadores e praticam exercícios físicos devem ter sua frequência cardíaca de treinamento (HR corrigida devido ao efeito cronotrópico negativo desse fármaco. Contudo, se a atividade física é realizada fora da meia-vida plasmática do fármaco, a correção pode não ser necessária. Este estudo investigou a resposta cronotrópica ao exercício dentro e fora da meia-vida plasmática do beta-bloqueador. Nove indivíduos que usavam atenolol ou propranolol e seis controles, efetuaram três sessões de caminhada em tr

  18. Changes in physical activity and sedentary time in the Finnish Schools on the Move program: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Henna L; Hirvensalo, Mirja H; Kulmala, Janne; Hakonen, Harto; Kankaanpää, Anna; Laine, Kaarlo; Laakso, Lauri; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the Finnish Schools on the Move program is to create a more active and pleasant school day through physical activity (PA). In this quasi-experimental design, we compared changes in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) during the school day and outside school hours for Grades 1-9 over two academic years in four program schools and two reference schools. Altogether 319 girls and boys aged 7-15 participated in the study between 2010 and 2012. MVPA and ST were measured four times over the 1.5-year follow-up period for seven consecutive days, using a hip-worn ActiGraph accelerometer. Linear growth curve modeling was used to examine the effect of the program on MVPA and ST during follow-up. School day MVPA increased (P = 0.010) and school day ST decreased (P = 0.008) in program primary schools (Grades 1-6) more compared with the reference schools. The effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the difference in change (from the first to the last measurement) were small (d = 0.18 and d = -0.27, respectively). No differences in the changes of leisure-time or whole-day MVPA and ST between the program and reference schools were observed during follow-up. In conclusion, the changes in school day MVPA and ST did not translate into positive effects across the whole day. More effective and longer promotion actions are needed for positive changes in PA and ST, especially in lower secondary schools and for all daily segments. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. What are the most effective techniques in changing obese individuals’ physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Increasing self-efficacy is generally considered to be an important mediator of the effects of physical activity interventions. A previous review identified which behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were associated with increases in self-efficacy and physical activity for healthy non-obese adults. The aim of the current review was to identify which BCTs increase the self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour of obese adults. A systematic search identified 61 comparisons with obese adults reporting changes in self-efficacy towards engaging in physical activity following interventions. Of those comparisons, 42 also reported changes in physical activity behaviour. All intervention descriptions were coded using Michie et al’s (2011) 40 item CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. Meta-analysis was conducted with moderator analyses to examine the association between whether or not each BCT was included in interventions, and size of changes in both self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour. Overall, a small effect of the interventions was found on self-efficacy (d = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.29, p self-efficacy; ‘action planning’, ‘time management’, ‘prompt self-monitoring of behavioural outcome’ and ‘plan social support/social change’. These latter two BCTs were also associated with positive changes in physical activity. An additional 19 BCTs were associated with positive changes in physical activity. The largest effects for physical activity were found where interventions contained ‘teach to use prompts/cues’, ‘prompt practice’ or ‘prompt rewards contingent on effort or progress towards behaviour’. Overall, a non-significant relationship was found between change in self-efficacy and change in physical activity (Spearman’s Rho = −0.18 p = 0.72). In summary, the majority of techniques increased physical activity behaviour, without having discernible effects on self-efficacy. Only two BCTs were associated with

  20. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Pickering, Michael A; Rhodes, Ryan E; Courneya, Kerry S; Spence, John C

    2010-05-03

    Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA) have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1) the first 6-months (i.e., initial change), (2) the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change), and (3) the entire 12-months (overall change) of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group). Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change) two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes), with very small effect sizes. However, these mediating

  1. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  2. Prediction of Physical Activity Level Using Processes of Change From the Transtheoretical Model: Experiential, Behavioral, or an Interaction Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Ahmed Jérôme; Horwath, Caroline; Bernard, Paquito

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare prediction of physical activity (PA) by experiential or behavioral processes of change (POCs) or an interaction between both types of processes. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted using an online questionnaire. A total of 394 participants (244 women, 150 men), with a mean age of 35.12 ± 12.04 years and a mean body mass index of 22.97 ± 4.25 kg/m 2 were included. Participants completed the Processes of Change, Stages of Change questionnaires, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to evaluate self-reported PA level (total, vigorous, and moderate PA). Hierarchical multiple regression models were used to test the prediction of PA level. For both total PA (β = .261; P behavioral POCs were a significant predictor. Regarding moderate PA, only the interaction between experiential and behavioral POCs was a significant predictor (β = .123; P = .017). Our results provide confirmation that behavioral processes are most prominent in PA behavior. Nevertheless, it is of interest to note that the interaction between experiential and behavioral POCs was the only element predicting moderate PA level. Experiential processes were not associated with PA level.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  6. Changes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity From the Prepregnancy to the Postpartum Period: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Carolina; Domingues, Marlos; Santos, Iná; Matijasevich, Alicia; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Hallal, Pedro C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and its correlates from prepregnancy to the postpartum period in mothers enrolled in a Brazilian birth cohort study. Our hypothesis was that LTPA would decline considerably during pregnancy. Maternal LTPA in the 3 months before pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy was assessed soon after delivery. A follow-up visit was conducted 3 months later. Weekly frequency and duration of each session of LTPA in a typical week were assessed for each period and a cut-off point of 150 minutes per week was used to classify women as active or not. The proportion of women active in leisure time declined from 11.3% in the prepregnancy to 2.3% in pregnancy and 0.1% in the postpartum period (P for trend benefits of LTPA prepregnancy, during, and postpregnancy.

  7. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  8. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  9. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  10. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  11. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  12. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  13. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  14. The Influence of 2-Year Changes in Physical Activity, Maturation, and Nutrition on Adiposity in Adolescent Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Benítez-Porres

    Full Text Available The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys. A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI and fat mass percent (FMP were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Three assessments were performed: September 2011 (S1, 2012 (S2, and 2013 (S3. A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine temporal changes in PA and FMP and sex change in maturation categories (two factor mixed-design, 2x2x3. A stepwise linear regression was conducted in order to estimate the predictors of FMP change. Significant changes for FMP were found between S1, S2, and S3 (23.41±8.24 vs. 21.89±7.82 vs. 22.05±8.06, p<0.05; respectively; a significant interaction of FMP with sex was observed (F = 4.387, p<0.05 for S2-S3, but not for maturation. PA at S2 was significantly higher than S3 (2.58±0.72 vs. 2.29±0.73, p<0.001. An interaction between PA change and sex was statically significant (F = 4.889, p<0.05 for S2-S3. A reduction in PA was observed after the S2 period without changes in adiposity. In contrast, a significant reduction in FMP was seen between S1 and S2, while PA did not significantly change. There were no significant differences for nutritional variables between S1 and S3, and nutrition was not a determinant of the changes in PA or FMP. Our results suggest that body composition changes observed during adolescence are not driven by changes in PA. Moreover, the interaction analysis suggests that PA behavior is affected by sex, but is not modified by maturation.

  15. The "Romsas in Motion" Community Intervention: Mediating Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Forward Transition in the Stages of Change in Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Catherine; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Jenum, Anne Karen; Holme, Ingar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether a community-based physical activity intervention influenced movement in stages of change in physical activity in an adult population, whether any such effect was mediated by psychosocial influences, and whether any such mediations were moderated by sociodemographic or anthropometric factors. The 3-year-long…

  16. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  17. [Educational nutritional intervention as an effective tool for changing eating habits and body weight among those who practice physical activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pryscila Dryelle Sousa; Reis, Bruna Zavarize; Vieira, Diva Aliete dos Santos; Costa, Dayanne da; Costa, Jamille Oliveira; Raposo, Oscar Felipe Falcão; Wartha, Elma Regina Silva de Andrade; Netto, Raquel Simões Mendes

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two methods of educational nutritional intervention together with women who practice regular physical activities by fostering the adoption of healthy eating habits. The study population consisted of 52 women aged between 19 and 59 who frequented the Academia da Cidade Program in Aracaju in the State of Sergipe. The study was a randomized comparison of two intervention groups and was of the pre-test/post-test variety. The educational activities were based on two protocols - one less intensive (P1 Group) and one more intensive (P2 Group) - over a period of two months. The variables analyzed were nutritional knowledge, anthropometric measurements and changes in eating habits. The changes identified were improvement in eating habits and reduction in weight and Body Mass Index for the P2 group. The modifications identified referred mainly to increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, reduction of fat in cooking, reduction in the volume of food eaten per meal and increased meal frequency. In relation to nutritional knowledge, only 2 of the 12 questions showed significant changes. The most intensive method proved effective in changing dietary habits leading to weight loss.

  18. The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe; Ogilvie, David; Marcus, Bess H; Perez, Lilian G; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation directly and indirectly affect levels of physical activity across countries of low, middle, and high income. The model suggested that the direct and potentiating eff ects of information and communication technology, especially mobile phones, are nearly equal in magnitude to the mean eff ects of planned physical activity interventions. The greatest potential to increase population physical activity might thus be in creation of synergistic policies in sectors outside health including communication and transportation. However, there remains a glaring mismatch between where studies on physical activity interventions are undertaken and where the potential lies in low-income and middle-income countries for population-level effects that will truly affect global health.

  19. Examination of perceived neighborhood characteristics and transportation on changes in physical activity and sedentary behavior: The Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Murray, David M; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Cohen, Deborah A

    2010-09-01

    We examined the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and transport and 2-year changes in accelerometer-determined nonschool MET-weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA) and sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. Reporting that children do not play outdoors in their neighborhood, that their neighborhood was well lit, and that there were trails in their neighborhood were each associated with significant decreases in nonschool MW-MVPA. None of the neighborhood or transportation measures was associated with changes in nonschool sedentary behavior. Further work is needed to understand the determinants of the decline in physical activity and the increase in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effective techniques for changing physical activity and healthy eating intentions and behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Iverson, Don; Sharma, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to review the evidence on the impact of a change in intention on behaviour and to identify (1) behaviour change techniques (BCTs) associated with changes in intention and (2) whether the same BCTs are also associated with changes in behaviour. A systematic review was conducted to identify interventions that produced a significant change in intention and assessed the impact of this change on behaviour at a subsequent time point. Each intervention was coded using a taxonomy of BCTs targeting healthy eating and physical activity. A series of meta-regression analyses were conducted to identify effective BCTs. In total, 25 reports were included. Interventions had a medium-to-large effect on intentions (d +  = 0.64) and a small-to-medium effect (d +  = 0.41) on behaviour. One BCT, 'provide information on the consequences of behaviour in general', was significantly associated with a positive change in intention. One BCT, 'relapse prevention/coping planning', was associated with a negative change in intention. No BCTs were found to have significant positive effects on behaviour. However, one BCT, 'provide feedback on performance', was found to have a significant negative effect. BCTs aligned with social cognitive theory were found to have significantly greater positive effects on intention (d +  = 0.83 vs. 0.56, p behaviour (d +  = 0.35 vs. 0.23, ns), than those aligned with the theory of planned behaviour. Although the included studies support the notion that a change in intention is associated with a change in behaviour, this review failed to produce evidence on how to facilitate behaviour change through a change in intention. Larger meta-analyses incorporating interventions targeting a broader range of behaviours may be warranted. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Prior research on the causal relationship between intention and behaviour has produced mixed findings. Further experimental research to

  1. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a physical activity loyalty scheme for behaviour change maintenance: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth F. Hunter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing physical activity in the workplace can provide employee physical and mental health benefits, and employer economic benefits through reduced absenteeism and increased productivity. The workplace is an opportune setting to encourage habitual activity. However, there is limited evidence on effective behaviour change interventions that lead to maintained physical activity. This study aims to address this gap and help build the necessary evidence base for effective, and cost-effective, workplace interventions. Methods/design This cluster randomised control trial will recruit 776 office-based employees from public sector organisations in Belfast and Lisburn city centres, Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated by cluster to either the Intervention Group or Control Group (waiting list control. The 6-month intervention consists of rewards (retail vouchers, based on similar principles to high street loyalty cards, feedback and other evidence-based behaviour change techniques. Sensors situated in the vicinity of participating workplaces will promote and monitor minutes of physical activity undertaken by participants. Both groups will complete all outcome measures. The primary outcome is steps per day recorded using a pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701 for 7 consecutive days at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes include health, mental wellbeing, quality of life, work absenteeism and presenteeism, and use of healthcare resources. Process measures will assess intervention “dose”, website usage, and intervention fidelity. An economic evaluation will be conducted from the National Health Service, employer and retailer perspective using both a cost-utility and cost-effectiveness framework. The inclusion of a discrete choice experiment will further generate values for a cost-benefit analysis. Participant focus groups will explore who the intervention worked for and why, and interviews with

  2. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a physical activity loyalty scheme for behaviour change maintenance: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Brennan, Sarah F; Tang, Jianjun; Smith, Oliver J; Murray, Jennifer; Tully, Mark A; Patterson, Chris; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Prior, Lindsay; French, David P; Adams, Jean; McIntosh, Emma; Kee, Frank

    2016-07-22

    Increasing physical activity in the workplace can provide employee physical and mental health benefits, and employer economic benefits through reduced absenteeism and increased productivity. The workplace is an opportune setting to encourage habitual activity. However, there is limited evidence on effective behaviour change interventions that lead to maintained physical activity. This study aims to address this gap and help build the necessary evidence base for effective, and cost-effective, workplace interventions. This cluster randomised control trial will recruit 776 office-based employees from public sector organisations in Belfast and Lisburn city centres, Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated by cluster to either the Intervention Group or Control Group (waiting list control). The 6-month intervention consists of rewards (retail vouchers, based on similar principles to high street loyalty cards), feedback and other evidence-based behaviour change techniques. Sensors situated in the vicinity of participating workplaces will promote and monitor minutes of physical activity undertaken by participants. Both groups will complete all outcome measures. The primary outcome is steps per day recorded using a pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701) for 7 consecutive days at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Secondary outcomes include health, mental wellbeing, quality of life, work absenteeism and presenteeism, and use of healthcare resources. Process measures will assess intervention "dose", website usage, and intervention fidelity. An economic evaluation will be conducted from the National Health Service, employer and retailer perspective using both a cost-utility and cost-effectiveness framework. The inclusion of a discrete choice experiment will further generate values for a cost-benefit analysis. Participant focus groups will explore who the intervention worked for and why, and interviews with retailers will elucidate their views on the sustainability

  3. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  4. Changes in Social Support over Time in a Faith-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Chandra R.; Knutson, Douglas; Brown, Jameisha B.; Spears-Laniox, Erica; Harvey, Idethia Shevon; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2017-01-01

    African-American women report higher levels of chronic conditions and church attendance relative to the overall US population. Therefore, efforts have increased over the past decade to design church-based health promotion programs. The present study compared changes in religiosity, religious social support and general social support across time…

  5. A 3-year longitudinal analysis of changes in fitness, physical activity, fatness and screen time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aires, L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Mendonça, D

    2010-01-01

    in fitness. METHODS: This is a 3-year longitudinal study of 345 high school students aged 11-19 years. Students performed curl-ups, push-ups and 20-m shuttle run tests from Fitnessgram. PA and ST were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Standardized scores of fitness tests were summed. Changes over...

  6. Development of new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy questionnaires using item response modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was...

  7. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group housed, growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  8. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  16. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  1. Effect of Changes in Physical Activity on Risk for Cardiac Death in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Minna; Toukola, Tomi; Junttila, M Juhani; Piira, Olli-Pekka; Lepojärvi, Samuli; Kääriäinen, Maria; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P; Kiviniemi, Antti M

    2018-01-15

    Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with longevity in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, less is known about prognostic significance of longitudinally assessed LTPA in patients with stable CAD. The present study assessed the relationship between changes in LTPA and cardiac mortality in patients with CAD. Patients with angiographically documented CAD (n = 1,746) underwent clinical examination and echocardiography at the baseline. Lifestyle factors, including LTPA (inactive, irregularly active, active, highly active), were surveyed at baseline and after 2 years' follow-up. Thereafter, the patients entered the follow-up (median: 4.5 years; first to third quartile: 3.4 to 5.8 years) during which cardiac deaths were registered (n = 68, 3.9%). The patients who remained inactive (n = 114, 18 events, 16%) and became inactive (n = 228, 18 events, 8%) had 7.6- (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2 to 13.6) and 3.7-fold (95% CI 2.1 to 6.7) univariate risk for cardiac death compared with those who remained at least irregularly active (n = 1,351, 30 events, 2%), respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, left ventricular ejection fraction, angina pectoris grading, cardiovascular event during initial 2-year follow-up, smoking and alcohol consumption, the patients who remained inactive and became inactive still had 4.9- (95% CI 2.4 to 9.8, p active. In conclusion, LTPA has important prognostic value for cardiac death in patients with stable CAD. Even minor changes in LTPA over 2 years were related to the subsequent risk for cardiac death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in Physical Activity Behaviour and Health Risk Factors Following a Randomised Controlled Pilot Workplace Exercise Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Burn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Declining physical activity (PA and associated health risk factors are well established. Workplace strategies to increase PA may be beneficial to ameliorate extensive sedentary behavior. This study assessed the effectiveness of two PA interventions in workplace settings. Methods: Interventions were conducted over 40 days targeting insufficiently active (<150 min/wk PA and/or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 adults; participants were randomly allocated to instructor-led exercise sessions either after-work (n = 25 or in-work (n = 23 with a 60 minPA/day common goal, or a wait-listed control group (n = 23. The programme commenced with low-moderate physical activities and progressed to high intensity game style activities by week six. Adherence and compliance were determined using both objective measures of daily PA time from HR monitors and self-report responses to PA questionnaires. Cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. Changes across the study were analysed using Chi square and repeat-measures ANOVA. Results: Adherence rates (completed pre and post-testing were not different between groups (76.0 vs 65.2%. Compliance for the instructor-led sessions was higher for the after-work group (70.4% vs 26.4%, respectively. Increased total PA and aerobic fitness, and decreased weight in both intervention groups were found relative to controls. The after-work group undertook more vigorous PA, and had greater weight loss and fasting blood glucose improvement, relative to in-work participants and controls. Conclusions: These workplace interventions resulted in rapid and dramatic increases in PA behaviour and important health benefits. Short, in-work PA sessions were less efficacious than longer after-work sessions.

  3. Objectively measured daily physical activity and postural changes as related to positive and negative affect using ambulatory monitoring assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Aggio, D; Wallace, K; Boreham, N; Shankar, A; Steptoe, A; Hamer, M

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. Methods Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each e...

  4. Objectively Measured Daily Physical Activity and Postural Changes as Related to Positive and Negative Affect Using Ambulatory Monitoring Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Aggio, D.; Wallace, K.; Boreham, N.; Shankar, A.; Steptoe, A.; Hamer, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. METHODS: Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each evening....

  5. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  6. The long-term effect of screening and lifestyle counseling on changes in physical activity and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    five years, all participants in the intervention group (n = 6,091) received individual lifestyle counseling; participants at high risk of ischemic heart disease - according to pre-specified criteria - were also offered group-based counseling. The control group (n = 3,324) was followed by questionnaires.......6 min/week, p = 0.003) and less intake of saturated fat (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17-0.56) than the control group. Improvements in the intake of vegetables and fish achieved during the intervention were not maintained in the longer-term. CONCLUSIONS: Screening and lifestyle counseling had sustained effects....... Both groups were followed one, three, five, and ten years after baseline. Changes in physical activity and dietary habits (intake of vegetables, fruit, fish, and saturated fat) during and after the intervention were investigated using random-coefficient models. RESULTS: Five years after...

  7. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  8. Are Immigrants More Physically Active Than Native-Born Australians and Does it Changes Over Time? Evidence From a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suresh; Jatrana, Santosh; Paradies, Yin

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the differences and over time changes in recommended physical activity among foreign-born (FB) from English speaking countries (ESC) and non-English speaking countries (NESC) relative to native-born (NB) Australians, and whether the association between nativity and duration of residence (DoR) and physical activity is mediated by English language proficiency, socioeconomic status and social engagement/membership. This study applies multilevel group-meancentered mixed (hybrid) logistic regression models to 12 waves of longitudinal data (12,634 individuals) from the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey with engagement in physical activities for more than 3 times a week as the outcome variable. Immigrants from ESC had higher odds of physical activity, while immigrants from NESC had significantly lower odds of physical activity than NB Australians, after adjusting for covariates. There was no evidence that these differences changed by DoR among immigrants from NESC, whereas ESC immigrants had higher odds of physical activity when their DoR was more than 20 years. We also found a mediating role of English language proficiency on immigrants physical activities. Appropriate health promotion interventions should be implemented to foster physical activities among NESC immigrants, considering English language proficiency as an important factor in designing interventions.

  9. [Changes in leisure activity among young people aged 15-18 years in Hungary: physical activity, media-consumption and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Bence

    2013-04-14

    Young people are more and more inactive, which has numerous well-known negative effects on their health. Several studies indicate that inactive lifestyle disposes people to sit in front of the television, which increases aggression and decreases the willingness of reading. There is also a strong link between inactivity and an increase of body mass, deterioration of anthropometric parameters, and deviant behaviour. The aim of the study was to find out, on the basis of two cross-sectional surveys, the changes occurred within eight years in the free-time activity of Hungarian young people aged between 15 and 19 years. Data obtained from two surveys conducted by the National Institute for Family and Social Policy, Hungary in 2000 and 2008 including 1780 and 2018 young people, respectively, were analysed and compared. The number of young people regularly involved in sport activity increased significantly, while their media-consumption failed to decrease. Physically active young people are more health-conscious, but regular sporting activity did not expel smoking, which was associated with a sedentary lifestyle and television watching. These data reveal new responses of a new generation; watching television still takes the largest part of their free time activity, but use of computers, and participation in social activities are not necessarily increase sedentary lifestyle and deviant habits. Internet has positive effects on the regularity of their physical activity.

  10. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  11. The rs1800629 polymorphism in the TNF gene interacts with physical activity on the changes in C-reactive protein levels in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E; Lakka, T A

    2010-01-01

    /L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the 1-year change......Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect...... of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS...

  12. Physical activity during pregnancy: predictors of change, perceived support and barriers among women at increased risk of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja; Aittasalo, Minna; Raitanen, Jani; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Kujala, Urho M; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of change in intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy, and the perceived support and barriers of LTPA in Finnish pregnant women at increased risk of gestational diabetes. The study population consisted of 399 pregnant women who participated in a randomized controlled trial aiming to prevent gestational diabetes. Evaluation of LTPA was based on a self-report at baseline, 26-28, and 36-37 weeks' gestation. Data on predictors of change, perceived support and barriers were collected with questionnaires and from the maternity cards. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess associations between the variables. The average weekly minutes of light-intensity LTPA were 179 at baseline, 161 at 26-28 weeks' gestation, and 179 at 36-37 weeks' gestation. The corresponding minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity LTPA were 187, 133 and 99. At 26-28 weeks' gestation, the strongest predictors for light-intensity LTPA were meeting the PA recommendations prior to pregnancy, having polytechnic education and working part-time, while having a physically active spouse prior to pregnancy was the strongest predictor for moderate-to-vigorous-intensity LTPA. The people and/or factors that encouraged women to LTPA the most were the spouse, a child, other family members and weather, whereas tiredness, nausea, perceived health, work and lack of time restricted their LTPA the most. The strongest predictors for maintaining LTPA during pregnancy were pre-pregnancy LTPA, education, working part-time and a spouse's LTPA. Most common barriers were perceived health, work and lack of time.

  13. The Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat): a single categorical item sensitive to physical activity changes in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, M; Schoffman, D E; Lee, K; Brown, S D; Fair, J M; Perri, M G; Haskell, W L

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is essential for chronic disease prevention, yet Cat) is a single item comprising six descriptive categories ranging from inactive to very active. This novel methodological approach assesses national activity recommendations as well as multiple clinically relevant categories below and above the recommendations, and incorporates critical methodological principles that enhance psychometrics (reliability, validity and sensitivity to change). We evaluated the L-Cat's psychometrics among 267 overweight/obese women who were asked to meet the national activity recommendations in a randomized behavioral weight-loss trial. The L-Cat had excellent test-retest reliability (κ=0.64, PCat category at 6 months was associated with 1059 more daily pedometer steps (95% CI 712-1407, β=0.38, PCat categories differentiated from each other in a dose-response gradient for steps and weight loss (PsCat was sensitive to change in response to the trial's activity component. Women increased one L-Cat category at 6 months (M=1.0±1.4, PCat categories at 6 months lost more weight than those who did not (M=-4.6%, 95% CI -6.7 to -2.5, PCat has timely potential for clinical use such as tracking activity changes via electronic medical records, especially among overweight/obese populations who are unable or unlikely to reach national recommendations.

  14. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  15. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  16. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  17. Objectively Measured Daily Physical Activity and Postural Changes as Related to Positive and Negative Affect Using Ambulatory Monitoring Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggio, Daniel; Wallace, Karen; Boreham, Nicola; Shankar, Aparna; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each evening. Multilevel models examined within- and between-person associations of daily physical activity with positive and negative affect, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, education, and sleep duration. Within-person associations showed that a 1-hour increase in daily physical activity was associated with a decrease in negative affect over the same day (B = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.21 to -0.01). Between-person associations indicated a borderline significant association between higher average daily physical activity levels and higher positive affect (B = 1.85, 95% CI = -0.25 to 3.94). There were no between- or within-person associations between sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions with affect. Promoting physical activity may be a potential intervention strategy to acutely suppress negative affective states.

  18. The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology and ...

  19. A Participatory Regional Partnership Approach to Promote Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Environmental and Policy Change in Rural Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Barnidge, Ellen K.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Estlund, Amy; Motton, Freda; Hipp, Pamela R.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rural residents are less likely than urban and suburban residents to meet recommendations for nutrition and physical activity. Interventions at the environmental and policy level create environments that support healthy eating and physical activity. Community Context Healthier Missouri Communities (Healthier MO) is a community-based research project conducted by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis with community partners from 12 counties in rural southeast Missouri. We crea...

  20. Change in Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, Bodyweight, and HbA1c in High-Risk Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Davies, Melanie J; Henson, Joseph; Gray, Laura; Khunti, Kamlesh; Yates, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a migration toward the use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in determining glycemic control. This study aimed to quantify the associations between changes in body weight, sedentary time, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time with HbA1c levels for a 3-yr period among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. This study reports baseline and 3-yr follow-up data from the Walking Away from Type 2 Diabetes study. ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers captured sedentary time and MVPA. Linear regression examined the independent associations of changes in sedentary time, MVPA, and body weight with HbA1c between baseline and 3-yr follow-up. The sample composed of 489 participants (mean age = 64.2 ± 7.3 yr, body mass index = 31.7 ± 5.1, 63.4% male) with valid baseline and follow-up accelerometer, body weight, and HbA1c data. After adjustment for known confounders, an increase in MVPA time (per 30 min·d) was associated with a decrease in HbA1c percentage (β = -0.11 [-0.18 to -0.05], P = 0.001), and an increase in body weight (per 6 kg) was associated with an increase in HbA1c percentage (β = 0.08 [0.04-0.12], P HbA1c ≥ 6.0%) strengthened these associations (P HbA1c after adjustment for change in MVPA time. Increases in MVPA and body weight were associated with a reduction and increase in HbA1c, respectively, particularly in those with dysglycemia. Quantifying the effect that health behavior changes have on HbA1c can be used to inform prevention programs.

  1. The Effect of Changes in Physical Activity on Sedentary Behavior: Results From a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Juned; de Chavez, Peter John; Craft, Lynette L; Freedson, Patty; Spring, Bonnie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether changes in physical activity (PA) have an impact on sedentary behavior (SB) during a lifestyle intervention. Study design was a randomized trial. Participants (n = 204) were individuals with low PA and high sedentary leisure screen time from the Chicago area. Participants were randomized to either increase PA (iPA) or decrease sedentary leisure (dSED). The intervention consisted of decision support, coaching, and financial incentives. For iPA participants, the goal was at least 60 min/d of self-reported moderate-tovigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). For dSED participants the goal was less than 90 min/d of sedentary leisure screen time. Daily accelerometer-based measures of SB and bout-corrected MVPA were obtained. Linear mixed-effects models were fit to estimate the effect of the intervention on MVPA and total SB and to estimate the effect of daily changes in MVPA on daily SB. The iPA participants increased their bout-corrected MVPA by 14 min/d (p much of this time by reducing their SB.

  2. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: "Juniors for Seniors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Michał; Bronikowska, Małgorzata; Pluta, Beata; Maciaszek, Janusz; Tomczak, Maciej; Glapa, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program "Junior for Seniors" by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children ("juniors," 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M = 7.96 ± 0.69) and 22 parents ("seniors," 14 mothers aged M = 38.86 ± 2.96 and 8 fathers aged M = 37.38 ± 2.97) were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives), or simply improved quality of "do-together" leisure time PA.

  3. An evaluation of the behaviour-change techniques used on Canadian cancer centre Web sites to support physical activity behaviour for breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, B D; Zammit, K; Fong, A J; Sabiston, C M

    2017-12-01

    Cancer centre Web sites can be a useful tool for distributing information about the benefits of physical activity for breast cancer (bca) survivors, and they hold potential for supporting health behaviour change. However, the extent to which cancer centre Web sites use evidence-based behaviour change techniques to foster physical activity behaviour among bca survivors is currently unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presentation of behaviour-change techniques on Canadian cancer centre Web sites to promote physical activity behaviour for bca survivors. All Canadian cancer centre Web sites ( n = 39) were evaluated by two raters using the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (calo-re) taxonomy of behaviour change techniques and the eEurope 2002 Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The most common behaviour change techniques used on Web sites were providing information about consequences in general (80%), suggesting goal-setting behaviour (56%), and planning social support or social change (46%). Overall, Canadian cancer centre Web sites presented an average of M = 6.31 behaviour change techniques (of 40 that were coded) to help bca survivors increase their physical activity behaviour. Evidence of quality factors ranged from 90% (sites that provided evidence of readability) to 0% (sites that provided an editorial policy). Our results provide preliminary evidence that, of 40 behaviour-change techniques that were coded, fewer than 20% were used to promote physical activity behaviour to bca survivors on cancer centre Web sites, and that the most effective techniques were inconsistently used. On cancer centre Web sites, health promotion specialists could focus on emphasizing knowledge mobilization efforts using available research into behaviour-change techniques to help bca survivors increase their physical activity.

  4. Promoting Physical Activity in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…

  5. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, Michiel; Groen, Harald C; Koelewijn, Stuart J; de Blois, Erik; Sandker, Marjan; Waarsing, Jan H; Müller, Cristina; van Osch, Gerjo J V M; de Jong, Marion; Weinans, Harrie

    2014-01-29

    Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated whether rat knee joints with sGAG depleted articular cartilage through papain injections might benefit from moderate exercise, or whether this increases the susceptibility for cartilage degeneration. sGAGs were depleted from cartilage through intraarticular papain injections in the left knee joints of 40 Wistar rats; their contralateral joints served as healthy controls. Of the 40 rats included in the study, 20 rats remained sedentary, and the other 20 were subjected to a moderately intense running protocol. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced μCT and histology to measure sGAG content and cartilage thickness. All outcome measures were unaffected by moderate exercise in healthy control joints of running animals compared with healthy control joints of sedentary animals. Papain injections in sedentary animals resulted in severe sGAG-depleted cartilage, slight loss of subchondral cortical bone, increased macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. In running animals, papain-induced sGAG-depleted cartilage showed increased cartilage matrix degradation, sclerotic bone formation, increased macrophage activation, and more osteophyte formation. Moderate exercise enhanced OA progression in papain-injected joints and did not protect against development of the disease. This was not restricted to more-extensive cartilage damage, but also resulted in pronounced

  6. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated whether rat knee joints with sGAG depleted articular cartilage through papain injections might benefit from moderate exercise, or whether this increases the susceptibility for cartilage degeneration. Methods sGAGs were depleted from cartilage through intraarticular papain injections in the left knee joints of 40 Wistar rats; their contralateral joints served as healthy controls. Of the 40 rats included in the study, 20 rats remained sedentary, and the other 20 were subjected to a moderately intense running protocol. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12 weeks with in vivo micro-computed tomography (μCT) to measure subchondral bone changes and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12 weeks with ex vivo contrast-enhanced μCT and histology to measure sGAG content and cartilage thickness. Results All outcome measures were unaffected by moderate exercise in healthy control joints of running animals compared with healthy control joints of sedentary animals. Papain injections in sedentary animals resulted in severe sGAG-depleted cartilage, slight loss of subchondral cortical bone, increased macrophage activation, and osteophyte formation. In running animals, papain-induced sGAG-depleted cartilage showed increased cartilage matrix degradation, sclerotic bone formation, increased macrophage activation, and more osteophyte formation. Conclusions Moderate exercise enhanced OA progression in papain-injected joints and did not protect against development of the disease. This was not restricted to more-extensive cartilage

  7. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, UO; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    of follow-up. This decrease leads to significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular risk. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of habitual physical activity on PBP. Design. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a longitudinal epidemiological study of CV risk in a random...... population sample. Three surveys were performed with 15 years of follow-up. Methods. BP was measured under standardized circumstances. A questionnaire concerning physical exercise was completed. Two scales were used, describing physical activity at work and during leisure-time, respectively. Results. Most...... of the subjects belonged to the sedentary or low physical activity categories. The population did not change physical activity habits during the observation time. There was no significant difference in either systolic or diastolic BP between the categories. Conclusions. The previously observed reduction in PBP...

  8. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, UO; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    population sample. Three surveys were performed with 15 years of follow-up. Methods. BP was measured under standardized circumstances. A questionnaire concerning physical exercise was completed. Two scales were used, describing physical activity at work and during leisure-time, respectively. Results. Most...... of follow-up. This decrease leads to significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular risk. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of habitual physical activity on PBP. Design. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a longitudinal epidemiological study of CV risk in a random...... of the subjects belonged to the sedentary or low physical activity categories. The population did not change physical activity habits during the observation time. There was no significant difference in either systolic or diastolic BP between the categories. Conclusions. The previously observed reduction in PBP...

  9. Automated personalized feedback for physical activity and dietary behavior change with mobile phones: a randomized controlled trial on adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Mashfiqui; Pfammatter, Angela; Zhang, Mi; Spring, Bonnie; Choudhury, Tanzeem

    2015-05-14

    A dramatic rise in health-tracking apps for mobile phones has occurred recently. Rich user interfaces make manual logging of users' behaviors easier and more pleasant, and sensors make tracking effortless. To date, however, feedback technologies have been limited to providing overall statistics, attractive visualization of tracked data, or simple tailoring based on age, gender, and overall calorie or activity information. There are a lack of systems that can perform automated translation of behavioral data into specific actionable suggestions that promote healthier lifestyle without any human involvement. MyBehavior, a mobile phone app, was designed to process tracked physical activity and eating behavior data in order to provide personalized, actionable, low-effort suggestions that are contextualized to the user's environment and previous behavior. This study investigated the technical feasibility of implementing an automated feedback system, the impact of the suggestions on user physical activity and eating behavior, and user perceptions of the automatically generated suggestions. MyBehavior was designed to (1) use a combination of automatic and manual logging to track physical activity (eg, walking, running, gym), user location, and food, (2) automatically analyze activity and food logs to identify frequent and nonfrequent behaviors, and (3) use a standard machine-learning, decision-making algorithm, called multi-armed bandit (MAB), to generate personalized suggestions that ask users to either continue, avoid, or make small changes to existing behaviors to help users reach behavioral goals. We enrolled 17 participants, all motivated to self-monitor and improve their fitness, in a pilot study of MyBehavior. In a randomized two-group trial, investigators randomly assigned participants to receive either MyBehavior's personalized suggestions (n=9) or nonpersonalized suggestions (n=8), created by professionals, from a mobile phone app over 3 weeks. Daily activity

  10. Gender-specific changes in physical activity pattern in Iran: national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Etemad, Koorosh; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Meysamie, Alipasha; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Asgari, Fereshteh; Noshad, Sina; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Rafei, Ali; Mousavizadeh, Mostafa; Khajeh, Elias; Ebadi, Maryam; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the gender-specific pattern of physical activity (PA) in Iran 2011. The 4-year changes in PA levels (domains) are also determined according to the Iran's national surveys conducted on 2007 and 2011. Physical activity assessed based on the global physical activity questionnaire. In all, 4,121 (2007), and 7,436 (2011) adults were analyzed. Based on 2011 survey, 56.4 %, 39.2 %, and 74.4 % of participants were physically inactive at work, commuting and recreation, respectively. In all domains of PA, males showed a higher degree of activity (min/day) than females (P value physical inactivity was increased from 15 % (2007) to 21.5 % (2011) (P value physical activity (MET × min/week) and the duration of commuting activity were noted in both genders. Work-related activity was dramatically decreased in females. However, the time spent in recreational activity remained relatively constant. This report indicating that the Iranian population, particularly females, have become less active during the survey period. Physical inactivity should receive more attention as a public health issue.

  11. A refined taxonomy of behaviour change techniques to help people change their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours: the CALO-RE taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Ashford, Stefanie; Sniehotta, Falko F; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Bishop, Alex; French, David P

    2011-11-01

    Current reporting of intervention content in published research articles and protocols is generally poor, with great diversity of terminology, resulting in low replicability. This study aimed to extend the scope and improve the reliability of a 26-item taxonomy of behaviour change techniques developed by Abraham and Michie [Abraham, C. and Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27(3), 379-387.] in order to optimise the reporting and scientific study of behaviour change interventions. Three UK study centres collaborated in applying this existing taxonomy to two systematic reviews of interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating. The taxonomy was refined in iterative steps of (1) coding intervention descriptions, and assessing inter-rater reliability, (2) identifying gaps and problems across study centres and (3) refining the labels and definitions based on consensus discussions. Labels and definitions were improved for all techniques, conceptual overlap between categories was resolved, some categories were split and 14 techniques were added, resulting in a 40-item taxonomy. Inter-rater reliability, assessed on 50 published intervention descriptions, was good (kappa = 0.79). This taxonomy can be used to improve the specification of interventions in published reports, thus improving replication, implementation and evidence syntheses. This will strengthen the scientific study of behaviour change and intervention development.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  15. Changes in physical activity and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakat, A.; Williams, K.M.; Prevost, A.T.; Kinmonth, A.L.; Wareham, N.J.; Griffin, S.J.; Simmons, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To describe change in physical activity over 1year and associations with change in cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population with screen-detected Type2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent measurement of self-reported

  16. Adapted Intervention Mapping: A Strategic Planning Process for Increasing Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Opportunities in Schools via Environment and Policy Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belansky, Elaine S.; Cutforth, Nick; Chavez, Robert; Crane, Lori A.; Waters, Emily; Marshall, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School environment and policy changes have increased healthy eating and physical activity; however, there has been modest success in translating research ?ndings to practice. The School Environment Project tested whether an adapted version of Intervention Mapping (AIM) resulted in school change. Methods: Using a pair randomized design,…

  17. Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques when promoting physical activity: A systematic review comparing experimental and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Breanne E; Cook, Jill L; Freene, Nicole; Finch, Caroline F; Kemp, Joanne L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Gaida, James E

    2018-06-01

    Physiotherapists promote physical activity as part of their practice. This study reviewed the behaviour change techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity in experimental and observational studies. Systematic review of experimental and observational studies. Twelve databases were searched using terms related to physiotherapy and physical activity. We included experimental studies evaluating the efficacy of physiotherapist-led physical activity interventions delivered to adults in clinic-based private practice and outpatient settings to individuals with, or at risk of, non-communicable diseases. Observational studies reporting the techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity were also included. The behaviour change techniques used in all studies were identified using the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy. The behaviour change techniques appearing in efficacious and inefficacious experimental interventions were compared using a narrative approach. Twelve studies (nine experimental and three observational) were retained from the initial search yield of 4141. Risk of bias ranged from low to high. Physiotherapists used seven behaviour change techniques in the observational studies, compared to 30 behaviour change techniques in the experimental studies. Social support (unspecified) was the most frequently identified behaviour change technique across both settings. Efficacious experimental interventions used more behaviour change techniques (n=29) and functioned in more ways (n=6) than did inefficacious experimental interventions (behaviour change techniques=10 and functions=1). Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques. Less behaviour change techniques were identified in observational studies compared to experimental studies, suggesting physiotherapists use less BCTs clinically than experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in physical activity in leisure time and the risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2012-01-01

    and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and all-cause mortality as well as changes in blood pressure in 4,487 men and 5,956 women in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Physical activity was measured in 1976-1978 and 1981-1983 and participants were followed in nation......-wide registers until 2009. Men who decreased physical activity by at least two levels and women who decreased by one level had a higher risk of MI relatively to an unchanged physical activity level (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.17-2.60 and HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.03-1.65). Similar...... associations were found for IHD although only significant in women. In all-cause mortality, men who increased physical activity had a lower risk and both men and women who reduced physical activity had a higher risk compared to an unchanged physical activity level. No association between changes in physical...

  19. Digital health behaviour change interventions targeting physical activity and diet in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anna L; Fisher, Abigail; Smith, Lee; Heinrich, Malgorzata; Potts, Henry W W

    2017-12-01

    The number of cancer survivors has risen substantially due to improvements in early diagnosis and treatment. Health behaviours such as physical activity (PA) and diet can reduce recurrence and mortality, and alleviate negative consequences of cancer and treatments. Digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) have the potential to reach large numbers of cancer survivors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of relevant studies identified by a search of Medline, EMBASE, PubMed and CINAHL. Studies which assessed a DBCI with measures of PA, diet and/or sedentary behaviour were included. Fifteen studies were identified. Random effects meta-analyses showed significant improvements in moderate-vigorous PA (seven studies; mean difference (MD) = 41 min per week; 95% CI 12, 71) and body mass index (BMI)/weight (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI -0.41, -0.05). There was a trend towards significance for reduced fatigue and no significant change in cancer-specific measures of quality of life (QoL). Narrative synthesis revealed mixed evidence for effects on diet, generic QoL measures and self-efficacy and no evidence of an effect on mental health. Two studies suggested improved sleep quality. DBCIs may improve PA and BMI among cancer survivors, and there is mixed evidence for diet. The number of included studies is small, and risk of bias and heterogeneity was high. Future research should address these limitations with large, high-quality RCTs, with objective measures of PA and sedentary time. Digital technologies offer a promising approach to encourage health behaviour change among cancer survivors.

  20. Assessment of Physical Activity, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Stages of Change in College Students Using a Street-Based Survey Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.; Silver, Lorraine Wallace; White, Susan L.; Buckworth, Janet; Sherman, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Used a street-based survey to assess college students' physical activity level, exercise self-efficacy, and stages of change for exercise behavior. A large proportion of respondents were not regularly active. Exercise self-efficacy was an important variable in exercise behavior. The low cost, ease of data collection, and short turnaround for…

  1. A Participatory Regional Partnership Approach to Promote Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Environmental and Policy Change in Rural Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, Ellen K; Baker, Elizabeth A; Estlund, Amy; Motton, Freda; Hipp, Pamela R; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-06-11

    Rural residents are less likely than urban and suburban residents to meet recommendations for nutrition and physical activity. Interventions at the environmental and policy level create environments that support healthy eating and physical activity. Healthier Missouri Communities (Healthier MO) is a community-based research project conducted by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis with community partners from 12 counties in rural southeast Missouri. We created a regional partnership to leverage resources and enhance environmental and policy interventions to improve nutrition and physical activity in rural southeast Missouri. Partners were engaged in a participatory action planning process that included prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating promising evidence-based interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity. Group interviews were conducted with Healthier MO community partners post intervention to evaluate resource sharing and sustainability efforts of the regional partnership. Community partners identified the benefits and challenges of resource sharing within the regional partnership as well as the opportunities and threats to long-term partnership sustainability. The partners noted that the regional participatory process was difficult, but the benefits outweighed the challenges. Regional rural partnerships may be an effective way to leverage relationships to increase the capacity of rural communities to implement environmental and policy interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity.

  2. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  3. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...... (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain...

  4. Heart disease risk information, encouragement, and physical activity among Mexican-origin couples: Self- or spouse-driven change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapinsky, Kaley F; Persky, Susan; Lewis, Megan; Goergen, Andrea; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D; Hadley, Donald; Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M

    2018-01-29

    Family health history is an accessible, clinically-recommended genomic tool that improves health risk evaluation. It captures both genetic and modifiable risk factors that cluster within families. Thus, families represent a salient context for family health history-based interventions that motivate engagement in risk-reducing behaviors. While previous research has explored how individuals respond to their personal risk information, we extend this inquiry to consider how individuals respond to their spouse's risk information among a sample of Mexican-Americans. One hundred and sixty spouse-dyads within Mexican-heritage households received a pedigree or a pedigree and personalized risk assessments, with or without behavioral recommendations. Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to assess the relationship between risk feedback, both personal and spouse, and self-reported physical activity levels at 3-month and 10-month assessments, controlling for baseline levels. The effect of being identified as an encourager of spouse's healthy weight was also evaluated. Personal feedback had no effect on participants' physical activity at either 3- or 10-month assessments. However, husbands' risk information was associated with wives' physical activity levels at 3-month assessment, with women whose husbands received both increased risk feedback and behavioral recommendations engaging in significantly higher physical activity levels than all other women. At 10-month follow-up, physical activity levels for both husbands and wives differed depending on whether they encouraged their spouse's healthy weight. Spousal risk information may be a stronger source of motivation to improve physical activity patterns than personal risk information, particularly for women. Interventions that activate interpersonal encouragement among spouses may more successfully extend intervention effects. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  5. Increasing the frequency of physical activity very brief advice for cancer patients. Development of an intervention using the behaviour change wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J; Foster, J; Poulter, E

    2016-04-01

    Being physically active has multiple benefits for cancer patients. Despite this only 23% are active to the national recommendations and 31% are completely inactive. A cancer diagnosis offers a teachable moment in which patients might be more receptive to lifestyle changes. Nurses are well placed to offer physical activity advice, however, only 9% of UK nurses involved in cancer care talk to all cancer patients about physical activity. A change in the behaviour of nurses is needed to routinely deliver physical activity advice to cancer patients. As recommended by the Medical Research Council, behavioural change interventions should be evidenced-based and use a relevant and coherent theoretical framework to stand the best chance of success. This paper presents a case study on the development of an intervention to improve the frequency of delivery of very brief advice (VBA) on physical activity by nurses to cancer patients, using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW). The eight composite steps outlined by the BCW guided the intervention development process. An iterative approach was taken involving key stakeholders (n = 45), with four iterations completed in total. This was not defined a priori but emerged during the development process. A 60 min training intervention, delivered in either a face-to-face or online setting, with follow-up at eight weeks, was designed to improve the capability, opportunity and motivation of nurses to deliver VBA on physical activity to people living with cancer. This intervention incorporates seven behaviour change techniques of goal setting coupled with commitment; instructions on how to perform the behaviour; salience of the consequences of delivering VBA; a demonstration on how to give VBA, all delivered via a credible source with objects added to the environment to support behavioural change. The BCW is a time consuming process, however, it provides a useful and comprehensive framework for intervention development and greater control

  6. The effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity participation in people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangelaji, Bahram; Smith, Catherin M; Paul, Lorna; Sampath, Kesava Kovanur; Treharne, Gareth J; Hale, Leigh Anne

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to illustrate whether people with multiple sclerosis engage in more physical activity following behaviour change interventions. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Sciences, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, EMBASE and PEDro were searched from their inception till 30 April 2015. Randomized and clinical controlled trials that used behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity in people with multiple sclerosis were selected, regardless of type or duration of multiple sclerosis or disability severity. Data extraction was conducted by two independent reviewers and the Cochrane Collaboration's recommended method was used to assess the risk of bias of each included study. A total of 19 out of 573 studies were included. Focusing on trials without risk of bias, meta-analysis showed that behaviour change interventions can significantly increase physical activity participation (z = 2.20, p = 0.03, standardised main difference 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 1.22, 3 trials, I(2) = 68%) (eight to 12 weeks' duration). Behaviour change interventions did not significantly impact on the physical components of quality of life or fatigue. Behaviour change interventions provided for relatively short duration (eight to 12 weeks) may increase the amount of physical activity people with multiple sclerosis engage in, but appear to have no effect on the physical components of quality of life and fatigue. Further high quality investigations of the efficacy of behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity participation that focus on dose, long-term impact and method of delivery are warranted for people with multiple sclerosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Carla C; Slater, Betzabeth

    2013-06-01

    To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI) z-score change among adolescents. The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004) (hereafter, baseline) and 299 in wave II (2005) (hereafter, follow-up). BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04) and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03) was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  8. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI Z-score among Brazilian adolescents*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Enes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI z-score change among adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004 (hereafter, baseline and 299 in wave II (2005 (hereafter, follow-up. BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. Results: The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04 and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03 was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Conclusions: Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  9. Efficacy of physical activity interventions in post-natal populations: systematic review, meta-analysis and content coding of behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, Alyssa Sara; Dale, Hannah; Robinson, Clare; Hughes, Adrienne R; McInnes, Rhona; Lavallee, David

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis reports the efficacy of post-natal physical activity change interventions with content coding of behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsychINFO) were searched for interventions published from January 1980 to July 2013. Inclusion criteria were: (i) interventions including ≥1 BCT designed to change physical activity behaviour, (ii) studies reporting ≥1 physical activity outcome, (iii) interventions commencing later than four weeks after childbirth and (iv) studies including participants who had given birth within the last year. Controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Interventions were coded using the 40-item Coventry, Aberdeen & London - Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy of BCTs and study quality assessment was conducted using Cochrane criteria. Twenty studies were included in the review (meta-analysis: n = 14). Seven were interventions conducted with healthy inactive post-natal women. Nine were post-natal weight management studies. Two studies included women with post-natal depression. Two studies focused on improving general well-being. Studies in healthy populations but not for weight management successfully changed physical activity. Interventions increased frequency but not volume of physical activity or walking behaviour. Efficacious interventions always included the BCTs 'goal setting (behaviour)' and 'prompt self-monitoring of behaviour'.

  10. Physical activity stages of change surveillance data shows that the majority of Hawai'i's Keiki (Children) meet the guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Markus; Amato, Kaitlyn; Nigg, Claudio R

    2018-05-01

    Targeting Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) children based on their physical activity (PA) stages of change (SOC) may improve intervention effectiveness. No known SOC surveillance system exists for NHOPI jurisdictions. The purpose was to determine the PA SOC prevalence over 5 years in children living in Hawai'i. Self-reported PA SOC from 5 cohorts (3-6 grade students) in Hawai'i were compared between cohorts and sex. The combined PA SOC distribution (n = 1726, 50.7% female) was: Precontemplation, 7.5%; Contemplation, 7.6%; Preparation, 9.9%; Action, 33.4%; Maintenance, 41.5%. There were no significant difference between cohorts 1 and 2 (n = 258), χ 2 (16) = 21.75, p = 0.15; 2 and 3 (n = 129), χ 2 (16) = 17.51, p = 0.35; 3 and 4 (n = 171), χ 2 (16) = 17.28, p = 0.77; 4 and 5 (n = 129), χ 2 (16) = 17.51, p = 0.35; and for all cohorts between males and females (p > 0.05). Most participants were in Action and Maintenance. Prevention efforts should emphasize maintaining PA levels. Extending PA behavior surveillance systems to include intention in NHOPI jurisdictions is warranted.

  11. Effects of a multicomponent workplace intervention programme with environmental changes on physical activity among Japanese white collar employees: a protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-10-24

    Physical activity is one of the most important health behaviours as a determinant of physical and mental health. Although intervention strategies for promoting physical activity among workers are needed, evidence for the effectiveness of multilevel workplace interventions with environmental changes on the promotion of physical activity are still limited due to lack of cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim of this study is to investigate effects of a 3-month workplace intervention programme with environmental changes on the improvement in physical activity among Japanese white collar employees. This study will be a two-arm and parallel-group cluster (worksite) RCT. Japanese worksites and employees who are employed by the worksites will be recruited through health insurance associations and chambers of commerce. Worksites that meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. The intervention worksites will be offered the original intervention programme that consists of 13 contents with environmental changes. The control worksites will be able to get three times feedback of the assessment of the amount of physical activity and basic occupational health service in each worksite. The primary outcome will be the total amount of physical activity measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Multilevel latent growth modelling will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of the intervention programme. This study was ethically approved by the research ethics committee of the Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan (No. 11230). Results will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. UMIN000024069; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, J W; Bakker, G C

    1999-12-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14 pigs were fed one of four diets in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. Factors included 1) gastrointestinal fermentation and 2) dietary bulkiness. Contrasts in fermentation were created by exchanging gelatinized maize starch with raw potato starch on a volume basis. Bulkiness was altered by adding 15% milled wheat straw to the diets. Apart from these differences, amounts of other dietary ingredients fed to the pigs were similar. Pigs were housed in groups. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per cluster during a 14-d period. Dietary bulkiness did not affect ME intake, heat production, or energy retention. Metabolizability decreased when maize starch was replaced with raw potato starch (P< .01), resulting in a lower energy retention on the potato starch diets (P<.01). However, the lower ME intake on the potato diets was partially compensated by a reduced energy expenditure on physical activity (P< .01), which was 17.6% lower than that of pigs fed the maize starch diets. Dietary bulkiness did not affect physical activity. The effect of fiber-rich diets (nonstarch polysaccharides) on activity in growing group-housed pigs seems to be related to fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract, and not to bulkiness (volume).

  13. Enhancing adherence in trials promoting change in diet and physical activity in individuals with a diagnosis of colorectal adenoma; a systematic review of behavioural intervention approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahon, Deborah; Daley, Amanda J; Jones, Janet; Haslop, Richard; Shajpal, Arjun; Taylor, Aliki; Wilson, Sue; Dowswell, George

    2015-07-07

    Little is known about colorectal adenoma patients' ability to adhere to behavioural interventions promoting a change in diet and physical activity. This review aimed to examine health behaviour intervention programmes promoting change in diet and/or physical activity in adenoma patients and characterise interventions to which this patient group are most likely to adhere. Searches of eight databases were restricted to English language publications 2000-2014. Reference lists of relevant articles were also reviewed. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet and physical activity interventions in colorectal adenoma patients were included. Eligibility and quality were assessed and data were extracted by two reviewers. Data extraction comprised type, intensity, provider, mode and location of delivery of the intervention and data to enable calculation of four adherence outcomes. Data were subject to narrative analysis. Five RCTs with a total of 1932 participants met the inclusion criteria. Adherence to the goals of the intervention ranged from 18 to 86 % for diet and 13 to 47 % for physical activity. Diet interventions achieving ≥ 50 % adherence to the goals of the intervention were clinic based, grounded in cognitive theory, delivered one to one and encouraged social support. The findings of this review indicate that behavioural interventions can encourage colorectal adenoma patients to improve their diet. This review was not however able to clearly characterise effective interventions promoting increased physical activity in this patient group. Further research is required to establish effective interventions to promote adherence to physical activity in this population.

  14. Development of Motivate4Change Using the Intervention Mapping Protocol: An Interactive Technology Physical Activity and Medication Adherence Promotion Program for Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterom-Calo, Rony; Te Velde, Saskia J; Stut, Wim; Brug, Johannes

    2015-07-20

    It is important that heart failure (HF) patients adhere to their medication regimen and engage in physical activity. Evidence shows that adherence to these HF self-management behaviors can be improved with appropriate interventions. To further promote medication adherence and physical activity among HF patients, we developed an intervention for hospitalized HF patients. The intervention mapping protocol was applied in the development of the intervention. This entailed performing a needs assessment, defining change objectives, selecting determinants and strategies, and developing the materials. The resulting intervention, Motivate4Change, makes use of interactive technology and provides HF patients with personalized feedback and advice. Specific change objectives were defined. The relevant behavioral determinants for the physical activity program were practical knowledge on physical activity performance and self-efficacy for, and perceived benefits of, physical activity. For medication-taking, the selected determinants were practical knowledge on medication-taking, perceived barriers to medication-taking, beliefs about the necessity and harm regarding the medication prescribed, and beliefs about overprescribing and harm of medication in general. The change objectives and behavior change determinants were translated in feedback and advice strategies in an interactive technology program that included tailored feedback and advice, and role models in videos in which the behaviors and overcoming barriers were demonstrated. Relevant stakeholders were involved in the interventions development process. The intervention was pretested among HF patients and adjustments were made accordingly. The interactive technology physical activity and medication adherence promotion program for hospitalized HF patients was systematically developed using the intervention mapping protocol and was based on the available theory and evidence regarding HF self-management behavior change. The

  15. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a flexible office-based workplace: Employee perceptions and priorities for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heidi M; Brown, Wendy J; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy; Burton, Nicola W

    2018-04-18

    Many Australian employees now regularly work from home in some capacity. This new way of working has not been widely studied in relation to the potential implications for employees' health-related behaviour or workplace health promotion. The aim of this study was to explore office-based employees' perceptions of the impact of flexible work on physical activity and sedentary behaviour; and preferences for associated interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with office-based employees (n = 28) 6 months after the introduction of a flexible work policy. A semi-structured interview format with open-ended questions was used with summary statements to check understanding. Sessions were audiotaped, and dominant themes were identified. Findings on intervention preferences were interpreted using a social cognitive framework. An overview of results was provided to a group of managers (n = 9) for comment. Employees reported that physical activity was not impacted, but sedentary behaviour had increased, with flexible work. Intervention preferences focussed on occupational sedentary behaviour, self-regulation, prompts and social connections, and not the physical work environment. Managers agreed with employees' preferences and also wanted interventions to be sustainable. Self-directed interventions with social components and targeting occupational sedentary behaviour were more acceptable than physical activity interventions in this flexible workplace. SO WHAT?: Health promotion for workplaces with flexible work practices may benefit from prioritising strategies that promote self-regulation and social connections rather than being linked to the physical worksite. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  16. Changes in Physical Activity Behaviour and Health Risk Factors Following a Randomised Controlled Pilot Workplace Exercise Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Burn; Lynda Heather Norton; Claire Drummond; Kevin Ian Norton

    2017-01-01

    Background: Declining physical activity (PA) and associated health risk factors are well established. Workplace strategies to increase PA may be beneficial to ameliorate extensive sedentary behavior. This study assessed the effectiveness of two PA interventions in workplace settings. Methods: Interventions were conducted over 40 days targeting insufficiently active (<150 min/wk PA) and/or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) adults; participants were randomly allocated to instructor-led exercise session...

  17. Changing psychosocial determinants of physical activity and diet in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Smith, Ben J; Cinnadaio, Nancy; Bauman, Adrian; Tapsell, Linda; Cheung, N Wah; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2018-01-01

    To investigate how a behavioural lifestyle intervention influences psychosocial determinants of physical activity and dietary behaviours in a population at risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Fifty-nine women with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m 2 and a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) participated in a randomized controlled study. The intervention group (n = 29) received 2 face-to-face and 5 telephone lifestyle-counselling sessions with a health professional. The control group (n = 30) received care as usual. At baseline and 6 months, psychosocial determinants related to physical activity and diet were measured with a self-administrated questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were applied to test for intervention effects. The intervention was effective in improving social support (β = 3.5, P diet from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the intervention group compared with the control group. The intervention reduced the following barriers to a physically active lifestyle: lack of energy and lack of motivation. Physical activity barriers like lack of time and lack of childcare were unchanged. The intervention reduced the following barriers to a healthy diet: lack of time, costs, having unhealthy snacks at home, and having cravings for sweets. This lifestyle intervention influenced psychosocial determinants relevant for overweight women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in prevention of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Changes in Coronary Heart Disease Risk Profile of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities following a Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is one of the modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). With an increasing age profile and similar patterns of morbidity to the general population, persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their caregivers would benefit from data that indicate CHD risk factors. Knowledge of the CHD risk…

  19. Does Cardiac Rehabilitation After an Acute Cardiac Syndrome Lead to Changes in Physical Activity Habits? Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hoeve, Nienke; Huisstede, Bionka M. A.; Stam, Henk J.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Sunamura, Madoka; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J. G.

    Background. Optimal physical activity levels have health benefits for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and are an important goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Purpose. The purpose of this study was to systematically review literature regarding short-term effects (= 6 months after

  20. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions: An Analysis of Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Posttreatment Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C.; Vernon, Sally W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and…

  1. Health behavior and behavioral economics: economic preferences and physical activity stages of change in a low-income African-American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. A cross-sectional, community-based study. A low-income, urban, African-American neighborhood. One hundred sixty-nine adults. Self-reported physical activity stages of change-precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured body mass index and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, p < .05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR = 1.68, p < .01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g., from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each one-unit increase in financial risk tolerance or one-unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples.

  2. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Population blood pressure (PBP) is the average BP shared by all members of a population. In PBP research, the main focus is on the great majority of individuals who are healthy in respect to blood pressure. From previous studies, we know that PBP decreased 2 mmHg during 15 years of follow-up. This decrease leads to significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular risk. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of habitual physical activity on PBP. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a longitudinal epidemiological study of CV risk in a random population sample. Three surveys were performed with 15 years of follow-up. BP was measured under standardized circumstances. A questionnaire concerning physical exercise was completed. Two scales were used, describing physical activity at work and during leisure-time, respectively. Most of the subjects belonged to the sedentary or low physical activity categories. The population did not change physical activity habits during the observation time. There was no significant difference in either systolic or diastolic BP between the categories. The previously observed reduction in PBP is not explained by a change in the population physical activity habits. This fact illustrates the difference between the high-risk strategy and the population strategy. In the first, the preventive strategy identifies hypertensive individuals and offers them antihypertensive medication and lifestyle modulation such as more and regular physical activity to improve blood pressure and lower individual CV and cerebrovascular risk. In contrast, the "population strategy" seeks to control the determinants of incidence in the population as a whole. This paper demonstrates that physical activity is not a determinant of PBP.

  3. Improved confidence in performing nutrition and physical activity behaviours mediates behavioural change in young adults: Mediation results of a randomised controlled mHealth intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Bauman, Adrian; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    The burden of weight gain disproportionally affects young adults. Understanding the underlying behavioural mechanisms of change in mHealth nutrition and physical activity interventions designed for young adults is important for enhancing and translating effective interventions. First, we hypothesised that knowledge, self-efficacy and stage-of-change for nutrition and physical activity behaviours would improve, and second, that self-efficacy changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviours mediate the behaviour changes observed in an mHealth RCT for prevention of weight gain. Young adults, aged 18-35 years at risk of weight gain (n = 250) were randomly assigned to an mHealth-program, TXT2BFiT, consisting of a three-month intensive phase and six-month maintenance phase or to a control group. Self-reported online surveys at baseline, three- and nine-months assessed nutrition and physical activity behaviours, knowledge, self-efficacy and stage-of-change. The mediating effect of self-efficacy was assessed in multiple PROCESS macro-models for three- and nine-month nutrition and physical activity behaviour change. Young adults randomised to the intervention increased and maintained knowledge of fruit requirements (P = 0.029) compared to controls. Intervention participants' fruit and takeaway behaviours improved to meet recommendations at nine months, with a greater proportion progressing to action or maintenance stage-of-change (P behaviours did not meet recommendations, thereby halting progress to action or maintenance stage-of-change. Indirect effects of improved nutrition and physical activity behaviours at three- and nine-months in the intervention group were explained by changes in self-efficacy, accounting for 8%-37% of the total effect. This provides insights into how the mHealth intervention achieved part of its effects and the importance of improving self-efficacy to facilitate improved eating and physical activity behaviours in young adults

  4. Physical activity as treatment for alcohol use disorders (FitForChange): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats; Andersson, Victoria; Ekblom, Örjan; Andréasson, Sven

    2018-02-14

    Help-seeking for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is low and traditional treatments are often perceived as stigmatizing. Physical activity has positive effects on mental and physical health which could benefit this population. We propose to compare the effects of aerobic training, yoga, and usual care for AUDs in physically inactive Swedish adults. This is a three-group, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, 210 adults (aged 18-75 years) diagnosed with an AUD will be invited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is alcohol consumption measure by the Timeline Follow-back method and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety, perceived stress, sleep quality, physical activity levels, fitness, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life, and cognition. Blood samples will be taken to objectively assess heavy drinking, and saliva to measure cortisol. Acute effects of exercise on the urge to drink alcohol, mood, and anxiety will also be assessed. The treatment potential for exercise in AUDs is substantial as many individuals with the disorder are physically inactive and have comorbid health problems. The study is the first to assess the effects of physical activity as a stand-alone treatment for AUDs. Considerable attention will be given to optimizing exercise adherence. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in AUDs will be discussed. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (DNR: 2017/1380-3). German Clinical Trials Register, ID: DRKS00012311. Registered on 26 September 2017.

  5. Changes in Men's Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Knowledge and Behavior as a Result of Program Exposure: Findings From the Workplace POWERPLAY Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Stolp, Sean; Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa; Medhurst, Kerensa; Christian, Holly; Klitch, Megan

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in physical activity and healthy eating knowledge and behaviors associated with the level of exposure to POWERPLAY, a men-centered workplace health promotion program. This study is based on a quasi-experimental prepost design. Using a computer assisted telephone interview survey, data regarding program exposure and physical activity and health eating knowledge and behaviors were collected from men (N = 103) in 4 workplaces. Exposure scores were calculated and participants were categorized as having low (n = 54) or high exposure (n = 49) to POWERPLAY. Compared with the low exposure group, those reporting high exposure scored significantly higher on physical activity knowledge (F (1, 99) =14.17, P workplace health promotion approach and may have an even greater impact when program exposure is augmented with environmental and policy changes.

  6. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  7. Physical activity and change in fasting glucose and HbA1c: a quantitative meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniol, Mathieu; Dragomir, Miruna; Autier, Philippe; Boyle, Peter

    2017-11-01

    A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials which evaluated the impact of physical activity on the change in fasting glucose and HbA1c. A literature search was conducted in PubMed until December 2015. Studies reporting glucose or HbA1c at baseline and at the end of study were included, and the change and its variance were estimated from studies with complete data. Mixed-effect random models were used to estimate the change of fasting glucose (mg/dl) and HbA1c (%) per additional minutes of physical activity per week. A total of 125 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Based on 105 studies, an increase of 100 min in physical activity per week was associated with an average change of -2.75 mg/dl of fasting glucose (95% CI -3.96; -1.55), although there was a high degree of heterogeneity (83.5%). When restricting the analysis on type 2 diabetes and prediabetes subjects (56 studies), the average change in fasting glucose was -4.71 mg/dl (95% CI -7.42; -2.01). For HbA1c, among 76 studies included, an increase of 100 min in physical activity per week was associated with an average change of -0.14% of HbA1c (95% CI -0.18; -0.09) with heterogeneity (73%). A large degree of publication bias was identified (Egger test p HbA1c was -0.16% (95% CI -0.21; -0.11). This analysis demonstrates that moderate increases in physical activity are associated with significant reductions in both fasting glucose and HbA1c.

  8. Behavior Change Techniques in Physical Activity eHealth Interventions for People With Cardiovascular Disease: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Orlaith Mairead; Walsh, Deirdre MJ; Furlong, Bróna A; O'Connor, Noel E; Woods, Catherine B

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death and disability in Europe, accounting for 4 million deaths per year and costing the European Union economy almost €196 billion annually. There is strong evidence to suggest that exercise-based secondary rehabilitation programs can decrease the mortality risk and improve health among patients with CVD. Theory-informed use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) is important in the design of cardiac rehabilitation programs aimed at changing cardiovascular risk factors. Electronic health (eHealth) is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health. This emerging area of health care has the ability to enhance self-management of chronic disease by making health care more accessible, affordable, and available to the public. However, evidence-based information on the use of BCTs in eHealth interventions is limited, and particularly so, for individuals living with CVD. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to assess the application of BCTs in eHealth interventions designed to increase physical activity (PA) in CVD populations. Methods A total of 7 electronic databases, including EBSCOhost (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, and CINAHL Complete), Scopus, and Web of Science (Core Collection) were searched. Two authors independently reviewed references using the software package Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation). The reviewers met to resolve any discrepancies, with a third independent reviewer acting as an arbitrator when required. Following this, data were extracted from the papers that met the inclusion criteria. Bias assessment of the studies was carried out using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias within Covidence; this was followed by a narrative synthesis. Results Out of the 987 studies that were identified, 14 were included in the review. An additional 9 studies were added following a

  9. Moderators of Intervention Dose Effects on Diet Quality and Physical Activity Changes in a Church-Based, Multicomponent, Lifestyle Study: Delta Body and Soul III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J. L.; Zoellner, J. M.; Tussing-Humphreys, L. M.; Goodman, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Many community-based lifestyle interventions targeting African Americans have reported positive effects on participants' dietary choices and physical activity habits. However, these effects vary and not all participants will have outcome changes. Moderation analysis can help explain differential effects observed, but are not often reported. Hence,…

  10. The relationship between physical activity and the living environment : A multi-level analyses focussing on changes over time in environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel-Grimen, B.; Droomers, M.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Stronks, K.; Kunst, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    There is limited evidence on the causality of previously observed associations between neighborhood characteristics and physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether individual-level PA was associated with changes in fear of crime, social cohesion, green spaces, parking facilities, social

  11. Social Cognitive and Planned Behavior Variables Associated with Stages of Change for Physical Activity in Spinal Cord Injury: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, John; Ditchman, Nicole; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Muller, Veronica; Chan, Fong; Kundu, Madan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To apply the constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the stages of change (SOC) for physical activities among individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Ex post facto design using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The participants were 144 individuals with SCI…

  12. Changes in Psychosocial Factors and Physical Activity Frequency among Third- to Eighth-Grade Girls Who Participated in a Developmentally Focused Youth Sport Program: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Zwald, Marissa; Huberty, Jennifer; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous physiological, psychological, and academic benefits of physical activity (PA), declines in PA levels among girls have been observed over the last decade. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the short-term changes pertaining to Girls on the Run and Girls on Track developmentally focused youth sport…

  13. Changes in aerobic performance, body composition, and physical activity in polar explorers during a year-long stay at the polar station in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Araźny, Andrzej; Opyrchał, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in physical activity, aerobic performance, and body composition in polar explorers during a 1-year stay at the polar station. The study group consisted of 10 people, including 8 men and 2 women. Aerobic performance (maximal oxygen uptake), physical activity, body mass, and composition were evaluated for the polar explores of the Polish Polar Station prior to departure, and then during their stay at the station for a period of 1 year. The measurements were performed every 3 months. Compared to the measurements taken before going to the polar station, aerobic performance significantly ( p = 0.02) increased in the first 3 months of residing at the polar station and then remained relatively stable for the following duration of the stay. In the first 3 months of the stay, we also observed the highest level of physical activity in participants. In the polar explorers, no significant ( p > 0.05) body fatness changes were noted. Nonetheless, lean body mass, body mass, and BMI significantly increased compared to the measurements taken before departure to the polar station. The greatest changes in aerobic performance, physical activity, and body composition were observed during the first 3 months after arrival to the Arctic and then, despite changing biometeorological conditions, they remained stable for the next months of the stay. We recommend the introduction of a physical preparation program before departing to the polar station to improve explorers' physical fitness, so that they can meet the physical challenges they are faced with immediately after arrival to the polar station.

  14. Stages of Behavior Change for physical activity and associated factors among technicaladministrative servers of a federal university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Berria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n4p471   The benefits that the regular practice of physical activity (PA provides to health and its importance in preventing and fighting chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the Stages of Behavior Change (SBC for PA among technicaladministrative servers and its association with sociodemographic and health risk factors. This cross-sectional study investigated 622 technical-administrative servers (337 women from a Brazilian federal university. SBC for PA, sociodemographic information (gender, age, marital status and educational level and health risk factors (inadequate eating habits, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, commuting and PA at work were collected through questionnaires. Multinomial regression with adjustment for the hierarchical level was applied and significance level of 5% was adopted. The distribution of technical-administrative servers in SBC for PA identified prevalence of 9.1% and 6.5% in the pre-contemplation stage, 24.6% and 33.5% in contemplation, 33.3% and 22 6% in preparation, 5.6% and 12.2% in action and 27.4% and 25.2% in maintenance stages between men and women, respectively. Lower odds ratio of being in the preparation stage was identified among women (OR=0.62; CI95%=0.41; 0.93 while those with inadequate eating habits were more odds to be in the “pre-contemplation + contemplation” (OR=2.77; CI95%=1.85; 4.15 and preparation stages (OR=1.75; CI95%=1.12; 2.70. Over 60% of technical-administrative servers are insufficiently active (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation stages and factors associated with SBC were female sex and inadequate eating habits.

  15. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  16. [Sport and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  17. Changes in leisure time and occupational physical activity over 8 years: The Cornellà health Interview Survey Follow-Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelio, C. I.; García, M.; Schiaffino, Anna; Borràs Andrés, Josep Maria; Nieto, F. Javier; Fernández Muñoz, Esteve

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To describe changes in leisure time and occupational physical activity status in an urban Mediterranean population-based cohort, and to evaluate sociodemographic, health-related and lifestyle correlates of such changes. Methods: Data for this study come from the Cornellè Health Interview Survey Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study of a representative sample (n¿=¿2500) of the population. Participants in the analysis reported here include 1246 subjects (567 men and 679 women) who ha...

  18. Do health behaviours change after colonoscopy? A prospective cohort study on diet, alcohol, physical activity and smoking among patients and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Gill; Brown, Alistair; Campbell, Anna; Campbell, Neil; Diament, Bob; Fielding, Shona; Forbat, Liz; Masson, Lindsey F; O'Carroll, Ronan; Stein, Kevin; Morrison, David S

    2014-01-14

    To describe diet, alcohol, physical activity and tobacco use prospectively, that is, before and 10 months after colonoscopy for patients and their partners. Prospective cohort study of health behaviour change in patients and partners. Comparison groups are patients receiving a normal result notification (NRN) versus patients receiving an abnormal result notification (ARN). Patients and partners (controls) are also compared. 5 Scottish hospitals. Of 5798 colonoscopy registrations, 2577 (44%) patients met the eligibility criteria of whom 565 (22%) were recruited; 460 partners were also recruited. International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Scottish Collaborative Group Food Frequency Questionnaire (includes alcohol), smoking status, sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, medical conditions, colonoscopy result, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, behaviour-specific self-efficacy scales. 57% of patients were men, with a mean age of 60.8 years (SE 0.5) and 43% were from more affluent areas. 72% (n=387) of patients received an ARN and 28% (n=149) received an NRN. Response rate of the second questionnaire was 68.9%. Overall, 27% of patients consumed <5 measures of fruit and vegetables/day, 20% exceeded alcohol limits, 50% had low levels of physical activity and 21% were obese. At 10-month follow-up, a 5% reduction in excessive alcohol consumption and an 8% increase in low levels of physical activity were observed among patients; no significant changes occurred in partners. Baseline high alcohol consumption and low physical activity were the strongest predictors of these behaviours at follow-up. Low alcohol self-efficacy and increasing age were associated with poorer health-related behaviours at follow-up for alcohol consumption and physical activity, respectively. Colonoscopy is associated with marginal beneficial changes in some behaviours but not others. Further work is needed to explore how services can optimise increases in beneficial

  19. Physical Activity Status and Position of Governmental Employees in Changing Stage Based on the Trans-Theoretical Model in Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Shojayzadeh, Davood; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-02-24

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for death worldwide. Given the key role of employees as valuable human resources and increasing sedentary life style among them, the aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity status and position of governmental employees in changing stage based on the Trans-Theoretical Model (TTM) in Hamadan, Iran, in 2014.This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 1200 government employees selected using proportional stratified random sampling. Data collection was performed using a three-section questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, SQUASH (Short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity) questionnaire and Marcus et al's five-part algoritm. Data were analyzed by multiple linear and logistic regression, Chi-square, T-test and ANOVA using SPSS-20. The mean age of the participants was 38.12±8.04 years. About a half of the employees were in the preparatory stage of TTM.49.2% and 50.8% of the sample were classified as active and inactive, respectively .Associations between physical activity status and exercise stage of change were found. The associations between exercise stage of change and age, sex, work experience, education and marital status were significant (pphysical activity (PA) status and accounted for 31.2% of variance in PA (adjusted R2=0.312, R2 change=0.01). The results of this study showed that TTM was useful to evaluate and predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian governmental employees and can be utilized by health planners to inform appropriate intervention strategies, specifically in work place.

  20. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.

  1. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  2. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  3. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  4. Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim; Thurston, Miranda; Hartz, Ingeborg; Hagquist, Curt

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15-16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

  5. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-11-28

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995-2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Influence of physical activity in length of life of the human population in the context of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmetović Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the last century, the human population has increased exponentially. This trend is evident today. Human population has, for more than half a century been undergoing the period of its intensive development, increasing in number and the average length of life, creating the impression of a better life standard. Looking at the man as a bio-psycho-social being and the interactions it ones through the human population growth is brought in connection with its impact on the environment. In such an environment, one does not only face infectious diseases, but also the misery and poverty in developing countries and massive noninfectious diseases, in developed countries. These facts introduce evidence about the possible effects of physical activity as to prevent the consequences of mass noninfectious diseases, as well as to strengthen the competence of people in general. Therefore, in a holistic, synergic concept of interpretation of human life, it is significant to include biological indicators that have an impact on the growth of the world population and may be associated with the kinesiology. Quantitative indicators of the trend of human development on this planet are the basic research unit observed in this paper. At the same time, the subjects of observation are also other indicators that can be causally linked to the development of the human population and are especially valuable evidence of the contribution of physical activity to the human development. The data that is associated with the theoretical considerations and the results of various statistics are presented based on the rules of ex-post-facto analysis. It is concluded that the value of physical activity has long had to have the equal status with one's chances of being better prepared for life on this planet ontogenetically and phylogenetically, and for the life conditions that will become even more extreme and that increasing older humans will face.

  7. Behavior Change Techniques in Physical Activity eHealth Interventions for People With Cardiovascular Disease: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Orlaith Mairead; Walsh, Deirdre Mj; Furlong, Bróna A; O'Connor, Noel E; Moran, Kieran A; Woods, Catherine B

    2017-08-02

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death and disability in Europe, accounting for 4 million deaths per year and costing the European Union economy almost €196 billion annually. There is strong evidence to suggest that exercise-based secondary rehabilitation programs can decrease the mortality risk and improve health among patients with CVD. Theory-informed use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) is important in the design of cardiac rehabilitation programs aimed at changing cardiovascular risk factors. Electronic health (eHealth) is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health. This emerging area of health care has the ability to enhance self-management of chronic disease by making health care more accessible, affordable, and available to the public. However, evidence-based information on the use of BCTs in eHealth interventions is limited, and particularly so, for individuals living with CVD. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the application of BCTs in eHealth interventions designed to increase physical activity (PA) in CVD populations. A total of 7 electronic databases, including EBSCOhost (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, and CINAHL Complete), Scopus, and Web of Science (Core Collection) were searched. Two authors independently reviewed references using the software package Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation). The reviewers met to resolve any discrepancies, with a third independent reviewer acting as an arbitrator when required. Following this, data were extracted from the papers that met the inclusion criteria. Bias assessment of the studies was carried out using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias within Covidence; this was followed by a narrative synthesis. Out of the 987 studies that were identified, 14 were included in the review. An additional 9 studies were added following a hand search of review paper references

  8. Promoting community readiness for physical activity among older adults in Germany--protocol of the ready to change intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Tilman; Gansefort, Dirk; Rothgang, Heinz; Röseler, Sabine; Meyer, Jochen; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-02-01

    Healthy ageing is an important concern for many societies facing the challenge of an ageing population. Physical activity (PA) is a major contributor to healthy ageing; however insufficient PA levels are prevalent in old age in Germany. Community capacity building and community involvement are often recommended as key strategies to improve equitable access to prevention and health promotion. However, evidence for the effectiveness of these strategies is scarce. This study aims to assess the community readiness for PA promotion in local environments and to analyse the utility of strategies to increase community readiness for reaching vulnerable groups. We designed a mixed method intervention trial comprising three study modules. The first module includes an assessment of community readiness for PA interventions in older adults. The assessment is carried out in a sample of 24 municipalities in the Northwest of Germany using structured key informant interviews. In the second module, eight municipalities with the low community readiness are selected from the sample and randomly assigned to one of two study groups: active enhancement of community readiness (intervention) versus no enhancement (control). After enhancing community readiness in the active enhancement group, older adults in both study groups will be recruited for participation in a PA intervention. Participation rates are compared between the study groups to evaluate the effects of the intervention. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis is carried out calculating recruitment costs per person reached in the two study groups. In the third module, qualitative interviews are conducted with participants and non-participants of the PA intervention exploring reasons for participation or non-participation. This study offers the potential to contribute to the evidence base of reaching vulnerable older adults for PA interventions and provide ideas on how to reduce participation barriers. Its findings will inform

  9. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, pfinancial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  10. Mothers and teenage daughters walking to health: using the behaviour change wheel to develop an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, E M; Barnes, A T; McMullen, J; Morgan, P J

    2018-03-12

    The majority of adolescent girls fail to meet public health guidelines for physical activity. Engaging mothers in the promotion of physical activity for their daughters may be an important strategy to facilitate behaviour change. The aim of this study was to use the behaviour change wheel (BCW) framework to design the components of an intervention to improve adolescent girls' physical activity. Cross-sectional study to inform intervention development. The BCW framework was used to (1) understand the behaviour, (2) identify intervention functions and (3) select content and implementation options. A circular development process was undertaken by the research team to collectively design the intervention in accordance with the steps recommended by the BCW. The BCW design process resulted in the selection of six intervention functions (education, persuasion, incentivization, training, modelling, enablement) and 18 behaviour change techniques delivered via group-based, face-to-face mode. Behaviour change technique groupings include: goals and planning; feedback and monitoring; social support; shaping knowledge; natural consequences; comparison of behaviour; associations; comparison of outcomes; reward and threat; identity; and, self-belief. The BCW process allowed an in-depth consideration of the target behaviours and provided a systematic framework for developing the intervention. The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the programme will be examined. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aging and the Social Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Behavior and Behavior Change: Evidence from the Guide to Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Smith Anderson-Bill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this study investigated the effect of aging on social-cognitive characteristics related to physical activity (PA among adults in the baseline phase of a health promotion intervention. Participants' questionnaire responses and activity logs indicated PA levels and self-efficacy declined with age, while social support and the use of self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., goal setting, planning, and keeping track increased. With age participants were also less likely to expect PA to interfere with their daily routines and social obligations. Part two of the study was among overweight/obese, inactive participants completing the intervention; it examined whether improvements in psychosocial variables might counteract declining PA associated with age. After treatment, participants were more active and decreased body weight regardless of age, and improved self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulatory behaviors. In a causal model, increases in self-efficacy at 7-months lead to increased PA levels and, albeit marginally, weight loss at 16 months; increased PA was associated with greater weight loss. Aging adults who were more confident exercised more and as a result lost more weight. This longitudinal study suggests interventions that offset the effect of aging on self-efficacy may be more successful in helping older participants become more active and avoid weight gain.

  12. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmon, Laura S; Middelweerd, Anouk; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-11-12

    Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. This study aimed to explore young adults' opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants' gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: "goal setting and goal reviewing," "feedback and self-monitoring," and "social support and social comparison." Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase "goal setting and goal reviewing" and "feedback and self-monitoring," but not for BCTs addressing "social support and social comparison." Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality characteristics and BCTs were observed: "agreeableness" was related to

  13. Physical activity behavior and role overload in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Butler, Frances R

    2015-01-01

    We examined physical activity stages of change, physical activity behavior, and role overload in different stages of motherhood in a predominantly Australian sample. Neither physical activity behavior, stages of physical activity change, nor role overload significantly differed across motherhood groups. Role overload was significantly higher for mothers in the contemplation, planning, and action stages of physical activity than in the maintenance stage of change. Role overload had a weak, although significant, negative correlation with leisure-time physical activity. We conclude that strategies focused upon reducing role overload or perceived role overload have only limited potential to meaningfully increase leisure-time physical activity in mothers.

  14. Change and Hope in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2009-05-01

    Physics = Ideas + Analyses. Newton reconciled Kepler's laws, Einstein's GR reconciled action at a distance. Our Planck Scale Statistics (see v3 and v4 of [1]) is a change that reconciles gravity with quantum physics simply. It does what a change should do and I will answer your questions again. It completes TOE, so what? There should not be any fear about disappearance of challenges. It will create other challenges to occupy creative physicists meaningfully. Physicists score highest on GRE score with the exception of mechanical engineers. They will come up with ideas applicable to other sectors like energy and economy. Newton, also a gold mine executive, introduced annuity for life, an insurance feature of social security. Here, I try one bold suggestion to illustrate the point. Putting 10% tax on new housing permits would raise the price of each house in the USA by an average of 2 x 10^4 dollars generating a wealth of 2x10^12 dollars for existing 10^8 houses, encouraging people to stick to their houses, inviting investors to grab existing houses, discouraging new construction which goes against the sale of existing houses, and injecting two trillion dollars in the economy without creating a deficit budget. The hope is that this change would challenge other high GRE scorers to come up with additional ideas. It is imaginative minds that solve problems, not subjective knowledge. [1] http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics/0210040.

  15. A randomised controlled trial testing the feasibility and efficacy of a physical activity behavioural change intervention in managing fatigue with gynaecological cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C M; Blaney, J M; Lowe-Strong, A; Rankin, J P; Campbell, A; McCrum-Gardner, E; Gracey, J H

    2011-09-01

    To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a physical activity behavioural change intervention in managing cancer-related fatigue among gynaecological cancer survivors during and post anti-cancer treatments. A two arm, single blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted within the Northern Ireland regional Cancer Centre. Thirty three sedentary gynaecological cancer survivors (stage I-III; ≤3 years post diagnosis), experiencing cancer-related fatigue (mild-severe) took part. Participants were randomly assigned to a behavioural change, moderate intensity physical activity intervention (n=16) or a Contact Control group (n=17). The primary outcome was fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form and Functional Assessment in Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue subscale). Secondary outcomes included quality of life, physical functioning, positive and negative affect, depression, body composition, sleep dysfunction and self-reported physical activity. Feasibility was assessed based on the recruitment rate, programme and physical activity adherence and participants' programme evaluation, including optional focus groups (n=16). Twenty five percent of eligible women took part (33/134). Participants were 8.7 (SD=9.1) months post diagnosis, with a mean age of 53 (SD=10.3) years. The majority of the sample had a diagnosis of ovarian (n=12) or endometrial cancer (n=11). Significant differences favouring the intervention group were observed for fatigue at 12 weeks and 6 months follow-up (12 week: mean difference=-11.06; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-21.89 to -0.23; effect size (d)=0.13; p=0.046; 6 month: mean difference=-19.48; 95% CI=-19.67 to -19.15; effect size (d)=0.20; p=0.01). A mean of 10 calls (SD=1.2 calls) were delivered to the Physical Activity Group, and 10 (SD=1.6 calls) to the CC group. The intervention was positively perceived based on exit questionnaire and focus group findings. A physical activity behavioural change intervention for

  16. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  17. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Seppälä

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such “retrofitting” of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW approach for this purpose. Method We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6. Policy recommendations targeting employees’ nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. Results A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively, whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%. Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46% and changing the physical environment (44% were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%. Conclusions The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying

  18. National policies for the promotion of physical activity and healthy nutrition in the workplace context: a behaviour change wheel guided content analysis of policy papers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Tuija; Hankonen, Nelli; Korkiakangas, Eveliina; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana

    2017-08-02

    Health policy papers disseminate recommendations and guidelines for the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. Such documents have rarely been investigated with regard to their assumed mechanisms of action for changing behaviour. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT) Taxonomy have been used to code behaviour change intervention descriptions, but to our knowledge such "retrofitting" of policy papers has not previously been reported. This study aims first to identify targets, mediators, and change strategies for physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviour change in Finnish policy papers on workplace health promotion, and second to assess the suitability of the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) approach for this purpose. We searched all national-level health policy papers effectual in Finland in August 2016 focusing on the promotion of PA and/or healthy nutrition in the workplace context (n = 6). Policy recommendations targeting employees' nutrition and PA including sedentary behaviour (SB) were coded using BCW, TDF, and BCT Taxonomy. A total of 125 recommendations were coded in the six policy papers, and in two additional documents referenced by them. Psychological capability, physical opportunity, and social opportunity were frequently identified (22%, 31%, and 24%, respectively), whereas physical capability was almost completely absent (1%). Three TDF domains (knowledge, skills, and social influence) were observed in all papers. Multiple intervention functions and BCTs were identified in all papers but several recommendations were too vague to be coded reliably. Influencing individuals (46%) and changing the physical environment (44%) were recommended more frequently than influencing the social environment (10%). The BCW approach appeared to be useful for analysing the content of health policy papers. Paying more attention to underlying assumptions regarding behavioural change processes may help to

  19. Ways optimization physical activity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Sutula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of results of poll of students, first, to define structure and the importance of the factors influencing formation of motivation at them to sports and sports activity, secondly, to allocate possible subjects for extension of the maintenance of theoretical and methodical-practical components of sports formation of student's youth. Material and Methods: the study involved students of first and second courses of the Institute for training bodies and the Faculty of Law of the National University №9 Yaroslav the Wise and the students of the Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts and Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko. Results: it is established that during training at national law university interests of students concerning factors which motivate them to sports and sports activity significantly change. The analyses data testify that a key factor which prevents students to be engaged in sports and sports activity, lack of free time is. It is proved that students consider necessary to receive information on the physical state. Conclusions: results of research allowed allocating the most significant factors which motivate students to be engaged in sports and sports activity. It is established subjects of theoretical and methodical and practical components of sports education which interest students of NLU and KNUCA and ZSU. It is shown that for students of Law University of importance topic of theoretical and methodological and practical components of physical education strongly depends on the year of their training.

  20. Changes in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviour at retirement: a prospective study in middle-aged French subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercberg Serge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal studies on physical activity patterns around retirement age are scarce and provide divergent findings. Little is known about changes in sedentary behaviour in this context. Our aim was to investigate relationships between retirement and 3-year changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA patterns and sedentary behaviour in middle-aged French adults. Methods Past-year LTPA and sedentary behaviour (watching television were assessed in 1998 and 2001 using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire on participants in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation with Antioxidants and Minerals study. A total of 698 men and 691 women aged 45-64 were included in this analysis. Comparisons were made between subjects who had retired between 1998 and 2001 and those who continued to work, using the Chi-square test, Student t-test, Wilcoxon rank test or covariance analysis where appropriate. Results 20.1% of men and 15.6% of women retired during follow-up. The baseline LTPA level was similar between subjects who retired during follow-up and those who continued to work. Mean LTPA increased by about 2 h/week in men and women who had retired, whereas no change was observed in employed persons. The positive change in LTPA following retirement was mainly related to an increase in activities of moderate intensity, such as walking. Retirement did not modify the ranking of the most frequently performed LTPAs, but the number of participants and the duration increased through retirement. In men, the increase in time spent watching TV was more than twice as high in retirees as in workers (+40.5 vs. +15.0 min/day, P Conclusions Retirement was associated with both an increase in LTPAs and in time spent watching TV, suggesting that retirement is an important period not only for promoting physical activity, but also for limiting sedentary behaviour.

  1. Mediation of self-regulation and mood in the relationship of changes in high emotional eating and nutritional behaviors: Moderating effects of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Mareno, Nicole; McEwen, Kristin L

    2016-12-01

    High emotional eating (EE) is prevalent in women with obesity. A previous study's subsample of obese women classified as high emotional eaters participated in either a physical activity-focused experimental (n = 29) or an educationally focused comparison (n = 22) behavioral treatment and was assessed over phases of expected weight loss (baseline-month 6) and short- and long-term regain (months 6-12 and 6-24, respectively). The study's aim was to assess theory-based psychological and behavioral mediation and moderation of changes in nutritional behaviors via emotional eating change in order to inform behavioral weight-loss treatments. During the weight-loss phase, significant improvements in eating self-regulation and mood significantly mediated the relationship of reduced EE and intake of both fruits and vegetables (FV) and sweets. Self-regulation was a significant independent mediator. Physical activity significantly moderated the relationship between EE and self-regulation changes. All variables demonstrated large positive effects and significant time × group interactions favoring the experimental group. During the short and long-term phases of expected weight regain, there were no significant changes in FV intake, although consumption of sweets significantly increased during months 6-24. Change in FV and sweets significantly predicted weight change, which was significantly greater in the experimental vs. comparison group over both the initial 6 months (-6.1% vs. -2.6%) and full 24 months of the study (-7.6% vs. -1.3%). Findings suggest that behavioral treatments should address EE through improvements in self-regulation and mood, and supported physical activity will aid in that process. The need for an improved understanding of weight-loss maintenance remains. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  3. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  4. Is pregnancy a teachable moment for diet and physical activity behaviour change? An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experiences of women during their first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Lou; Shaw, Rachel L; French, David P

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy may provide a 'teachable moment' for positive health behaviour change, as a time when women are both motivated towards health and in regular contact with health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate whether women's experiences of pregnancy indicate that they would be receptive to behaviour change during this period. Qualitative interview study. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study details how seven women made decisions about their physical activity and dietary behaviour during their first pregnancy. Two women had required fertility treatment to conceive. Their behaviour was driven by anxiety and a drive to minimize potential risks to the pregnancy. This included detailed information seeking and strict adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations. However, the majority of women described behaviour change as 'automatic', adopting a new lifestyle immediately upon discovering their pregnancy. Diet and physical activity were influenced by what these women perceived to be normal or acceptable during pregnancy (largely based on observations of others) and internal drivers, including bodily signals and a desire to retain some of their pre-pregnancy self-identity. More reasoned assessments regarding benefits for them and their baby were less prevalent and influential. Findings suggest that for women who conceived relatively easily, diet and physical activity behaviour during pregnancy is primarily based upon a combination of automatic judgements, physical sensations, and perceptions of what pregnant women are supposed to do. Health professionals and other credible sources appear to exert less influence. As such, pregnancy alone may not create a 'teachable moment'. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Significant life events can be cues to action with relation to health behaviour change. However, much of the empirical research in this area has focused on negative health experiences such as

  5. Association of change in brain structure to objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Domelen, Dane R Van; Brychta, Robert J; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sverrisdottir, Johanna E; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Johannsson, Erlingur; Chen, Kong Y; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n=352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline and 5-year change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) to active and sedentary behavior (SB) measured at the end of the 5-year period by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days. More GM (β=0.11; p=0.044) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) at baseline was associated with more total physical activity (TPA). Also, when adjusting for baseline values, the 5-year change in GM (β=0.14; p=0.0037) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) was associated with TPA. The 5-year change in WM was associated with SB (β=-0.11; p=0.0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.

  7. Changing from primary to secondary school highlights opportunities for school environment interventions aiming to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Strugnell, Claudia; Allender, Steven

    2015-05-08

    There is little empirical evidence of the impact of transition from primary to secondary school on obesity-related risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a change of school system on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour in pre-early adolescents. Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia were recruited at random from the bottom two strata of a five level socio-economic scale. In nine schools, students in year 6 primary school transitioned to a different school for year 7 secondary school, while in six schools (combined primary-secondary), students remained in the same school environment from year 6 to year 7. Time 1 (T1) measures were collected from students (N=245) in year 6 (age 11-13). Time 2 (T2) data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original student cohort when in year 7. PA and sedentary behaviour data were collected objectively (via ActiGraph accelerometer) and subjectively (via child self-report recall questionnaire). School environment data were collected via school staff survey. Change of behaviour analyses were conducted longitudinally i) for all students and ii) by change/no change of school. Mixed model regression analysis tested for behavioural interaction effects of changing/not changing school. Sixty-three percent (N=152) changed schools from T1 to T2. Across all students we observed declines in average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (-4 min) and light PA (-23 min), and increases in average daily sedentary behaviour (16 min), weekday leisure screen time (17 min) and weekday homework screen time (25 min), all Penvironment, students who changed school reported a greater reduction in PA intensity at recess and lunch, less likelihood to cycle to/from school, greater increase in weekday (41 mins) and weekend (45 mins) leisure screen time (Pbehaviour, and has further compounding effects on behaviour type by changing school environments.

  8. [Physical activity: positive impact on brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Kalron, Alon

    2008-03-01

    The central nervous system has a unique capability of plasticity that enables a single neuron or a group of neurons to undergo functional and constructional changes that are important to learning processes and for compensation of brain damage. The current review aims to summarize recent data related to the effects of physical activity on brain plasticity. In the last decade it was reported that physical activity can affect and manipulate neuronal connections, synaptic activity and adaptation to new neuronal environment following brain injury. One of the most significant neurotrophic factors that is critical for synaptic re-organization and is influenced by physical activity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The frequency of physical activity and the intensity of exercises are of importance to brain remodeling, support neuronal survival and positively affect rehabilitation therapy. Physical activity should be employed as a tool to improve neural function in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from neurological damage.

  9. "I do not have time. Is there a handout I can use?": combining physicians' needs and behavior change theory to put physical activity evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R E; McArthur, C; Papaioannou, A; Cheung, A M; Laprade, J; Lee, L; Jain, R; Giangregorio, L M

    2017-06-01

    Guidelines for physical activity exist and following them would improve health. Physicians can advise patients on physical activity. We found barriers related to physicians' knowledge, a lack of tools and of physician incentives, and competing demands for limited time with a patient. We discuss interventions that could reduce these barriers. Uptake of physical activity (PA) guidelines would improve health and reduce mortality in older adults. However, physicians face barriers in guideline implementation, particularly when faced with needing to tailor recommendations in the presence of chronic disease. We performed a behavioral analysis of physician barriers to PA guideline implementation and to identify interventions. The Too Fit To Fracture physical activity recommendations were used as an example of disease-specific PA guidelines. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with physicians and nurse practitioners in Ontario, stratified by type of physician, geographic area, and urban/rural, and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded data and identified emerging themes. Using the behavior change wheel framework, themes were categorized into capability, opportunity and motivation, and interventions were identified. Fifty-nine family physicians, specialists, and nurse practitioners participated. Barriers were as follows: Capability-lack of exercise knowledge or where to refer; Opportunity-pragmatic tools, fit within existing workflow, available programs that meet patients' needs, physical activity literacy and cultural practices; Motivation-lack of incentives, not in their scope of practice or professional identity, competing priorities, outcome expectancies. Interventions selected: education, environmental restructuring, enablement, persuasion. Policy categories: communications/marketing, service provision, guidelines. Key barriers to PA guideline implementation among physicians include knowledge on where to refer or what to say, access to

  10. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  11. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  16. Topology change and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, A.P.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.

    1995-01-01

    The role of topology in elementary quantum physics is discussed in detail. It is argued that attributes of classical spatial topology emerge from properties of state vectors with suitably smooth time evolution. Equivalently, they emerge from considerations on the domain of the quantum Hamiltonian, this domain being often specified by boundary conditions in elementary quantum physics. Examples are presented where classical topology is changed by smoothly altering the boundary conditions. When the parameters labelling the latter are treated as quantum variables, quantum states need not give a well-defined classical topology, instead they can give a quantum superposition of such topologies. An existing argument of Sorkin based on the spin-statistics connection and indicating the necessity of topology change in quantum gravity is recalled. It is suggested therefrom and our results here that Einstein gravity and its minor variants are effective theories of a deeper description with additional novel degrees of freedom. Other reasons for suspecting such a microstructure are also summarized. (orig.)

  17. Topology change and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, A.P.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.

    1995-03-01

    The role of topology in elementary quantum physics is discussed in detail. It is argued that attributes of classical spatial topology emerge from properties of state vectors with suitably smooth time evolution. Equivalently, they emerge from considerations on the domain of the quantum Hamiltonian, this domain being often specified by boundary conditions in elementary quantum physics. Several examples are presented where classical topology is changed by smoothly altering the boundary conditions. When the parameters labelling the latter are treated as quantum variables, quantum states need not give a well-defined classical topology, instead they can give a quantum superposition of such topologies. An existing argument of Sorkin based on the spin-statistics connection and indicating the necessity of topology change in quantum gravity is recalled. It is suggested therefrom and our results here that Einstein gravity and its minor variants are effective theories of a deeper description with additional novel degrees of freedom. Other reasons for suspecting such a microstructure are also summarized. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs

  18. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  19. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes your heart rate to go up Walking, hiking, jogging, running Water aerobics or swimming laps Bicycling, skateboarding, rollerblading, and jumping rope Ballroom dancing and aerobic dancing Tennis, soccer, hockey, and basketball Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health ...

  20. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  1. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  2. Experiential or behavioral processes: which one is prominent in physical activity? Examining the processes of change 1 year after an intervention of therapeutic education among adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, A J; Attalin, V; Sultan, A; Boegner, C; Gernigon, C; Avignon, A

    2014-11-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is essential, most obese people will not engage in its practice. The transtheoretical model (TTM) and its processes of change (POC) contribute to the understanding of behavior change regarding PA. The present study aimed to test how POC are associated with a progression through the stages of change (SOC) and whether they predict BMI change. Interventional study. A total of 134 subjects participated in an education program, were called at 1 year and 62 of them provided follow-up data. Participants completed the SOC and POC questionnaires at baseline, at 1 year and were classified according to their SOC progression. Participants who progressed through SOC lost more weight (pbehavioral POC. Results support the previous cross-sectional studies showing that physically active people use more frequently POC. The present findings support the development of TTM-grounded behavioral interventions targeted to obese patients. Identifying methods to promote POC use to improve adherence to weight guidelines may lead to improved clinical outcomes and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Changing Value of Vigorous Activity and the Paradox of Utilising Exercise as Punishment in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasland, Erik; Walseth, Kristin; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research on physical education (PE) teaching practice indicates that an exercise physiology discourse has assumed a dominant position within the field. Research shows that PE teachers are likely to emphasise physical fitness training in their teaching, and PE teachers seem to appreciate pupils who show high levels of physical…

  4. Using the Intervention Mapping and Behavioral Intervention Technology Frameworks: Development of an mHealth Intervention for Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Walsh, Deirdre; Hinbarji, Moohamad; Albatal, Rami; Tooley, Mark; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2018-06-01

    Few interventions to promote physical activity (PA) adapt dynamically to changes in individuals' behavior. Interventions targeting determinants of behavior are linked with increased effectiveness and should reflect changes in behavior over time. This article describes the application of two frameworks to assist the development of an adaptive evidence-based smartphone-delivered intervention aimed at influencing PA and sedentary behaviors (SB). Intervention mapping was used to identify the determinants influencing uptake of PA and optimal behavior change techniques (BCTs). Behavioral intervention technology was used to translate and operationalize the BCTs and its modes of delivery. The intervention was based on the integrated behavior change model, focused on nine determinants, consisted of 33 BCTs, and included three main components: (1) automated capture of daily PA and SB via an existing smartphone application, (2) classification of the individual into an activity profile according to their PA and SB, and (3) behavior change content delivery in a dynamic fashion via a proof-of-concept application. This article illustrates how two complementary frameworks can be used to guide the development of a mobile health behavior change program. This approach can guide the development of future mHealth programs.

  5. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  11. Investigating the effects of behavioral change, social support, and self-efficacy in physical activity in a collectivistic culture: Application of Stages of Motivational Readiness for Change in Korean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohyun; Young, Sarah J

    2018-06-01

    The study investigated the roles of social support, self-efficacy, and behavioral change in physical activity (PA) in the Korean culture. The subjects were 164 Korean college students. In November 2016, the study participants completed an online survey asking about PA behavior, PA Self-Efficacy, PA Stages of Change (stages of behavioral change in PA), and Social Support for PA. The collected data were statistically analyzed through structural equation modeling. In the results, PA Stages of Change had a direct effect ( β  = 0.57, p  Change as PA Self-Efficacy had a direct effect ( β  = 0.50, p  Change. However, Social Support for PA did not show an effect on other factors. Additionally, Social Support for PA had a correlation of r  = 0.45 ( p  Change is a significant PA predictor. Moreover, high PA Self-Efficacy indirectly helps Korean young adults to be more physically active by fostering advancement on the stages of behavioral change in PA. In contrast, Social Support for PA does not have a significant association with PA or PA Stages of Change. This non-significance of Social Support for PA can be explained with Korea's collectivistic culture. Furthermore, there is a possibility that Social Support for PA can positively affect PA by interacting with PA Self-Efficacy.

  12. Why Physical Activity Is Important (for Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Fitness Why physical activity is important Why physical activity is important You may wonder if being physically ... you are to be around. That's partly because physical activity gets your brain to make "feel-good" chemicals ...

  13. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  14. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelt, M.; Groen, H.C.; Koelewijn, S.J.; De Blois, E.; Sandker, M.; Waarsing, J.H.; Müller, C.; Van Osch, G.J.V.M.; De Jong, M.; Weinans, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might protect against

  15. Increased physical activity severely induces osteoarthritic changes in knee joints with papain induced sulfate-glycosaminoglycan depleted cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Siebelt (Michiel); H.C. Groen (Harald); S. Koelewijn (Stuart); E. de Blois (Erik); M. Sandker (Marjan); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); C. Müller (Cristina); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); M. de Jong (Marcel); H.H. Weinans (Harrie)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Articular cartilage needs sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) to withstand high pressures while mechanically loaded. Chondrocyte sGAG synthesis is regulated by exposure to compressive forces. Moderate physical exercise is known to improve cartilage sGAG content and might

  16. Lifestyle changes and reduction of colon cancer incidence in Europe : A scenario study of physical activity promotion and weight reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.; Soerjomataram, I.; Lemmens, V. E. P. P.; Coebergh, J. W. W.; Barendregt, J. J.; Oenema, A.; Moller, H.; Brenner, H.; Renehan, Andrew G.

    Background: Across Europe, there are over 300,000 new cases of colorectal cancer annually. Major risk factors include excess body weight (usually expressed by a high body mass index, BMI) and physical inactivity (PA). In this study we modelled the potential long-term effects on colon cancer

  17. Physical activity, obesity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...

  18. Physical activity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarabhatla, Krishna V; Birrer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic syndrome consisting of two main groups, type 1 and 2, is characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Individuals with DM take part in physical activity for health promotion, disease management, and or recreational or competitive sports. Several studies confirm the beneficial role of physical activity in favorably altering the prognosis of DM. Exercise as a therapeutic strategy has potential risks, too. Hence, sports medicine physicians caring for athletes with diabetes have several important responsibilities. Diabetic education; pre-participatory evaluation for vascular, neurological, retinal or joint disease; diabetic status and control; promotion of blood glucose self-monitoring; and individualized dietary, medication, and physical activity plans are essential to achieve safe and enjoyable outcomes in individuals with diabetes who are embarking on physical activity.

  19. Physical Activity and Pediatric Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine whether moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. Methods Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database...

  20. Cohort profile: Ho Chi Minh City Youth Cohort--changes in diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and relationship with overweight/obesity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Hoang Hanh Doan; Hong, Tang Kim; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    The Ho Chi Minh Youth cohort study aimed to assess the change in nutritional status; indicators of adiposity; diet; physical activity and sedentary behaviours; home, neighbourhood and school microenvironments and their complex relationships in adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City. Prospective 5-year cohort. Systematic random sampling was used to select 18 schools in urban districts. Children were followed up over 5 years with an assessment in each year. Consent, from both adolescents and their parents, was required. At baseline, 759 students were recruited into the cohort, and of these students, 740 remained in the cohort for the first round, 712 for the second round, 630 for the third round and 585 for the last round of follow-up. Anthropometric measurements were taken using established guidelines. Six main groups of exposure factors including dietary intake and behaviours, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, family social and physical environment, school environment, socioeconomic status and parental characteristics were measured. Retention rate was high (77%). Within 5-year period, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity using International Obesity Task Force cut-off values increased from 14.2% to 21.8%. Time spent on physical activity decreased significantly in the 5-year period from 87 to 50 min/day. Time spent on sedentary behaviours increased in the 5-year period from 512 to 600 min/day. The complete data analysis of this cohort study will allow a full exploration of the role of environmental and lifestyle behaviours on adolescent overweight and obesity and also identify the factors most strongly associated with excess weight gain and the appearance of overweight and obesity in different age groups of adolescents from this large city in Vietnam.

  1. Physical activity and lifestyle modification in the reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of cardiovascular disease and decreasing risk factors is to change unhealthy lifestyle habits. Due to the ... diet, blood pressure, hypokinetic disease, physical activity, and stress levels.

  2. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY STAGES OF CHANGE, SELF-EFFICACY, AND PERCEIVED NEEDS AND INTERESTS OF COOPERATIVE EXTENSION FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES AGENTS AND CLIENTELE.

    OpenAIRE

    Stimpson, Tara Spruce

    2000-01-01

    Extensive research has clearly revealed that people of all ages can enhance their health by simply incorporating moderate levels of physical activity into their daily routine. Physical activity significantly reduces the risk of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease while providing protective benefits from hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and colon cancer. Physical activity can lead to positive psychological improvements by decreasing levels of anxiety and depress...

  3. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  4. Effects of Three Motivationally Targeted Mobile Device Applications on Initial Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Change in Midlife and Older Adults: A Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby C King

    vs. Control app: d = 1.19,CI = 0.56, 1.81; Affect vs. Analytic app: d = 1.41,CI = 0.74, 2.07.The results provide initial support for the use of a smartphone-delivered social frame in the early induction of both physical activity and sedentary behavior changes. The information obtained also sets the stage for further investigation of subgroups that might particularly benefit from different motivationally framed apps in these two key health promotion areas.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01516411.

  5. Effects of Three Motivationally Targeted Mobile Device Applications on Initial Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Change in Midlife and Older Adults: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    app: d = 1.19,CI = 0.56, 1.81; Affect vs. Analytic app: d = 1.41,CI = 0.74, 2.07). The results provide initial support for the use of a smartphone-delivered social frame in the early induction of both physical activity and sedentary behavior changes. The information obtained also sets the stage for further investigation of subgroups that might particularly benefit from different motivationally framed apps in these two key health promotion areas. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01516411.

  6. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  7. Physical activity and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K; Tagarakis, Christos V M; King, Gerard

    2007-12-01

    Functional ageing processes are characterized by a loss of performance capabilities regarding coordination, flexibility, strength, speed, and endurance. The effects of ageing processes on the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle are the foci of attention. After age 30, the maximum aerobic dynamic performance capacity decreases by an average of 8% per decade. The causes are mainly a reduction in the maximum cardiac output and decreases in capillarization and in the skeletal muscle mass. An improvement in the maximum oxygen uptake by 18% and in the aerobic-anaerobic threshold by 22% was achieved in untrained men aged 55-70 years, in a 12-week-long bicycle ergometer-training programme. The strength of the skeletal muscle decreases particularly after 50-60 years of age. The main cause is the reduction in the number of motor units and muscle fibres. Further, modifications of the endothelial function and the development of sarcopenia are of particular importance in ageing processes. General aerobic dynamic training can improve the endothelial function in old age and thus help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Strength training is most appropriate for the prevention of sarcopenia. Imaging techniques over the last 20 years have provided new findings on the influence and the significance of physical activity on the brain. We call this new interdisciplinary area 'Exercise Neuroscience'. Demands on coordination and aerobic dynamic endurance are suitable in counteracting age-related neuronal cellular loss, synapsis hypotrophy, and in improving neurogenesis and capillarization. Adjusted physical activity is thus capable of counteracting age-related changes and performance loss not only in the cardiovascular system but also in the brain.

  8. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  9. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other

  10. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  11. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  12. School-based intervention to enable school children to act as change agents on weight, physical activity and diet of their mothers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Nalika; Kurotani, Kayo; Indrawansa, Susantha; Nonaka, Daisuke; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Samarasinghe, Diyanath

    2016-04-06

    School health promotion has been shown to improve the lifestyle of students, but it remains unclear whether school-based programs can influence family health. We developed an innovative program that enables school children to act as change agents in promoting healthy lifestyles of their mothers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the child-initiated intervention on weight, physical activity and dietary habit of their mothers. A 12-month cluster randomized trial was conducted, with school as a cluster. Participants were mothers with grade 8 students, aged around 13 years, of 20 schools in Homagama, Sri Lanka. Students of the intervention group were trained by facilitators to acquire the ability to assess noncommunicable disease risk factors in their homes and take action to address them, whereas those of the comparison group received no intervention. Body weight, step count and lifestyle of their mothers were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Multi-level multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of intervention on continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Of 308 study participants, 261 completed the final assessment at 12 month. There was a significantly greater decrease of weight and increase of physical activity in the intervention group. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference comparing the intervention group with the control group was -2.49 (-3.38 to -1.60) kg for weight and -0.99 (-1.40 to -0.58) kg/m(2) for body mass index. The intervention group had a 3.25 (95% confidence interval 1.87-5.62) times higher odds of engaging in adequate physical activity than the control group, and the former showed a greater number of steps than the latter after intervention. The intervention group showed a greater reduction of household purchase of biscuits and ice cream. A program to motivate students to act as change agents of family's lifestyle was effective in decreasing weight and

  13. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  14. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P smoking (P smoking status (P smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  15. The challenges of co-developing a behaviour change app that aimed to make physical activity a habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice S Forster

    2016-01-01

    Developers of behaviour change apps must balance the demands of users that will make using the app a habit, while retaining the ingredients necessary for the app to achieve its purpose. Mixed methods provide a rich data set with which to base app development and greater confidence that the app will meet the needs of users in terms of social networking and privacy.

  16. Effective behaviour change techniques for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight and obese adults; systematic review and meta-regression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdal, Gro Beate; Eide, Geir Egil; Barth, Tom; Williams, Geoffrey; Meland, Eivind

    2017-03-28

    This systematic review aims to explain the heterogeneity in results of interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating for overweight and obese adults, by exploring the differential effects of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and other intervention characteristics. The inclusion criteria specified RCTs with ≥ 12 weeks' duration, from January 2007 to October 2014, for adults (mean age ≥ 40 years, mean BMI ≥ 30). Primary outcomes were measures of healthy diet or physical activity. Two reviewers rated study quality, coded the BCTs, and collected outcome results at short (≤6 months) and long term (≥12 months). Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to estimate effect sizes (ES), heterogeneity indices (I 2 ) and regression coefficients. We included 48 studies containing a total of 82 outcome reports. The 32 long term reports had an overall ES = 0.24 with 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15 to 0.33 and I 2  = 59.4%. The 50 short term reports had an ES = 0.37 with 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.48, and I 2  = 71.3%. The number of BCTs unique to the intervention group, and the BCTs goal setting and self-monitoring of behaviour predicted the effect at short and long term. The total number of BCTs in both intervention arms and using the BCTs goal setting of outcome, feedback on outcome of behaviour, implementing graded tasks, and adding objects to the environment, e.g. using a step counter, significantly predicted the effect at long term. Setting a goal for change; and the presence of reporting bias independently explained 58.8% of inter-study variation at short term. Autonomy supportive and person-centred methods as in Motivational Interviewing, the BCTs goal setting of behaviour, and receiving feedback on the outcome of behaviour, explained all of the between study variations in effects at long term. There are similarities, but also differences in effective BCTs promoting change in healthy eating and physical activity and

  17. Renovated Parks Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.

  18. National Recommendations for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, Alfred; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried; Ferrari, Nina; Füzéki, Eszter; Geidl, Wolfgang; Graf, Christine; Hartung, Verena; Klamroth, Sarah; Völker, Klaus; Vogt, Lutz; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionuţ; Gediga, Günther; Messing, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Always and at any age, regular physical activity can act as a powerful elixir with a beneficial effect on health and well-being. The wide variety of health effects that physical activity can have, for example on our cardiovascular system, back and joints, is scientifically well proven. At the same time, we spend most of our time sitting – at school, at the office or in the car. Our bodies, however, want to be on the move! This fundamental instinct is deeply rooted in human nature and this bas...

  19. Changes on Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Social Support for Activities and Physical Fitness in People with Intellectual Disabilities through Multimodal Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability have poor levels of physical activity, quality of life, fitness condition and self-efficacy and social support when they want to undertake physical activity so it is very important to improve these parameters in this population. Method: A prospective study was conducted. Data were measured before and…

  20. The GALM effect study : changes in physical activity, health and fitness of sedentary and underactive older adults aged 55-65

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is considered to be an important component of a healthy lifestyle that decreases the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, obesity and other debilitating conditions. Physical activity can also improve functional

  1. Can changes in psychosocial factors and residency explain the decrease in physical activity during the transition from high school to college or university?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-04-01

    When students make the transition from high school to college or university, their physical activity (PA) levels decrease strongly. Consequently, it is of crucial importance to identify the determinants of this decline in PA. The study aims were to (1) examine changes in psychosocial factors in students during the transition from high school to college/university, (2) examine if changes in psychosocial factors and residency can predict changes in PA, and (3) investigate the moderating effects of residency on the relationship between changes in psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Between March 2008 and October 2010, 291 Flemish students participated in a longitudinal study, with baseline measurements during the final year of high school and follow-up measurements at the start of second year of college/university. At both time points, participants completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, active transportation, leisure-time sports, psychosocial variables, and residency. Repeated measures MANOVA analyses and multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted. Modeling, self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and health-related, external and social barriers decreased, while health-related benefits and time-related barriers increased from baseline to follow-up. Decreases in modeling and time-related barriers were associated with a decrease in active transportation (adjusted R(2) = 3.2%); residency, decreases in self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and increases in health- and time-related barriers predicted a decrease in leisure-time sports (adjusted R(2) = 29.3%). Residency only moderated two associations between psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Residency and changes in psychosocial factors were mainly important to explain the decrease in leisure-time sports. Other factors such as distance to college/university are likely more important to explain the decrease in active transportation; these are worth exploring in

  2. Becoming the Physical Activity Champion: Empowerment through Social Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…

  3. Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School Children in Kenya, Nigeria, and Mozambique ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  4. Physical activity patterns in Greenland: a country in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-11-01

    To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition. Physical activity patterns were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). The population was divided into six groups according to different stages of social change, measured on the basis of education, current residence and occupation. Data were collected in a country-wide cross-sectional population survey among adult Inuit in Greenland from 2005 to 2009. Men with long vocational or academic education living in towns (latest stage of social change) spent significantly less time on occupational physical activity (p = 0.001) compared with hunters and fishermen in villages (earliest stage of social change) (trend test p = 0.01). Women in the latest stage of change spent significantly less time on domestic physical activity (p physical activity during transportation (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01 for men and women, respectively). No significant difference was found for leisure time physical activity. Men and women in the latest stage of social change spent more time on sedentary activity (p physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland included decreasing time spent on domestic and occupational physical activity and increasing time spent on sedentary activities along with social change. Knowledge of changes in physical activity patterns in relation to social transition is important in prevention of obesity, type 2 diabetes and lifestyle diseases.

  5. Apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents: a review of quality, features and behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Rebar, Amanda L; Hayman, Melanie; Bray, Nicola A; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Gnam, Jens-Peter; Bachert, Philip; Direito, Artur; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2017-06-24

    The number of commercial apps to improve health behaviours in children is growing rapidly. While this provides opportunities for promoting health, the content and quality of apps targeting children and adolescents is largely unexplored. This review systematically evaluated the content and quality of apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents, and examined relationships of app quality ratings with number of app features and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used. Systematic literature searches were conducted in iTunes and Google Play stores between May-November 2016. Apps were included if they targeted children or adolescents, focused on improving diet, physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour, had a user rating of at least 4+ based on at least 20 ratings, and were available in English. App inclusion, downloading and user-testing for quality assessment and content analysis were conducted independently by two reviewers. Spearman correlations were used to examine relationships between app quality, and number of technical app features and BCTs included. Twenty-five apps were included targeting diet (n = 12), physical activity (n = 18) and sedentary behaviour (n = 7). On a 5-point Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), overall app quality was moderate (total MARS score: 3.6). Functionality was the highest scoring domain (mean: 4.1, SD: 0.6), followed by aesthetics (mean: 3.8, SD: 0.8), and lower scoring for engagement (mean: 3.6, SD: 0.7) and information quality (mean: 2.8, SD: 0.8). On average, 6 BCTs were identified per app (range: 1-14); the most frequently used BCTs were providing 'instructions' (n = 19), 'general encouragement' (n = 18), 'contingent rewards' (n = 17), and 'feedback on performance' (n = 13). App quality ratings correlated positively with numbers of technical app features (rho = 0.42, p improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents had moderate

  6. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Min: 5/ ... D. Chair, NAEPP School Subcommittee Working Group on Physical Activity and School American Medical Association Karen Huss, Ph. ...

  7. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... adults aged 18 and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 51.7% Percent ...

  8. Validity of the Stages of Change in Steps instrument (SoC-Step) for achieving the physical activity goal of 10,000 steps per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Duncan, Mitch J; Caperchione, Cristina M; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Maeder, Anthony J; Savage, Trevor N; Mummery, W Kerry

    2015-11-30

    Physical activity (PA) offers numerous benefits to health and well-being, but most adults are not sufficiently physically active to afford such benefits. The 10,000 steps campaign has been a popular and effective approach to promote PA. The Transtheoretical Model posits that individuals have varying levels of readiness for health behavior change, known as Stages of Change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance). Few validated assessment instruments are available for determining Stages of Change in relation to the PA goal of 10,000 steps per day. The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion-related validity of the SoC-Step, a brief 10,000 steps per day Stages of Change instrument. Participants were 504 Australian adults (176 males, 328 females, mean age = 50.8 ± 13.0 years) from the baseline sample of the Walk 2.0 randomized controlled trial. Measures included 7-day accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X), height, weight, and self-reported intention, self-efficacy, and SoC-Step: Stages of Change relative to achieving 10,000 steps per day. Kruskal-Wallis H tests with pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether participants differed by stage, according to steps per day, general health, body mass index, intention, and self-efficacy to achieve 10,000 steps per day. Binary logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that participants in Maintenance or Action stages would have greater likelihood of meeting the 10,000 steps goal, in comparison to participants in the other three stages. Consistent with study hypotheses, participants in Precontemplation had significantly lower intention scores than those in Contemplation (p = 0.003) or Preparation (p per day (OR = 3.11; 95 % CI = 1.66,5.83) compared to those in Precontemplation, Contemplation, or Preparation. Intention (p per day. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12611000157976 World Health Organization Universal Trial

  9. Physical activity patterns during pregnancy through postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Realizing the importance of regular physical activity, particularly in the prevention of chronic diseases and unhealthy weight gain, it is important to study how physical activity changes during and after pregnancy using prospective study designs. The aim of this study was to describe the mode, duration, intensity, and changes in physical activity during pregnancy through one year postpartum among a cohort of women. Methods This study was part of the third Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Postpartum Study at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. A cohort of 471 women was followed at 17-22 and 27-30 weeks' gestation and at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The participants reported the mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of all physical activities that increased their breathing and heart rate in the past week. Results Overall physical activity for the cohort decreased from 17-22 weeks to 27-30 weeks of gestation, but rebounded up at 3 months postpartum and remained stable at 12 months postpartum. The mean MET h/wk values for each time point were 24.7 (standard deviation, SD 26.8, 19.1 (SD 18.9, 25.7 (SD 29.3, and 26.7 (SD 31.5. In postpartum, women reported more care-giving and recreational activity and less indoor household activity, as compared to their activity level during pregnancy. Conclusion For health benefits and weight management, health care professionals are encouraged to provide pregnant and postpartum women with information on recommendations of physical activity, particularly regarding the minimum duration and intensity level.

  10. Why Should I Be Physically Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more physical activity to your daily routine. Making small changes in your lifestyle can make a big difference in your overall health. Here are some examples: • Take a walk for 10 or 15 minutes during your lunch break. • Take stairs instead of escalators and elevators. • ...

  11. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-27

    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  12. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  13. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  14. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  15. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  16. Changes in nutritional status, body composition, quality of life, and physical activity levels of cancer patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yun-Chi; Bauer, Judith; Horsley, Pamela; Waterhouse, Mary; Bashford, John; Isenring, Elisabeth

    2013-06-01

    This pilot exploratory study aimed to describe the changes in nutritional status, body composition, quality of life (QoL), and physical activity levels (PAL) of cancer patients undergoing high-dose conditioning and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) at pre-admission, hospital discharge, and at 100 days post-transplantation, and to examine if changes in these parameters are interrelated. Twenty-four patients (56.2 ± 12.9 years; 7 females, 17 males) were recruited from an Australian transplant center. Assessment was prospectively conducted at pre-admission, hospital discharge, and 100 days post-transplantation using the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment, air displacement plethysmography, EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3), and the international physical activity questionnaire. At discharge, nutritional status deteriorated (patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) median, +8.0; interquartile range, 6.0-13.0; p body mass (LBM; -2.2 kg, CI 95% -3.0, -1.4; p < 0.001), and decrease in QoL (-10.6, CI 95% -24.1, 2.9; p = 0.117); the proportion of patients with high PAL decreased (p = 0.012). By 100 days post-transplantation, all patients were well-nourished; however, LBM remained lower -1.0 kg (CI 95% -1.9, -0.1; p = 0.028). Change in nutritional status (PG-SGA score) was associated with weight (r = -0.46; p = 0.039) and fat mass (r = -0.57; p = 0.013). Change in QoL was associated with nutritional reservoir (i.e., fat; r = 0.54; p = 0.024); QoL was consistently higher for patients with high PAL. High-dose conditioning and autologous PBSCT is associated with deterioration in nutritional status, QoL and PAL, with LBM remaining below baseline levels at 100 days post-transplantation. A nutrition and exercise intervention program post-hospital discharge may be beneficial for these patients.

  17. Physics Laboratory technical activities, 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbie, K.B.

    1992-02-01

    The report summarizes research projects, measurement method development, calibration and testing, and data evaluation activities that were carried out during calendar year 1991 in the NIST Physics Laboratory. These activities fall in the areas of electron and optical physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, radiometric physics, quantum metrology, ionizing radiation, time and frequency, quantum physics, and fundamental constants

  18. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  19. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  20. Protocol for the 'Virtual Traveller' cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-06-27

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. 'Virtual Traveller' is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8-9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (reference number: 3500

  1. Longitudinal changes in the physical activity of adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their influence on body composition and leptin serum levels after recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Kostrzewa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN are often observed to have high levels of physical activity, which do not necessarily diminish after a successful therapy. Previous studies have shown that body fat tissue recovery in these patients is associated with a disproportional restoration of the adipocyte hormone, leptin. Therefore, we wondered whether the individual variation in physical activity in AN patients prior to treatment may be related to body fat percentage and plasma leptin level outcome. METHOD: Body fat percentage, leptin serum, and physical activity levels (accelerometer were measured in adolescents with an (n=37, age 13 to 17.5 years at initial assessment, at the end of study participation (median 12 months, and at one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Accelerometer data were used to split the patients in two groups: those with low (n=26 and those with high levels of physical activity (HLPA, n=11. These groups did not differ in terms of age, IQ, presence of menses, BMI and season of admission. The HLPA group was characterized by a longer total duration of illness. Physical activity levels during therapy decreased for the group with initially HLPA and increased for the group with low levels of physical activity (to comparable levels. Physical activity remained stable after one year. The increase in body fat percentage and leptin levels were dependent on the recovery status; however, recovered patients with initially HLPA had significantly higher fat mass during the follow-up. DISCUSSION: HLPA, an important modulator of AN progression in adolescents, can be successfully diminished by therapeutic intervention. Among recovered patients, those with initially HLPA had higher fat mass levels than those with low levels of physical activity. This finding suggests that HLPA are an important modulator of the body composition recovery mechanism.

  2. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity.A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity.Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet

  3. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet, food intake and

  4. Longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary time in adults around retirement age: what is the moderating role of retirement status, gender and educational level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-10-28

    The start of retirement is an important stage in an (older) adult's life and can affect physical activity (PA) and/or sedentary behaviors, making it an ideal period to implement health interventions. To identify the most optimal timing of such interventions it is important to determine how PA and sedentary behaviors change not only when making the transition to retirement, but also during the first years of retirement. The main study aim was to examine whether PA and sedentary behaviors change differently in retiring adults compared with recently retired adults. A second aim was to examine potential moderating effects of gender and educational level. A longitudinal study was conducted in Ghent, Belgium. Baseline measurements took place in 2012-2013 and follow-up data were collected 2 years later. In total, 446 adults provided complete data at both time points. Of the participants 105 adults were not retired at baseline but retired between baseline and follow-up (i.e. retiring) and 341 were already retired at baseline (i.e. recently retired). All participants completed a questionnaire on PA, sedentary behaviors, socio-demographic factors and physical functioning. Repeated measures MANOVAs were conducted in SPSS 22.0. to analyze the data. Leisure-time cycling increased over time in retiring adults, but decreased in recently retired adults (p moderate-to-vigorous PA decreased strongly in retiring adults, while slight increases were found in recently retired adults (p moderating effects were found. Future interventions should focus on PA and/or specific sedentary behaviors in retiring adults, but should definitely include long-term follow-up, as recently retired adults seem to be prone to lapse into an unhealthy lifestyle. Specific attention should be paid to low-educated adults as they are particularly susceptible to a decrease in PA and increased TV viewing time and computer use.

  5. Utility of circulating IGF-I as a biomarker for assessing body composition changes in men during periods of high physical activity superimposed upon energy and sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Alemany, Joseph A; Kellogg, Mark D; Rood, Jennifer; Allison, Steven A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2007-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is a biomarker that may have greater utility than other conventional nutritional biomarkers in assessing nutritional, health, and fitness status. We hypothesized that the IGF-I system would directionally track a short-term energy deficit and would be more related to changes in body composition than other nutritional biomarkers. Thirty-five healthy men (24 +/- 0.3 yr) underwent 8 days of exercise and energy imbalance. Total and free IGF-I, IGF binding proteins-1, -2, and -3, the acid labile subunit, transferrin, ferritin, retinol binding protein, prealbumin, testosterone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and leptin responses were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessed changes in body mass and composition. Repeated-measures ANOVA, correlation analysis, and receiver operator characteristic curves were used for statistical analyses (P losing >5% body mass. The IGF-I system is an important adjunct in the overall assessment of adaptation to stress imposed by high levels of physical activity superimposed on energy and sleep restriction and is more closely associated with losses in body mass and fat-free mass than other conventional nutritional biomarkers.

  6. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: “Juniors for Seniors”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bronikowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of physical activity (PA in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program “Junior for Seniors” by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children (“juniors,” 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M=7.96±0.69 and 22 parents (“seniors,” 14 mothers aged M=38.86±2.96 and 8 fathers aged M=37.38±2.97 were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives, or simply improved quality of “do-together” leisure time PA.

  7. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed.

  8. Longitudinal qualitative study describing family physicians' experiences with attempting to integrate physical activity prescriptions in their practice: 'It's not easy to change habits'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Phillips, Emily Wolfe; O'Rielly, Connor; Mallet, Bertin; Aubé, Shane; Doucet, Marylène; Couturier, Jonathan; Mallet, Maxime; Martin, Jessica; Gaudet, Christine; Murphy, Nathalie; Brunet, Jennifer

    2017-07-13

    Physical activity (PA) prescriptions provided by family physicians can promote PA participation among patients, but few physicians regularly write PA prescriptions. The objective of this study was to describe family physicians' experiences of trying to implement written PA prescriptions into their practice. Longitudinal qualitative study where participants were interviewed four times during a 12-month period. After the first interview, they were provided with PA prescription pads. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Family medicine clinics in New Brunswick, Canada. Family physicians (n=11) with no prior experience writing PA prescriptions, but who expressed interest in changing their practice to implement written PA prescriptions. Initially, participants exhibited confidence in their ability to write PA prescriptions in the future and intended to write prescriptions. However, data from the follow-up interviews indicated that the rate of implementation was lower than anticipated by participants and prescriptions were not part of their regular practice. Two themes emerged as factors explaining the gap between their intentions and behaviours: (1) uncertainty about the effectiveness of written PA prescription, and (2) practical concerns (eg, changing well-established habits, time constraints, systemic institutional barriers). It may be effective to increase awareness among family physicians about the effectiveness of writing PA prescriptions and address barriers related to how their practice is organised in order to promote written PA prescription rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Put two (and two) together to make the most of physical activity and healthy nutrition - A longitudinal online study examining cross-behavioural mechanisms in multiple health behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Juliane; Lippke, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations for physical activity and for fruit and vegetable intake are often not translated into action due to deficits in self-regulatory strategies. The present study examines the interplay of intention, intergoal facilitation, action and coping planning and self-regulation in facilitating physical activity and healthy nutrition. In an online study, intentions and behaviours were assessed at baseline, intergoal facilitation and planning at 4-week follow-up, self-regulation, physical activity and nutrition at 6-month follow-up in a non-clinical sample. The final sample (n = 711) consisted of 27.2% men, the age ranged from 16 to 78 years. Sequential mediations were tested. Intergoal facilitation, planning and self-regulation mediated the link from intention to physical activity and nutrition; the specific indirect effects were significant. Findings suggest that intergoal facilitation and self-regulation can facilitate behaviour change, in addition to planning. Cross-behavioural mechanisms might facilitate lifestyle change in several domains.

  10. Effects of Instructional Physical Activity Courses on Overall Physical Activity and Mood in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Porter, Kandice J.; Hill, Grant M.; Goldfine, Bernard D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to assess the association between university-based instructional physical activity (PA) courses and changes in overall PA levels and negative mood and their interrelations. The study also sought to determine the amount of change in PA required to significantly improve mood in course enrollees. Method:…

  11. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...

  12. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  13. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.

  14. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos—a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein and metabolic markers of health (waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose, physical activity (Yale physical activity survey, and physical performance (short physical performance NIA battery were measured at baseline and 6-month followup. Results. Eighty percent of the sample was female. In final adjusted cross-sectional models, better physical activity indices were associated with faster gait speed (P<0.05. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, change in self-reported physical activity level correlated inversely with change in CRP (β=-0.05; P=0.03 and change in waist circumference (β=-0.16; P=0.02. Biological markers of health did not mediate the relationship between physical activity and physical performance. Conclusion. In this community-partnered study, higher physical activity was associated with better physical performance in cross-sectional analyses. In longitudinal analysis, increased physical activity was associated with improvements in some metabolic and inflammatory markers of health.

  15. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents......; however, there was some heterogeneity among the studies. This review reveals a critical need for future longitudinal assessments of low PA, its mechanisms, and its implications for incident asthma in children. The systematic review was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number: CRD...

  16. Physical activity and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), due to its role in health promotion and disease prevention, is of particular interest to be investigated. The aims of this thesis were: to assess the associations between PA and different health outcomes (lower urinary tract symptoms, cancer incidence, and mortality) in the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM); to perform a dose-response meta-analysis of published associations between walking and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD); and to provide user-...

  17. Pre-test data and lessons learned from a group research project examining changes in physical activity behavior following construction of a rails-to-trails facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Sheryl L; Mumaw, Elizabeth; Davis, T; Hallam, Jeffrey S

    2014-04-01

    Built environments in rural settings may provide greater challenges than those in urban settings due to physical characteristics inherent to low-density population areas. Multiuse recreational trails, such as those that repurpose abandoned railroad lines, may provide a physical activity resource that is well suited to rural areas. However, the direct impact of trail availability on physical activity behavior is not generally known because it is unclear whether activity reported in most trail research represents increases in physical activity or displacement of activity in individuals who previously exercised in other locations. This research, initiated by a group of students in a graduate seminar, represents to our knowledge, the first instance in which PA was assessed prior to the availability of an entirely new rails-to-trails facility. The research was implemented using a nonequivalent dependent variable design to counter the lack of a control group; the nonequivalent dependent variable chosen was weekly servings of fruit and vegetables. Participants responding to intercept interviews classified days of activity during the prior week as mild, moderate or vigorous. Baseline results for 244 participants suggested generally low levels of activity prior to trail availability; number of reported days of activity decreased with described intensity. We also discuss several issues encountered in planning and implementing this group project including those related to data collection, variable levels of commitment among student members, and inconsistent project management, and offer potential solutions to these concerns.

  18. THE DISCOVERY OF THE FIRST “CHANGING LOOK” QUASAR: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS AND PHENOMENOLOGY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Cales, Sabrina; Urry, C. Megan [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Moran, Edward C. [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy 3905, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University, Laramaie, WY 82071 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gallo, Luigi [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2015-02-20

    SDSS J015957.64+003310.5 is an X-ray selected, z = 0.31 active galactic nucleus (AGN) from the Stripe 82X survey that transitioned from a Type 1 quasar to a Type 1.9 AGN between 2000 and 2010. This is the most distant AGN, and first quasar, yet observed to have undergone such a dramatic change. We re-observed the source with the double spectrograph on the Palomar 5 m telescope in 2014 July and found that the spectrum is unchanged since 2010. From fitting the optical spectra, we find that the AGN flux dropped by a factor of 6 between 2000 and 2010 while the broad Hα emission faded and broadened. Serendipitous X-ray observations caught the source in both the bright and dim state, showing a similar 2–10 keV flux diminution as the optical while lacking signatures of obscuration. The optical and X-ray changes coincide with g-band magnitude variations over multiple epochs of Stripe 82 observations. We demonstrate that variable absorption, as might be expected from the simplest AGN unification paradigm, does not explain the observed photometric or spectral properties. We interpret the changing state of J0159+0033 to be caused by dimming of the AGN continuum, reducing the supply of ionizing photons available to excite gas in the immediate vicinity around the black hole. J0159+0033 provides insight into the intermittency of black hole growth in quasars, as well as an unprecedented opportunity to study quasar physics (in the bright state) and the host galaxy (in the dim state), which has been impossible to do in a single sources until now.

  19. Physical and Social Contexts of Physical Activity Behaviors of Fifth and Seventh Grade Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Mciver, Kerry; McDonald, Samantha M.; Pate, Russell R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to characterize the temporal, social, and physical contexts for physical activities commonly reported in a diverse cohort of 753 boys and girls from fifth to seventh grade. Methods: Data were obtained from a multilevel longitudinal study, the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids. The Physical Activity…

  20. mHealth Technologies to Influence Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors: Behavior Change Techniques, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Carraça, Eliana; Rawstorn, Jonathan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    mHealth programs offer potential for practical and cost-effective delivery of interventions capable of reaching many individuals. To (1) compare the effectiveness of mHealth interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in free-living young people and adults with a comparator exposed to usual care/minimal intervention; (2) determine whether, and to what extent, such interventions affect PA and SB levels and (3) use the taxonomy of behavior change techniques (BCTs) to describe intervention characteristics. A systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mHealth interventions with usual or minimal care among individuals free from conditions that could limit PA. Total PA, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), walking and SB outcomes were extracted. Intervention content was independently coded following the 93-item taxonomy of BCTs. Twenty-one RCTs (1701 participants-700 with objectively measured PA) met eligibility criteria. SB decreased more following mHealth interventions than after usual care (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.53 to -0.00). Summary effects across studies were small to moderate and non-significant for total PA (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI -0.12 to 0.41); MVPA (SMD 0.37, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.77); and walking (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI -0.01 to 0.29). BCTs were employed more frequently in intervention (mean = 6.9, range 2 to 12) than in comparator conditions (mean = 3.1, range 0 to 10). Of all BCTs, only 31 were employed in intervention conditions. Current mHealth interventions have small effects on PA/SB. Technological advancements will enable more comprehensive, interactive and responsive intervention delivery. Future mHealth PA studies should ensure that all the active ingredients of the intervention are reported in sufficient detail.

  1. Physics Teaching in Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Dewey

    2006-05-01

    Powerful political forces have been at play in building a mandate to change the schools. The latest, on-going manifestation is in the No Child Left Behind Act, but the mandate for change was being formulated in the early 1980s in the A Nation at Risk report. As physicists we may feel somewhat removed from such goings on, but our children attend school and their teachers come through our classrooms. Physics education research offers extensive, carefully collected data on the consequences of standard physics teaching. The data challenges conventional beliefs about physics learning. It is said that times of crisis represent both opportunity and danger. Because the mandates to change are up to the individual states, each of us in our own state has the opportunity to shift the focus in physics/science teaching toward something better. We also face the danger that existing physics/science teaching will be even more deeply entrenched than it already is.

  2. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Steven; Schippers, Mandy

    2012-04-23

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research include investigating ways to promote successful referrals

  3. Parent-child associations for changes in diet, screen time, and physical activity across two decades in modernizing China: China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fei; Howard, Annie Green; Herring, Amy H; Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M; Aiello, Allison E; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-11-11

    While the household context is important for lifestyle behavior interventions, few studies have examined parent-child associations for diet and physical activity (PA) changes over time in a rapidly urbanizing country. We aimed to investigate changes in diet, screen time, and PA behaviors over time in children and their parents living in the same household, and examine the parent-child association for these behaviors. We studied dietary, screen time, and PA behaviors in 5,201 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17y) using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009). We collected three-day 24-h recall diet data to generate percentages of energy from animal-source foods, away-from-home eating, and snacking from 1991-2009, which are known urbanization-related behaviors. We used a seven-day PA recall to collect screen time (hours/week) and leisure-time sports participation (yes/no) since 2004. We examined the changes in children's and parents' behaviors over time using random-effects negative binomial regression for diet and screen time, and random-effects logistic regression for leisure-time sports. We then regressed each of the behaviors of offspring on each of their parents' same behaviors to examine the parent-child association, using the same set of models. We observed increases in energy from animal-source foods, eating away-from-home, and snacking, as well as screen time and leisure-time sports in parents and children over time, with different rates of change between children and their parents for some behaviors. We found positive parent-child associations for diet, screen time, and PA. When parental intakes increased by 10 % energy from each dietary behavior, children's increase in intakes ranged from 0.44 to 1.59 % total energy for animal-source foods, 0.17 % to 0.45 % for away-from-home eating, and 2.13 % to 7.21 % for snacking. Children were also more likely to participate in leisure

  4. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  5. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...

  6. N-of-1 study of weight loss maintenance assessing predictors of physical activity, adherence to weight loss plan and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.

  7. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-08-01

    A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity "lifestyle" physical activity. The author updates nurses on physical activity guidelines and provides tips for promoting physical activity, with a focus on lifestyle activities such as walking to work. This article also addresses new research findings on the importance of decreasing sedentary and sitting time, even in physically active people.

  8. A longitudinal assessment of the links between physical activity and physical self-worth in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga; Kull, Merike

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal framework was used to examine the hypotheses of (1) whether physical activity predicts changes in physical self-worth or (2) whether physical self-worth predicts changes in physical activity in adolescent girls. Participants (n=272) completed measures of physical self-worth and participation in physical activities at three different points spanning a two-year interval. A cross-lagged panel model using structural equation modelling analyses indicated that physical self-worth predicted subsequent physical activity and physical activity in turn predicted subsequent physical self-worth across time. Findings demonstrated a reciprocal relationship between physical self-worth and physical activity during early adolescence. This study supports the use of the reciprocal effects model (REM) in gaining an understanding of the cross-lagged relationships between physical self-worth and participation in physical activities amongst adolescent girls.

  9. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  10. Influence of individual and social contextual factors on changes in leisure-time physical activity in working-class populations: results of the Healthy Directions–Small Businesses Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Anne; Bennett, Gary G.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Sorensen, Glorian G.

    2012-01-01

    Background As part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program Project, we sought to address disparities reflected in social class and race/ethnicity by developing and testing a behavioral intervention model that targeted fruit and vegetable consumption, red meat consumption, multivitamin intake, and physical activity in working-class, multiethnic populations. Methods This paper examined the associations between change in leisure-time physical activity and individual and social contextual factors in participants employed in small businesses (n = 850) at both baseline and at 18-month final. Results In bivariate analyses, age, language acculturation, social ties, and workplace social capital were significantly associated with physical activity at final. In multivariable analyses, being younger and having high language acculturation were significantly associated with greater leisuretime physical activity at final; high workplace social capital was significantly associated with a decline in physical activity at final. Conclusion These findings have implications for understanding factors that are integral to promoting change in physical activity among working-class, multiethnic populations. PMID:22806257

  11. Effectiveness of behavioural change techniques in physiotherapy interventions to promote physical activity adherence in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Matthew; Duda, Joan; Gautrey, Charlotte; Fenton, Sally; Greig, Carolyn; Rushton, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative articular disease, the highest cause of individual level disability and a significant socioeconomic burden to healthcare services. Patient education and physical activity (PA) prescription are recommended components of interventions in several healthcare guidelines and are commonly provided by physiotherapists. However, these interventions lack long-term clinical effectiveness. Patient adherence to PA prescription requires patients to modify their PA behaviour and appears critical in maintaining symptomatic improvements. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural change techniques (BCTs) used in physiotherapy interventions to improve PA adherence. Methods and analysis Medline, Cochrane and PEDro registers of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases, and key grey literature sources will be rigorously searched for randomised controlled trials that compared a physiotherapy intervention incorporating BCTs with other therapies, placebo interventions, usual care or no-treatment. Two independent researchers will conduct literature searches, assess trial eligibility, extract data, conduct risk of bias assessment (using Cochrane risk of bias tool), classify BCTs and evaluate the quality of the body of literature following Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Narrative synthesis of key outcomes will be presented and meta-analysis will be performed if included trials are clinically homogenous, based on their intervention and comparator groups and outcome measures. This review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval is not required. This review will help inform clinicians and researchers on the most effective behavioural change techniques used in physiotherapy interventions to enhance adherence to PA

  12. Effectiveness of behavioural change techniques in physiotherapy interventions to promote physical activity adherence in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Matthew; Duda, Joan; Gautrey, Charlotte; Fenton, Sally; Greig, Carolyn; Rushton, Alison

    2017-06-30

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative articular disease, the highest cause of individual level disability and a significant socioeconomic burden to healthcare services. Patient education and physical activity (PA) prescription are recommended components of interventions in several healthcare guidelines and are commonly provided by physiotherapists. However, these interventions lack long-term clinical effectiveness. Patient adherence to PA prescription requires patients to modify their PA behaviour and appears critical in maintaining symptomatic improvements. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural change techniques (BCTs) used in physiotherapy interventions to improve PA adherence. Medline, Cochrane and PEDro registers of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases, and key grey literature sources will be rigorously searched for randomised controlled trials that compared a physiotherapy intervention incorporating BCTs with other therapies, placebo interventions, usual care or no-treatment. Two independent researchers will conduct literature searches, assess trial eligibility, extract data, conduct risk of bias assessment (using Cochrane risk of bias tool), classify BCTs and evaluate the quality of the body of literature following Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Narrative synthesis of key outcomes will be presented and meta-analysis will be performed if included trials are clinically homogenous, based on their intervention and comparator groups and outcome measures. This review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Research ethics approval is not required. This review will help inform clinicians and researchers on the most effective behavioural change techniques used in physiotherapy interventions to enhance adherence to PA prescription for patients with lower limb OA. The findings will

  13. Longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary time in adults around retirement age: what is the moderating role of retirement status, gender and educational level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The start of retirement is an important stage in an (older adult’s life and can affect physical activity (PA and/or sedentary behaviors, making it an ideal period to implement health interventions. To identify the most optimal timing of such interventions it is important to determine how PA and sedentary behaviors change not only when making the transition to retirement, but also during the first years of retirement. The main study aim was to examine whether PA and sedentary behaviors change differently in retiring adults compared with recently retired adults. A second aim was to examine potential moderating effects of gender and educational level. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Ghent, Belgium. Baseline measurements took place in 2012–2013 and follow-up data were collected 2 years later. In total, 446 adults provided complete data at both time points. Of the participants 105 adults were not retired at baseline but retired between baseline and follow-up (i.e. retiring and 341 were already retired at baseline (i.e. recently retired. All participants completed a questionnaire on PA, sedentary behaviors, socio-demographic factors and physical functioning. Repeated measures MANOVAs were conducted in SPSS 22.0. to analyze the data. Results Leisure-time cycling increased over time in retiring adults, but decreased in recently retired adults (p < 0.01. (Voluntary work-related walking and moderate-to-vigorous PA decreased strongly in retiring adults, while slight increases were found in recently retired adults (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01. Passive transport decreased more strongly in recently retired than in retiring adults (p < 0.05, and computer use increased more in retiring adults than in the recently retired group (p < 0.001. Low-educated recently retired adults had the strongest decrease in walking for transport (p < 0.05 and strongest increase in TV viewing time (p < 0.01 and computer

  14. Effectiveness of physical activity interventions in achieving behaviour change maintenance in young and middle aged adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jennifer M; Brennan, Sarah F; French, David P; Patterson, Christopher C; Kee, Frank; Hunter, Ruth F

    2017-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions are generally effective in supporting short-term behaviour change, but increases are not always maintained. This review examined the effectiveness of PA interventions for behaviour change maintenance in young and middle-aged adults, and investigated which Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) and other intervention features were associated with maintenance. Six databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Web of Science) were systematically searched. Eligibility criteria were controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of PA interventions with adult (mean age 18-64 years) non-clinical populations using validated measures of PA behaviour at baseline and ≥six months' post-baseline. Results were pooled in meta-analyses using standardised mean differences (SMD) at five time intervals (6-9, 9-15, 15-21, 21-24, >24 months). Moderator analyses investigated the influence of sample and intervention characteristics on PA maintenance at 6-9 months. Sixty-two studies were included. PA interventions had a significant effect on behaviour maintenance 6-15 months post-baseline relative to controls. Interventions had a larger effect on maintenance at 6-9 months (SMD = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.35; I 2  = 73%) compared to 9-15 months (SMD = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.26; I 2  = 70%). Beyond 15 months, PA measurements were infrequent with little evidence supporting maintenance. Moderator analyses showed some BCTs and intervention settings moderated PA outcomes at 6-9 months. A multivariable meta-regression model showed interventions using the BCTs 'Prompt self-monitoring of behavioural outcome' (b = 1.46, p behaviour to 15 months. Greater consideration must be given to how future interventions encourage and measure maintenance of changes, and investigate broader psychological, social and environmental influences of PA behaviour. PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015025462. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived...

  16. C-A1-01: Changes in Physical Activity and Nutrition in a Behavioral Intervention Pilot Study - Passport to Brain Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Leah R; Martinson, Brian C; Sherwood, Nancy E; Crain, A Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G; O’Connor, Patrick J; Matthews, Rachel B; Cooner, Jacob M

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Increasing concerns about cognitive decline and dementia in the aging populations of most westernized countries suggests the need for interventions that can preserve cognitive function, are cost-effective, and feasibly implemented on a large scale. Empirical evidence is accumulating that points to the potential beneficial effects of cardiovascular fitness, healthy diet, social integration and participation in cognitively stimulating activities in the maintenance of cognitive function. We have developed and pilot tested “Passport,” a multi-component, cognitive-behavioral, phone and mail based intervention to promote such lifestyle changes in older adults. Methods: Cognitively intact (TICS ≥ 31), sedentary (<90 min physical activity[PA] per week) adults aged 61–80 years were recruited from among HealthPartners’ members. Baseline assessments included cognitive function, biomarkers, lifestyle factors, and physical traits. In the first phase, 21 participants were recruited and all assigned (non-randomized) to receive a course book, pedometer, tool kit and 7 bi-weekly phone coaching calls. In the second phase, 42 participants were recruited and randomized to either the Guided Intervention (n=22) or a Self-Directed (n=20) group, who received the study materials but no coaching. We completed 6 month follow-up measures with 58 (92%) subjects, and report here on their PA and nutritional outcomes. Results: The 63 enrolled subjects were female (60%), 70 years old, highly educated (73% college or more), predominantly retired (81%), non-Hispanic White (71%;) and married (65%). On average, they were overweight, BMI M=29.8, normotensive, systolic BP M=122.8, and normocholesterolemic, total serum cholesterol M=189.3. Mixed-model analyses indicated a time*treatment group effect on objectively monitored MVPA (p<.05), with a significant increase in the guided group (7.3 to 16.5mins/day, p<.05). We observed a significant effect of time on saturated fat intake

  17. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  18. "Pushing" physical activity, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Robert; Bracho, America; Cantero, Patricia; Glenn, Beth A

    2009-10-01

    There has been an increasing realization of the need for environmental interventions to increase physical activity levels in the population. Although promising, the impact of these strategies in reducing obesity-related disparities will be limited by the presence of inequities in the distribution of activity-related resources in the community. Advocacy efforts are critically needed to ensure that all communities benefit from environmental strategies being implemented. This paper describes two activist community-based organizations in Southern California, The City Project and Latino Health Access, and their successful efforts to mandate equitable access to public resources critical for reducing obesity-related disparities. Principles for equitable development of public land are also presented as well as lessons learned that can inform future advocacy efforts.

  19. Physical Education Teacher Change: Initial Validation of the Teacher Change Questionnaire-Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Ben D.; Graber, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Program satisfaction, self-efficacy to change, and willingness to change, are dispositions that influence physical education teacher change. The study purpose was to validate an instrument measuring program satisfaction, self-efficacy to change, and willingness to change relative to teachers' likelihood to change. A 15-item Teacher Change…

  20. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. McPhail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patients’ preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n=221 of 296 eligible accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for “how much” they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented “not at all”; 10 represented “very much”. Results. Most (n=155, 70% desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. “Print and post” communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10, followed by email and telephone (both 5/10, text messaging (1/10, and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10. Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p<0.001, telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p<0.001, and email (coefficient = 2.059, p=0.02. Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = −0.100, p<0.001, texting (coefficient = −0.096, p<0.001, and social network messages (coefficient = −0.065, p<0.001. Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls.

  1. Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among Low-Income Housing Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…

  2. The theory of planned behavior and physical activity change: Outcomes of the aging well and healthily intervention program for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, E.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Aartsen, M.J.; Tilburg, T.G. van; Chorus, A.

    2017-01-01

    The predictive value of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on intention and physical activity (PA) over time was examined. Data from the Aging Well and Healthily intervention program (targeting perceived behavioral control and attitude, not subjective norm) were analyzed, including pretest (T0),

  3. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is deri