WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing national security

  1. A deeper look at climate change and national security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Backus, George A.; Romig, Alton Dale, Jr.

    2010-03-01

    Climate change is a long-term process that will trigger a range of multi-dimensional demographic, economic, geopolitical, and national security issues with many unknowns and significant uncertainties. At first glance, climate-change-related national security dimensions seem far removed from today's major national security threats. Yet climate change has already set in motion forces that will require U.S. attention and preparedness. The extent and uncertainty associated with these situations necessitate a move away from conventional security practices, toward a small but flexible portfolio of assets to maintain U.S. interests. Thoughtful action is required now if we are to acquire the capabilities, tools, systems, and institutions needed to meet U.S. national security requirements as they evolve with the emerging stresses and shifts of climate change.

  2. The Intersection of National Security and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fankhauser, Jana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kurzrok, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sandusky, Jessica A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-29

    On June 4, 2014, the Henry M. Jackson Foundation and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory hosted a groundbreaking symposium in Seattle, Washington, that brought together 36 leaders from federal agencies, state and local governments, NGOs, business, and academia. The participants examined approaches and tools to help decision makers make informed choices about the climate and security risks they face. The following executive summary is based on the day’s discussions and examines the problem of climate change and its impact on national security, the responses to date, and future considerations.

  3. Climate Change and its Implications to National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Climate change is increasingly one of the most serious national security threats which will have significant impacts on natural and coastal resources, ecosystem, human health and settlements, thereby affecting human wellbeing. At the same time, it is likely to influence of large scale human migration, economic and social depression over scarce natural resources and political systems necessary involve an even higher degree of uncertainty. Crucial for action is addressing climate change threats to small island states and states that are least developed, as environmental destabilization may lead to a major economic, environmental and political crisis that may not just affect these states but the world as a whole. Approach: Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Related published literature and documents were searched in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to climate change impacts and national security. Results: The literature review indicates that climate change undermine national security dimensions by increasing environmental degradation, resources scarcity, large scale human migration as well as damage of infrastructure. The review also indicate that climate change undermine environmental dimensions by increasing sea level rise, extreme weather events, freshwater scarcity, land degradation and pollution; undermine economic dimensions by reducing access to and the quality of natural resources and human health, in addition to undermine of political dimensions with the possibility of increased environmental refugees, severe storms and failed economics. Conclusion: Reducing climate-induced threats that contributes to national security, there will need to develop an integrated approach in local and national levels and implement sustainable adaptive strategies as well as climate security.

  4. A National Climate Change Adaptation Network for Protecting Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A.; Sauchyn, D.; Byrne, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water security and resource-dependent community-survival are being increasingly challenged as a consequence of climate change, and it is urgent that we plan now for the security of our water supplies which support our lives and livelihoods. However, the range of impacts of climate change on water availability, and the consequent environmental and human adaptations that are required, is so complex and serious that it will take the combined work of natural, health and social scientists working with industries and communities to solve them. Networks are needed that will identify crucial water issues under climate change at a range of scales in order to provide regionally-sensitive, solutions-oriented research and adaptation. We suggest national and supra-national water availability and community sustainability issues must be addressed by multidisciplinary research and adaptation networks. The work must be driven by a bottom-up research paradigm — science in the service of community and governance. We suggest that interdisciplinary teams of researchers, in partnership with community decision makers and local industries, are the best means to develop solutions as communities attempt to address future water demands, protect their homes from infrastructure damage, and meet their food, drinking water, and other essential resource requirements. The intention is to cover: the impact of climate change on Canadian natural resources, both marine and terrestrial; issues of long-term sustainability and resilience in human communities and the environments in which they are embedded; the making and moving of knowledge, be that between members of Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, researchers of different disciplines, communities, industry, policymakers and the academy and the crucial involvement of the various orders of government in the response to water problems, under conditions of heightened uncertainty. Such an adaptation network must include a national

  5. Energy and national security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-09-01

    On May 19 and 20, 2003, thirty-some members of Sandia staff and management met to discuss the long-term connections between energy and national security. Three broad security topics were explored: I. Global and U.S. economic dependence on oil (and gas); II. Potential security implications of global climate change; and III. Vulnerabilities of the U.S. domestic energy infrastructure. This report, rather than being a transcript of the workshop, represents a synthesis of background information used in the workshop, ideas that emerged in the discussions, and ex post facto analysis of the discussions. Each of the three subjects discussed at this workshop has significant U.S. national security implications. Each has substantial technology components. Each appears a legitimate area of concern for a national security laboratory with relevant technology capabilities. For the laboratory to play a meaningful role in contributing to solutions to national problems such as these, it needs to understand the political, economic, and social environments in which it expects its work to be accepted and used. In addition, it should be noted that the problems of oil dependency and climate change are not amenable to solution by the policies of any one nation--even the one that is currently the largest single energy consumer. Therefore, views, concerns, policies, and plans of other countries will do much to determine which solutions might work and which might not.

  6. The Evolving Risk of Climate Change and National Security: People not Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titley, D.

    2014-12-01

    This talk will provide a general overview of climate change and discuss why this is a national security issue. Climate change is about people, about water, and about change itself. Understanding the rate of climate change, relative to the abilities of both humans and ecosystems to adapt is critical. I will briefly describe the multiple, independent lines of evidence that the climate is changing, and that the primary cause of this change is a change in atmospheric composition caused by the burning of fossil fuels. I will cover the history of climate change as seen within the U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. Navy, how this challenge is being addressed from budgetary, policy, and political angles, and what are the greatest challenges to national security that arise from climate change and in particular, the associated changes in the Arctic. I will conclude with an assessment of future challenges and opportunities regarding climate change, from science, policy, and political perspectives, and why we know enough to take significant action now, even if we don't know every detail about the future. In addition, this talk will address how to effectively talk about climate change through the use of analogies, plain, non-jargon English, and even a little humor.

  7. Global climate change and international security. Report on a conference held at Argonne National Laboratory, May 8--10, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.

    1991-12-31

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  8. Implosion lessons from national security, high reliability spacecraft, electronics, and the forces which changed them

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, L Parker

    2012-01-01

    Implosion is a focused study of the history and uses of high-reliability, solid-state electronics, military standards, and space systems that support our national security and defense. This book is unique in combining the interdependent evolution of and interrelationships among military standards, solid-state electronics, and very high-reliability space systems. Starting with a brief description of the physics that enabled the development of the first transistor, Implosion covers the need for standardizing military electronics, which began during World War II and continu

  9. Reagan's National Security Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dale L. Smith

    1988-01-01

    As the Reagan presidency draws to an end, speculation grows as to its legacy in various areas, from domestic economics to international politics. The current study takes as its focus the Reagan legacy in the area of national security policy: specifically, the possible effects of Reagan's defense spending and Soviet policies. Using the global political-economic simulation model GLOBUS, a set of Reagan-like budgeting and foreign policies are formally implemented within the model and the resulti...

  10. National Security Series, User's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Saundra L.

    This document is a guide to using the "National Security Series", which consists of seven books designed for teaching about national security issues in high school social studies classes. Five of the series books contain lessons designed to supplement specific courses by relating national security issues to U.S. government, U.S. history,…

  11. Idaho National Laboratory/Nuclear Power Industry Strategic Plan for Light Water Reactor Research and Development An Industry-Government Partnership to Address Climate Change and Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Power Research

    2007-11-01

    The dual issues of energy security and climate change mitigation are driving a renewed debate over how to best provide safe, secure, reliable and environmentally responsible electricity to our nation. The combination of growing energy demand and aging electricity generation infrastructure suggests major new capacity additions will be required in the years ahead.

  12. 76 FR 34761 - Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Classified National Security Information AGENCY: Marine Mammal Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... information, as directed by Information Security Oversight Office regulations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., ``Classified National Security Information,'' and 32 CFR part 2001, ``Classified National Security......

  13. To The Question Of The Concepts "National Security", "Information Security", "National Information Security" Meanings

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Galushkin

    2015-01-01

    In the present article author analyzes value of the concepts "national security", "information security", "national information security". Author gives opinions of scientists-jurists, definitions given by legislators and normotvorets in various regulations.

  14. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  15. ORDER SECURITYNATIONAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION. NATIONAL SECURITY DEFENSE AS SPECIAL ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán BALLA

    2009-01-01

    National security administration is the special executivedisposal activity of the national security agencies, the section of the state administration that helps the governmental work by reconnoitering and preventing with secret-servicing methods of the risks that shall harm or endanger the national security’s interests. The main operational principles of national security governing are the followings among others: - controlling the operation of national security organization belongs to the ex...

  16. 75 FR 705 - Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Executive Order 13526--Classified National Security Information Memorandum of December 29, 2009--Implementation of the Executive Order ``Classified National Security Information'' Order of December 29, 2009... ] Executive Order 13526 of December 29, 2009 Classified National Security Information This order prescribes...

  17. Cybercrime: A National Security Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Tabansky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyberspace, an offshoot of the development of computer and digital communications technologies, has in recent decades become part and parcel of our lives. The implications of cyberspace crime for national security derive from the way technology is used by hostile elements. This article proposes a policy directed examination of the meaning of cyberspace crime and its impact on national security, without focusing on the widespread monetary assessments of the damage caused by cybercrime. It includes a profile of cooperation among criminals, organized crime, and hostile organizations, and discusses the commercialization of cyber reconnaissance and cyber attack capabilities, made possible by ever-developing technologies and the growth of a black market in IT services. Currently, cybercrime is hardly significant beyond the realms of IT risk management and law enforcement. However, this article identifies two separate conditions where cybercrime could become a substantial threat to national security

  18. Nuclear industry and national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central issue of the book is not nuclear power as such, but its effects on the country as a whole in terms of security and safety. The contributions to the book examine aspects of national security affected by nuclear power, and the measures taken to make nuclear power safe, with safety covering the engineering aspects, and security the social, economic, and legal aspects. Experts in their field explain the safety philosophies modified in the course of nuclear industry development, and how technological problems have been tackled. Physical protection of nuclear power plant is an aspect, and insurance for financial security another. Security problems in connection with nuclear weapons in the F.R.G. are discussed as well as the political dimension of nuclear power safety, which is explained by representatives of the parties in the Bundestag. The role of the general public in the democratic process of defining 'security' or 'safety', and security in the context of a constitutional state are further topics under investigation. The book gathers contributions from authors who are known for their advocating, oppositional, or sceptical attitude towards nuclear power. (orig./HSCH)

  19. 14 CFR 1260.31 - National security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National security. 1260.31 Section 1260.31... Provisions § 1260.31 National security. National Security October 2000 Normally, NASA grants do not involve... who will have access to the information must obtain the appropriate security clearance in advance...

  20. Status of the National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the status of the national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. This report includes an assessment of the current workforce situation. The national security workforce is an important component of national security for our country. With the increase of global threats of terrorism, this workforce is being called upon more frequently. This has resulted in the need for an increasing number of national security personnel. It is imperative to attract and retain a skilled and competitive national security workforce.

  1. Global climate change and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  2. Global climate change and international security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-11-01

    This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

  3. Food security under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Using food prices to assess climate change impacts on food security is misleading. Differential impacts on income require a broader measure of household well-being, such as changes in absolute poverty.

  4. A New National Security Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tritten, James John

    1991-01-01

    This precis of President Bush's new national security strategy first unveiled in Aspen, Colorado on August 2, 1990, involving a mix of active, reserve, and reconstitutable forces, and General Colin Powell's base force. Discussion of the effect of Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM, four major critical factors upon which the new strategy depends; (1) the behavior of the USSR (2) the behavior of allies and the Congress (3) the ability of the intelligence community to meet new challenges,...

  5. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  6. 10 CFR 605.18 - National security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National security. 605.18 Section 605.18 Energy DEPARTMENT... PROGRAM § 605.18 National security. Activities under ER's Financial Assistance Program shall not involve classified information (i.e., Restricted Data, formerly Restricted Data, National Security...

  7. 10 CFR 602.16 - National security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National security. 602.16 Section 602.16 Energy DEPARTMENT... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.16 National security. Activities under the Epidemiology and Other Health Studies..., Formerly Restricted Data, National Security Information). However, if in the opinion of the recipient...

  8. Rethinking climate change as a security threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, Corinne

    2011-10-15

    Once upon a time climate change was a strictly environment and development issue. Today it has become a matter of national and international security. Efforts to link climate change with violent conflict may not be based on solid evidence, but they have certainly captured the attention of governments. They have played a vital role in raising the much-needed awareness of climate change as an issue that deserves global action. But at what cost? Focusing on climate change as a security threat alone risks devolving humanitarian responsibilities to the military, ignoring key challenges and losing sight of those climate-vulnerable communities that stand most in need of protection.

  9. Climatic change and security stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the relationships between climate change and security. Potential threats from climate change, as a unique source of stress or together with other factors, to human security are first examined. Some of the most explicit examples illustrate this section: food security, water availability, vulnerability to extreme events and vulnerability of small islands States and coastal zones. By questioning the basic needs of some populations or at least aggravating their precariousness, such risks to human security could also raise global security concerns, which we examine in turn, along four directions: rural exodus with an impoverishment of displaced populations, local conflicts for the use of natural resources, diplomatic tensions and international conflicts, and propagation to initially-unaffected regions through migratory flows. (authors)

  10. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National security. 742.4 Section 742.4... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.4 National security. (a) License requirements. It is the policy of the United States...

  11. 78 FR 63232 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC... related to national security and emergency preparedness (NS/EP) telecommunications policy. During...

  12. 77 FR 65393 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... national security and emergency preparedness (NS/EP) telecommunications policy. Agenda: The NSTAC...

  13. Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

  14. 77 FR 44641 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... security and emergency preparedness telecommunications policy. Agenda: The NSTAC members will receive...

  15. Water security-National and global issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Campbell, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Potable or clean freshwater availability is crucial to life and economic, environmental, and social systems. The amount of freshwater is finite and makes up approximately 2.5 percent of all water on the Earth. Freshwater supplies are small and randomly distributed, so water resources can become points of conflict. Freshwater availability depends upon precipitation patterns, changing climate, and whether the source of consumed water comes directly from desalination, precipitation, or surface and (or) groundwater. At local to national levels, difficulties in securing potable water sources increase with growing populations and economies. Available water improves living standards and drives urbanization, which increases average water consumption per capita. Commonly, disruptions in sustainable supplies and distribution of potable water and conflicts over water resources become major security issues for Government officials. Disruptions are often influenced by land use, human population, use patterns, technological advances, environmental impacts, management processes and decisions, transnational boundaries, and so forth.

  16. 75 FR 37253 - Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... and Records Administration Information Security Oversight Office 32 CFR Parts 2001 and 2003 Classified National Security Information; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 123 / Monday, June 28, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information...

  17. 78 FR 28237 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... Telecommunications Advisory Committee, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland...

  18. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  19. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  20. Extreme Scale Computing to Secure the Nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L; McGraw, J R; Johnson, J R; Frincke, D

    2009-11-10

    Since the dawn of modern electronic computing in the mid 1940's, U.S. national security programs have been dominant users of every new generation of high-performance computer. Indeed, the first general-purpose electronic computer, ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), was used to calculate the expected explosive yield of early thermonuclear weapons designs. Even the U. S. numerical weather prediction program, another early application for high-performance computing, was initially funded jointly by sponsors that included the U.S. Air Force and Navy, agencies interested in accurate weather predictions to support U.S. military operations. For the decades of the cold war, national security requirements continued to drive the development of high performance computing (HPC), including advancement of the computing hardware and development of sophisticated simulation codes to support weapons and military aircraft design, numerical weather prediction as well as data-intensive applications such as cryptography and cybersecurity U.S. national security concerns continue to drive the development of high-performance computers and software in the U.S. and in fact, events following the end of the cold war have driven an increase in the growth rate of computer performance at the high-end of the market. This mainly derives from our nation's observance of a moratorium on underground nuclear testing beginning in 1992, followed by our voluntary adherence to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) beginning in 1995. The CTBT prohibits further underground nuclear tests, which in the past had been a key component of the nation's science-based program for assuring the reliability, performance and safety of U.S. nuclear weapons. In response to this change, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program in response to the Fiscal Year 1994 National Defense Authorization Act, which requires, 'in the

  1. National security in the third world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mashat, A.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    For nations of the Third World, national security poses serious dilemmas. Unlike Western nations, less-developed countries must balance the complex and often contradictory requirements of socio-economic and political development with problems of internal stability and the requirements of national defense. For these countries, a concept of national security that focuses primarily on the international threat system and its overt manifestations of wars and violence, ignoring domestic well-being, is inadequate on theoretical and pragmatic grounds. This book addresses the security problems of Third World states, arguing for new ways to define and measure national security so that the concept may be appropriately applied to the needs of developing countries. In addition, the author argues that the tranquility of a state, a concept traditionally linked with national security, cannot necessarily be associated with quality of life as measured by conventional means. Dr. Al-Mashat constructs a tranquility index for 95 developing nations and tests its relationship with the physical quality-of-life index to demonstrate this point. Attempts to improve quality of life, he suggests, may in many countries lead to a reduction in security unless simultaneous attempts are made to democratize the regime.

  2. 78 FR 45255 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... preparedness (NS/EP) telecommunications policy. Agenda: The NSTAC members will deliberate and vote on the...

  3. 76 FR 28443 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... emergency preparedness (NS/EP) telecommunications policy. Agenda: The committee will meet in open session...

  4. 75 FR 3913 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee...: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will be meeting by... telecommunications policy. Notice of this meeting is given under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA),...

  5. 76 FR 72427 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC...) telecommunications policy. During the meeting, NSTAC members will receive feedback from the Department of...

  6. 75 FR 29781 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will be... preparedness telecommunications policy. Notice of this meeting is given under the Federal Advisory...

  7. 77 FR 75182 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... telecommunications policy. Agenda: The NSTAC members will receive an update on progress made to date by the...

  8. 77 FR 24728 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... telecommunications policy. Agenda: The committee will meet in open session to receive a briefing on the...

  9. 77 FR 6813 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... and emergency preparedness telecommunications policy. During the conference call, the NSTAC...

  10. 76 FR 17424 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC... preparedness telecommunications policy. The NSTAC Chair, Mr. James Crowe, will call the meeting to order...

  11. 75 FR 16159 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee...: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will hold its annual... and emergency preparedness telecommunications policy. Notice of this meeting is given under...

  12. 76 FR 52672 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... telecommunications policy. During the conference call, the NSTAC members will receive an update regarding...

  13. Global water risks and national security: Building resilience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The UN defines water security as the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability. This definition highlights complex and interconnected challenges and underscores the centrality of water for environmental services and human aactivities. Global risks are expressed at the national level. The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review and the 2010 National Security Strategy identify climate change as likely to trigger outcomes that will threaten U.S. security including how freshwater resources can become a security issue. Impacts will be felt on the National Security interest through water, food and energy security, and critical infrastructure. This recognition focuses the need to consider the rates of change in climate extremes, in the context of more traditional political, economic, and social indicators that inform security analyses. There is a long-standing academic debate over the extent to which resource constraints and environmental challenges lead to inter-state conflict. It is generally recognized that water resources as a security issue to date exists mainly at the substate level and has not led to physical conflict between nation states. In conflict and disaster zones, threats to water security increase through inequitable and difficult access to water supply and related services, which may aggravate existing social fragility, tensions, violence, and conflict. This paper will (1) Outline the dimensions of water security and its links to national security (2) Analyze water footprints and management risks for key basins in the US and around the world, (3) map the link between global water security and national concerns, drawing lessons from the drought of 2012 and elsewhere

  14. CHANGES IN THE SECURITY AGENDA: CRITICAL SECURITY STUDIES AND HUMAN SECURITY. THE CASE OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen THI THUY HANG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War the meaning of security has fundamentally changed. Issues which are labeled as non-traditional security namely human development, economic crises, environmental degradation, natural disaster, poverty, epidemics… have become a crucial part of the security agenda. These changes have been intensified with the development of the two approaches: Critical Security Studies and Human Security. This article explores how the meaning of security has changed and how the boundaries between traditional and non-traditional security have become blurred. The case of China is taken as empirical evidence to support the assertion that security has evolved beyond its traditional focus on the state.

  15. Spaces of Global Security: Beyond Methodological Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson , Fiona B.

    2016-01-01

    The changing political and social meanings of space under conditions of advanced globalization point to the need to analyze security – or the deployment and management of violence -- as a socio-spatial practice. This article draws attention to the “methodological nationalist” bias that has traditionally characterized mainstream security studies, and discusses its effect on how security issues are studied and conceptualized. Building on insights from political geography and sociology, the art...

  16. Nevada National Security Site Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 1 issued in February 2010. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect a recent change in name for the NTS; changes in name for some tenant organizations; and to update references to current DOE policies, orders, and guidance documents. Article 237.2 was deleted. Appendix 3B was updated. Article 411.2 was modified. Article 422 was re-written to reflect the wording of DOE O 458.1. Article 431.6.d was modified. The glossary was updated. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. Current activities at NNSS include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for United States defense-generated waste, assembly and execution of subcritical experiments, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, the storage and use of special nuclear materials, performing criticality experiments, emergency responder training, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, environmental activity by the University system, and nonnuclear test operations, such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center. Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of

  17. Nevada National Security Site Radiological Control Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers’ Council

    2012-03-26

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 1 issued in February 2010. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect a recent change in name for the NTS; changes in name for some tenant organizations; and to update references to current DOE policies, orders, and guidance documents. Article 237.2 was deleted. Appendix 3B was updated. Article 411.2 was modified. Article 422 was re-written to reflect the wording of DOE O 458.1. Article 431.6.d was modified. The glossary was updated. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. Current activities at NNSS include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for United States defense-generated waste, assembly and execution of subcritical experiments, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, the storage and use of special nuclear materials, performing criticality experiments, emergency responder training, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, environmental activity by the University system, and nonnuclear test operations, such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center. Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of

  18. Establishing a National Nuclear Security Support Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibility for creating and sustaining a nuclear security regime for the protection of nuclear and other radiological material clearly belongs to the State. The nuclear security regime resembles the layers of an onion, with the equipment and personnel securing the borders and ports representing the outer layer, and nuclear power, research reactors and nuclear medicine facilities representing the inner layers, and the actual target material representing the core. Components of any nuclear security regime include not only technological systems, but the human resources needed to manage, operate, administer and maintain equipment, including hardware and software. This publication provides practical guidance on the establishment and maintenance of a national nuclear security support centre (NSSC) as a means to ensure nuclear security sustainability in a State. An NSSC's basic purpose is to provide a national focal point for passing ownership of nuclear security knowledge and associated technical skills to the competent authorities involved in nuclear security. It describes processes and methodologies that can be used by a State to analyse the essential elements of information in a manner that allows several aspects of long term, systemic sustainability of nuclear security to be addressed. Processes such as the systematic approach to training, sometimes referred to as instructional system design, are the cornerstone of the NSSC concept. Proper analysis can provide States with data on the number of personnel requiring training and instructors needed, scale and scope of training, technical and scientific support venues, and details on the type and number of training aids or simulators required so that operational systems are not compromised in any way. Specific regulatory guidance, equipment or technology lists, or specifications/design of protection systems are not included in this publication. For such details, the following IAEA publications should be consulted

  19. Extreme Scale Computing to Secure the Nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L; McGraw, J R; Johnson, J R; Frincke, D

    2009-11-10

    Since the dawn of modern electronic computing in the mid 1940's, U.S. national security programs have been dominant users of every new generation of high-performance computer. Indeed, the first general-purpose electronic computer, ENIAC (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), was used to calculate the expected explosive yield of early thermonuclear weapons designs. Even the U. S. numerical weather prediction program, another early application for high-performance computing, was initially funded jointly by sponsors that included the U.S. Air Force and Navy, agencies interested in accurate weather predictions to support U.S. military operations. For the decades of the cold war, national security requirements continued to drive the development of high performance computing (HPC), including advancement of the computing hardware and development of sophisticated simulation codes to support weapons and military aircraft design, numerical weather prediction as well as data-intensive applications such as cryptography and cybersecurity U.S. national security concerns continue to drive the development of high-performance computers and software in the U.S. and in fact, events following the end of the cold war have driven an increase in the growth rate of computer performance at the high-end of the market. This mainly derives from our nation's observance of a moratorium on underground nuclear testing beginning in 1992, followed by our voluntary adherence to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) beginning in 1995. The CTBT prohibits further underground nuclear tests, which in the past had been a key component of the nation's science-based program for assuring the reliability, performance and safety of U.S. nuclear weapons. In response to this change, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program in response to the Fiscal Year 1994 National Defense Authorization Act, which requires, 'in the

  20. Risk assessment of climate systems for national security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick; Brown, Theresa Jean; Cai, Ximing [University of Illinois-Urbana; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Constantine, Paul [Stanford University; Dalbey, Keith R.; Debusschere, Bert J.; Fields, Richard; Hart, David Blaine; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Kerstein, Alan R.; Levy, Michael [National Center for Atmospheric Research; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Najm, Habib N.; Overfelt, James Robert; Parks, Mancel Jordan; Peplinski, William J.; Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Taylor, Mark A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Villa, Daniel L.

    2012-10-01

    Climate change, through drought, flooding, storms, heat waves, and melting Arctic ice, affects the production and flow of resource within and among geographical regions. The interactions among governments, populations, and sectors of the economy require integrated assessment based on risk, through uncertainty quantification (UQ). This project evaluated the capabilities with Sandia National Laboratories to perform such integrated analyses, as they relate to (inter)national security. The combining of the UQ results from climate models with hydrological and economic/infrastructure impact modeling appears to offer the best capability for national security risk assessments.

  1. Climate change impact on China food security in 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Liming; Xiong, Wei; Li, Zhengguo; Yang, Peng; Wu, Wenbin; Yang, Guixia; Fu, Yijiang; zou, Jinqiu; Chen, Zhongxin; Van Ranst, Eric; Tang, Huajun

    2013-01-01

    International audience Climate change is now affecting global agriculture and food production worldwide. Nonetheless the direct link between climate change and food security at the national scale is poorly understood. Here we simulated the effect of climate change on food security in China using the CERES crop models and the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 scenarios including CO2 fertilization effect. Models took into account population size, urbanization rate, cropland area, cropping intensity and te...

  2. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2013 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  3. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  4. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  5. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  6. How Does Globalization Affect the National Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization as a process of integration of national economies has led to the creation of a single world economic system. The signs of globalization have appeared before the First World War, in fact, globalization is produced not only the economic aspect, but also the cultural one (it tends to interweave and even standardize the material and spiritual culture of mankind and informational one caused by the Internet. The globalization is the most dynamic and broader geopolitical process in the contemporary world. Among its most visible effects it includes the gradual erosion of the pivotal concepts of geopolitics, such as border, territoriality or sphere of influence, increasing the role of international policy actors - international organizations and transnational companies - to the detriment of states; these phenomena are accompanied also by the revision of ideas concerning sovereignty, nation-state and nation. Within just two decades, "the world order" has undergone considerable changes. The bipolar international system during the Cold War has become one pole with the collapse of the Soviet Union. But here, now, the world is again changing. New powers are rising, including Russia which is in a recovery of form, an emerging multipolar world is increasingly visible. All these mutations did not remain without effect on the geopolitical framework. The powers redefine their areas of influence, new geopolitical objectives gain priority on the states’ agenda. We therefore consider that it is necessary a deep analysis on how the new challenges arising from globalization tend to crystallize in the international security environment, in general, and of Romania in particular. Along with Romania, both NATO and the European Union becomes a regional dimension in the area of influence of Romania.

  7. Climate Change and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Saina, Christopher Kipkoech; Murgor, Daniel Kipkosgei; Murgor, Florence A.C

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are...

  8. New rules revamp national security prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Following the collapse of recent prosecutions of Chinese-American scientists on national security grounds, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) has issued new rules on such lawsuits that will require top officials in Washington to review and supervise all cases that implicitly involve spying – rather than leaving decisions to local prosecutors.

  9. Water security - Nation state and international security implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Andrew A. Campbell

    2009-01-01

    A terrorist attack such as poisoning and sabotage of the national water supply and water-quality infrastructure of the continental United States or any country, could disrupt the delivery of vital human services, threaten both public health and the environment, potentially cause mass casualties and pose grave public concern for homeland security. Most significantly, an attack on water resources would weaken social cohesion and trust in government. A threat to continuity of services is a potential threat to continuity of government since both are necessary for continuity of operations. Water infrastructure is difficult to protect, as it extends over vast areas across the U.S. and for which ownership is overwhelmingly nonfederal (approximately 85 percent). Since the 9111 attacks, federal dam operators and water and wastewater utilities have established counter measures. Similar measures have been taken in countries around the world. These include enhanced physical security, improved coordination between corporate ownership, Department of Homeland Security, and local law enforcement, and research into risk assessment and vulnerability analysis to ensure greater system safety. A key issue is the proportionate additional resources directed at public and private sector specific priorities. Agencies that have the scientific and technological ability to leverage resources, exploit integrated science approaches, focus on interdisciplinary practices, utilize informatics expertise and employ a wide use of evolving technologies should play a key role in water security and related issues.

  10. Demographic trends in France and Germany: implications for U.S. national security

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Mark G.

    1996-01-01

    National Security Affairs This thesis explores the changing demographic picture in France and Germany and how it may affect U.S. national security in the near future. while demographics are only one set of the many forces driving changes in the way the United States and Western Europe interact and cooperate, they have the potential to fundamentally change the way Western Europe shapes and implements its security policies around the world. This thesis explores the changing demographic pictu...

  11. Academics and National-Security Experts Must Work Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansler, Jacques S.; Gast, Alice P.

    2008-01-01

    In the years since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the federal government's policies that deal with national security have changed significantly. In an effort to prevent the results of science and engineering research from being misused or falling into the wrong hands, government agencies that support studies are placing restrictions on…

  12. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy... regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for a meeting of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security...

  13. Scientific Openness and National Security at the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTague, John

    2000-04-01

    The possible loss to the People's Republic of China of important U.S. nuclear-weapons-related information has aroused concern about interactions of scientists employed by the national laboratories with foreign nationals. As a result, the National Academies assembled a committee to examine the roles of the national laboratories, the contribution of foreign interactions to the fulfillment of those roles, the risks and benefits of scientific openness in this context, and the merits and liabilities of the specific policies being implemented or proposed with respect to contacts with foreign nationals. The committee concluded that there are many aspects of the work at the laboratories that benefit from or even demand the opportunity for foreign interactions. The committee recommended five principles for guiding policy: (1) Maintain balance. Policy governing international dialogue by laboratory staff should seek to encourage international engagement in some areas, while tightly controlling it in others. (2) Educate staff. Security procedures should be clear, easy to follow, and serve an understandable purpose. (3) Streamline procedures. Good science is compatible with good security if there is intelligent line management both at the labs and in Washington, which applies effective tools for security in a sensible fashion. (4) Focus efforts. DOE should focus its efforts governing tightened security for information. The greatest attention should obviously be provided to the protection of classified information by appropriate physical and cybersecurity measures, and by personnel procedures and training. (5) Beware of prejudice against foreigners. Over the past half-century foreign-born individuals have contributed broadly and profoundly to national security through their work at the national laboratories.

  14. Selecting RMF Controls for National Security Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzke, Edward L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    In 2014, the United States Department of Defense started tra nsitioning the way it performs risk management and accreditation of informatio n systems to a process entitled Risk Management Framework for DoD Information Technology or RMF for DoD IT. There are many more security and privacy contro ls (and control enhancements) from which to select in RMF, than there w ere in the previous Information Assurance process. This report is an attempt t o clarify the way security controls and enhancements are selected. After a brief overview and comparison of RMF for DoD I T with the previously used process, this report looks at the determination of systems as National Security Systems (NSS). Once deemed to be an NSS, this report addr esses the categorization of the information system with respect to impact level s of the various security objectives and the selection of an initial baseline o f controls. Next, the report describes tailoring the controls through the use of overl ays and scoping considerations. Finally, the report discusses organizatio n-defined values for tuning the security controls to the needs of the information system.

  15. 75 FR 1566 - National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office 32 CFR Part 2004 RIN 3095-AB34 National Industrial Security Program Directive No. 1 AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, NARA. ACTION... Federal Register of November 30, 2009, regarding the National Industrial Security Program Directive No....

  16. Change of Computer Security Officer

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    After many years of successfully protecting the CERN site in her role as Computer Security Officer (CSO), Denise Heagerty is being assigned to a new role within the IT Department. David Myers has been appointed to the position of CSO for one year from 1st September. W. von Rüden, IT Department Head

  17. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.' Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2011 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  18. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.' Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2011 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  19. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  20. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  1. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste; DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW); DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW); and, U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste. The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  2. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  3. National Security and the Right to Information in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Amanda Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Full text available at: http://cast.ku.dk/pdf/National_Security_and_the_Right_to_Information.pdf/......Full text available at: http://cast.ku.dk/pdf/National_Security_and_the_Right_to_Information.pdf/...

  4. 48 CFR 606.302-6 - National security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National security. 606.302... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.302-6 National security. (b) This subsection applies to all acquisitions involving national security information,...

  5. 48 CFR 6.302-6 - National security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National security. 6.302-6... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-6 National security. (a) Authority. (1... for when the disclosure of the agency's needs would compromise the national security unless the...

  6. 78 FR 29145 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... In the Federal Register of May 14, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-11324, on page 28238, in the first column... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection...'s National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC). The document contained...

  7. 77 FR 49439 - National Security Education Board Members Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... of the Secretary National Security Education Board Members Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense... hereby given of a forthcoming meeting of the National Security Education Board. The purpose ] of the... address: Alison.patz@wso.whs.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The National Security Education...

  8. 76 FR 28960 - National Security Education Board Members Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary National Security Education Board Members Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense... hereby given of a forthcoming meeting of the National Security Education Board. The purpose of the... National Security Education Board Members meeting is open to the public. The public is afforded...

  9. 76 FR 50719 - National Security Education Board Members Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... of the Secretary National Security Education Board Members Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense... 92-463, notice is hereby given of a forthcoming meeting of the National Security Education Board. The... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The National Security Education Board Members meeting is open to the public....

  10. 77 FR 27739 - National Security Education Board Members Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... of the Secretary National Security Education Board Members Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense... hereby given of a forthcoming meeting of the National Security Education Board. The purpose of the... address: Alison.patz@wso.whs.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The National Security Education...

  11. 76 FR 40296 - Declassification of National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Order, Classified National Security Information, 75 FR 733, 3 CFR, 2009 Comp., p. 412; 32 CFR part 2001... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1260 RIN 3095-AB64 Declassification of National Security Information... would update NARA's regulations related to declassification of classified national security...

  12. Department of Energy award DE-SC0004164 Climate and National Security: Securing Better Forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno Harnish

    2011-08-16

    The Climate and National Security: Securing Better Forecasts symposium was attended by senior policy makers and distinguished scientists. The juxtaposition of these communities was creative and fruitful. They acknowledged they were speaking past each other. Scientists were urged to tell policy makers about even improbable outcomes while articulating clearly the uncertainties around the outcomes. As one policy maker put it, we are accustomed to making these types of decisions. These points were captured clearly in an article that appeared on the New York Times website and can be found with other conference materials most easily on our website, www.scripps.ucsd.edu/cens/. The symposium, generously supported by the NOAA/JIMO, benefitted the public by promoting scientifically informed decision making and by the transmission of objective information regarding climate change and national security.

  13. Global food security under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidhuber, J.; Tubiello, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security. It is found that of the four main elements of food security, i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access, only the first is routinely addressed in simulation studies. To this end, published results indicate that the impacts of climate change are significant, however, with a wide projected range (between 5 million and 170 million additional people at risk of hunger by 2080) strongly depending on assumed s...

  14. Data security on the national fusion grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER

  15. Data security on the national fusion grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  16. VARIOUS COUNTRIES CURRENT RESEARCH ABOUT NATIONAL ENERGY SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Fanmei, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Energy resource is indispensable material resource for human survival, economic development, social progress and national security, is an important strategic material related to national economic lifelines and national security. Enter XXIst century, the international energy security issues are highlighted, energy competes fiercely, price fluctuates frequently. Energy security strategy is an important strategic issue in the (countries all over the )world, especially the major powers. This pape...

  17. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Cathy

    2013-09-11

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2012 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2012 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NFO is

  18. Legal Transparency as a National Security Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoni Eshpar

    2013-01-01

    The act of taking initiative is considered the preferred modus operandi within the various spheres that shape and define the concept of Israel’s national security: on the battlefield and in diplomacy, as well as on the media front. Conventional wisdom within all these spheres is that one should not be dragged along by the force of events, nor should one ever allow an adversary to define the terms of the battle. The legal realm, however, would appear to be an exception to this rule. Although reco...

  19. US National Security Strategy and preemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to a US National Security Strategy analysis conducted in 2006, preemption has evolved from concept into doctrine. The concept plan for Global Strike (CONPLAN 8022-02) will be maintained by the Joint Functional Component Command for Space and Global Strike (JFCC-SGS), which is planned to be fully operational from the autumn of 2006. The aim of CONPLAN 8022 is to be able to destroy by nuclear weapons those targets that cannot be destroyed by other means. Should deterrence fail, weapons must be ready to be put to use, be they nuclear or conventional. (author)

  20. Water Security - National and Global Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Campbell, A. A.; Moran, E. H.

    2010-12-01

    Water is fundamental to human life. Disruption of water supplies by the Water Threats and Hazards Triad (WTHT) — man-made, natural, and technological hazards — could threaten the delivery of vital human services, endanger public health and the environment, potentially cause mass casualties, and threaten population sustainability, social stability, and homeland security. Water distribution systems extend over vast areas and are therefore vulnerable to a wide spectrum of threats — from natural hazards such as large forest fires that result in runoff and debris flow that clog reservoirs, and reduce, disrupt, or contaminate water supply and quality to threats from natural, man-made, or political extremist attacks. Our research demonstrates how devising concepts and counter measures to protect water supplies will assist the public, policy makers, and planners at local, Tribal, State, and Federal levels to develop solutions for national and international water-security and sustainability issues. Water security is an issue in which the entire global community is stakeholders.

  1. Security Economics and Critical National Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Fuloria, Shailendra

    There has been considerable effort and expenditure since 9/11 on the protection of ‘Critical National Infrastructure' against online attack. This is commonly interpreted to mean preventing online sabotage against utilities such as electricity,oil and gas, water, and sewage - including pipelines, refineries, generators, storage depots and transport facilities such as tankers and terminals. A consensus is emerging that the protection of such assets is more a matter of business models and regulation - in short, of security economics - than of technology. We describe the problems, and the state of play, in this paper. Industrial control systems operate in a different world from systems previously studied by security economists; we find the same issues (lock-in, externalities, asymmetric information and so on) but in different forms. Lock-in is physical, rather than based on network effects, while the most serious externalities result from correlated failure, whether from cascade failures, common-mode failures or simultaneous attacks. There is also an interesting natural experiment happening, in that the USA is regulating cyber security in the electric power industry, but not in oil and gas, while the UK is not regulating at all but rather encouraging industry's own efforts. Some European governments are intervening, while others are leaving cybersecurity entirely to plant owners to worry about. We already note some perverse effects of the U.S. regulation regime as companies game the system, to the detriment of overall dependability.

  2. Overview of Scientific Freedom and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Irving

    2000-04-01

    The subject of our scrutiny is very much in the news, punctuated with nouns and modifiers both inflammatory and mundane such as espionage, justice, scientific accountability and scientific freedom. And while our discussion will focus on these issues, I want to raise some of the pragmatic questions that bear on the foundation of our support for international science. Beneath questions of guilt and the loss of secrets in the Wen Ho Lee case lay the inherent tension between the tradition of open exchange in the scientific enterprise and the need to protect the nation's security. How this balance is to be achieved in a democratic society has bedeviled us ever since the Manhattan project heralded the emergence of science and technology as instruments of great national power. If we do not find this balance, we run the risk of damaging some of the most important intellectual treasures that the US has produced the Department of Energy's national laboratories and the entire system that we call the international scientific enterprise. For while the superheated charges of lax security and criminal negligence have led some to call for ``firewalls" to isolate and protect the secrets in our weapons labs, such measures may have severe consequences for weapons and non-weapons labs alike and their many associated universities. It's estimated that from 70% to as much as 80% in the expansion of our economy is technology-driven, derived from the most productive system of scientific innovation in the world. This is also true of our national security. Science is indispensable to the development and maintenance of the nation's arsenals. The Department of Energy's Nuclear Stockpile Stewardship Program is central to the safety and reliability of American nuclear weapons and to our hope for a worldwide ban on nuclear tests. But this program will fail without a continuing intense development effort based on cutting-edge science. And a great deal of the science needed is being pursued in

  3. Y-12 National Security Complex Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Shana E.; Bassett, P.; McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y 12 National Security Complex (Y 12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y 12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements that could be applied not only at Y-12 but at other Federal facilities as well. FEMP selected Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to coordinate and manage the water assessment. PNNL contracted Water Savers, LLC to lead the technical aspects of the water assessment. Water Savers provided key technical expertise in water auditing, metering, and cooling systems. This is the report of that effort, which concluded that the Y-12 facility could realize considerable water savings by implementing the recommended water efficiency opportunities.

  4. Environmental Change as Security Dilemma and its Institutional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Ünaldi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a threat to the security and well-being of people in all countries. Their governments are entrusted with the task of guaranteeing this security in the face of un- usual weather phenomena, extreme climatic conditions and conflicts resulting from scarcity and climate-induced migration. Whereas traditional security threats took the form of inter-state conflicts and have often been met at the national level – for example through military means –, climate change as a global phenomenon seems to call for new types of action. Some have argued for an overhaul of political institutions to meet the climate challenge. Solutions offered range from world government to decentralized sub-state entities. Yet, as will be argued, climate change is imminent and needs to be tackled now. This leaves little room for Utopian political visions. In discussing different approaches developed in the field of International Relations as they relate to climate change and security, this article argues for an acknowledgement of climate change as a new type of security dilemma. It then proceeds to defend the suitability of current international institutions for solving problems posed by climate change. Firstly, they are the only institutions currently available. Secondly, they are both immune to overt centralization as well as big enough to develop and implement sustainable solutions. Most hope lies with clusters of countries working together and setting examples that might eventually be followed elsewhere.

  5. Legal Transparency as a National Security Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Eshpar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The act of taking initiative is considered the preferred modus operandi within the various spheres that shape and define the concept of Israel’s national security: on the battlefield and in diplomacy, as well as on the media front. Conventional wisdom within all these spheres is that one should not be dragged along by the force of events, nor should one ever allow an adversary to define the terms of the battle. The legal realm, however, would appear to be an exception to this rule. Although recognition of its importance has greatly increased in recent years, thinking on the subject remains limited to the defensive and reactive; in other words, thinking is limited to the question of how to furnish the political and operational echelon with professional advice and the proper means of defense against court petitions, lawsuits, commissions of inquiry, and other legal proceedings in Israel and abroad. These are important tasks, but is it the sum total of the law’s ability to contribute to security? What about a more comprehensive legal strategy that is more proactive and takes the initiative? What benefit, if any, would it have, and at what price? This article addresses these questions by reviewing the public legal campaign, unprecedented in form and scope, waged by the Obama administration throughout its first term.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  7. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  8. Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

  9. 75 FR 82037 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; President's National Security Telecommunications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; President's National Security Telecommunications... Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will meet on Wednesday, January 19, 2011, via a conference call. DATES... and emergency preparedness telecommunications policy. The new NSTAC Chair, James Crowe,...

  10. 76 FR 6636 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be...

  11. 75 FR 65526 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... committee meeting, to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting...

  12. 76 FR 28099 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  13. 76 FR 67484 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National Archives and Records... meeting to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  14. 77 FR 51817 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or... the information sharing efforts of the Coast Guard and DHS. (2) Cyber-Security. The Committee will... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard,...

  15. 78 FR 19277 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or presentations... of Meeting The agenda for the Committee meeting is as follows: (1) Cyber Security Executive Order. On... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: United States...

  16. 78 FR 16699 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316) Docket: Any... the Committee meeting is as follows: (1) Cyber Security Executive Order. On February 12, 2013... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard,...

  17. Strategic Analysis on Objectives of National Grain Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Price of global agricultural products rises with great fluctuation. China’s food price also increases constantly. This leads to high concern of both at home and abroad for food and grain security. On the basis of making an overall analysis on current situation of grain security and making judgment on future grain security in China,this paper analyzed objectives,strategies and policies of national grain security in the new period. Finally,it came up with strategies and policy recommendations for improving agricultural production and guaranteeing national grain security.

  18. 48 CFR 1352.237-72 - Security processing requirements-national security contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prescribed in 48 CFR 1337.110-70(d), use the following clause: Security Processing Requirements—National... the performance of their work. Regardless of the contractor employees' location, appropriate security... Office of Security before start of work. (2) The Contracting Officer's Representative must send...

  19. 77 FR 26023 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    .... Correction In the Federal Register of April 25, 2012, in FR Doc 2012-9979, on page 24728, in the third column... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee; Correction AGENCY: National... Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) meeting. The document contained incorrect information regarding...

  20. 39 CFR 267.5 - National Security Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate provisions of these regulations are complied with; (ii) Chair a committee composed of the Manager... conduct an audit of the USPS national security information program; (iv) Process requests for sensitive... information. (b) Definitions. (1) In this section, National Security Information means information on...

  1. 76 FR 81827 - Declassification of National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Order, Classified National Security Information,'' 75 FR 733, 3 CFR, 2009 Comp., p. 412; 32 CFR Part...@nara.gov . ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On July 8, 2011, NARA published a proposed rule (76 FR 40296... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1260 RIN 3095-AB64 Declassification of National Security...

  2. Counter-Intelligence as a Chaotic Phenomenon and Its Importance in National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloğlu, Gökhan; Gül, Zakir; Erçetin, Şefika Şule

    In today's rapidly changing globalized world, remarkably fast and important developments have been faced in the area of national security as in almost all other areas. Advancements in communication and transportation technologies have removed physical boundaries almost completely. National security institutions now have to fight against new and complicated security threats that go beyond the boundaries such as organized crimes and terror crimes. These ever-changing threats and dangerous environment which become more and more complex every single day force nations to review their current security structures and to take new and effective measures in the required areas in order to ensure their national security. As a matter of fact, counter-intelligence, which was quite important due to the frequency of spying acts during the Cold War but lost its importance after the Cold War had ended, has been one of these measures. Today, counterintelligence has once again become one of the most important functions in the fight against national security threats with changing dimensions. It is only possible for a nation to ensure its national security fully by having not only a defensive and passive approach but also offensive counter-intelligence.

  3. Nuclear power and national energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy in Ghana is expected to grow rapidly in the next couple of decades if the objectives of the Vision 2020 Programme are to become a reality. In particular, the demand for electric power is expected to increase 3 to 5 fold over 1997 levels by the year 2020.This calls for early planning. Adequate and dependable central station electric power supplies in the next couple of decades is therefore very critical to sustainable development and the achievement of the objective of the Vision 2020 Programme. Curtailment in electric power supplies cause disruption in economic activities and consequent economic losses. The recent cases in point are the 1983/84 and 1997/1998 power curtailments in Ghana due to low water levels in the Akosombo Reservoir. These led not only to substantial disruptions in economic activities but also to the erosion of invest confidence in the economy. It is, therefore, very essential that the country's central station electric power supply system should not continue to depend on hydro-electric power as in the past years but should be based on a mix of energy sources to provide an acceptable level of national energy security under all circumstances

  4. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2010 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  5. Changing principles in European social security

    OpenAIRE

    van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Clasen, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The provision of social security benefits rests on normative principles of social justice. Most strongly manifest in earnings-related social insurance, the principle of reciprocity has been increasingly questioned on grounds of equity, adequacy and fiscal viability, in the wake of socio-economic changes (e.g. post-industralisation, globalisation) and political developments (e.g. Europeanisation). Universalist programmes seem extraordinarily expensive under tight public budgets, and could be c...

  6. Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E; David Canning; Rick Mansfield; Michael Moore

    2006-01-01

    In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with univer...

  7. 78 FR 48037 - Facility Security Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... National Security Information, which was published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 707... Executive Order 13526, Classified National Security Information (75 FR 707; January 5, 2010) (the Executive... Information (75 FR 707; January 5, 2010), before derivatively classifying information and at least once...

  8. Energy Industry in China: Marketization and National Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DanShi

    2005-01-01

    Opening up the market, breaking the monopoly, and allowing the market to decide prices these are the major items on the agenda for the marketization of China's energy industry, and have a direct bearing on national energy security. Research into China's energy security has so far focused on such fields as strategic energy reserves, stability of energy imports, and diversification of import channels. Little has been done in the study of national energy security from the perspective of marketization of the energy industry. However, opening up the energy market and marketizing the energy industry are not only major commitments to China's accession to WTO, they serve the nation's energy security needs as well. This paper takes a look at the actual results of opening up the energy market, the structure of that market, and the nation's energy pricing mechanisms, and on the basis of the findings, raises suggestions on how to tackle the energy security issue.

  9. Disarmament and national security in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three notions, disarmament, national security and interdependence, which are well known, need a new reading in the today's mission for the United Nations, to facilitate the democratic, evolutionary renewal of the the interdependent world, in which disarmament could play an important role without putting at risk national security, which is of primary concern for the majority of Member States. The recognition of the unity of the wold and its interdependence is the main focal point in the process of transition of the international community to the new world system of peace, cooperation and security based on United Nations Charter. This system was outlined at the Forty-fourth session of the General Assembly, and adopted by Member States as a resolution entitled 'Enhancing international peace, security and international cooperation in all its aspects in accordance with the Charter of United Nations'

  10. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the identification and assessment of external service providers to the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant to Arrowhead Center, New Mexico State University. This report contains 1) a summary of the services to be provided by NSTI; 2) organizational descriptions of external service providers; and 3) a comparison of NSTI services and services offered by external providers.

  11. National security versus protection of personal data in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Ananiev, Jovan; Kosevaliska, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a short preview on the European legislative regarding the fundamental right to protection on personal data, established with the Charter of Fundamental Rights in EU, and it’s interconnection with the national security. The main issue elaborated in this paper is how which freedom and how much of our privacy are we willing to sacrifice in order to provide a high level of national security. National security cannot be achieved in isolation from fundamental ri...

  12. From national security to human security — less of the same in Congo?

    OpenAIRE

    Marriage, Zoe

    2007-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War came shifts in the way that security was perceived and pursued. The failing favour of the nation state provided space for the concept of human security and with it a plethora of associated security actors. Human security has particular resonance in Congo as millions of people have died in the wars, and the majority of the deaths have not resulted directly from military violence. At the level of policy and practice, though, the contribution of human security is que...

  13. 76 FR 54196 - Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Forest Service Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee..., Forest Service, Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee will meet as indicated below. DATES: The Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory...

  14. 75 FR 51609 - Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities By the... established a Classified National Security Information Program (Program) designed to safeguard and govern access to classified national security information shared by the Federal Government with State,...

  15. NTELLIGENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS. AN IMPORTANT AID TO NATIONAL SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Laurentiu BARCAN

    2015-01-01

    Securing organizational processes is an objective and a permanent objective of organizations active in the field of national security, and to this end there are different solutions, both software and hardware. A modern solution may be the efficient use of Business Process Management and Business Process Execution Language as tools to optimize and streamline decision flows.

  16. 77 FR 9214 - National Security Education Board Members Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... of the Secretary National Security Education Board Members Meeting AGENCY: Under Secretary of Defense... Education Board. The purpose of the meeting is to review and make recommendations to the Secretary of... Security Education Board Members meeting is open to the public. The public is afforded the opportunity...

  17. National Pending of Social Security Hearing Requests by Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Report refers to the National total of cases pending at the hearing level and the number and percentages of those cases that were in either electronic format (EF)...

  18. A Contemporary Framework for National Security Related Technological Risks Minimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Chulok; Dmitry V. Suslov; Evgeny IA. Moiseichev

    2015-01-01

    Last several decades have shown a steady broadening of national security issues’ spectrum along with an increase in the strictness of international competition driven by advances in high technologies and other factors. National security agenda is nowadays comprised not only of defense issues per se, but also includes economic, social, cultural and other aspects. All this is strongly influenced by the technological trends and the very possession of critical technologies has become a pressing n...

  19. 78 FR 69286 - Facility Security Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...; telephone: 301-415-3501; email: Daniel.Lenehan@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 7, 2013 (78 FR..., Classified National Security Information. In addition, this direct final rule allowed licensees flexibility... designees) to conduct classified ] information security refresher briefings for all cleared employees...

  20. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate

  1. 32 CFR 2004.20 - National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM) [201(a)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Industrial Security Program Operating... INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Operations § 2004.20 National Industrial Security Program Operating...

  2. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  3. Arms control, nonproliferation, and US national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuation of the arms race and the failure of arms control and disarmament negotiations lend support to the belief that US and Soviet power, prestige, and security depend upon nuclear weapons. Therefore, the argument goes, the non-nuclear-weapon states (particularly those that are not allied with nuclear-weapon states and do not share their nuclear shield) may conclude that they would be well served by possession of these weapons. In this sense, the failure of nuclear arms reductions could create incentives for further proliferation

  4. The UN Security Council and Climate Change : Rising Seas Levels, Shrinking Resources, and the ‘Green Helmets’

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines climate change, the negative impacts of climate change, and the purview of the United Nations Security Council, in order to demonstrate that the effects of climate change on international peace and security render it an area that the Security Council should address. Climate change is defined, and the inequality inherent in the climate crisis is described. This history of the international debate on climate change is briefly outlined, and the inadequacies of attempts to da...

  5. National Security Risks? Uncertainty, Austerity and Other Logics of Risk in the UK government’s National Security Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerstad, Anne; Boas, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Risk scholars within Security studies have argued that the concept of security has gone through a fundamental transformation away from a threat-based conceptualisation of defence, urgency and exceptionality to one of preparedness, precautions and prevention of future risks, some of which are calculable, others of which are not. This article explores whether and how the concept of security is changing due to this ‘rise of risk’, through a hermeneutically grounded conceptual and discourse analy...

  6. 77 FR 12623 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... ] Industrial Security Program policy matters. Dated: February 23, 2012. Mary Ann Hadyka, Committee Management... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  7. Embedding security messages in existing processes: a pragmatic and effective approach to information security culture change

    CERN Document Server

    Lopienski, Sebastian

    Companies and organizations world-wide depend more and more on IT infrastructure and operations. Computer systems store vital information and sensitive data; computing services are essential for main business processes. This high dependency comes with a number of security risks, which have to be managed correctly on technological, organizational and human levels. Addressing the human aspects of information security often boils down just to procedures, training and awareness raising. On the other hand, employees and collaborators do not adopt security attitude and habits simply when told to do so – a real change in behaviour requires an established security culture. But how to introduce a security culture? This thesis outlines the need of developing or improving security culture, and discusses how this can be done. The proposed approach is to gradually build security knowledge and awareness, and influence behaviours. The way to achieve this is to make security communication pervasive by embedding security me...

  8. National Nuclear Security Practice in Finland: A Joint Effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear security regime in Finland consists of two main areas: combating crime and regulatory control of the use of nuclear energy and radiation. In both areas the concept is built on cooperation between authorities—not forgetting that the primary responsibility for the security of a nuclear facility or radioactive material is appointed to the operator. A third area, information exchange and joint development, is overarching the other two. While there is no specific national nuclear security plan, the corresponding functions and structures are established through the principles of the overall state administration. (author)

  9. 76 FR 81359 - National Security Personnel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... issued on November 1, 2005 (70 FR 66116). The NSPS law was subsequently amended by section 1106 of Public... amendments resulted in revised DOD/OPM regulations, which were issued on September 26, 2008 (73 FR 56344) and January 16, 2009 (74 FR 2757). Section 1113 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year...

  10. Examining the potential impacts of climate change on international security: EU-Africa partnership on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Dodo, Mahamat K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Climate Change like many global problems nowadays is recognized as a threat to the international security and cooperation. In theoretical terms, it is being securitized and included in the traditional security studies. Climate change and its accompanying environmental degradation are perceived to be a threat that can have incalculable consequences on the international community. The consequences are said to have more effects in small island developing nations and Africa where many St...

  11. Security vs. Nations: a lost battle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    “Know the enemy” is one of the basic recommendations of the ancient Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu (544–496 BC). In the cyber-world, the usual suspects are not only script kiddies, criminals and hacktivists, but also nation states.   Companies worldwide have prepared their defences to fight off the first three. Likewise, CERN, despite its wish for academic freedom, is constantly considering how best to prevent successful attacks. But when nation states are the antagonists, defence is impossible (unless you have plenty of money). Today, the most popular computing services in the western hemisphere are run from the US. We already know that the US and the UK are tapping into Facebook, Google, Yahoo and others (see our Bulletin article on “Prison or “Prism”? Your data in custody”). But what about one level down? Nowadays, IT hardware (routers, laptops, smartphones, etc.) is built in China. How can we be sure that these ...

  12. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin TOFAN; Maria Lavinia ANDREI; Lavinia Mihaela DINCĂ

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, di...

  13. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  14. National Food Security Act, 2013 and Food Security Outcomes in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amrita Sandhu

    2014-01-01

    The National Food Security Act (NFSA) of India aims to provide subsidized food grains to approximately two-thirds of India’s 1.25 billion population. The introduction of this Act in 2013, marks a major paradigm shift from a welfare based to a rights based approach to address food insecurity. This article attempts to understand the effect of NFSA on food security outcomes in India. It attempts to analyze the origin of right to food discourse and factors behind perpetual failure in food secur...

  15. Cyber Security Policy. A methodology for Determining a National Cyber-Security Alert Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin TOFAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, assuring the security of the national cyber-space has become a big issue that can only be tackled through collaborative approaches. Threats cannot be confined to a single computer system just as much as computer systems are rendered useless without being con-nected to a supporting network. The authors of this article propose an innovative architecture of a system designated to help governments collect and analyze data about cyber-security in-cidents, from different organizations, dispersed nationwide, and acting within various economic sectors. The collected data will make us able to determine a national cyber-security alert score that could help policy makers in establishing the best strategies for protecting the national cyber-space.

  16. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report (NNSSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NNSS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NNSSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NNSS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NNSSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NNSS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The NNSS is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national security-related missions and high-risk operations. The NNSS is located about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The approximately 1,360-square-mile site is one of the largest restricted access areas in the United States. It is surrounded by federal installations with strictly controlled access, as well as by lands that are open to public entry.

  17. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report (NNSSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NNSS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NNSSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NNSS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NNSSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NNSS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The NNSS is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national security-related missions and high-risk operations. The NNSS is located about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The approximately 1,360-square-mile site is one of the largest restricted access areas in the United States. It is surrounded by federal installations with strictly controlled access, as well as by lands that are open to public entry.

  18. 78 FR 42983 - Submission for Renewal: Information Collection; Questionnaire for National Security Positions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Renewal: Information Collection; Questionnaire for National Security Positions... request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control No. 3206-0005, for Questionnaire for National... the revised information collection of information, Questionnaire for National Security Positions,...

  19. Achieving Youth Employment and National Security in Nigeria: TVET Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Ofonmbuk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The rate of unemployment in Nigeria is alarming and could promote social vices some of which are kidnapping, armed robbery, child trafficking, Cultism, Drug peddling and ritual killing. These social vices could in no small measure constitute a threat to national security as a matter of fact. Therefore, the development of a workable Technical and…

  20. The National Security Language Initiative and the Teaching of Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinge, Manjula

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of Hindi in the USA, with special reference to the National Security Language Initiative (NSLI). Asian Indian languages are briefly described, as are the growth and diversification of the Asian Indian population in the USA. The inclusion of Hindi in the NSLI, and the implications of this decision for the…

  1. Welcome to Los Alamos National Laboratory: A premier national security science laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Terry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25

    Dr Wallace presents visitors with an overview of LANL's national security science mission: stockpile stewardship, protecting against the nuclear threat, and energy security & emerging threats, which are underpinned by excellence in science/technology/engineering capabilities. He shows visitors a general Lab overview of budget, staff, and facilities before providing a more in-depth look at recent Global Security accomplishments and current programs.

  2. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted... CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.25 Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter,...

  3. 75 FR 39582 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... of the National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee. The meeting will be held to discuss National Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July...

  4. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  5. National Security Letters, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the Constitution: The Tensions between National Security and Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham-Oscilowski, Ursula; Jaeger, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the USA PATRIOT Act greatly expanded the ability of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to use National Security Letters (NSLs) in investigations and the contexts in which they could be used by relaxing the standards under which NSLs could be employed. NSLs allow investigators to acquire a significant…

  6. Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Food Security: Evidence from Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Breisinger; Olivier Ecker; Perrihan Al-Riffai; Richard Robertson; Rainer Thiele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a model-based assessment of local and global climate change impacts for the case of Yemen, focusing on agricultural production, household incomes and food security. Global climate change is mainly transmitted through rising world food prices. Our simulation results suggest that climate change induced price increases for food will raise agricultural GDP while decreasing real household incomes and food security. Rural nonfarm households are hit hardest as they tend to be net...

  7. United States national security policy making and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The United States failed to achieve its goals in waging a war in Vietnam. This thesis endeavors to show that this failure was due to errors in the formulation of American national security policy regarding Vietnam. The policy making process went astray, at least in part, due to a narrowing of the role of senior military officers as national security policy makers. The restricted role of senior officers as national security policy makers adversely affected American policy formulation regarding Vietnam. The United States response to the coup against Diem in 1963 and the deployment of conventional American forces to ground combat in Vietnam, in 1965 were undertaken without a clear recognition of the considerable costs of the commitments being assumed. Senior military officers had prompted such a recognition in similar previous crises but were not in a policy making position to do so concerning Vietnam. The policymaking input that was absent was ethical counsel of a fundamental nature. Clausewitz viewed the mortality of a war as being embodied in the national will to fight that war. The absence of an accurate appreciation of the costs of a military solution in Vietnam denied civilian officials a critical policy making factor and contributed significantly to the defeat of the American purpose there.

  8. Energy security and climate change: Friends with asymmetric benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav

    2016-06-01

    Combatting climate change is often considered to bring about security of energy supply by reducing reliance on imports. By modelling the impact of pursuing energy security policies, a study now finds that the inverse situation is less advantageous for the global climate.

  9. The Indian National Food Security Act, 2013: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Kiruba Sankar; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura

    2014-06-01

    The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013, passed recently by the Indian Parliament, aims to ensure food security in India, chiefly by providing cereals at subsidized prices through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) for about two-thirds of households. The predominant line of criticism of the NFSA has been the costs of such an ambitious rights-based approach in the context of decelerating economic growth and growing fiscal deficits. We argue that the food subsidy has been increasing through the last few decades and is set to climb even higher with this act but that the incremental costs, at about 0.2% of gross domestic product, are not as high as claimed. Further, recent evidence of increasing utilization of the TPDS and decreasing corruption add credence to the act's premise that significant income transfers to poor households can be achieved, thereby promoting food security as well as dietary diversity. Several concerns remain to be addressed in the design and implementation of the act, including its proposed coverage, a cereal-centric approach, the identification of beneficiaries, and its adaptability at the state level. If these are resolved effectively, the act can prove to be a significant step forward in India's long-drawn-out battle against undernutrition and food insecurity. Finally, the NFSA also provides a fresh opportunity to reform and strengthen the TPDS, which has been an integral component of India's strategy to achieve food security at the national level. PMID:25076773

  10. Between national and human security: energy security in the United States and Western Europe in the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Ruediger

    2010-01-01

    "The article examines, on the one hand, the changes to the concept of energy security in the second half of the twentieth century, particularly in the 1970s, and on the other hand, the influence of these conceptual changes on the overall change to the perception and architecture of 'security'. It argues that the concept of 'energy security' lost its close connection to state and military security while being extended with respect to its spatial scope, reference object, issues, and classificat...

  11. Bringing about change: the introduction of secure units.

    OpenAIRE

    Stocking, B

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of regional secure units into the NHS was studied as one example of the diffusion of patient care innovations. As well as the general history of secure units events in four Regions were studied in detail for the period from 1974 up to mid-1983. It is concluded that secure units became gradually more acceptable over time as (i) the need for such units was recognized, (ii) the climate of opinion changed in psychiatric hospitals from seeing secure units as a retrograde step, fol...

  12. ELASTICITY EXPENDITURE ANALYSIS FOR THE NATIONAL SECURITY AND PUBLIC ORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina Carmen Huba (Ştefănescu)

    2011-01-01

    The institutions of public order and national security benefits of some of the biggest benefits from the state budget and is funded primarily from redistribution of gross domestic product. Spending on public order are non-productive expenditure, which consumes a part of the final gross domestic product. The main objective of the article is the analysis public policy response costs in Romania to the modification of gross domestic product and total expenditures of the state budget.

  13. International Drug Trafficking and National Security of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Behsat Ekici

    2014-01-01

    Drug trafficking is an ever growing international security conundrum. Transnational crime syndicates have proved to be extremely resilient to counter-narcotics initiatives. Despite the efforts of national and international institutions, enormous amounts of drugs are produced, trafficked and consumed throughout the world. Transnational crime syndicates manufacture new psychoactive substances when the governments increase controls over existing drugs. Annual number of drug-related deaths has in...

  14. Heavy Lift for National Security: The Ares V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Ares Projects Office is developing the launch vehicles to move the United States and humanity beyond low earth orbit. Ares I is a crewed vehicle, and Ares V is a heavy lift vehicle being designed to launch cargo into LEO and transfer cargo and crews to the Moon. This is a snapshot of development and capabilities. Ares V is early in the requirements formulation stage of development pending the outcome of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee and White House action. The Ares V vehicle will be considered a national asset, creating unmatched opportunities for human exploration, science, national security, and space business.

  15. Mass and Elite Views on Nuclear Security: US National Security Surveys 1993-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERRON,KERRY G.; JENKINS-SMITH,HANK C.; HUGHES,SCOTT D.

    2000-06-01

    This is the fourth report in an ongoing series of studies examining how US perspectives about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era. In Volume 1 the authors present findings from a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public conducted from 13 September to 14 October 1999. Results are compared to findings from previous surveys in this series conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997, and trends are analyzed. Key areas of investigation reported in Volume 1 include evolving perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits, preferences for related policy and spending issues, and views about three emerging issue areas: deterrent utility of precision guided munitions; response options to attacks in which mass casualty weapons are used; and expectations about national missile defenses. In this volume they relate respondent beliefs about nuclear security to perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits and to policy preferences. They develop causal models to partially explain key preferences, and they employ cluster analysis to group respondents into four policy relevant clusters characterized by similar views and preferences about nuclear security within each cluster. Systematic links are found among respondent demographic characteristics, perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits, policy beliefs, and security policy and spending preferences. In Volume 2 they provide analysis of in-depth interviews with fifty members of the US security policy community.

  16. Mass and Elite Views on Nuclear Security: US National Security Surveys 1993-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth report in an ongoing series of studies examining how US perspectives about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era. In Volume 1 the authors present findings from a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public conducted from 13 September to 14 October 1999. Results are compared to findings from previous surveys in this series conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997, and trends are analyzed. Key areas of investigation reported in Volume 1 include evolving perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits, preferences for related policy and spending issues, and views about three emerging issue areas: deterrent utility of precision guided munitions; response options to attacks in which mass casualty weapons are used; and expectations about national missile defenses. In this volume they relate respondent beliefs about nuclear security to perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits and to policy preferences. They develop causal models to partially explain key preferences, and they employ cluster analysis to group respondents into four policy relevant clusters characterized by similar views and preferences about nuclear security within each cluster. Systematic links are found among respondent demographic characteristics, perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits, policy beliefs, and security policy and spending preferences. In Volume 2 they provide analysis of in-depth interviews with fifty members of the US security policy community

  17. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

    2011-07-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

  18. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  19. Repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youths Employment and National Security in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbunaya, T. C.; Udoudo, Ekereobong S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper focused on repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for youth's employment and national security in Nigeria. It examined briefly the concepts of technical vocational education and training (TVET), youths, unemployment and national security as well as the effects of unemployment on national security in Nigeria.…

  20. 78 FR 31525 - National Security Education Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... of the Secretary National Security Education Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... following Federal advisory committee meeting of the National Security Education Board will take place. DATES... Department of Defense National Security Education Board about its mission and functions. Written...

  1. The Paris Agreement on Climate Change: Agriculture and Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a profound impact on agriculture and on food security. At the same time agriculture contributes to climate change to a considerable extent. Fortunately there is also much to gain since the agricultural sector holds significant climate change mitigation potential through reductions

  2. Public perspectives on nuclear security. US national security surveys, 1993--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). UNM Inst. for Public Policy

    1998-08-01

    This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.

  3. Climate change impact assessment on food security in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Janneke; Aldrian, Edvin; de Bie, Kees; Jetten, Victor; Mannaerts, Chris

    2013-04-01

    As Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country, food security is a persistent challenge. The potential impact of future climate change on the agricultural sector needs to be addressed in order to allow early implementation of mitigation strategies. The complex island topography and local sea-land-air interactions cannot adequately be represented in large scale General Climate Models (GCMs) nor visualized by TRMM. Downscaling is needed. Using meteorological observations and a simple statistical downscaling tool, local future projections are derived from state-of-the-art, large-scale GCM scenarios, provided by the CMIP5 project. To support the agriculture sector, providing information on especially rainfall and temperature variability is essential. Agricultural production forecast is influenced by several rain and temperature factors, such as rainy and dry season onset, offset and length, but also by daily and monthly minimum and maximum temperatures and its rainfall amount. A simple and advanced crop model will be used to address the sensitivity of different crops to temperature and rainfall variability, present-day and future. As case study area, Java Island is chosen as it is fourth largest island in Indonesia but contains more than half of the nation's population and dominates it politically and economically. The objective is to identify regions at agricultural risk due to changing patterns in precipitation and temperature.

  4. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  5. Forecasting crisis: Climate change and US security

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The regions projected to be most adversely affected by climate change are among those deemed of increasing strategic importance to the United States: Africa, the Middle East, and Central and South Asia. The added stress of climate change will likely exacerbate existing societal and structural stresses in these areas, reducing living standards and individual well-being and thereby contributing to instability, conflict, mass migrations and failing states. Such outcomes present ...

  6. Securing nuclear materials in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors review the present stat of nuclear materials safeguards and how these may be reformed in light of the new circumstances in the world. In Section 2, they review the principles that currently guide the application of safeguards and the international coverage provided by the safeguards. In Section 3, they examine the flows of fissile nuclear materials through the civil nuclear fuel cycle and, prospectively, the flow of fissile materials out of dismantled US and former-Soviet nuclear weapons. They show that a substantial fraction of the plutonium in the world's civil fuel cycles is not now under international safeguards. Finally, in Section 4 and 5, they review the range of technical and institutional options that are being considered for securing fissile materials. A primary goal of reforms in nuclear safeguards should be to make their application to civil fuel cycles universal--that is, applying uniformly to both nuclear weapon states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). But safeguards by themselves may not be sufficient in an era when far larger quantities of weapons-usable material are being stored and handled in the civil sector. They discuss the safeguards implications of a range of these plutonium management options. 63 refs

  7. Disarmament and national security in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the face of improved international relations, regional and subregional issues have acquired additional urgency and importance in the field of disarmament and international security. The pursuit of regional solutions to regional problems is thus being actively encouraged by the international community. Towards this end, the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs is seeking to promote regional approaches to disarmament either through the United Nations Regional Centres for Peace and Disarmament or in cooperation with individual Governments. Regional conferences, meetings and seminars to facilitate exchange of ideas and information between governmental and non-governmental sectors, and between governmental and other experts, have been organized as a means of finding common ground and delineating areas of possible future negotiation and agreement. Within this framework, a Conference on the theme 'Disarmament and national security in an interdependent world' was held in Kyoto, Japan, from 13 to 16 April 1993. The Conference, the third one in a series held in Kyoto on disarmament issues, was organized by the Office for Disarmament Affairs through the Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific and in collaboration with the Government of Japan and the Prefecture and City of Kyoto. This publication is based on material presented at that Conference

  8. A New Paradigm for US Academia and the National Security Space Community

    OpenAIRE

    Cesul, B. T.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three years, multiple efforts are underway to improve the United States National Security Space (NSS) posture. New moneys are being added in at the Federal level to develop new protection and resiliency technologies, improve operational constructs, accelerate military and civilian expertise in space systems, and evaluate new policy changes, all with the ultimate goal of maintaining the US's dominant role as guarantor of freedom in space. However, even with the new resources being ...

  9. 78 FR 9431 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on March 20, 2013 from 10:00 a.m... number of individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight...

  10. A Core National Security Interest: Framing Atrocities Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Levinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes President Barack Obama’s communication strategies in his speeches and presidential statements concerning threats of mass atrocities in Libya, Syria, and Iraq from 2011 through 2015. It examines how he has used three rhetorical “frames” to explain events in these countries and to advocate specific U.S. policy responses: the “legalistic” (or “liberal internationalist”, the “moralistic,” and the “security” frame. Obama utilized primarily the legalistic frame to justify U.S. military intervention in Libya in 2011, and he relied mainly on the security frame (focusing on terrorist threats against U.S. nationals to justify the deployment of U.S. military forces against ISIL in Iraq and Syria in 2014−2015. Obama’s rhetorical framing of the violence perpetrated by the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad since 2011 has been less consistent. Hardly ever in these speeches did Obama suggest that mass atrocities per se constituted a threat to U.S. national security—despite the declaration in Obama’s 2011 Presidential Study Directive on Mass Atrocities that “preventing mass atrocities and genocide is a core national security interest” of the United States. Utilizing an approach to linguistic analysis developed by Roman Jakobson, the paper shows how Obama has employed rhetorical devices that emphasize the boundaries between the “in-group” of the American national community and the “out-groups” in other countries who are threatened by mass atrocities. Because members of an in-group are typically depicted as warranting greater concern than members of out-groups, Obama’s assignment of victimized communities to out-group status has effectively justified inaction by the U.S. government in the face of genocidal violence.

  11. 78 FR 54634 - National Security Education Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... of the Secretary National Security Education Board; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... meeting of the National Security Education Board will take place. DATES: Monday, September 23, 2013, from... Security Education Board about its mission and functions. Written statements may be submitted at any...

  12. 75 FR 25844 - Federal Advisory Committee; National Security Education Board Members Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; National Security Education Board Members Meeting AGENCY... Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the National Security Education Board will meet on June 23... Security Education Board Members meeting is open to the public. The public is afforded the opportunity...

  13. UK national security and the Brexit debate – now more than ever they are closely locked

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Tim

    2015-01-01

    In a speech yesterday at Chatham House, David Cameron made a case that the forthcoming EU referendum is not about Britain’s economic security but also its national security. As Tim Oliver argues, arguments about national security have long played a part in the debate about Britain’s membership of the EU, and the forthcoming referendum will be no different.

  14. 75 FR 733 - Implementation of the Executive Order, ``Classified National Security Information''

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... National Security Information'' Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Today I have signed an executive order entitled, ``Classified National Security Information'' (the ``order''), which... Director of the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) a copy of the department or agency...

  15. Nevada National Security Site Integrated Groundwater Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, Sam; Farnham, Irene

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan) is to provide a comprehensive, integrated approach for collecting and analyzing groundwater samples to meet the needs and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity. Implementation of this Plan will provide high-quality data required by the UGTA Activity for ensuring public protection in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The Plan is designed to ensure compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (QAP). The Plan’s scope comprises sample collection and analysis requirements relevant to assessing the extent of groundwater contamination from underground nuclear testing. This Plan identifies locations to be sampled by corrective action unit (CAU) and location type, sampling frequencies, sample collection methodologies, and the constituents to be analyzed. In addition, the Plan defines data collection criteria such as well-purging requirements, detection levels, and accuracy requirements; identifies reporting and data management requirements; and provides a process to ensure coordination between NNSS groundwater sampling programs for sampling of interest to UGTA. This Plan does not address compliance with requirements for wells that supply the NNSS public water system or wells involved in a permitted activity.

  16. Food security in the context of global environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.

    1993-11-01

    United Nations predictions and other sources indicate that world population could grow to 8.5 billion by 2025 (Keyfitz 1989) and 11 billion by the end of the coming century (UNFPA 1990). As new information becomes available on the effectiveness of population control programs, the rise of virulent diseases and other factors, these numbers change--sometimes smaller, sometimes larger still. Whatever the numbers actually turn out to be, global agricultural production will have to increase several-fold from present levels to feed and clothe the growing population and to improve worldwide standards of nutrition. The capacity of global agriculture to ensure food security through increased and sustained agricultural production depends on our ability to manage, conserve and in some cases increase the resource base available to the industry of agriculture. The resources that underpin agriculture are land, water and genetic diversity. The first two of these are the subject of this paper. Genetic diversity is the subject of another paper in this volume.

  17. Climatic Change, Irrigation Water Crisis and Food Security in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Asif, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the effects of climate change on food security in agricultural dependent country,Pakistan. Based on secondary sources of data, the study found out the evidences of climate change and itssevere implications on already inadequate and depleted natural resources of the country. The major effectsof climate change are in terms of rise in temperature, variations in precipitation pattern, increasing glaciermelt,and increasing evaporation and increased irrigation water requirement...

  18. Chinese food security and climate change: Agriculture futures

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Liming; Tang, Huajun; Wu, Wenbin; Yang, Peng; Nelson, Gerald C.; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Palazzo, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Food security in China affects the livelihood and well-being of one-fifth of the world population. Climate change is now affecting agriculture and food production in every country of the world. Here the authors present the IMPACT model results on yield, production, and net trade of major crops (wheat, rice, and maize) in China, and on daily calorie availability as an overall indicator of food security under climate change scenarios and socio-economic pathways in 2050. The obtained results sho...

  19. 国际石油市场变化对中国能源安全的启示%Suggestions of changes in international crude oil market for Chinese national energy security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海峰

    2011-01-01

    今年以来,受国际地缘政治事件影响,国际石油市场发生了较大变化.部分产油国出口中断,国际油价高位震荡,国际原油航运风险加大.为保障中国能源安全,中国应加快石油进口来源地多元化步伐,加快国家石油储备体系建设,并通过中国油轮船队建设、运输方式多元化等措施,提升进口原油运输安全水平.%This year a serial of geopolitical events cast significant influence on international crude oil market. As a result, oil export from some North African and Middle East countries was interrupted. World crude oil prices are driven to a high level. Besides, oil marine transportation via Suez Canal and Aden Bay is exposed to more pirating risks. In order to ensure Chinese national energy security, China need to further diversify its oil import originations. Also, national oil reservation system shall be established as soon as possible. To improve oil transportation safety, China should build more oil pipelines as well as self-owned VLCCs.

  20. A brief history of Sandia's National security missions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewien, Celeste A.; O' Canna, Myra Lynn; Stikar, John Anthony.

    2014-09-01

    To help members of the workforce understand what factors contribute to Sandia National Laboratories national security mission, the authors describe the evolution of Sandias core mission and its other mission components. The mission of Sandia first as a division of Los Alamos and later as Sandia Corporation underlies our core nuclear weapon mission of today. Sandias mission changed in 1963 and twice more in the 1970s. This report should help staff and management appreciate the need for mission evolution. A clear definition and communication of a consistent corporate mission statement is still needed.

  1. Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Farmer, William; Strzepek, Kenneth;

    2012-01-01

    Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Here, we estimate the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used...... in calibrated crop models to predict crop yield changes for 110 districts in Tanzania. These results are in turn imposed on a highly disaggregated, recursive dynamic economy-wide model of Tanzania. We find that, relative to a no-climate-change baseline and considering domestic agricultural production...... as the channel of impact, food security in Tanzania appears likely to deteriorate as a consequence of climate change. The analysis points to a high degree of diversity of outcomes (including some favorable outcomes) across climate scenarios, sectors, and regions. Noteworthy differences in impacts across...

  2. Food security, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.; Sahin, S.; Escurra, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper uses an advanced CGE model (Taheripour et al., 2013) coupled with hydrological projections of future water scarcity and biophysical data on likely crop yields under climate change to examine how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. Climate shocks to rainfed and irrigated yields in 2030 are based on the p-DSSAT crop model, RCP 2.6, as reported under the AgMIP project (Rosenzweig et al., 2013), accessed through GEOSHARE (Villoria et al, 2014). Results show that, when water scarcity is ignored, irrigated areas grow in the wake of climate change as the returns to irrigation rise faster than for rainfed uses of land within a given agro-ecological zone. When non-agricultural competition for future water use, as well as anticipated supply side limitations are brought into play (Rosegrant et al., 2013), the opportunity cost of water rises across all river basins, with the increase ranging from 12% (Luni) to 44% (Brahmaputra). As a consequence, irrigated crop production is curtailed in most regions (Figure 1), with the largest reductions coming in the most water intensive crops, namely rice and wheat. By reducing irrigated area, which tends to have much higher yields, the combined effects of water scarcity and climate impacts require an increase in total cropped area, which rises by about 240,000 ha. The majority of this area expansion occurs in the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmari river basins. Overall crop output falls by about 2 billion, relative to the 2030 baseline, with imports rising by about 570 million. The combined effects of climate change and water scarcity for irrigation also have macro-economic consequences, resulting in a 0.28% reduction in GDP and an increase in the consumer price index by about 0.4% in 2030, compared the baseline. The national welfare impact on India amounts to roughly 3 billion (at 2007 prices) in 2030. Assuming a 3% social discount rate, the net present value of the

  3. Stability and Change in Attachment Security Across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Jodl, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined both continuity and familial, intrapsychic, and environmental predictors of change in adolescent attachment security across a 2-year period from middle to late adolescence. Assessments included the Adult Attachment Interview, observed mother-adolescent interactions, test-based data, and adolescent self-reports obtained from an…

  4. 10 CFR 2.903 - Protection of restricted data and national security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.903 Protection of restricted data and national... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of restricted data and national security information. 2.903 Section 2.903 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC...

  5. 77 FR 55777 - Security Zones; Dignitary Arrival/Departure and United Nations Meetings, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... locations of the security zones that are located near the United Nations Headquarters in Manhattan, New York... establish two permanent security zones near the United Nations Headquarters located on the East River at... the United Nations Headquarters located on the East River at East 43rd Street, Manhattan, New...

  6. Advanced Technologies for Intelligent Systems of National Border Security

    CERN Document Server

    Simek, Krzysztof; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    One of the world’s leading problems in the field of national security is protection of borders and borderlands. This book addresses multiple issues on advanced innovative methods of multi-level control of both ground (UGVs) and aerial drones (UAVs). Those objects combined with innovative algorithms become autonomous objects capable of patrolling chosen borderland areas by themselves and automatically inform the operator of the system about potential place of detection of a specific incident. This is achieved by using sophisticated methods of generation of non-collision trajectory for those types of objects and enabling automatic integration of both ground and aerial unmanned vehicles. The topics included in this book also cover presentation of complete information and communication technology (ICT) systems capable of control, observation and detection of various types of incidents and threats. This book is a valuable source of information for constructors and developers of such solutions for uniformed servi...

  7. External Service Providers to the National Security Technology Incubator: Formalization of Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the formalization of relationships with external service providers in the development of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report summarizes the process in developing and formalizing relationships with those service providers and includes a sample letter of cooperation executed with each provider.

  8. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  9. Timely integration of safeguards and security with projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards and Security (S and S) Requirements Integration Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed and implemented an innovative management process that will be described in detail. This process systematically integrates S and S planning into construction, facility modifications or upgrades, mission changes, and operational projects. It extends and expands the opportunities provided by the DOE project management manual, DOE M 413.3-1. Through a series of LANL documents, a process is defined and implemented that formally identifies an S and S professional to oversee, coordinate, facilitate, and communicate among the identified S and S organizations and the project organizations over the life cycle of the project. The derived benefits, namely (1) elimination/reduction of re-work or costly retrofitting, (2) overall project cost savings because of timely and improved planning, (3) formal documentation, and (4) support of Integrated Safeguards and Security Management at LANL, will be discussed. How many times, during the construction of a new facility or the modification of an existing facility, have the persons responsible for the project waited until the last possible minute or until after construction is completed to approach the security organizations for their help in safeguarding and securing the facility? It's almost like, 'Oh, by the way, do we need access control and a fence around this building and just what are we going to do with our classified anyway?' Not only is it usually difficult; it's also typically expensive to retrofit or plan for safeguards and security after the fact. Safeguards and security organizations are often blamed for budget overruns and delays in facility occupancy and program startup, but these problems are usually due to poor front-end planning. In an effort to help projects engage safeguards and security in the pre-conceptual or conceptual stages, we implemented a high level formality of operations. We

  10. 75 FR 71171 - Social Security Disability Program Demonstration Project: Benefit Offset National Demonstration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Social Security Disability Program Demonstration Project: Benefit Offset National Demonstration... demonstration project relating to the Social Security disability program under title II of the Social Security... apply to beneficiaries who work and receive title II benefits based on disability. We will also...

  11. 78 FR 64024 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2013 from 10:00...

  12. 77 FR 63893 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on November 14, 2012 from 10:00...

  13. 78 FR 38077 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office National Industrial Security Program Policy... Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing... Industrial Security Program policy matters. DATES: The meeting will be held on July 17, 2013 from 10:00...

  14. The United Nations and Climate Change: Legal and Policy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Isabella D.

    2009-07-01

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, has declared that climate change is "the defining challenge of our times." Climate change trends indicate increasingly severe negative impacts on the majority of countries, with disproportionate effects on poor and vulnerable populations. The scientific reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), have placed the issue on the forefront of the international agenda. This article examines how climate change is shaping legal and policy developments in five key areas of UN responsibility: international law, humanitarian affairs, human rights, development, and peace and security. It concludes with some observations about high-level efforts to coordinate the response of multilateral institutions, the changing stance of the US government, and the role of environmental protection in addressing the current global economic crisis.

  15. THE SECURITY-DEVELOPMENT NEXUS: A TYPOLOGY, HISTORY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CHANGING PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Waisová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a response to the contemporary state of research of the security-development nexus and attempts to analyze the heterogeneous area of its interpretations and implementations. It analyzes the ways and describes the development of interpretations of the security-development nexus. The text also offers empirical material to enable looking at the variety of effects. It shows that despite a broad interdisciplinary debate, three general attitudes have been generated. The first one is based on the idea that security is the prerequisite of development, the second one that development is the prerequisite of security, and the third one that security and development go hand in hand. The area of concepts appears to be wide and varied as well. The contemporary concepts differ mainly in whose development and whose security they take into account, and which one from these two values (development or security is understood as more important and how it is interpreted (what is “security” and what is “development”. On the operational level it is clear, that the security-development nexus is not only an academic and theoretical reflection or pose, but that it also influences the practice and changes the national, as well as the international politics. The presented empirical material does not say anything about the size of the change and the number of actors affected, however, it shows that it is no marginal phenomenon, because it has affected important players in the international system as well as rules governing the system.

  16. An assessment of the effectiveness of fuel cycle technologies for the national energy security enhancement in the electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jun [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hjkim@kaeri.re.kr; Jun, Eunju; Chang, Soon Heung [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Joon [Business Economics Program and Center for Science-based Entrepreneurship, KAIST, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Energy security, in the 21st century, draws significant attention in most countries worldwide, because the national security and sustainable development depend largely on energy security. The anticipated fossil energy depletion and the instability of their supply drive many countries to consider nuclear energy as their alternative energy source for the enhancement of their national energy security. In this study, indicators measuring the level of energy security in the electric power sector are developed and applied for the assessment of the effectiveness of four electric power system schemes which deploy different nuclear fuel cycle technologies, with consideration for the diversification of the energy markets and the vulnerability to economic disruption. Results show that the contribution of the closed fuel cycle scheme is larger than the once-through fuel cycle scheme in the perspective of energy security. In addition, the completely closed fuel cycle with the spent fuel recycling enhances the national energy security to the maximum extent compared to all other fuel cycle schemes. Since a completely closed fuel cycle is hardly affected by the uranium price changes, this scheme is found to be the most favorable scheme, ensuring the stable profit of utilities and stabilizing the electricity tariff. In addition, the completely closed fuel cycle scheme provides the best enhancement of national energy security with respect to energy supply, under reasonable price conditions. The indicators developed in this study can be utilized as a useful instrument for the measurement of the level of the energy security, especially by the countries importing energy resources for the generation of electric power.

  17. An assessment of the effectiveness of fuel cycle technologies for the national energy security enhancement in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy security, in the 21st century, draws significant attention in most countries worldwide, because the national security and sustainable development depend largely on energy security. The anticipated fossil energy depletion and the instability of their supply drive many countries to consider nuclear energy as their alternative energy source for the enhancement of their national energy security. In this study, indicators measuring the level of energy security in the electric power sector are developed and applied for the assessment of the effectiveness of four electric power system schemes which deploy different nuclear fuel cycle technologies, with consideration for the diversification of the energy markets and the vulnerability to economic disruption. Results show that the contribution of the closed fuel cycle scheme is larger than the once-through fuel cycle scheme in the perspective of energy security. In addition, the completely closed fuel cycle with the spent fuel recycling enhances the national energy security to the maximum extent compared to all other fuel cycle schemes. Since a completely closed fuel cycle is hardly affected by the uranium price changes, this scheme is found to be the most favorable scheme, ensuring the stable profit of utilities and stabilizing the electricity tariff. In addition, the completely closed fuel cycle scheme provides the best enhancement of national energy security with respect to energy supply, under reasonable price conditions. The indicators developed in this study can be utilized as a useful instrument for the measurement of the level of the energy security, especially by the countries importing energy resources for the generation of electric power.

  18. Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings1

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Mansfield, Richard K.; Moore, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with univer...

  19. Positioning of a Peaceful Use of Nuclear Technology in National Security Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many cases have shown that a peaceful use of nuclear technology should play an important role in national securities such as energy, economic and science and technology securities, etc. It would be interesting to know what the positioning of the peaceful use of nuclear technology is in the national security aspects. In this paper, a positioning of nuclear power on various national security components is intended by using a positioning process that has been widely used for marketing. Findings can be used for directing further R and Ds to develop nuclear power technology

  20. Learning is Change in Knowledge: Knowledge-based Security for Dynamic Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Askarov, Aslan; Chong, Stephen N

    2012-01-01

    In systems that handle confidential information, the security policy to enforce on information frequently changes: new users join the system, old users leave, and sensitivity of data changes over time. It is challenging, yet important, to specify what it means for such systems to be secure, and to gain assurance that a system is secure. We present a language-based model for specifying, reasoning about, and enforcing information security in systems that dynamically change the security policy. ...

  1. 77 FR 34029 - National Security Education Board Members Meeting; Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... of the Secretary National Security Education Board Members Meeting; Cancellation of Meeting AGENCY.... SUMMARY: On May 11, 2012 (77 FR 27739), Department of Defense announced a meeting of the National Security Education Board. This meeting was to be held on June 20, 2012, from 8:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. at Defense...

  2. 77 FR 41688 - Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ..., FL in the Federal Register (77 FR 64). We received one comment on the proposed rule. Public meetings... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention... vicinity of Tampa, Florida during the 2012 Republican National Convention. The 2012 Republican...

  3. 77 FR 19970 - Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not anticipate convening public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention... Turning Basin in the vicinity of Tampa, Florida during the 2012 Republican National Convention. The...

  4. 77 FR 34411 - National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. app 2) and implementing regulation 41 CFR 101-6, announcement is made for the following committee meeting. To discuss National Industrial Security Program...

  5. Strategy for securing the national supply of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The global supply shortage of medical radioisotopes caused by the unscheduled shutdown of the aged reactors which supply over 90% of radioisotopes overall the world, has severely affected the normal healthcare system which depend on the technology of molecular imaging for diagnoses and therapy as well as the development of nuclear molecular imaging technology. Purpose: It is urgently needed to develop new alternative technologies to solve the problem of global radioisotope supply shortage. Methods: The proton cyclotron is a potential alternative technology to produce the 99mTc and the most of medical radioisotopes of clinical importance. Results: The quality of 99mTc produced by cyclotron, such as nuclide purity, specific activity and nonradioisotope impurities, has reached and/or exceeded that eluted from 99Mo/99mTc generator produced by reactor. Conclusions: It is the most operational and sustainable way to substitute the conventional global centralized supply by reactors with local centralized supply of radioisotopes by proton cyclotrons for securing the national supply of radioisotopes. (author)

  6. Energy security and climate change : a Canadian primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book addresses the reality of climate change and peak oil, and emphasizes the need to make the transition from carbon energies to renewable energies. The book is a compilation of 18 leading authorities' work on energy use and its impact on the environment. Various solutions and sustainable alternatives to carbon energy are proposed. The book links fossil fuels, including oil sands, as a major cause of climate change. The book also addresses other topical issues, such as the nuclear revival, the U.S. energy act and electricity, carbon trading, and energy security in Canada. The authors emphasize the need to act in a proactive way to ensure a sustainable future. refs.

  7. Implementation of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-04-01

    This report documents implementation strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. This report details some of the efforts that have been implemented to leverage public and private resources, as well as implementation strategies to further leverage public and private resources.

  8. Changing the image of corporate security in Macedonia: Could Macedonia corporate security legacy cope with global market and security trends

    OpenAIRE

    Hadji-Janev, Metodi

    2012-01-01

    Globalization has brought many changes to the world order. Among other is the rising role of the private sector. As a result today private sector owns many of critical “levers” that on one or another way have enabled states’ monopoly in the past. Considering as one of the fastest growing businesses, employment of the private security corporations during post-conflict management is becoming significant trend. However, there are two specific things about this trend. First, U.S. and U.K. are two...

  9. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  10. Climate Change after the International : Rethinking Security, Territory and Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What does a politics after the international mean? Many strands of contemporary scholarship converge on the image of the international as obsolete, but strongly diverge on the contours of the kinds of politics that are superseding it. The modern state has been pivotal to the meaning of security, territory and authority - concepts central to the idea of the international - but they do not necessarily have to be tied to the state. This thesis offers a critique of International Relations theory combined with a study of climate change. A departure in 'process philosophy' facilitate a rethinking of security, territory and authority as activities rather than things, as verbs rather than nouns. The author shows that a multiplicity of practices of securitization, territorialization, and authorization are visible in the climate issue. The book goes beyond, and reflects upon, the traditional study of 'International Environmental Politics' as a particular subfield of International Relations

  11. Climate Change after the International : Rethinking Security, Territory and Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stripple, Johannes

    2005-07-01

    What does a politics after the international mean? Many strands of contemporary scholarship converge on the image of the international as obsolete, but strongly diverge on the contours of the kinds of politics that are superseding it. The modern state has been pivotal to the meaning of security, territory and authority - concepts central to the idea of the international - but they do not necessarily have to be tied to the state. This thesis offers a critique of International Relations theory combined with a study of climate change. A departure in 'process philosophy' facilitate a rethinking of security, territory and authority as activities rather than things, as verbs rather than nouns. The author shows that a multiplicity of practices of securitization, territorialization, and authorization are visible in the climate issue. The book goes beyond, and reflects upon, the traditional study of 'International Environmental Politics' as a particular subfield of International Relations.

  12. Changes of Russian Policy on Security in Central Asia at the turn of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Камынин, Владимир Дмитриевич

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the reasons for change in Russia’s security policy in Central Asia by analyzing leading experts’ opinions. The author argues that this reconsideration of policy was determined by both national and international factors and resulted in growing influence of Russia in the region. The author concludes that fight against international terrorism is now at the center of Russian activities in Central Asia.Key words: Russia, Central Asia, regional security, international terrorism

  13. National Report of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Netherlands support both the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources (CoC) and the IAEA Guidance on Export and Import of Radioactive Sources (Guidance). The content of both the CoC and Guidance is implemented in the Dutch legally framework. Like other European countries, the Netherlands is bound to and has implemented the various EURATOM directives and regulations in their national legislation and regulations. The self-assessment questionnaire of the Code of Conduct has not yet been sent back to the IAEA. Nevertheless the Netherlands has already started filling in this questionnaire and can in the mean time postulate that: 1. The legislation, regulations and authorizations specify the requirements for protections against exposure to ionizing radiation, the requirements for the safety and security of radioactive sources and provide for effective control of radioactive sources. 2. There are facilities and services available to the persons authorized to manage radioactive sources. These include emergency response services, personal dosimetry services, environmental monitoring services and calibration of radiation monitoring services. 3. All staff in the Regular Authorities, e.g. law enforcement agencies and emergency organizations, that need specific training to perform their duties are trained properly. 4. A national register of radioactive sources is available. The Netherlands considers to change to RAIS-software of the IAEA for its national register in future. 5. National strategies for gaining or regaining control over orphan sources, including arrangements for reporting loss of control over radioactive sources and for monitoring orphan sources are established. Plans to manage security events and cover malicious acts exist at a national level, the Netherlands defined a Design Basis Threat in relation to radioactive sources. 6. The options to manage sources at the end of their life cycles are established. 7. In the Netherlands

  14. Changes in Inventories in the National Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Segismundo Fassler; Manik L. Shrestha

    2003-01-01

    The principles underlying the recording of changes in inventories are explained in the System of National Accounts, 1993 (1993 SNA), but operational guidelines on their measurement are lacking. This paper elaborates specific statistical techniques and their underlying assumptions for calculating changes in inventories and holding gains when only data on stocks of inventories are available. Several data situations are considered. The authors propose methods for measuring changes in inventories...

  15. AIDS and international security in the United Nations System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Two assumptions underpin much of the literature that has examined the links between HIV/AIDS and security: (1) that HIV/AIDS is now firmly established as an international security issue; and (2) that Resolution 1308, adopted by the UN Security Council in July 2000, was the decisive moment in the securitization process. This article questions both of those assumptions. It argues that even within the Security Council, HIV/AIDS' status as a bona fide threat to international peace and security is not entirely secure. Despite the fact that the Resolution was adopted unanimously, there is considerable doubt over the extent to which the Council members were persuaded that HIV/AIDS is genuinely a threat to international peace and security. Furthermore, the Council's subsequent actions suggest a retreat from the issue. The article moves on to examine statements made in and by some of the other key UN System bodies grappling with HIV/AIDS. Focusing in particular on the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and UNAIDS, it is argued that the international security framing of HIV/AIDS has not generally achieved a great deal of traction within these bodies. Alternative framings, in particular international development and human rights, occur far more frequently. This raises issues for our understanding of both securitization theory and the global governance of HIV/AIDS. PMID:20961950

  16. 77 FR 1076 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... associated with updates to MTSA; (2) Global Supply Chain Security Initiative. Per the SAFE Port Act (Pub. L. 109-347) NMSAC continues to be consulted in regards to the Global Supply Chain Security Initiative.... Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground...

  17. 77 FR 25721 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    .... Accordingly, this portion of the meeting will be closed to the public. (2) Global Supply Chain Security... Supply Chain Security Initiative. The Committee will receive an update and provide further guidance....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30),...

  18. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: → We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. → Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. → British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. → Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. → Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  19. Framework of SAGI Agriculture Remote Sensing and Its Perspectives in Supporting National Food Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yun; JI Shun-ping; SHAO Xiao-wei; TANG Hua-jun; WU Wen-bin; YANG Peng; ZHANG Yong-jun; Shibasaki Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing, in particular satellite imagery, has been widely used to map cropland, analyze cropping systems, monitor crop changes, and estimate yield and production. However, although satellite imagery is useful within large scale agriculture applications (such as on a national or provincial scale), it may not supply sufifcient information with adequate resolution, accurate geo-referencing, and specialized biological parameters for use in relation to the rapid developments being made in modern agriculture. Information that is more sophisticated and accurate is required to support reliable decision-making, thereby guaranteeing agricultural sustainability and national food security. To achieve this, strong integration of information is needed from multi-sources, multi-sensors, and multi-scales. In this paper, we propose a new framework of satellite, aerial, and ground-integrated (SAGI) agricultural remote sensing for use in comprehensive agricultural monitoring, modeling, and management. The prototypes of SAGI agriculture remote sensing are ifrst described, followed by a discussion of the key techniques used in joint data processing, image sequence registration and data assimilation. Finally, the possible applications of the SAGI system in supporting national food security are discussed.

  20. Y-12 National Security Complex's Sustainable Recovery and Transformation - 12420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds were used at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) to remove legacy materials from large contaminated excess facilities in order to prepare the facilities for demolition, demolish five excess buildings, and clean up sources of environmental contamination. The legacy materials and buildings presented many challenges and the potential hazards included depleted uranium and other radiological contaminants, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, Freon, mold, mildew, asbestos, beryllium and mercury. Y-12 project teams have integrated sustainable waste management practices into each of the seven ARRA projects. The ARRA clean up efforts have resulted in the reduction of potential environmental, health, and safety risks posed by the excess facilities and sources of environmental contamination. Y-12's ARRA project teams focused on completing the activities in a sustainable, timely and safe manner. The site utilized a systematic material disposition evaluation process to ensure that materials were not automatically dis-positioned as waste. ARRA projects have recycled or reused over 1.3 million pounds of materials while preventing over 3 million vehicle miles traveled for waste disposal. Y-12 ARRA projects have worked over 2 million safe work hours without a lost time injury. The site has already begun to beneficially reuse land cleared by ARRA project activities to support sustainable transformation efforts. The Y-12 ARRA project activities have demonstrated that large complex projects can be completed sustainably and safely while maintaining an aggressive schedule. Through careful planning and execution, ARRA projects at the site have sustainably reduced the potential environmental, health, and safety risks posed to site employees and the community by the excess facilities and sources of environmental contamination. Y-12's systematic material disposition process ensured that materials were not automatically assumed to be

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex National Historic Preservation Act Historic Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) recognizes that the Y-12 National Security Complex is a vital and long-term component of DOE and NNSA. In addition to NNSA missions, the Office of Science and Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, and the Office of Environmental Management have properties located at Y-12 that must be taken into consideration. The HPP also recognizes that the challenge for cultural resource management is incorporating the requirements of NNSA, SC, NE, and EM missions while preserving and protecting its historic resources. The HPP seeks to find an effective way to meet the obligations at Y-12 for historic and archeological protection while at the same time facilitating effective completion of ongoing site mission activities, including removal of obsolete or contaminated facilities, adaptive reuse of existing facilities whenever feasible, and construction of new facilities in order to meet site mission needs. The Y-12 Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) defines the preservation strategy for the Y-12 National Security Complex and will direct efficient compliance with the NHPA and federal archaeological protection legislation at Y-12 as DOE and NNSA continues mission activities of the site.

  2. Climate change - The Macedonia's First National Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change impacts, consequences and concerns of the international community; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Activities in the Republic of Macedonia, establishing the Climate Change Project Unit within the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning and the National Climate Change Committee. Preparation of the Macedonia's First National Communications under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Analyzing on the thematic areas of the Nationals Communications. The inventory of greenhouse gases(GHG) emissions was prepared according to IPCC Guidelines (IPCC), taking into consideration the three main GHGs:carbondioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O). The main sources of CO2 emissions are the electricity production, the production and the transport. GHG abatement analysis and projections of emissions are prepared in accordance to the Macedonian economy and possibilities for development. The analysis of the energy sector is elaborated in a most advanced way, especially regarding the electricity production. According to the IS92a scenario (prepared by IPCC) the average annual temperature in Macedonia could arise for 4,6o C by 2100, and the average summer temperature could arise for 5.1o C. The average sum of precipitation will decrease for 6.3% in 2100, but the most alarming is the sum of precipitation in summer, which could decrease for 2.5%. Venerability assessment and adaptation measures are elaborated in the following sectors: agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, water resources and human health. The National Action Plan sets out the objectives and initial points for undertaking measures, contributing to the reduction of GHG emissions at national level. (Author)

  3. National action to mitigate global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 170 participants from 60 countries met for three days in Copenhagen from 7 to 9 June 1994 to discuss howe the aims of the United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change can be translated into practical action. The Conference was organised by the UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE), with financial support from the Danish International Development Agency (Danida), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. The main objective of the conference was to identify common approaches to national mitigation analysis for countries to use in meeting their commitments under the FCCC, and in setting priorities for national actions. Although addressing a broader theme, the conference marked the completion and publication of the second phase on UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study. (au)

  4. The national adaptation plan to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptation to climate change is a necessity, as well as reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Since 2001, the National Observatory on the effects of global warming gathers and disseminates news on the effects of climate change and drive implementation of adaptation in France. A national strategy was adopted in 2006, followed by an analysis of the impacts of climate change and associated costs that could amount to several billion euros per year at the end of the century. Preceded by extensive consultation that involved stakeholders Grenelle Environment the National Adaptation Plan was published in mid-2011. It covers all sectors and many areas. He has more than 80 concrete actions that will commit France to adapt to the new climate. (author)

  5. Contributing to Food Security in the Context of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the laboratories of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications were established in Seibersdorf in 1962, the world’s population has grown from 3.14 billion to 7.15 billion, which, combined with continuously increasing industrialization and economic development, has led to greater global food demand. This has placed substantial stress on natural resources as well as the agricultural production chain. The challenges to food safety and security have also been amplified by the impacts of climate change, which have global ramifications, as noted in the March 2014 report of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change impacts include higher temperatures, drought, more frequent extreme weather events and increased soil salinity which can have severe effects on agricultural production. Helping Member States adapt to and mitigate these impacts is a main focus of the five laboratories of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in Seibersdorf. These laboratories are dedicated to increasing food security and safety using nuclear science and technology

  6. Research Agenda for Understanding Transboundary Ecosystem Changes and Eco-security in Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The longitudinal range-gorge region (LRGR) in Southwestern China, characterized by longitudinal mountain ranges and deep valleys,includes the basins of four major international rivers:, the Yuanjiang-Red, Lancang Mekong, Nujiang Salween and Irrawaddy. This region is classified as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and provides an important ecological and economic corridor linking China and Southeast Asian countries. Over the past half century, it has served as a resource base for timber and minerals needed to fuel economic development, which resulted in rapid and drastic changes in ecosystem and species diversity. Proposed and ongoing development programs, such as China's Great Western Development campaign, Greater Mekong Subregional Economic Cooperation (GMS)and China-ASEAN free trade zone development ("10+1"), threaten to bring unprecedented disturbance to the region's ecosystems. Present and emerging threats to eco-security have caught tremendous attention worldwide. Therefore, studies on such problems are critical for enhancing ecosystem health and transboundary eco-security.This paper indicates several multi-disciplinary and cross-sector studies on transboundary resources in this region that will meet three major national needs: 1) identifying core scientific issues of ecological development and infrastructure construction in high plateau and mountainous areas for the Western Development campaign; 2) developing maintenance mechanisms and control methodologies for transboundary eco-security and resource base development; 3) providing scientific grounds for multi-lateral diplomacy, trade and economic cooperation, and conflict resolution as part of China's opening-up to south Asia. The key subjects to be solved include dynamics and major drive forces of this area, ecological effects caused by major projects construction, and transboundary eco-security and its controlling. The research projects proposed in this article will develop theories on ecosystem

  7. Environmental Issues, Climate Changes, and Energy Security in Developing Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-01-01

    Four environmental dimensions of energy security—climate change, air pollution, water availability and quality, and land-use change—and the environmental impact of 13 energy systems on each are discussed in this paper. Climate change threatens more land, people, and economies in Asia and small Pacific island states than any other part of the planet. Air pollution takes a substantial toll on national health-care expenditures and economies in general. Of the 18 megacities worldwide with severe ...

  8. 75 FR 77783 - Designation of National Security Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... or loyalty program relating to officers or employees of the Government.'' Currently, the regulation...--Security Requirements for Government Employment (April 27, 1953), 18 FR 2489, 3 CFR 1949-1953 Comp., p....

  9. Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the national implementation strategy which is a part of the coordinated national response to climate change. The approach was developed from the National Climate Change process, established by the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for energy and the environment, based on an examination of the impacts, costs and benefits of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the options for addressing climate change. The Strategy involves (1) taking action to reduce risks and to improve our understanding of risks associated with climate change, (2) institution of a national framework that includes individual and joint action, while recognizing jurisdictional flexibility in responding to unique circumstances, (3) adopting a phased approach, (4) progressive action in response to changing domestic and international circumstances, (5) clear understanding of the necessary relationship between international and national strategies, (6) developing an understanding of the implications of emission reduction targets and major options, including cross-cutting policy approaches such as emissions trading and allocation of responsibility for reducing emissions. The Strategy uses a risk-management approach that attempts to limit the risks of climate change while maximizing opportunities for Canada to contribute to global and national solutions. This approach incorporates improving scientific and analytical understanding and co-ordinating national and international action and a phased approach to implementation. This policy document focuses on Phase One actions which consist of five connected themes, i. e. enhancing awareness and understanding, promoting technology development and innovation, governments leading by example, investing in knowledge and building the foundation, and encouraging action. Future phases will be linked to greater international certainty based on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the actions of our trading partners

  10. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  11. Reconnection production-consumption: change to achieve food and nutritional security, as well as rural development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Rodríguez-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the importance of changing the conventional food system to achieve food and nutritional security, as well as rural development. This text was divided into three sections. In the first one, the conventional food system and its consequences were characterized, showing the need for a change that seeks the integration of social, environmental, and health dimensions. The second part addressed the interventions related to the food supply system made by the Government, which are fundamental to achieve food and nutrition security, as well as to promote development processes in rural areas. Finally, the experience of Brazil’s National School Feeding Programme was presented. That program links food produced by small producers with the National School Feeding Program, allowing the reconnection of production and consumers through institutional markets. That link created incentives for food and nutrition security of small farmers and, at the same time, improved the availability of higher- quality food for vulnerable populations and promotedeating patterns that allow the preservation of food culture.

  12. 15 CFR 744.11 - License requirements that apply to entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. 744.11... national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. BIS may impose foreign policy export... to United States national security or foreign policy interests or enabling such transfer,...

  13. 78 FR 2953 - National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) Secure Exchange of Electronic Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Agreement (CRADA) with NIST. NIST published a notice in the Federal Register on October 19, 2012 (77 FR... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) Secure.... This notice is the initial step for the National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) in...

  14. HUMAN SECURITY: CONSEQUENCE OF AND INCENTIVE FOR NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Florentin Adrian ILIE

    2011-01-01

    In the evolution framework of modern society confl icts, even though not of a global outreach, have unprececedently increased in number and effects. As a result, human security, has become of top concern in democratic states. In order to understand this trend and as a result of the importance acquiered by the the concept of “human security”, it is important to undertake an investigation into its dimensions and variables. Thus, the assumption underlying this article is that human security is b...

  15. Netherlands' national communication on climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Communication was produced to fulfil the Netherlands' commitments to the Framework Convention on Climate Change which was ratified by the Netherlands' Government on 21 December 1993. It gives a broad overview of the country's climate change policies and a summary of the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. It discusses projection of emissions to 2000 and effect of measures on emissions. The vulnerability of the Netherlands to sea level rise is discussed and adaptations outlined. Initiatives on joint implementation are summarised. Finance of mitigation/adaptation, international cooperation, research programs and education and training programs on climate change and its mitigation are briefly discussed. 63 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

  16. Identification of Strategies to Leverage Public and Private Resources for National Security Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This report documents the identification of strategies to leverage public and private resources for the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP).There are numerous efforts across the United States to develop a properly skilled and trained national security workforce. Some of these efforts are the result of the leveraging of public and private dollars. As budget dollars decrease and the demand for a properly skilled and trained national security workforce increases, it will become even more important to leverage every education and training dollar. The leveraging of dollars serves many purposes. These include increasing the amount of training that can be delivered and therefore increasing the number of people reached, increasing the number and quality of public/private partnerships, and increasing the number of businesses that are involved in the training of their future workforce.

  17. 75 FR 43492 - Federal Advisory Committee; National Security Education Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... emphasized in other United States study abroad programs, such as countries in which few United States students are studying and countries which are of importance to the national security interests of...

  18. The Effectiveness of the United Nations Inmaintenance of international Peace and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gunda Reire

    2011-01-01

    THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UNITED NATIONS INMAINTENANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY Annotation of the Doctoral Thesis The author of this Doctoral Thesis analyses performance of the United Nations (UN) on the basis of the hypothesis “The causes of lack of effectiveness of the UN in maintenance of international peace and security are systemic and structural”. The innovative theoretically methodological model elaborated allows evaluating the effectiveness of the UN thr...

  19. Machiavelli’s Fundamental Contribution to the National Security Concept as Revealed in The Prince

    OpenAIRE

    Florea SURDU

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the contribution of Niccolò Machiavelli to the substantiation of the national security concept, ranks him among the major promoters of the war phenomenon and state, the policy stance by one of the pillars of its stability, namely national security. Today, more than ever, "The Prince" is increasingly present, this is determined by social, political and military instability, of the 21st century and that’s why this study is a research designed to range Machiavelli among the precursor...

  20. The Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Backus, George A.; Ivey, Mark D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2008-11-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing in a way that will affect the rest of the world. Parts of Alaska, western Canada, and Siberia are currently warming at twice the global rate. This warming trend is accelerating permafrost deterioration, coastal erosion, snow and ice loss, and other changes that are a direct consequence of climate change. Climatologists have long understood that changes in the Arctic would be faster and more intense than elsewhere on the planet, but the degree and speed of the changes were underestimated compared to recent observations. Policy makers have not yet had time to examine the latest evidence or appreciate the nature of the consequences. Thus, the abruptness and severity of an unfolding Arctic climate crisis has not been incorporated into long-range planning. The purpose of this report is to briefly review the physical basis for global climate change and Arctic amplification, summarize the ongoing observations, discuss the potential consequences, explain the need for an objective risk assessment, develop scenarios for future change, review existing modeling capabilities and the need for better regional models, and finally to make recommendations for Sandia's future role in preparing our leaders to deal with impacts of Arctic climate change on national security. Accurate and credible regional-scale climate models are still several years in the future, and those models are essential for estimating climate impacts around the globe. This study demonstrates how a scenario-based method may be used to give insights into climate impacts on a regional scale and possible mitigation. Because of our experience in the Arctic and widespread recognition of the Arctic's importance in the Earth climate system we chose the Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security. Sandia can make a swift and significant contribution by applying modeling and simulation tools with internal collaborations as well as with

  1. Institutional change in European natural gas markets and implications for energy security: Lessons from the German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on institutional change in the German gas market driven by EU internal market and climate policies. It argues that institutional change has functional externalities for energy security. The German gas market provides a useful case study, as Germany is the biggest continental gas market, a major hub and transport country which has largely privatised, unbundled and separated its natural gas undertakings. Transition is ongoing, tending towards an internal market. Inter/national natural gas economics is in flux. Institutional evolution has repercussions for corporate and market structures, the operating of the system and the realization of transactions. Changes in the institutional framework crucially affect energy security, which is often associated with institutional stability. On the basis of this case study, it is argued herein that the security of natural gas supplies should be reexamined in the context of the developments described above, since overall the institutional changes in natural gas security lag behind the EU’s internal natural gas market development. - Highlights: • EU natural gas market regulation primarily aims to establish competitive markets. • German/EU regulatory approach has externalities for supply security. • Institutional changes and breaks with path dependencies take place in Germany/the EU. • Institutional change results in increasing uncertainty and complexity. • Subsequent change in perceptions and expectations may destabilise trade relations

  2. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR ORGANIZING TERRORIST COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN IT AS A DIRECTION NATIONAL SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Z. K. KONDRATENKO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a comprehensive scientific understanding of the criminal responsibility for a terrorist organization and community participation in it as the directions of national security. To achieve this goal the author was raised a number of scientific tasks, in particular the study of certain provisions of the National Security Strategy, the main threats to the state and public security of the Russian Federation, the main directions of ensuring state and public ...

  3. The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard; Merkelsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how the role of public relations practice in public diplomacy is undergoing a transformation as a consequence of the influence from nation branding. A case study of the Danish government's response to the so-called Cartoon Crisis illustrates how the threat from international...... terrorism to national security initially served as a catalyst for new public diplomacy initiatives. But as the initiatives were implemented within a framework of nation branding the focus on risk reduction became subjected to a marketing logic and a new focus on economic objectives took over. The paper...... points to a possible future status of public diplomacy under the influence of nation branding: Public diplomacy may maintain a function pertinent to national security but as this function is incapable of managing real risks it will only serve as auto-communication that legitimizes security policy towards...

  4. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  5. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves

  6. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - 13454

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has added the capability needed for the safe, secure disposal of non-nuclear classified components that have been declared excess to national security requirements. The NNSS has worked with U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration senior leadership to gain formal approval for permanent burial of classified matter at the NNSS in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. Additionally, by working with state regulators, the NNSS added the capability to dispose non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous classified components. The NNSS successfully piloted the new disposal pathway with the receipt of classified materials from the Kansas City Plant in March 2012. (authors)

  7. 78 FR 8160 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Designated Federal Officer, Stakeholder Engagement and Critical Infrastructure Resilience Division, National... Broadband Network. The report recommends the President advance a set of organizational streamlining,...

  8. Food Security Through the Eyes of AVHRR: Changes and Variability of African Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, A.; de Beurs, K. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Food security is defined by FAO as a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Despite globalization and food trade, access to food remains a major problem for an important part of Africa's population. As a contribution to the food security analysis we identify at a coarse scale where trends and high interannual variability of food production occur within Africa. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Two methods were applied to extract phenology indicators from the dataset. The indicators are start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. To focus the analysis on food production we spatially aggregate the annual indicators at sub-national level using a general crop mask. Persistent changes during the 26-year period were assessed using trend analysis on the yearly aggregated indicators. These trends may indicate changes in production, and consequent potential increases of food insecurity. We evaluate then where strong interannual variability of phenology indicators occurs. This relates to regular shortages of food availability. For Africa, field information on phenology or accurate time series of production figures at the sub-national scale are scarce. Validating the outcome of the AVHRR analysis is consequently difficult. We propose to use crop-specific national FAOSTAT yield statistics. For this purpose, we aggregate phenology outputs per country using specific masks for the major staple food crops. Although data quality and scale issues influence results, for several countries and crops significant positive correlations between indicators and crop production exist. We conclude that AVHRR-derived phenology information can provide useful inputs to food security analysis.

  9. National Nuclear Security Administration Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report in Brief: October 2007 - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkman, Clarissa O.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Sandusky, Jessica A.

    2009-05-01

    This abbreviated Annual Report covers program activities of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) from October 2007 through May 2008--the timeframe between the last Annual Report (which covered activities through September 2007) and the next report (which will begin with June 2008 activities). In that timeframe, the NGFP continued building a solid foundation as the program began reaping the benefits of recently implemented changes. This report is organized by Fellowship class and the pertinent program activities for each, including: October 2007 Recruiting events and final applications (Class of 2008) Winter 2007 Selection and hiring (Class of 2008) Spring 2008 Career development roundtables (Class of 2007) Orientation planning (Class of 2008) Recruitment planning and university outreach (Class of 2009) May 2008 Closing ceremony (Class of 2007)

  10. Strengthening Sovereignty: Security and Sustainability in an Era of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymn J. Parsons

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Using Pakistan and the Arctic as examples, this article examines security challenges arising from climate change. Pakistan is in crisis, and climate change, a transnational phenomenon perhaps better characterized as radical enviro-transformation, is an important reason. Its survival as a state may depend to great extent on how it responds to 2010’s devastating floods. In the Arctic, the ice cap is melting faster than predicted, as temperatures there rise faster than in almost any other region. Unmanaged, a complex interplay of climate-related conditions, including large-scale “ecomigration”, may turn resource competition into resource conflict. Radical enviro-transformation has repeatedly overborne the resilience of societies. War is not an inevitable by-product of such transformation, but in the 21st Century climate-related instability, from resource scarcity and “ecomigration”, will likely create increasingly undesirable conditions of insecurity. Weak and failing states are one of today’s greatest security challenges. The pace of radical enviro-transformation, unprecedented in human history, is accelerating, especially in the Arctic, where a new, open, rich, and accessible maritime environment is coming into being. The international community must work together to enhance security and stability, promote sustainability, and strengthen sovereignty. Radical enviro-transformation provides ample reason and plentiful opportunity for preventative, collaborative solutions focused broadly on adaptation to climate change, most particularly the effects of “ecomigration”. Nations must work together across the whole of government and with all instruments of national power to create conditions for human transformation—social, political, and economic—to occur stably and sustainably, so as to avoid or lessen the prospects for and consequences of conflict. Collaborative international solutions to environmental issues, i.e., solutions that

  11. From Charity to Security: The Emergence of the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Jennifer Geist

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the historical formation of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in the United States and argues that programme emergence depended on the ability of policy entrepreneurs to link the economic concerns of agricultural production with the ideational concern of national security. Using a historical institutionalist framework…

  12. 3 CFR 13526 - Executive Order 13526 of December 29, 2009. Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... documents in the physical and legal custody of the National Archives and Records Administration (National... classification standards and routine, secure, and effective declassification are equally important priorities... CLASSIFICATION Section 1.1. Classification Standards. (a) Information may be originally classified under...

  13. Higher Education as a Matter of National Security: Can a Democracy Plan Ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, David

    2014-01-01

    What is often viewed as the fairly arcane business of determining and administering higher education policy is a matter of great national interest and, actually, a matter of national security. It thus makes a difference for American society in ways you may not have considered. The ability of the United States to protect itself and its interests…

  14. Regional climate change and national responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko

    2016-03-01

    Global warming over the past several decades is now large enough that regional climate change is emerging above the noise of natural variability, especially in the summer at middle latitudes and year-round at low latitudes. Despite the small magnitude of warming relative to weather fluctuations, effects of the warming already have notable social and economic impacts. Global warming of 2 °C relative to preindustrial would shift the ‘bell curve’ defining temperature anomalies a factor of three larger than observed changes since the middle of the 20th century, with highly deleterious consequences. There is striking incongruity between the global distribution of nations principally responsible for fossil fuel CO2 emissions, known to be the main cause of climate change, and the regions suffering the greatest consequences from the warming, a fact with substantial implications for global energy and climate policies.

  15. The consequences to national security of jurisdictional gray areas between emergency management and homeland security

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited CHDS State/Local The September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on United States (U.S.) soil memorialized as 9/11 served as the catalyst for major reforms in the federal government. Twenty-two agencies combined to form the Department of Homeland Security with a mission of preventing homeland attacks and reducing U.S. vulnerability to terrorism. Accomplishing this amalgamation has led Federal Emergency Management Agency supported emergency...

  16. National strategy for climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  17. Climate change and critical thresholds in China's food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of 'critical thresholds' of temperature increase is an essential task for inform policy decisions on establishing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets. We use the A2 (medium-high GHG emission pathway) and B2 (medium-low) climate change scenarios produced by the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, the crop model - CERES, and socio-economic scenarios described by IPCC SRES, to simulate the average yield changes per hectare of three main grain crops (rice, wheat, and maize) at 50 km x 50 km scale. The threshold of food production to temperature increases was analyzed based on the relationship between yield changes and temperature rise, and then food security was discussed corresponding to each IPCC SRES scenario. The results show that without the CO2 fertilization effect in the analysis, the yield per hectare for the three crops would fall consistently as temperature rises beyond 2.5C; when the CO2 fertilization effect was included in the simulation, there were no adverse impacts on China's food production under the projected range of temperature rise (0.9-3.9C). A critical threshold of temperature increase was not found for food production. When the socio-economic scenarios, agricultural technology development and international trade were incorporated in the analysis, China's internal food production would meet a critical threshold of basic demand (300 kg/capita) while it would not under A2 (no CO2 fertilization); whereas basic food demand would be satisfied under both A2 and B2, and would even meet a higher food demand threshold required to sustain economic growth (400 kg/capita) under B2, when CO2 fertilization was considered

  18. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Capabilities for Homeland Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J; Baskett, R; Simpson, M

    2010-03-08

    The Department of Energy's National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provides critical information during hazardous airborne releases as part of an integrated national preparedness and response strategy. Located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC provides 24/7 tools and expert services to map the spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC graphical products show affected areas and populations, potential casualties, and health effect or protective action guideline levels. LLNL experts produce quality-assured analyses based on field data to assist decision makers and responders. NARAC staff and collaborators conduct research and development into new science, tools, capabilities, and technologies in strategically important areas related to airborne transport and fate modeling and emergency response. This paper provides a brief overview of some of NARAC's activities, capabilities, and research and development.

  19. Food and water security in a changing arctic climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Arctic, permafrost extends up to 500 m below the ground surface, and it is generally just the top metre that thaws in summer. Lakes, rivers, and wetlands on the arctic landscape are normally not connected with groundwater in the same way that they are in temperate regions. When the surface is frozen in winter, only lakes deeper than 2 m and rivers with significant flow retain liquid water. Surface water is largely abundant in summer, when it serves as a breeding ground for fish, birds, and mammals. In winter, many mammals and birds are forced to migrate out of the Arctic. Fish must seek out lakes or rivers deep enough to provide good overwintering habitat. Humans in the Arctic rely on surface water in many ways. Surface water meets domestic needs such as drinking, cooking, and cleaning as well as subsistence and industrial demands. Indigenous communities depend on sea ice and waterways for transportation across the landscape and access to traditional country foods. The minerals, mining, and oil and gas industries also use large quantities of surface water during winter to build ice roads and maintain infrastructure. As demand for this limited, but heavily-relied-upon resource continues to increase, it is now more critical than ever to understand the impacts of climate change on food and water security in the Arctic

  20. IAEA activities and experience in Iraq under the relevant resolutions of the United Nations Security Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United National Security Council Resolution 687 (1991) mandated, inter alia, the destruction of all weapons of mass destruction - chemical, biological, ballistic and nuclear - existing in Iraq, including equipment, facilities and materials used for their production. Resolution 715 (1991) adopted an open-ended plan for ongoing monitoring and verification aimed at preventing a reconstruction of Iraq's capabilities in the production of weapons of mass destruction. Under these resolutions the IAEA was given responsibility to implement the Security Council mandate in the nuclear area, with the assistance and co-operation of the United Nations Special Commission. The paper provides an overview of the IAEA's activities in Iraq under United Nations Security Council resolutions and offers some comments on the lessons to be learned. (author)

  1. Interactions between energy security and climate change: A focus on developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We briefly consider the tensions between climate change and energy security policy imperatives, and highlight some concepts that may bring additional clarity to decision-making at the nexus of the two areas. We focus on developing countries and use the case of the Medupi supercritical coal plant in South Africa. The justification for the plant's construction stemmed from an Integrated Resource Planning process informed by South Africa's national utility. Often, as in the case of South Africa, there are tensions not easily captured in quantitative algorithms between, inter alia, a lack of access to electricity by millions of people (and associated welfare losses) and greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation. It is difficult to identify any formal processes that have prioritised climate change considerations over those of energy access. Thus, it becomes imperative to have a clear understanding of the consequences of this reality when considering power system expansion. We find that the processes often employed do not provide an entirely satisfactory precedent for future planning analyses, and the justifications do not adequately reflect the complexity of the decision space. Finally, we highlight some options by which these tools might be enhanced in areas including explicit and formal consideration of risk. - Highlights: → We consider the tensions between climate change and energy security policy. → Often there are policy tensions not easily captured in quantitative algorithms. → Processes often do not provide a satisfactory precedent for future planning analyses. → These tools might be enhanced in areas including explicit and formal consideration of risk.

  2. The changing face of Hanford security 1990--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meltdown of the Cold War was a shock to the systems built to cope with it. At the DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State, a world-class safeguards and security system was suddenly out of step with the times. The level of protection for nuclear and classified materials was exceptional. But the cost was high and the defense facilities that funded security were closing down. The defense mission had created an umbrella of security over the sprawling Hanford Site. Helicopters designed to ferry special response teams to any trouble spot on the 1,456 square-kilometer site made the umbrella analogy almost literally true. Facilities were grouped into areas, fenced off like a military base, and entrance required a badge check for everyone. Within the fence, additional rings of protection were set up around security interests or targets. The security was effective, but costly to operate and inconvenient for employees and visitors alike. Moreover, the umbrella meant that virtually all employees needed a security clearance just to get to work, whether they worked on classified or unclassified projects. Clearly, some fundamental rethinking of safeguards and security was needed. The effort to meet that challenge is the story of transition at Hanford and documented here

  3. Union des Comores - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Initial National Communication on Climate Change.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The studies made in the context of this Initial National Communication on Climate Change are based on the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1 study on impacts and adaptation of Indian Ocean small island states. Changes in climate to be anticipated in Comoros by year 2050 are estimated to be a raise in mean annual air temperature to an average of 28°C, a change that represents a 1°C increase compared to the current situation. A sea level increase o...

  4. Changing Employees' Security Behavior with Technology-Enforcement of Information Systems Security Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hadasch, Frank; Müller, Benjamin; Maedche, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Employees often fail to use appropriate technological countermeasures in order to protect sensitive company information from unauthorized access. To date, information systems security researchers examined why employees are motivated to perform security-related behaviors using various theoretical lenses. Two major research streams explain protective behaviors with policy compliance and threat avoidance. However, latest findings suggest that humans can neglect or ignore rules in specific work s...

  5. China National Unified System for Certification on Information Security Products Entering the Stage of Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recently, China National Administrative Committee for Certification on Information Security Products was officially established,symbolizing that the established national unified system for certification on information security products has entered the stage of implementation. Director of General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine of P. R.China (AQSIQ) Li Changjiang, Director of Certification and Accreditation Administration of P. R. China(CNCA) Wang Fengqing and Vice Director of the State Council Office for informationization work Qu Weizhi addressed at the establishing meeting.

  6. Enhancing national security by strengthening the legal immigration system

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Danielle.

    2009-01-01

    CHDS State/Local One of the biggest challenges the U.S. contends with is how foreign nationals are using the legal immigration system to embed themselves in the country. While not every person who commits immigration fraud is a terrorist, those who intend to do this country harm will likely engage in some form of immigration fraud or seek to evade immigration laws in order to gain admission into or remain in this country in an immigration status. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, the ...

  7. Sun-Burned: Space Weather's Impact on United States National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, B.

    2014-12-01

    The heightened media attention surrounding the 2013-14 solar maximum presented an excellent opportunity to examine the ever-increasing vulnerability of US national security and its Department of Defense to space weather. This vulnerability exists for three principal reasons: 1) a massive US space-based infrastructure; 2) an almost exclusive reliance on an aging and stressed continental US power grid; and 3) a direct dependence upon a US economy adapted to the conveniences of space and uninterrupted power. I tailored my research and work for the national security policy maker and military strategists in an endeavor to initiate and inform a substantive dialogue on America's preparation for, and response to, a major solar event that would severely degrade core national security capabilities, such as military operations. Significant risk to the Department of Defense exists from powerful events that could impact its space-based infrastructure and even the terrestrial power grid. Given this ever-present and increasing risk to the United States, my work advocates raising the issue of space weather and its impacts to the level of a national security threat. With the current solar cycle having already peaked and the next projected solar maximum just a decade away, the government has a relatively small window to make policy decisions that prepare the nation and its Defense Department to mitigate impacts from these potentially catastrophic phenomena.

  8. Social Media Platforms as a Tool for Sharing Emotions. A Perspective upon the National Security Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Diana LEON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotions importance increases even more in the context of the national security agencies. Since their mission is to protect and defend the citizens against attacks and also to provide leadership and justice services to other agencies and partners, the aim of the information they post on social media should be twofold: on the one hand, it should reflect the attitudes, values and beliefs, supported by the institution, and on the other hand, it should have an impact on citizens feeling of security. But, do they manage to meet these demands? Are they focusing on impressing the audience or they concentrate on sharing specific emotions? Is it a marketing strategy or a knowledge strategy? Starting from these, the purpose of this research is to set a nexus between emotions and the use of social media by the national security organizations. In other words, we aim (i to determine the main types of emotions, (ii to establish whether these are shared within the social media platforms, (iii to identify the purpose for which the national security organizations use social media, (iv to determine whether social media could serve as Ba for the national security organizations. In order to achieve these objectives, we employ an ethic approach and develop a longitudinal study based on quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The results prove that social media platforms may serve as Ba since they appear as a shared space which fosters individual and collective knowledge creation and sharing. The national security agencies  use social media platforms for combining the classical four types of Ba: originating Ba (it shares its emotions, feelings and thoughts through its posts, interacting Ba (through the generated reactions and comments, it ensures the development of shared models and the conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, cyber Ba (by fostering the virtual interaction among its followers and exercising Ba (by facilitating the creation of

  9. Senegal's national policy to combat climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senegal's participation in the Earth Summit meeting in Rio in 1992 demonstrated its national political stand towards environmental causes. An initiative was taken to educate the population on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in relation to different sectors, including the energy sector, transportation, agriculture, forestry and waste management. Later, a group of negotiators followed the works of subsidiary bodies of the Kyoto Agreement. As a non-Annex 1 developing country, Senegal is not required to reduce GHG emissions as are Annex 1 countries. Therefore, Senegal has used judicial tools to benefit from the transfer of clean technologies. The implementation of Senegal's national adaptation action plan has involved global organizations, sectorial studies, public consultations, prioritization and project formulation. The action plan addresses concerns such as water resources, variation in precipitation, drought, agriculture and its vulnerability, and negative impacts due to climate change. The technical solutions include the promotion of agroforestry technologies; crop diversification; water conservation; community wood use; and, prevention of bush fires. Since several geographical regions within Senegal are also affected by global warming, policies are being formulated to protect humid zones and help in the fight against invasive species. Senegal imports much of its energy sources. Households rely on wood and coal for energy. New measures are being adapted and new sustainable technologies are being proposed for fireplaces, better recycling, and better landfill sites. 8 figs

  10. Genocide Prevention and Western National Security: The Limitations of Making R2P All About Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen S. Hiebert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The case for turning R2P and genocide prevention from principle to practice usually rests on the invocation of moral norms and duties to others. Calls have been made by some analysts to abandon this strategy and “sell” genocide prevention to government by framing it as a matter of our own national interest including our security. Governments’ failure to prevent atrocities abroad, it is argued, imperils western societies at home. If we look at how the genocide prevention-as-national security argument has been made we can see, however, that this position is not entirely convincing. I review two policy reports that make the case for genocide prevention based in part on national security considerations: Preventing Genocide: A Blue Print for U.S. Policymakers (Albright-Cohen Report; and the Will to Intervene Project. I show that both reports are problematic for two reasons: the “widened” traditional security argument advocated by the authors is not fully substantiated by the evidence provided in the reports; and alternate conceptions of security that would seem to support the linking of genocide prevention to western security—securitization and risk and uncertain—do not provide a solid logical foundation for operationalizing R2P. I conclude by considering whether we might appeal instead to another form of self interest, “reputational stakes”, tied to western states’ construction of their own identity as responsible members of the international community.

  11. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenzien, Susan [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Farnham, Irene [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1D, Change 1, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2013a); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). If a participant’s requirement document differs from this QAP, the stricter requirement will take precedence. NNSA/NFO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  12. Safety and security of radioactive sources in the Republic of Albania. National Report: Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Republic of Albania, practices involving radioactive sources are established in medicine, agriculture, industries, research and education. It is now a concern that radioactive sources can also be used in terrorist activities, if effective safety and security mechanisms are not well established. It is necessary to ensure safety and security from cradle to grave the use of the radioactive source. Adequate safety and security measures needed to put in place to prevent related malevolent acts. The paper describes safety and security of radioactive sources in Albania. Infrastructure for regulatory control, Training of regulatory staff and stakeholders, long-term management of radioactive sources, national strategies for gaining or regaining control over orphan sources, including arrangements for reporting loss of control and monitoring to detect orphan sources, international cooperation, experience with implementation of the import-export provisions of the Code and Guidance. (author)

  13. National Cyber Security Policy and Strategy of Nigeria: A Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Osho, Oluwafemi; Onoja, Agada D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With advancements in modernization came the infiltration of information and communication technologies across the world, Nigeria inclusive. Several benefits are obtainable from these but also prevalent are some associated risks. Communication exists massively in cyberspace and as such poses a myriad of threats to a nation. This can be addressed on a national spectrum by the implementation of cyber security policies and strategies. This research involves making a qualitative analys...

  14. Implementation of national food security mission for pulse crops in Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, Shah

    2012-01-01

    Despite several policy initiatives, projects and programmes undertaken in the past, the demand for pulses in India has always acceded supply due to stagnant or sluggish growth in pulse production. Since the programme initiatives in the past hardly led to any improvement in pulses production of India, the National Development Council (NDC) launched the ‘National Food Security Mission (NFSM)’ in 2007-08 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. The NFSM comprises of three components viz. rice, wheat and...

  15. A new legal tool for states: the national legislation implementation kit on nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Nuclear Inter Jura 2012 Congress in Manchester, Carlton Stoiber introduced Indonesia’s initiative, announced at the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, to draw up a “National Legislation Implementation Kit on Nuclear Security” (the Kit) 2. The stated objective of the initiative was to “help states develop more comprehensive national legislation on nuclear security in accordance with their own respective internal legal processes”. The Kit was launched by Indonesia at the third Nuclear Security Summit in March this year in The Hague. This paper elaborates on the legal context in which the Kit was developed, and explains its purpose and legal contents. It finally examines how the Kit can be of benefit to states. (author)

  16. 76 FR 18552 - Seeking Public Comment on Two Draft Chapters of the National Health Security Strategy Biennial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services... Health Security Strategy (NHSS) of the United States of America (2009) and build upon the NHSS Interim Implementation Guide for the National Health Security Strategy of the United States of America (2009) the...

  17. Impacts of Psychological Science on National Security Agencies Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychologists have been an integral part of national security agencies since World War I, when psychological science helped in personnel selection. A robust infrastructure supporting wider applications of psychology to military and intelligence problems developed further during World War II and the years following, primarily in the areas of…

  18. 78 FR 54349 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... securities executed on national stock exchanges and in the OTC market, as provided in Rule 7 and Procedure II..., 2013), 78 FR 42989 (July 18, 2013) (SR-NSCC-2013-09) (``Notice''). I. Description NSCC is amending its... deleting a provision relating to potential announcement via Important Notice of the availability of...

  19. 76 FR 62439 - Order of Succession for the Office of Disaster Management and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for the Office of Disaster Management and National Security AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Notice of order of succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Secretary of HUD designates the Order of Succession for the Office of Disaster Management and...

  20. 76 FR 34616 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Exempt From the Privacy Act * * * * * ] . The DHS/NPPD--002 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards... Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Personnel Surety Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS... Homeland Security/National Protection and Programs Directorate--002 Chemical Facility...

  1. Security of material. The changing context of the IAEA's programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the IAEA established its programme on the Security of Material about five years ago, the prospect that nuclear or other radioactive materials could fall into the wrong hands was a main concern. Among the major driving forces behind the Agency's action then was an alarming increase in reported cases of illicit nuclear trafficking in the early and mid-1990s, and the recognition that States needed better and more coordinated assistance in their efforts to combat the problem. Today, the dimensions and perceptions of nuclear security are being shaped by additional driving forces, specifically the spectre of nuclear terrorism. The terrorist attacks on the United States in September 2001 have elevated issues of security to unprecedented heights of international concern and they have prompted a broad-based global response. The attacks made it clear that terrorism has new and far-reaching international dimensions and that its aim of inflicting mass casualties is a serious threat for all States. In the nuclear sphere, the IAEA has taken a leading role in international efforts directed at combating nuclear terrorism. Initiatives taken by the Agency aim to upgrade levels of security for nuclear facilities and the protection of nuclear and other radioactive materials. Toward these ends, the IAEA Board of Governors is considering proposed measures for strengthening the Agency's activities relevant to preventing nuclear terrorism. In this new and challenging context, it is worth reviewing some fundamental aspects of the IAEA programme on Security of Material as it has been developed over the years. The programme is part of a wider framework of Agency activities related to nuclear security, safety, and safeguards. In reviewing the programme's evolution, this article principally focuses on the major components and elements of the planned 2002-2003 programme, while pointing to directions ahead in light of additional measures being considered for prevention of nuclear terrorism

  2. Using tropical forest ecosystem goods and services for planning climate change adaptation with implications for food security and poverty reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Nkem

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest ecosystems represent a common heritage with livelihood portfolios shared by a great majority of people especially in developing countries but are now threatened by climate change. In spite of their contribution to poverty alleviation and food security, and also for climate change responses (adaptation and mitigation especially through the market-incentive schemes (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol forests are still hardly integrated into national planning processes aimed at addressing any of these national development challenges. This is evident in some of the national documents of some developing countries such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP to the World Bank, and the First National Communication to UNFCCC. This paper presents some preliminary outcomes of the Tropical Forests and Climate Change Adaptation (TroFCCA project of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR whose overall mission is to underscore the importance of tropical forests for livelihood adaptation to climate change and mainstreaming adaptation into national development processes. The paper also highlights TroFCCA’s approach in engaging stakeholders from the onset in setting the agenda with the identification and prioritization of forest-based sectors as the entry point in the process of assessing the vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for these selected development sectors. This is a highly crucial area with great policy implications. Planning with ecosystem goods and services seems to emerge as a prospective approach to demonstrate to policymakers the potential of forest ecosystems for livelihood adaptation to climate change which also enhances the opportunity for achieving food security and community resilience to poverty. TroFCCA’s approach in engaging stakeholders at the onset in defining their perception of ecosystem goods and services by virtue of their importance to household livelihoods and their

  3. Examining cassava's potential to enhance food security under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in the biofortification of cassava, a substantial yield gap and cassava's potential for increased productivity and its inherent potential to respond positively to globally increasing CO2 are synergistic and encouraging in an otherwise bleak global view of the future of food security ...

  4. Social Security Disability Insurance: Time for Fundamental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, Richard V.; Daly, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program is growing at an unsustainable pace. Over the past 40 years the number of disabled worker beneficiaries has increased nearly sixfold, rising from 1.5 million in 1970 to 8.2 million in 2010. Rapid growth in the rolls has put increasing pressure on program finances. The rapid rise in SSDI…

  5. PERSPECTIVE: Climate change, biofuels, and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2007-03-01

    There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops. Soon the price of these commodities will be determined by their value as feedstock for biofuel rather than their importance as human food or livestock feed [1]. The expectation that petroleum prices will remain high and supportive government policies in several major crop producing countries are providing strong momentum for continued expansion of biofuel production capacity and the associated pressures on global food supply. Farmers in countries that account for a majority of the world's biofuel crop production will enjoy the promise of markedly higher commodity prices and incomesNote1. In contrast, urban and rural poor in food-importing countries will pay much higher prices for basic food staples and there will be less grain available for humanitarian aid. For example, the developing countries of Africa import about 10 MMt of maize each year; another 3 5 MMt of cereal grains are provided as humanitarian aid (figure 1). In a world where more than 800 million are already undernourished and the demand for crop commodities may soon exceed supply, alleviating hunger will no longer be solely a matter of poverty alleviation and more equitable food distribution, which has been the situation for the past thirty years. Instead, food security will also depend on accelerating the rate of gain in crop yields and food production capacity at both local and global scales. Maize imports and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa Figure 1. Maize imports (yellow bar) and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa, 2001 2003. MMT = million metric tons. Data

  6. Impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on National Food Security in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per capita food production in sub-Saharan Africa including Kenya has been declining over the past three decades.Despite the available efforts made by the governments in sub-Saharan Africa, food insecurity remains one of the most crucial issues.In Kenya, agriculture accounts for about 26 per cent of overall GDP, 60 per cent of foreign exchange earnings and employs about 70 per cent of the rural population. Agriculture therefore remains the main source of food security for a majority of Kenya's population. Kenya has been going through nearly a decade of transition in agriculture whereby the role of the state in production and marketing has been reduced allowing the public sector institutions to concentrate on doing a narrow range of tasks better. However concerns has arisen as to wether this transformation from state-led model of service provision to that of the private sector would result in the vibrant growth in agricultural production that was experienced in the 1960s and early 1970s. This study sought to determine the impact of policy reforms on national food security with a major focus on agricultural production of rural farmers in Kenya. The study also aimed at suggesting posssible recommendations to improve agricultural production while taking into consideration the fiscal constraint faced by the the country. By using descriptive analysis to compare changes in production of maize, coffee and tea as well as in the food security situation before and after policy reforms, the study revealed that maize production had declined in the post-reform period. Although the total contribution of tea and coffee to total agricultural export had increased in the pos-reform period, production of coffee showed a downward trend unlike that of tea. The results further revealed that food production had deteriorated in the post-reform period while dependence on food imports and food aid had increased. In conclusion, the structural adjustment programmes coupled with organisational

  7. 76 FR 44751 - Suspension of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency Economic... Nations Security Council travel bans as of the date of this proclamation. I have further determined that... alien who meets one or more of the specific criteria for the imposition of a travel ban provided for...

  8. 36 CFR 1260.22 - Who is responsible for the declassification of classified national security White House...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... declassification of classified national security White House originated information in NARA's holdings? 1260.22... for the declassification of classified national security White House originated information in NARA's... was originated by: (1) The President; (2) The White House staff; (3) Committees, commissions,...

  9. The Iranian petroleum crisis and United States national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. case against Iran is based on Iran's deceptions regarding nuclear weapons development. This case is buttressed by assertions that a state so petroleum-rich cannot need nuclear power to preserve exports, as Iran claims. The U.S. infers, therefore, that Iran's entire nuclear technology program must pertain to weapons development. However, some industry analysts project an Irani oil export decline [e.g., Clark JR (2005) Oil Gas J 103(18):34-39]. If such a decline is occurring, Iran's claim to need nuclear power could be genuine. Because Iran's government relies on monopoly proceeds from oil exports for most revenue, it could become politically vulnerable if exports decline. Here, we survey the political economy of Irani petroleum for evidence of this decline. We define Iran's export decline rate (edr) as its summed rates of depletion and domestic demand growth, which we find equals 10-12%. We estimate marginal cost per barrel for additions to Irani production capacity, from which we derive the "standstill" investment required to offset edr. We then compare the standstill investment to actual investment, which has been inadequate to offset edr. Even if a relatively optimistic schedule of future capacity addition is met, the ratio of 2011 to 2006 exports will be only 0.40-0.52. A more probable scenario is that, absent some change in Irani policy, this ratio will be 0.33-0.46 with exports declining to zero by 2014-2015. Energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its state-planned economy underlie Iran's problem, which has no relation to "peak oil." PMID:17190820

  10. CDZNTE ROOM-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR FOR NATIONAL-SECURITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance

  11. When security becomes green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental security is a relatively recent concept which gives rise to intense debate at the heart of the theory of international relations. What is the referent object of environmental security? To what extent can the scarcity of a natural resource be the cause of a 'green' war? Is climate change a threat to national security? This article tackles these questions through a review of the literature on the theoretical work dealing with environmental security in the field of international relations. (author)

  12. Communicating Uncertainty about Climate Change for Application to Security Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    -management framework for climate security. The IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report concluded that "Responding to climate change involves an iterative risk management process that includes both adaptation and mitigation and takes into account climate change damages, co-benefits, sustainability, equity and attitudes to risk." In risk management, key uncertainties guide action aimed at reducing risk and cannot be ignored or used to justify inaction. Security policies such as arms control and counter-terrorism demonstrate that high-impact outcomes matter to decision makers even if they are likely to be rare events. In spite of this fact, the long tail on the probability distribution of climate sensitivity was largely ignored by the climate science community until recently and its implications for decision making are still not receiving adequate attention. Informing risk management requires scientists to shift from a singular aversion to type I statistical error (i.e. false positive) to a balanced presentation of both type I error and type II error (i.e. false negative) when the latter may have serious consequences. Examples from national security, extreme weather, and economics illustrate these concepts.

  13. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Krenzien, Susan [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). NNSA/NSO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  14. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2007-01-01

    Why this book on the Physics of Societal Issues? The subdivisions of physics - nuclear physics, particle physics, condensed-matter physics, biophysics - have their textbooks, while the subdivision of physics and society lacks an equation-oriented text on the physics of arms, energy and the environment. Physics of Societal Issues is intended for undergraduate and doctoral students who may work on applied topics, or who simply want to know why things are the way they are. Decisions guiding policies on nuclear arms, energy and the environment often seem mysterious and contradictory. What is the science behind the deployment of MIRVed ICBMs, the quest for space-based beam weapons, the fear of powerline EM fields, the wholesale acceptance of SUVs, the issues of climactic change, and the failure of the pre-embargo market to produce buildings and appliances that now save over 50 power plants? Physics of Societal Issues is three "mini-texts" in one: National Security (5 chapters): Weapons, offense, defense, verificat...

  15. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with essential tools needed to analyze complex societal issues and demonstrates the transition from physics to modern-day laws and treaties. This second edition features new equation-oriented material and extensive data sets drawing upon current information from experts in their fields. Problems to challenge the reader and extend discussion are presented on three timely issues:   •        National Security: Weapons, Offense, Defense, Verification, Nuclear Proliferation, Terrorism •        Environment: Air/Water, Nuclear, Climate Change, EM Fields/Epidemiology •        Energy: Current Energy Situation, Buildings, Solar Buildings, Renewable  Energy, Enhanced End-Use Efficiency, Transportation, Economics   Praise for the first edition: "This insight is needed in Congress and the Executive Branch. Hafemeister, a former Congressional fellow with wide Washington experience, has written a book for physicists, chemists and engineers who want to learn science...

  16. Evolving perceptions of security - US National Security surveys 1993--1995. Progress report, September 30, 1995--November 14, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This study analyzes findings from a national survey of 2,490 randomly selected members of the US public conducted between September 30 and November 14, 1995. It provides an over time comparison of public perceptions about nuclear weapons risks and benefits and key nuclear policy issues between 1993 and 1995. Other areas of investigation include policy preferences regarding nuclear proliferation, terrorism, US/Russian nuclear cooperation, and personal security. Public perceptions of post-cold war security were found to be evolving in unexpected ways. The perceived threat of nuclear conflict involving the US had not declined, and the threat of nuclear conflict between other countries and fears of nuclear proliferation and terrorism had increased. Perceived risks associated with managing the US nuclear arsenal were also higher. Perceptions of external and domestic benefits from US nuclear weapons were not declining. Support was found for increasing funding for nuclear weapons safety, training, and maintenance, but most respondents favored decreasing funding for developing and testing new nuclear weapons. Strong support was evident for programs and funding to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism. Though skeptical that nuclear weapons can be eliminated, most respondents supported reducing the US nuclear arsenal, banning nuclear test explosions, and ending production of fissile materials to make nuclear weapons. Statistically significant relationships were found between perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits and policy and spending preferences. Demographic variables and basic social and political beliefs were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and policy and spending options.

  17. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  18. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea

  19. Servitization in a Security Business: Changing the Logic of Value Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Rajala

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How can a firm change its value-creation logic from providing technology to selling technology-based services? This is a question many security companies face today when trying to apply a solutions-based business model in response to recent macro- and microeconomic trends. The fact that customers increasingly demand security as a service, rather than technical equipment, challenges the basis of a security firm's value provision and alters the logic of its operation. In this article, we investigate a technology- and product-oriented security business that is now rapidly transforming into a service business. We use data from a case study to propose a 4C model (conceptualization, calculation, communication, and co-creation of value that can help security providers to objectify their service offerings and succeed in the servitization of their security businesses.

  20. Opinions about Component Energetic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Elena GOLUMBEANU (GEORGESCU)

    2012-01-01

    Collective security (international) represent the morphological expression of individual security components. According to the Report presented at the United Nations Development Programme, collective security (international) as well as national security, is the expression of seven synergistic dimensions as follows: economic security, food security, environmental security, personal security, community security, political security and individual security. As part of economic security, energy an...

  1. The future of infrastructure security : a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included ininfrastructure' problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions ofsecure and resilient' infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  2. Tobias Debiel ; Sascha Werthes (Hrsg.): Human Security on Foreign Policy Agendas: Changes, Concepts and Cases. / [Rezension

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    rezensiertes Werk: Debiel, Tobias ; Sascha Werthes (Hrsg.): Human Security on Foreign Policy Agendas: Changes, Concepts and Cases.(INEF Report, 80/2006). - Duisburg : Institute for Development and Peace, Univ. Duisburg-Essen. ISSN 0941-4967

  3. Will National Reports Change Public Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    A survey of key educational leaders at the state level revealed strong support for most of the recommendations advocated by national reports such as "A Nation at Risk." Surveys went to school board leadership, executive directors of state associations for administrators, state affiliates of teacher organizations, and state superintendents in each…

  4. National security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray-fluorescence analysis system is being developed for determining uranium and plutonium concentrations in the solution obtained when the fuel rods from light-water power reactors are dissolved in nitric acid. These concentrations are needed to inventory the uranium and plutonium handled in fuel reprocessing plants. This technique should make it possible to analyze dissolver solution with speed and a 0.5 percent accuracy

  5. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  6. The economic impact of climate change on food security in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chuen Khee, Pek; Yet Mee, Lim; Chee Keong, Choong

    2011-01-01

    This study estimates the economic impact of climate change on food security in Malaysia. The contingent valuation technique is employed on 456 randomly selected households in the vicinities of Selangor Darul Ehsan. The study finds that climate change mitigation programmes to ensure food security are important. The public is willing to pay extra rice price in substitution of a rice subsidy reduction impact for the mitigation programmes. More specifically, the study ascertains that households o...

  7. Impact of the oil and gas industry on human security : relation between the national and the human : case study: the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Dubinina, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The oil and gas industry plays significant role in the economy and politics of the Russian Federation. Economic development is treated as providing national security. Therefore the oil and gas industry makes an important national interest. Arguments concerning national security issues are crucial in decision-making process. However, the people living together with industrial activities may have different vision of security. Human security focuses on people’s own perceptions of security and in...

  8. Machiavelli’s Fundamental Contribution to the National Security Concept as Revealed in The Prince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea SURDU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the contribution of Niccolò Machiavelli to the substantiation of the national security concept, ranks him among the major promoters of the war phenomenon and state, the policy stance by one of the pillars of its stability, namely national security. Today, more than ever, "The Prince" is increasingly present, this is determined by social, political and military instability, of the 21st century and that’s why this study is a research designed to range Machiavelli among the precursors of the phenomenon of war, along with Sun Tzu and von Clausewitz. At the same time, according to 21st century thinking, we have brought in actuality, the issue of power, as a political, social and military phenomenon, highlighting the American analyst Dick Morris’ position, expressed in the "New Prince. Machiavelli in the 21st Century".

  9. Perspectives of the National Army of the Republic of Moldova under The New Regional Security Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MEREUŢĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the security complex from the South-East Europe, situated in the area of modern confrontation between the major European powers (Germany, Russia, Great Britain and France, is undergoing a profound political, economic and military restructuring. The USA and NATO, within the UN and OSCE, as well as through other institutions, control the most significant local developments. The concept was imposed by the new politico-military coordinates in Europe and in the world, the limitations of armaments, and the new military relations established in the world. National Army of the Republic of Moldova (hereinafter National Army passes through a complex process of restructuring / modernization. Implemented operational measures and actions, and those that need to be implemented in the next period, refer to the development in the security environment in the area of interest of the Republic of Moldova. Classification-JEL: A23

  10. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  11. 75 FR 67796 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... security before being allocated to satisfy an Automated Customer Account Transfer Service (``ACATS... FR 162 (August 23, 2010) (SR-NSCC-2010-05). Upon implementation of the enhancements to ACATS... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Procedures Related to the Automated...

  12. 76 FR 40409 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63588 (Dec. 21, 2010), 75 FR 82112 (Dec. 29, 2010). The proposal includes.../2011.php ). B. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Burden on Competition NSCC does not believe..._filings/nscc/2011.php ). All comments received will be posted without change; the Commission does not...

  13. Anthrax vaccine as a component of the strategic national stockpile: a dilemma for Homeland Security

    OpenAIRE

    Rempfer, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    CHDS State/Local The author explains how past problems with the Defense Department anthrax vaccine currently affect Department of Homeland Security and Department of Health and Human Services policy. The departments included the BioThrax® anthrax vaccine in the Strategic National Stockpile following the 2001 anthrax letter attacks. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the vaccine's "failing" status possibly motivated the letter attacks to create demand for the vaccine. This ...

  14. Medical countermeasures for national security: a new government role in the pharmaceuticalization of society

    OpenAIRE

    Elbe, Stefan; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Long, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    How do governments contribute to the pharmaceuticalization of society? Whilst the pivotal role of industry is extensively documented, this article shows that governments too are accelerating, intensifying and opening up new trajectories of pharmaceuticalization in society. Governments are becoming more deeply invested in pharmaceuticals because their national security strategies now aspire to defend populations against health-based threats like bioterrorism and pandemics. To counter those thr...

  15. EMPOWERING NIGERIAN YOUTHS THROUGH TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR ENHANCING NATIONAL SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Caleb Chidozie Chinedu; Stephen Olabiyi Oladiran

    2015-01-01

    The Nigerian government had initiated several youth empowerment programmes through TVET, but a lot of these programmes lack structure and their impact not felt by the nation’s youths. This is evident in the substantial number of youth that still lack work skills-which often results to unemployment, insecurity, loss of lives and properties and chaos. The study therefore, sought to investigate, TVET empowerment skills required by youths as a means for enhancing national security. Descriptive su...

  16. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia and U.S. national security

    OpenAIRE

    Snoke, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States government finds human trafficking to be an important subject and is placing increasing focus on the issue. The Southeast Asian portion of the Western Pacific encompasses a substantial portion of global trafficking, much of which has a final destination in the United States. This thesis asks the following question: How does trafficking in persons (TIP) affect U.S. national security interests and regional stability in ...

  17. Collateral Damage? The Impact of National Security Crises on the Fourth Amendment: Protection Against Unreasonable Searches

    OpenAIRE

    Sara A. Chandler

    2006-01-01

    In January 2001, hidden cameras scanned the faces of all 100,000 Super Bowl attendees as they entered the stadium. Unbeknownst to the attendees, the scanned images were then compared with state, local, and FBI files of known criminals and terrorists. Was this measure justified in the interest of public safety and national security, or did it represent an unconstitutional violation of one’s fundamental right to privacy?

  18. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Cathy A

    2013-09-11

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  19. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2013). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  20. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  1. The energy security impact of oil nationalization - alternate futures scenarios for the Global Futures Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 2009, a 2 day workshop was held in Washington, D.C. to discuss risks and opportunities pertaining to possible oil futures. This paper, presented during the workshop, aims at assessing the impact that nationalization of oil would have on the world. A quadrilateral projection process and model were used to develop the different potential scenarios. This study demonstrated that nationalization of oil reserves can lead to a destabilizing effect at the local, regional and global levels. This technical memorandum points out the possibility of increasing nationalization of oil resources as a political means to shape the behavior of import dependent countries. This report demonstrated that nationalization of oil resources may lead to a reduction in energy security and tensions between states; however solutions exist to mitigate these issues.

  2. Agriculture and food security challenge of climate change: a dynamic analysis for policy selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study presents an empirical examination of climate change related to vulnerability impacts on food security and remedial adaptation options as a suitable strategy by prioritizing needs over a 50-year period. An Empirical Dynamic Commutable General Equilibrium Model for Climate and the Economy (EDCGECE is applied using future strategies for Malaysia against a baseline scenario of existing conditions, following the top-down options. The model takes into account various climatic variables, including climatic damage, carbon cycle, temperature and rainfall fluctuation, carbon emissions, vulnerability and carbon concentrations, which were adapted from national observational predictions of climatic changes caused by global warming from 2015 to 2065. The results prioritize climate change mitigation for the future. Specifically, this study estimates Malaysia’s food sustainability prospects without adaptation actions and with 5 % to 20 % adaptation actions overtime in different adaptation scenarios, as contrasted with the baseline. The results indicate that food sustainability cost in the baseline in 2015 is 859.3 million US Dollar (USD, which is about a 30-35 % shortage compared with the national targets, and that the shortage will rise over time to USD 987.3 million in 2065. However, the cost of applying different levels of adaptation for food sustainability over time is rising considerably. However, the residual damage also decreases with all adaptation actions in the different scenarios. Thus, adaptation shows a positive sign for Malaysia’s agricultural sectors. As growth values are positive and show rising trends, therefore the projected adaptation policy can be effective for food sustainability for sustainable future strategies in Malaysia.

  3. Shared Security through U.S./Chinese Cooperation on Climate Change Security and Risk Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcus; D.King; John; O.Rankin

    2014-01-01

    <正>In concluding remarks of the June 2013U.S.-Chinese Summit,President Barak Obama declared that neither China nor the U.S.can deal with the challenge of climate change by itself.These statements came at a time when each leader was grappling with droughts,caused or exacerbated by climate change.Reservoirs,rainfall totals and snowpack on the mountaintops remain critically low in

  4. Iodine-129 AMS for Earth Science, Biomedical, and National Security Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project created the capability to analyze the radionuclide iodine-129 (129I) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the CAMS facility at LLNL, and enhanced our scientific foundation for its application through development of sample preparation technology required for environmental, biomedical, and national security applications. The project greatly improved our environmental iodine extraction and concentration methodology, and developed new techniques for the analysis of small quantities of 129I. The project can be viewed as having two phases, one in which the basic instrumental and chemical extraction methods necessary for general 129I analysis were developed, and a second in which these techniques were improved and new techniques were developed to enable broader and more sophisticated applications. The latter occurred through the mechanism of four subprojects that also serve as proof-of-principle demonstrations of our newly developed 129I capabilities. The first subproject determined the vertical distribution of bomb-pulse 129I (129Iv distributed globally as fallout from 1950's atmospheric nuclear testing) through 5 meters in the upper vadose zone in the arid southwestern United States. This characterizes migration mechanisms of contaminant 129I, or 129I released by nuclear fuel reprocessing, as well as the migration of labile iodine in soils relative to moisture flux, permitting a determination of nutrient cycling. The second subproject minimized the amount of iodine required in an AMS sample target. Because natural iodine abundances are very low in almost all environments, many areas of research had been precluded or made extremely difficult by the demands of sample size. Also, certain sample types of potential interest to national security are intrinsically small - for example iodine on air filters. The result of this work is the ability to measure the 129I/127I ratio at the 2E-07 level or higher in a sample

  5. Iodine-129 AMS for Earth Science, Biomedical, and National Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimz, G; Brown, T; Tumey, S; Marchetti, A; Vu, A

    2007-02-20

    This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project created the capability to analyze the radionuclide iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in the CAMS facility at LLNL, and enhanced our scientific foundation for its application through development of sample preparation technology required for environmental, biomedical, and national security applications. The project greatly improved our environmental iodine extraction and concentration methodology, and developed new techniques for the analysis of small quantities of {sup 129}I. The project can be viewed as having two phases, one in which the basic instrumental and chemical extraction methods necessary for general {sup 129}I analysis were developed, and a second in which these techniques were improved and new techniques were developed to enable broader and more sophisticated applications. The latter occurred through the mechanism of four subprojects that also serve as proof-of-principle demonstrations of our newly developed {sup 129}I capabilities. The first subproject determined the vertical distribution of bomb-pulse {sup 129}I ({sup 129}Iv distributed globally as fallout from 1950's atmospheric nuclear testing) through 5 meters in the upper vadose zone in the arid southwestern United States. This characterizes migration mechanisms of contaminant {sup 129}I, or {sup 129}I released by nuclear fuel reprocessing, as well as the migration of labile iodine in soils relative to moisture flux, permitting a determination of nutrient cycling. The second subproject minimized the amount of iodine required in an AMS sample target. Because natural iodine abundances are very low in almost all environments, many areas of research had been precluded or made extremely difficult by the demands of sample size. Also, certain sample types of potential interest to national security are intrinsically small - for example iodine on air filters. The result of this work is the ability to measure the

  6. Research Universities and the Future of America: Ten Breakthrough Actions Vital to Our Nation's Prosperity and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Research Universities and the Future of America" presents critically important strategies for ensuring that our nation's research universities contribute strongly to America's prosperity, security, and national goals. Widely considered the best in the world, our nation's research universities today confront significant financial pressures,…

  7. Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hannah

    Full Text Available International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services.

  8. National strategy for safety and security of radioactive sources in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tanzania, practices involving radioactive sources are found in medicine, agriculture, industries, research and education. Apart from known stochastic and deterministic effects, it is now of great concern that radioactive sources can also be deployed in terrorist activities if effective safety and security mechanisms are not instituted. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that from the initial stage of the source use to its final disposal stage, adequate security measures are put in place to prevent any related malevolent acts. In this paper, we describe the national strategy to meet this noble objective. The strategy involves the institution of regulatory control, education and training of regulatory staff and stake holders, collection of disused sources, security upgrading of facilities with high risk, emergency preparedness and international cooperation. While the situation is encouraging and the need for improvements desirable, future needs have been identified as searching, locate and recover orphan and disused sources, monitoring of border crossing for detecting illegal sources movements, strengthening security during the transport of radioactive sources, increasing the capability and basic knowledge of the first respondents, collection and conditioning of the sources no longer used as well as scrap metal monitoring. (author)

  9. National strategy for the safety and security of radioactive sources in the United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United Republic of Tanzania, practices involving radioactive sources are found in medicine, agriculture, industries, research and education. Apart from known stochastic and deterministic effects, it is now of great concern that radioactive sources can also be deployed in terrorist activities if effective safety and security mechanisms are not instituted. Therefore it is necessary to ensure that, from the initial stage of use of the source to its final disposal, adequate security measures are put in place to prevent any related malevolent acts. The paper describes Tanzania's national strategy to meet this objective. The strategy involves the institution of regulatory control, the education and training of regulatory staff and stakeholders, the collection of disused sources, the security upgrading of facilities with high risk, emergency preparedness and international cooperation. While the situation is encouraging, future needs have been identified as searching, locating and recovering orphan and disused sources, monitoring of border crossings to detect illegal source movements, strengthening security during the transport of radioactive sources, increasing the capability and basic knowledge of first responders, collection and conditioning of sources no longer being used, and scrap metal monitoring. (author)

  10. Religious Fanaticism and “Boko Haram” Insurgency in Nigeria: Implications for National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin O. Omomia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is commonly adjudged as the “Giant of Africa”. No doubt, the African continent has witnessed drastic socio-political transformation between the periods 1960 to date. Ironically, since Nigeria became an independent nation on October, 1st 1960, she has been confronted with myriad of socio-political challenges. Notable among these, is religious fanaticism. This, in recent times, is encapsulated in grave religious insurgency, manifested in the “Boko Haram” challenge. This paper therefore addresses the relationship between religious fanaticism and security, how they affect each other (positively or negatively. It also examined the present security challenge in Nigeria, and attempts to advance some panaceas in achieving true security. Thus, articulating the benefits of security as genuine precursors for sustainable development of Nigeria. The paper applied historical and sociological methodology in its investigation. It is recommended among others, that the adherents of the different religions should embrace dialogue and tolerance. The government should also pursue the challenge posed by youth unemployment with the right vigour.

  11. Sustainable Livestock Production in The Perspective of National Food Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeppy D Soedjana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.

  12. Nevada National Security Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Bender, comp.

    2012-04-25

    This fiscal year 2011 annual report of the Site-Directed Research and Development program, the 10th anniversary edition, recognizes a full decade of innovative R&D accomplishments in support of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Last year the NNSS itself was renamed to reflect a diversifying mission, and our R&D program has contributed significantly to shape emerging missions that will continue to evolve. New initiatives in stockpile stewardship science, nonproliferation, and treaty verification and monitoring have had substantial successes in FY 2011, and many more accomplishments are expected. SDRD is the cornerstone on which many of these initiatives rest. Historically supporting our main focus areas, SDRD is also building a solid foundation for new, and non-traditional, emerging national security missions. The program continues its charter to advance science and technology for a broad base of agencies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and many others.

  13. Nevada National Security Site. Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2011 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fiscal year 2011 annual report of the Site-Directed Research and Development program, the 10th anniversary edition, recognizes a full decade of innovative R and D accomplishments in support of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Last year the NNSS itself was renamed to reflect a diversifying mission, and our R and D program has contributed significantly to shape emerging missions that will continue to evolve. New initiatives in stockpile stewardship science, nonproliferation, and treaty verification and monitoring have had substantial successes in FY 2011, and many more accomplishments are expected. SDRD is the cornerstone on which many of these initiatives rest. Historically supporting our main focus areas, SDRD is also building a solid foundation for new, and non-traditional, emerging national security missions. The program continues its charter to advance science and technology for a broad base of agencies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and many others.

  14. Acceptance Factors Influencing Adoption of National Institute of Standards and Technology Information Security Standards: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriakou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of a comprehensive information security governance model and security controls is the best option organizations may have to protect their information assets and comply with regulatory requirements. Understanding acceptance factors of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF) comprehensive…

  15. Security Provision after Regime Change: Local Militias and Political Entities in Post-Qaddafi Tripoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.; Jeursen, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the way the newly formed political entities and the local militias engage in statebuilding practices during Libya's transitional period of 2011–12. Focusing on the encounters between these actors in the security field, it provides insight into the capacity and strategy of nation

  16. Security provision after regime change: local militias and political entities in post-Qaddafi Tripoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jeursen; C. van der Borgh

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the way the newly formed political entities and the local militias engage in statebuilding practices during Libya's transitional period of 2011-12. Focusing on the encounters between these actors in the security field, it provides insight into the capacity and strategy of nation

  17. High Sequestration, Low Emission, Food Secure Farming. Organic Agriculture - a Guide to Climate Change & Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert; Müller, Adrian; Oudes, Anne

    2009-01-01

    - affordable high sequestration practices based on local resources - enables continuous farmer-based adaptation to climate change - ideal for the improvement of the world’s 400 million smallholder farms - locally adapted, affordable and people centered - empowers local communities - established practices, systems and markets - experience, practices and expertise to share

  18. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America's nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in 'green' technology

  19. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America's nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in 'green' technology

  20. Global Climate Change, Food Security and the U.S. Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Walsh, Margaret; Hauser, Rachel; Murray, Anthony; Jadin, Jenna; Baklund, Peter; Robinson, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Climate change influences on the major pillars of food security. Each of the four elements of food security (availability,access,utilization,andstability) is vulnerable to changes in climate. For example,reductions in production related to regional drought influence food availability at multiple scales. Changes in price influences the ability of certain populations to purchase food (access). Utilization maybe affected when production zones shift, reducing the availability of preferred or culturally appropriate types of food within a region. Stability of the food supply may be highly uncertain given an increased incidence of extreme climatic events and their influence on production patterns.

  1. Vegetation Change, Tree Diversity and Food Security in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambou, Antoine

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the factors that influence tree diversity and vegetation use, status and dynamics and how woody plants and palms contribute to the diets of rural communities. This thesis holds the hypothesis that changes in the land use patterns and soil salinization can...... was found in forest than other landscape elements. In contrast, tree richness was higher in croplands in Boly Serere and Poukham Tock. Factors such as land-use, soil salinity and pH had significant effects on vegetation parameters. Local people had observed a general decline of woody plants. This was...... confirmed by satellite imagery analysis. Satellite images showed losses tree cover and mangrove, and an increase in shrub and herbaceous covers and tans. Human activities and environmental factors (especially salinization) appear to be the main drivers of vegetation change. Overall, the vegetation change is...

  2. Why do nations matter? The struggle for belonging and security in an uncertain world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skey, Michael

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores the reasons why national forms of identification and organization (might) matter in the contemporary era. In contrast to the majority of macro-sociological work dealing with this topic, I develop an analytical framework that draws together recent research on everyday nationalism with micro-sociological and psychological studies pointing to the importance of routine practices, institutional arrangements and symbolic systems in contributing to a relatively settled sense of identity, place and community. The second part of the paper focuses on the hierarchies of belonging that operate within a given national setting. Of particular interest is the largely taken-for-granted status of the ethnic majority and the degree to which it underpins claims to belonging and entitlement that are used to secure key allocative and authoritative resources. PMID:23488702

  3. 10 CFR 72.186 - Change to physical security and safeguards contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change to physical security and safeguards contingency... contingency plans. (a) The licensee shall make no change that would decrease the safeguards effectiveness of... licensee safeguards contingency plan without prior approval of the Commission. A licensee desiring to...

  4. Definition of the “economic security of strategic changes at an enterprise” notion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna Pavlivna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of a multitude of approaches to management of economic security of an enterprise and systemisation of their provisions allow development of a conceptual framework by means of identification of the essence of the “enterprise economic security” notion in the context of development processes management. The article shows that essence and composition of the “economic security of strategic changes of an enterprise” notion should not only take into account the set of views and methods of understanding and their interpretation in various aspects, but also form the basic idea and tasks of ensuring economic security of strategic changes of an enterprise, which is reflected in results of its activity through prevention and assessment of threats and formation of the state of protection and qualitative changes. The presented provision that the economic security management system should be integrated into the processes of strategic changes of an enterprise allows forming methodical provision of management of economic security of strategic changes of an enterprise and instruments of management, directions of forming of which correspond with the enterprise strategic goals.

  5. Climate Change and Food Security: The View from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    Global satellite data provides information on land use, rainfall, soil moisture, vegetation vigor and crop yields. Process-based products allows transformation of these data into information that can be used to assess impact of weather on commodity prices and local economic health. Trends and impact of climate change

  6. Water security, global change and land-atmosphere feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadson, Simon; Acreman, Michael; Harding, Richard

    2013-11-13

    Understanding the competing pressures on water resources requires a detailed knowledge of the future water balance under uncertain environmental change. The need for a robust, scientifically rigorous evidence base for effective policy planning and practice has never been greater. Environmental change includes, but is not limited to, climate change; it also includes land-use and land-cover change, including deforestation for agriculture, and occurs alongside changes in anthropogenic interventions that are used in natural resource management such as the regulation of river flows using dams, which can have impacts that frequently exceed those arising in the natural system. In this paper, we examine the role that land surface models can play in providing a robust scientific basis for making resource management decisions against a background of environmental change. We provide some perspectives on recent developments in modelling in land surface hydrology. Among the range of current land surface and hydrology models, there is a large range of variability, which indicates that the specification and parametrization of several basic processes in the models can be improved. Key areas that require improvement in order to address hydrological applications include (i) the representation of groundwater in models, particularly at the scales relevant to land surface modelling, (ii) the representation of human interventions such as dams and irrigation in the hydrological system, (iii) the quantification and communication of uncertainty, and (iv) improved understanding of the impact on water resources availability of multiple use through treatment, recycling and return flows (and the balance of consumptive and conservative uses). Through a series of examples, we demonstrate that changes in water use could have important reciprocal impacts on climate over a wide area. The effects of water management decisions on climate feedbacks are only beginning to be investigated-they are

  7. International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  8. National and International Security Applications of Cryogenic Detectors - Mostly Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with science, so with security--in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, neutron, and alpha-particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invisible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  9. Cameroon National Report on Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggered by the expansion of national economic and social sectors, the demand for nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon is marking an ever growing trend in scale and scope. Consequently, there is an increasing use of radioactive sources in various socio-economic developmental activities and the above development calls for organized and coherent measures to regulate and control the applications of radioactive sources from a safety and security perspective without impeding on the beneficial application thereof. As of April 2013, 156 radioactive sources have been identified to be extensively in used for beneficial purposes in Cameroon in medical, industrial, agricultural, research and educational applications. Ensuring their safety and security has been done for the past three years by National Radiation Protection Agency (NRPA) and significant improvements have been made in this respect. However, proper legislative framework and adequate resources remain major concerns. Many efforts are being put in place to review the current situation and to identify the means of maintaining the highest possible level of safety and security of radioactive sources throughout their lifecycle and everywhere in Cameroon. The primary foundations through which valuable regulatory exercise could be ensured is by developing and sustaining sound national regulatory infrastructures which is equipped to effectively and efficiently implement regulatory control over the application of nuclear technology and practices involving the use of radiation sources at a national level and by promoting regional cooperation among Regulatory Bodies. In the context of the above development, NRPA has been part of the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA) since 2009 and the AFRA Projects on Self-Assessment of Regulatory Infrastructure for Safety and Networking of Regulatory Bodies (RAF 9038) and Sustaining the Regulatory Infrastructure for the Control of Radiation Sources (RAF

  10. Reforming Military Resources and the Authority of the United Nations Security Council in implementing coercive military measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Santos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a de facto military component is rather significant in normative and operational terms within the UN system. The differences among the permanent members of the Security Council, which exist since its beginning, have stopped provisions from being enforced which were included in the United Nations Charter, as well as the design of credible and effective alternatives. Considering that what is at stake are coercive military measures decided by the Security Council under Chapter VII, this becomes a decisive issue, as these measures were decided ultima ratio to maintain or restore international peace and security. Without an operational Military Staff Committee, without armed forces and without power of authority in the enforcement process, the Council is limited to approving decisions and held hostage to the options of Member-States, namely its permanent members. To ignore the urgency of a reform implies perpetuating a double paradox: on the one hand, the Security Council is required to take increasingly wider responsibility, laid down in article 24 and, in this context, in art. 42, and this body still lacks adequate military instruments; on the other hand, by correlating the reinforcement of efficiency, legitimacy and enforcement of Council decisions exclusively with the reform of its composition and work methodology, we are neglecting the fact that this change requires a reform of military instruments and of its authority within the scope of the body's multidimensional reform process. This paper begins by analyzing the enforcement mechanism established in the Charter and then addresses the issue underlying the delegation of implementing coercive military measures. Finally, the paper discusses the reform proposals, their guidelines and puts forward possible solutions.

  11. Changes in Arable Land Demand for Food in India and China: A Potential Threat to Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmita Nath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available India and China are two similar developing countries with huge populations, rapid economic growth and limited natural resources, therefore facing the massive pressure of ensuring food security. In this paper, we will discuss the food security situations in these two countries by studying the historical changes of food supply-demand balance with the concept of agricultural land requirements for food (LRF from 1963–2009. LRF of a country is a function of population, per capita consumption/diet, cropping yield and cropping intensity. We have attempted to discuss and compare our results in a framework which links consumption of different groups of food items to diet patterns; then, to the total land requirement for food in a scenario when population is growing rapidly and diet diversification and urbanization due to economic reform impose excessive pressure on food security of both countries. We also elaborate on the role of technology dissemination and critically analyze the achievements and drawbacks of government policies to ensure food self-sufficiency and food security of nations. Our results show that the total LRF increases approximately by 42% and 40%, whereas per capita LRF decreases significantly by about 48% and 30% from 1963–2009, for India and China, respectively. Furthermore, our studies reveal that population growth dominates most of the increase in total LRF for India; whereas diet pattern change induced by income growth drives the major increase in LRF for China. Therefore, sustainable management of agricultural land resource is an urgent need both for India and China as there will be demand for more food to meet the diet requirement for the entire population. We also demonstrate the role of India and China in future global food security programs and the challenges to implement the new land reform policies domestically.

  12. Prevention of nuclear terrorism as an important element of national and international security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukraine has identified prevention of nuclear terrorism as a priority line of its national and international policy. Counterterrorism Protection of Nuclear Energy Facilities Vulnerable to Terrorist Attacks as a Package of Regulatory, Logistical (Including Financial), and Operative Measures Aimed to Secure Their Sustainable, Reliable, and Safe Operation. The Ukrainian Ministry of Fuel and Energy carries out routine counterterrorism activities, with one of the Deputy Ministers being responsible for implementation of requirements and measures to prevent terrorism and a relevant division within the Ministry appointed to exercise public administration of the said sphere. As stipulated by relevant Ministry guidelines, companies, enterprises and organisations subordinate to the Ministry have established local Nuclear Terrorism Prevention Headquarters and worked out preventive action plans (including regular reporting procedures). These are stepped-up control over nuclear material and other radioactive substance accounting and control systems, transportation of weapons, munitions and explosives; improvement of physical protection systems, facility-level security and access control procedures at nuclear facilities; in planning preventive actions executive personnel is instructed to pay special attention to assurance of prevention of possible use by adversaries of vehicle bombs; desktop and special tactical exercises at potentially hazardous power and energy facilities jointly with SBU (Security Service) and Ministry of Interior aimed to practise aspects of prevention of terrorist attacks and minimisation of their consequences; revision of Acts of Intergovernmental Commissions aimed to improve systems of protection of potentially hazardous power and energy facilities; joint inspections of the status of protection and security of nuclear facilities potentially hazardous from terrorist attack standpoint; creation of a joint workgroup involving representatives of special

  13. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Antle, John; Elliott, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a warming Earth and an increasing population will likely strain the world's food systems in the coming decades. Experts involved with the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) focus on quantifying the changes through time. AgMIP, a program begun in 2010, involves about 800 climate scientists, economists, nutritionists, information technology specialists, and crop and livestock experts. In mid-September 2015, the Aspen Global Change Institute convened an AgMIP workshop to draft plans and protocols for assessing global- and regional-scale modeling of crops, livestock, economics, and nutrition across major agricultural regions worldwide. The goal of this Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments (CGRA) project is to characterize climate effects on large- and small-scale farming systems.

  14. Weather Vulnerability, Climate Change, and Food Security in Mt. Kilimanjaro

    OpenAIRE

    Muamba, Francis; Kraybill, David S.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the impact of rainfall variation on livelihood in Mt. Kilimanjaro using the Ricardian approach to capture farmers’ adaptation strategies to cope with climate change risks. The data for the analysis were gathered from a random sample of over 200 households in 15 villages and precipitation from rainfall observation posts placed in each of the surveyed villages. The precipitation data provide information on the effect of moisture at critical months in the growing season. Due...

  15. South African food security and climate change: Agriculture futures

    OpenAIRE

    Dube, Sikhalazo; Scholes, Robert J; Nelson, Gerald C.; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Palazzo, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The projected changes in planted area, yield per area, net exports/imports and priced for five major agricultural crops in South Africa were simulated using the projections of four Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under three socio-economic scenarios. The GCM runs were those undertaken for the IPCC fourth assessment report. They show consistent strong warming over the subcontinent, but disagree with respect to future precipitation, from slight wetting (particularly on the eastern side) to ove...

  16. The National Security Agency (NSA eavesdropping on Americans A programme that is neither legal nor necessary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zmarak Khan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available On 16 December 2005, the New York Times reported that the President had authorized the National Security Agency (NSA to spy on Americans, inside the United States, without first obtaining a warrant from the secret FISA court. Although the President has described the NSA activities to be legal and critical to our national security, the programme has started a national controversy, raising questions over its legality and necessity. Consequently, there have been pending legal challenges, congressional investigations, and public outcry over the use of such expansive presidential authority. The legal community, including the American Bar Association, considers the programme illegal. The only district court that has addressed the issue has held it to be an unconstitutional programme that violates FISA. This comment highlights several reasons for why warrantless wiretapping is illegal and unnecessary. The comment also notes public policy reasons against presidential power that is not subject to any checks from Congress or review from the judiciary. Finally, it argues that the President needs to immediately cease the programme; asks Congress to take its oversight responsibility more seriously; and reasons that the judicial review protects against abuse.

  17. Mitigation Policy Scenario of Space Debris Threat Related with National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Frimawaty, Evy; Munir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The development of air space recently entered a new phase, when the space issues correlated with the future of a country. In past time, the space authorization was related with advancing technology by many space mission and various satellite launchings, or it could be said that who ruled technology will rule the space. Therefore, the numerous satellites in the space could be a threat for the countries which are mainly located in the path of the satellite, especially in the equatorial region including Indonesia. This study aims to create a policy scenario in mitigating the threat of space debris. The results showed that although space debris was not threatened national security for now, but the potential and its impact on the future potentially harmful. The threats of orbit circulation for some experts considered as a threat for national security, because its danger potential which caused by space debris could significantly damage the affected areas. However, until now Indonesia has no comprehensive mitigation strategy for space matters although it has been ratified by the United Nations Convention.

  18. A coastal foodscape: examining the relationship between changing fisheries and community food security on the west coast of Newfoundland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N. Lowitt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries make vital contributions to food security and food security is an important part of fisheries governance. However, there are relatively few in-depth studies examining the consequences of collapsed and changing fisheries for the food security of coastal communities. In this case study I use the concept of the coastal foodscape to look at the relationship between changing fisheries and community food security in the Bonne Bay region on the west coast of Newfoundland. I examine the social-ecological interactions that compose the local food system and their changing relationship to community food security, and point to directions for developing a more resilient and democratic food system.

  19. Climate change and the language of human security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe language of ‘human security’ arose in the 1990s, including from UN work on ‘human development’. What contributions can it make, if any, to the understanding and especially the valuation of and response to the impacts of climate change? How does it compare and relate to other languages used in describing the emergent crises and in seeking to guide response, including languages of ‘externalities’, public goods and incentives, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis? The pap...

  20. Climate change and the language of human security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The language of ‘human security’ arose in the 1990s, including from UN work on ‘human development’. What contributions can it make, if any, to the understanding and especially the valuation of and response to the impacts of climate change? How does it compare and relate to other languages used in describing the emergent crises and in seeking to guide response, including languages of ‘externalities’, public goods and incentives, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis? The paper examines ...

  1. National plan for adaptation to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first explains the rationale for such a plan, and discusses the costs associated to climate change impacts. It presents two scenarios for climate change in France during the 21. century, highlights the weight of uncertainty for the results of these scenarios, and indicates some current consequences. Then, it presents the Plan content and gives an overview of the Plan governance and evaluation. It proposes a set of action sheets which contain the main adopted measures and briefly describe some implemented or projected actions. These sheets concern the different fields of application of the plan: cross-cutting actions, health, water resources, biodiversity, natural hazards, agriculture, forest, fishery and aquaculture, energy and industry, transport infrastructures and systems, urban planning and built environment, tourism, information, education and training, research, finance and insurance, coasts, mountains, European and international actions, governance

  2. Multi-discipline Waste Acceptance Process at the Nevada National Security Site - 13573

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada National Security Site low-level radioactive waste disposal facility acceptance process requires multiple disciplines to ensure the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. These disciplines, which include waste acceptance, nuclear criticality, safety, permitting, operations, and performance assessment, combine into the overall waste acceptance process to assess low-level radioactive waste streams for disposal at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Four waste streams recently highlighted the integration of these disciplines: the Oak Ridge Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project material, West Valley Melter, and classified waste. (authors)

  3. America Promises to Come Back: Our New National Security Strategy (Final Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Tritten, James John

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of President Bush's new national security strategy first unveiled in Aspen, Colorado on August 2, 1990, involving a mix of active, reserve, and reconstitutable forces, and General Colin Powell's Base Force. If implemented, the new strategy and force structure would return significant U.S. ground and air forces to the continental U.S. where most would be demobilized. In the event of a major crisis, the U.S. would rely on active and reserve forces for a contingency response, much as...

  4. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  5. National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingensmith, A. L.

    2012-03-21

    These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nation’s verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

  6. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  7. Post-Closure Inspection Letter Report for Corrective Action Units on the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehleke, R. F.

    2014-05-06

    This letter serves as the post-closure inspection letter report for Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site for calendar year 2013. The inspections identified maintenance and repair is required at the following sites: sign and/or fence repair is necessary at CAUs 113, 137, 139, 140, 143, 262, 370, 371, 372, 374, 476, 478, 529, 542, and 560; animal burrows were identified at CAU 547; and erosion was identified at CAUs 366, 367, 383, 551, and 574. In addition, the following use restrictions were removed during 2013 and will no longer be inspected in 2014: 165, 357, and 528.

  8. Facing safety and security challenges: A national and international perspective (Opening address)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This international conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems is more than a gathering of senior regulators and of nuclear technologists; it is truly an international assembly of those who implement nuclear safety, security and emergency preparedness. The sessions should have a definitive underlying theme and purpose that support the objectives of the conference. A common understanding of the purpose of regulation in general and nuclear regulation in particular, should provide the connectivity between every one of us, independent of country or organization. A good starting point for the common understanding of regulation would be to note that regulation is done for the well-being of our people, for the common good, with full consideration of the national interests, and of international law and agreements. Nuclear regulation is a disciplined national tool for establishing predictable safety and security frameworks. It works by establishing and improving technical and legal structures to define the acceptable safety case that serves the public interest. Senior nuclear regulators, you and I, are coming together, in Moscow, in winter, in 2006, to make a statement regarding our responsibilities and to deliver a series of products, sustained by a common understanding of nuclear regulation. Moreover, we are here because we care about our nations and because we can and want to work together, better. In this regard, I present for your thoughtful consideration here, as a purpose, the objective stated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its current strategic plan: to enable the use and management of radioactive materials and nuclear fuels for beneficial civilian purposes in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment, promotes the security of our nation, and provides for regulatory actions that are open, effective, efficient, realistic and timely. With that purpose in mind, it becomes clear why our presence here today is important. In

  9. Geology of the Source Physics Experiment Site, Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, M., Prothro, L. B., Obi, C.

    2012-03-15

    A test bed for a series of chemical explosives tests known as Source Physics Experiments (SPE) was constructed in granitic rock of the Climax stock, in northern Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site in 2010-2011. These tests are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's National Center for Nuclear Security. The test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves, and will provide data that will improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Abundant geologic data are available for the area, primarily as a result of studies performed in conjunction with the three underground nuclear tests conducted in the Climax granite in the 1960s and a few later studies of various types. The SPE test bed was constructed at an elevation of approximately 1,524 meters (m), and consists of a 91.4-centimeter (cm) diameter source hole at its center, surrounded by two rings of three 20.3-cm diameter instrument holes. The inner ring of holes is positioned 10 m away from the source hole, and the outer ring of holes is positioned 20 m from the source hole. An initial 160-m deep core hole was drilled at the location of the source hole that provided information on the geology of the site and rock samples for later laboratory testing. A suite of geophysical logs was run in the core hole and all six instruments holes to obtain matrix and fracture properties. Detailed information on the character and density of fractures encountered was obtained from the borehole image logs run in the holes. A total of 2,488 fractures were identified in the seven boreholes, and these were ranked into six categories (0 through 5) on the basis of their degree of openness and continuity. The analysis presented here considered only the higher-ranked fractures (ranks 2 through 5), of which there were 1,215 (approximately 49 percent of all fractures identified

  10. What constitutes national security in the semiconductor industry?: a look at the competing views surrounding DoD's support of semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines the current views surrounding federal support of the semiconductor industry, specifically from the Department of Defense. 'National security' is often cited as a reason for federal intervention in the industry. How well founded are the arguments for this support? The current situation in the domestic semiconductor industry is examined, and the industry's explanations for recent changes in market position are identified. Prevailing economic theory is reviewed for possible ...

  11. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  12. Facing climate change by securing water for food, livelihoods and ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Fraiture, C. de; Smakhtin, V.; D Bossio; McCornick, P.; C Hoanh; Noble, A; Molden, D.; F Gichuki; Giordano, M; Finlayson, M.; H Turral

    2007-01-01

    Future changes in water availability due to climate change (CC) are of paramount importance for food security of millions of rural people worldwide. Many recent extremes of water shortage followed by devastating floods reflect some of the climate change predictions, which are gradually becoming more certain and alarming. Appropriate measures in agricultural water management can greatly reduce poor people’s vulnerability to CC by reducing water related risks and creating buffers against often ...

  13. Sustainable plant protection for increased food security in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Glinwood, Robert; Birkett, Mike; Kumar, Savitri; Bandara, PB; Ninkovic, Velemir; Pettersson, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The global climate is changing. Rising temperatures in temperate regions are making headlines, but there are a host of changes that may have even greater impact on a global scale, particularly in regions where food security is already delicately balanced. Rising sea levels, changing patterns of rainfall, availability of water and increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are all likely to affect the biotic environment upon which we depend.

  14. Co-Chairs’ Summary Of Panel Session 1C. Nuclear Forensic Capabilities Within a National Nuclear Security Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear forensics is one piece of a comprehensive national nuclear security infrastructure. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control, IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 15, published in 2011, describes a State’s national response plan that includes capabilities to locate, identify and categorize nuclear material and other radioactive material as well as collect and analyse evidence associated with a nuclear security event. Nuclear forensics serves as an element of the response to identify the source, history and route of transfer of seized materials while taking into account the preservation of evidence. The recommendations also view nuclear forensics, with its ability to identify origin and link people to place materials and events, as a preventive measure. Furthermore, the development of a national nuclear forensics library is one way of determining whether seized samples are consistent with radioactive material used, produced or stored within the State

  15. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia's reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  16. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede, E-mail: gwibawa@chem-eng.its.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  17. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  18. National Marine Security Strategies from the Perspective of Need Hierarchy for National Security%国家安全需要层次视阈下的国家海洋安全战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建友

    2012-01-01

    From the history, reality and future, threats facing our national security are mainly from the sea. Since its reform and opening China has been in the process of transforming from the inland economy to the marine economy. During the process, our national marine security has to face severe challenges. According to need hierarchy for national security, which is decided by the life cycle of a state, China faces pressures in the aspects of marine survival security, marine development security and marine rise security. Therefore, we should distinguish primary and secondary security needs and clarify priorities so as to plan national maritime security strategies in response to the growing complexity of maritime security threats.%从历史、现实和未来看,我国国家安全面临的威胁大都来自海洋。改革开放以来我国处在由内河经济向海洋经济转变的过程中,国家海洋安全需要面对严峻的形势。从国家生命周期决定的国家安全需要层次看,我国海洋安全面临海洋生存安全、海洋发展安全及海洋崛起安全的三重压力,应该按照安全需要层次的主次分明、轻重缓急情况,谋划国家海洋安全战略,以应对日趋复杂的海洋安全威胁。

  19. European Networks and Ideas: Changing National Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Kohler-Koch

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Wider involvement and better knowledge are keywords in the recent White Paper on European Governance. The political discourse has, quite obviously, taken up the academic debate about the importance of ideas and networks. The Commission is seen as an ideational entrepreneur which by arguing and networking is able to induce autonomous actors with quite diverse interests to follow a European course of action. Regional policy has been a most promising field of research to confirm this hypothesis. Recent investigations can be read, however, in quite a different way. The paper questions established conventional wisdom concerning the importance of European ideas and networks for policy change and raises the question how ideational and network competition could be explored in a better way.

  20. The National Agriculture Imagery Program Change 2002-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The National Agriculture Imagery Program Change 2002-2015 is a web mapping application hosted on the ArcGIS online FSA Organizational Subscription. This web...

  1. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2012-09-12

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  2. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report for the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit ((numbersign)NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO

  3. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  4. Police corruption and the national security challenge in Nigeria: a study of Rivers State Police Command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngboawaji Daniel Nte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to make a modest attempt to examine the linkage between police corruption and national security in such a developing country like Nigeria. In doing this, the study selected Rivers State - a key state in the Niger Delta for specific analysis. The study employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative research approach to get an in-depth insight into the problem under study. A sample size of 200 was selected, while a 4-Likert questionnaire was administered to the selected respondents. The study found out that police corruption in Nigeria is structural as part of the wider web of corruption in Nigeria. It also showed that poor working conditions/ poverty are aggravating factors of police corruption in Nigeria. Furthermore, poor recruitment policies also contribute to police corruption. More so, the study found out that there is an inverse relationship between police corruption and national security in Nigeria. Finally, on the basis of these findings, the study offered useful recommendations that could help stem this social problem.

  5. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [NSTec

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  6. Progress in safeguards by design (SBD) by the United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning. Often, international safeguards features are added following completion of the facility design. Earlier consideration of safeguards features has the potential to reduce the need for costly re-designs or retrofits of the facility and can result in a more efficient and effective safeguards design. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) initiated a project in 2008 through its Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to establish a global norm for the use of SBD. The NGSI SBD program is evolving in parallel with a similar effort at the IAEA, while taking into account the IAEA's SBD achievements and future plans. The NGSI program includes DOE laboratory studies, international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example through its planned use in new nuclear facilities in the United States. Consistent with this effort, the NGSI program has sponsored 'Lessons Learned' studies and the preparation of facility-specific SBD Guidance documents. The NGSI program also takes into account successes that the NNSA has had with implementing safeguards early into facility designs within the U.S. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of the most recent developments in SBD under NGSI within the U.S. as well as the presentation of 'Lessons Learned' integrating safeguards into new nuclear facility designs of the U.S. Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE), namely the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) project at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and to discuss its relevance to international safeguards. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  7. A study on assessment of the effectiveness of fast reactor system for enhancing the national energy security in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy security, in 21st century, draws a most noticeable attention in most countries worldwide because the national sustainable development and security depend largely on the level of the energy security. Lack of national conventional energy resources and instability of the energy supply market become a driving element for many countries to consider the nuclear energy as the essential instrument for enhancing the national energy security. In this study, indicators for measuring the level of energy security in the electric power sector were developed. These indicators were then used to assess the effectiveness of fast reactor system for enhancing the national energy security with respect to a diversification of the energy markets and a vulnerability to the economic disruption. This study examined the four schemes of the electric power system deploying different nuclear fuel cycle technologies in Korean electricity sector. As the results, the closed fuel cycle schemes are turned out to be a fuel cycle scheme having better contributions to the diversification of the fuel supply than the once-through fuel cycle scheme. The study further shows that the completely closed fuel cycle with the spent fuel recycling in fast reactors enhances the national energy security to the maximum extent compared to all other fuel cycle schemes considered in the study. Since the completely closed fuel cycle technology with fast reactor system is hardly affected by the uranium price changes, this scheme is evaluated as the most favorable scheme with respect to ensuring the stable profit of utilities and contributing to the stabilization of the electricity tariff. However, the study implies that to choose 'scheme c'(TRU burning in fast reactors) could contribute more to the improvement of electric power system stability than to choose 'scheme b'(partial recycle of Pu in thermal reactors) in terms of near-term fuel cycle policy establishment. The indicators developed in this study can be

  8. National Energy Policy and Climate Change Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change prevention has become one of the major concerns of environmental policy in the Netherlands. The Dutch government has set definite targets for CO2 emissions in the coming decade. These targets and the measures necessary to reach them are described in the paper. In addition, the technical feasibility of realizing the Toronto objective of a 20% reduction in CO2 emissions by the year 2005 in the Netherlands is discussed. It appears that energy conservation options are most crucial for the short-term, but that eventually new supply technologies are needed to obtain drastic reductions in the long term. The increased need for research and development efforts has led to two innovative research programmes on sustainable energy development in the Netherlands. The ENGINE (ENergy Generation In the Natural Environment) programme is implemented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and addresses the specific problems associated with the three major components of supply: cleanliness in the case of fossil fuels, safety in the case of nuclear energy, and costs in the case of renewable sources. The complementary SYRENE (SYstem integration of Renewable ENergy and End use) is implemented by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment (NOVEM) and addresses the system aspects of sustainable energy development. The objectives and approaches of these two programmes are briefly presented. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  9. 33 CFR 165.164 - Security Zones: Dignitary Arrival/Departure and United Nations Meetings, New York, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../Departure and United Nations Meetings, New York, NY. 165.164 Section 165.164 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.164 Security Zones: Dignitary Arrival/Departure and United Nations Meetings, New... information broadcasts. (b) Regulations. (1) The general regulations contained in 33 CFR 165.33 apply. (2)...

  10. 77 FR 36292 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Border Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ..., engineering and production of border security-related systems; and (iii) to insert these technologies into... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Border... the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...

  11. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Request for Information from industrial entities that desire to commercialize Laboratory-developed Extremely Low Resource Optical Identifier (ELROI) tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Michael Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) is the manager and operator of the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LANS is a mission-centric Federally Funded Research and Development Center focused on solving the most critical national security challenges through science and engineering for both government and private customers.

  12. Securing America’s Future. Realizing the Potential of the Department of Energy’s National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauthier, T. J. [TJG Energy Associates, LLC, Bloomberg, VA (United States); Cohon, Jared L. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Augustine, Norman R. [U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Washington, DC (United States); Austin, Wanda M. [Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Elachi, Charles [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Fleury, Paul A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hockfield, Susan J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Meserve, Richard A. [Covington and Burling LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-10-23

    The Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories are national assets that have contributed profoundly to the Nation’s security, scientific leadership, and economic competitiveness. In recognition of the continuing and evolving threats to our security and the dramatic increase in global economic and scientific competition, the laboratories are and will continue to be vitally important. Yet, the contributions of the National Laboratories are not inevitable, nor have they realized their full potential. This final report of the Commission to Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories recommends ways the laboratories could overcome challenges to more efficiently and effectively accomplish the work for which they are uniquely suited.

  13. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  14. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  15. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  16. The Cultivation of National Information Security Literacy%论国民信息安全素养的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗力

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes information security,information security awareness,information literacy and information security literacy and finds that the information literacy education mainly focuses on the cultivation of information ability,ignoring the information security literacy education.The author thinks that information security literacy should include information security awareness,information security knowledge,information security ability and information ethics.He then points out the reason why the national information security literacy is low,and puts forward four effective ways in promoting national information security literacy,including promoting the construction of information security laws and regulations,paying attention to multi-layer cultivation system construction,strengthening the development of teachers and teaching resources,making all advantages from kinds of organizations.%对信息安全、信息安全意识、信息素养和信息安全素养进行剖析,发现目前信息素养教育仅重在信息能力的培养,而忽视信息安全素养教育。认为信息安全素养应该包括信息安全意识、信息安全知识、信息安全能力、信息伦理道德等内容。指出国民信息安全素养低下的主要原因,提出有效提升国民信息安全素养的4种途径:推进信息安全法规建设,注重多层次培养体系建设,加强师资队伍、教学资源开发,发挥各类组织优势。

  17. Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. National Report by Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) is the competent authority with regulatory, monitoring and advisory responsibilities in matters pertaining to ionising radiation in Ireland. The Radiological Protection Act 1991 (Ionising Radiation) Order S. I. No. 125 of 2000 provides for a system of regulatory control for the management and protection of radioactive sources in Ireland. The RPII regulates the use and control of ionising radiation in Ireland through a system of licensing, guidance, inspection, and enforcement activities. The RPII’s licensing system is based on statutory requirements and the day-to-day responsibility for implementing the system has been delegated to the Regulatory Service of the RPII. Inspections undertaken by the RPII are designed to verify compliance with legislative requirements as well as specific licence conditions. The legislation and licensing system in place provides for adequate controls for the verification of safety and security of radioactive sources as well as enforcement measures for the protection of individuals, society and the environment from the use of radioactive sources. The likelihood of loss of control of a radioactive source is minimised through several regulatory initiatives including a joint programme of work by the RPII and An Garda Síochána (National Police) aimed at assessing security provisions of licensees. The purpose of this work programme, which includes joint inspections, is to improve security and safety of sources through the promotion of best international security practice appropriate to the type of radioactive source and the facility. This is ongoing and achieved through a partnership approach between An Garda Síochána, RPII and the relevant licensees. This initiative has had huge benefits in the promotion of safety and security culture amongst licensed holders of radioactive sources. In 2011 the Irish Government approved a temporary operational protocol which sets out a national

  18. Republic of Turkey National Report. Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Turkey. Regarding to Implementation of Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) as a regulatory body is responsible for peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey for the benefit of the country in conformity with the national development plans and fulfillment of Turkey’s obligations arising from international agreements. By the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority Act, TAEA define and recommend the basic principles and policies; and implement, inspect, organize, support and coordinate scientific, technical and administrative studies and affairs relating with the safe use of atomic energy and sources of ionizing radiation for ensuring the protection of people and environment against ionizing radiation exposures. Turkey’s legislative framework regarding with the radioactive sources cover the fundamental aspects of radiation protection and radiation safety particularly the requirements related to occupational, public and medical exposures, transportation, radioactive source management, emergency preparedness, authorization and inspection of practices containing radioactive sources. It also defines the main responsibilities of regulatory body, law enforcement agencies, emergency organizations and licensees. Turkey has already made political commitment with regard to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Turkey has a national registration system containing all radiation sources. It holds the information of both x-ray devices and all categories of radioactive sources or systems containing radioactive sources. This system provides to ensure management of the sources and enhance controls for high activity sealed radioactive sources. Each radioactive source imported, exported or sent to waste storage facility is registered to the system and according to the information about every source movement/changes, data are updated by TAEA. (author)

  19. Foreign research reactor uranium supply program: The Y-12 national security complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the HEU Disposition Program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, and the United States FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program. The Y-12 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign governments for the supply of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. This program supports the important U.S. government and nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to LEU fuel under the guidance of the NNSA RERTR Program. In conjunction with the FRR SNF Acceptance Program which supports the global nonproliferation efforts to disposition U.S.-origin HEU, the Y-12 FRR Uranium Supply Program can provide the LEU for the replacement fuel fabrication. In addition to feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 supplies LEU for target fabrication for medical isotope production. The Y-12 process uses supply forecasting tools, production improvements and efficient delivery preparations to successfully support the global research reactor community

  20. Guidelines for development of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) computer security training programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    The report presents guidance for the NASA Computer Security Program Manager and the NASA Center Computer Security Officials as they develop training requirements and implement computer security training programs. NASA audiences are categorized based on the computer security knowledge required to accomplish identified job functions. Training requirements, in terms of training subject areas, are presented for both computer security program management personnel and computer resource providers and users. Sources of computer security training are identified.

  1. Climate change, rural livelihoods and agriculture (focus on food security) in Asia-Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahendra Dev

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge for agriculture, food security and rural livelihoods for billions of people including the poor in the Asia-Pacific region. Agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on climate and weather and because people involved in agriculture tend to be poorer compared with urban residents. More than 60 per cent of the population is directly or indirectly relying on agriculture as a source of livelihood in this region. Agric...

  2. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR ORGANIZING TERRORIST COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN IT AS A DIRECTION NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. KONDRATENKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop a comprehensive scientific understanding of the criminal responsibility for a terrorist organization and community participation in it as the directions of national security. To achieve this goal the author was raised a number of scientific tasks, in particular the study of certain provisions of the National Security Strategy, the main threats to the state and public security of the Russian Federation, the main directions of ensuring state and public security, public areas and ensuring public safety. In the study, the author used scientific methods (hypothesis, analysis, synthesis, deduction, and induction, special used historical, legal and technical, interdisciplinary, comparative legal, system and other methods of scientific knowledge. The author researches of the problems of qualification of crimes related to the terrorist organization and community participation in it are discussed in detail. The article analyzes the modern jurisprudence on the application of Article 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The author examines the conditions of qualification criminal groups as a terrorist or terrorist organization community. The author comes to the conclusion about the need to improve the legal regulation of criminal responsibility for the commission of terrorist-related crimes. So, the author proposes to supplement the dispositions of article 205.4 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation indicating that the terrorist community a stable group of persons can be considered, united not only in Russia, but also in other states as well as international organizations, concerned other grounds specified in Art. 205.4 of the Criminal Code. The author considers it necessary to clarify the question of qualification of crimes under Art. 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in the Resolution of the Plenum of the Russian

  3. Climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament. From security threats to sustainable peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the future, nuclear and climate risks may interfere with each other in a mutually enforcing way. Con-flicts induced by climate change could contribute to global insecurity and create more incentives for states to rely on military force, including nuclear weapons. Rather than being a direct cause of war, cli-mate change significantly affects the delicate balance between social and environmental systems in a way that could undermine human security and societal stability with potentially grave consequences for international security. Increased reliance on nuclear energy to reduce carbon emissions will contribute to the risks of nuclear proliferation. A renewed nuclear arms race would consume considerable resources and undermine the conditions for tackling the problem of climate change in a cooperative manner. Nuclear war itself would severely destabilize human societies and the environment, not to speak of the possibility of a nuclear winter that would disrupt the atmosphere. On the other hand, finding solutions to one problem area could help to find solutions in the other. Pre-venting the dangers of climate change and nuclear war requires an integrated set of strategies that ad-dress the causes as well as the impacts on the natural and social environment. Institutions are needed to strengthen common, ecological and human security, build and reinforce conflict-resolution mechanisms and low-carbon energy alternatives, and create sustainable lifecycles that respect the capabilities of the living world. This article examines the linkages between nuclear and climate risks, identifies areas where both threats converge, and offers an approach to move from living under these security threats to building sustain-able peace. By bringing to light the multidimensional interplay between climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament, this study aims to help the reader grasp their interconnectedness and recognize its critical implications for the strategic security

  4. Seychelles, Initial National Communication. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The Republic of Seychelles acceded to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on the 22nd September 1992, being the second country to do so. Likewise, the Seychelles was one of the earliest countries to sign the Kyoto Protocol on the 20th March 1998. The Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC by the Seychelles reflects our continued commitment to the process. Although the guidelines provided for the preparation of initial national communicati...

  5. An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal climate change and air pollution policy, the world's oil reserves will not be depleted, at least not before our modeling horizon well into the 22nd century: total cumulative demand for oil decreases by about 24%. More generally, we demonstrate that there are multiple other benefits of combining climate change, air pollution, and energy security policies and exploiting the possible synergies between them. These benefits can be large: for Europe the achievable CO2 emission abatement and oil consumption reduction levels are significantly deeper for integrated policy than when a strategy is adopted in which one of the three policies is omitted. Integrated optimal energy policy can reduce the number of premature deaths from air pollution by about 14,000 annually in Europe and over 3 million per year globally, by lowering the chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter. Only the optimal strategy combining the three types of energy policy can constrain the global average atmospheric temperature increase to a limit of 3 oC with respect to the pre-industrial level.

  6. An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents an integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy. Basis of our analysis is the MERGE model, designed to study the interaction between the global economy, energy use, and the impacts of climate change. For our purposes we expanded MERGE with expressions that quantify damages incurred to regional economies as a result of air pollution and lack of energy security. One of the main findings of our cost-benefit analysis is that energy security policy alone does not decrease the use of oil: global oil consumption is only delayed by several decades and oil reserves are still practically depleted before the end of the 21st century. If, on the other hand, energy security policy is integrated with optimal climate change and air pollution policy, the world's oil reserves will not be depleted, at least not before our modeling horizon well into the 22nd century: total cumulative demand for oil decreases by about 24%. More generally, we demonstrate that there are multiple other benefits of combining climate change, air pollution, and energy security policies and exploiting the possible synergies between them. These benefits can be large: for Europe the achievable CO2 emission abatement and oil consumption reduction levels are significantly deeper for integrated policy than when a strategy is adopted in which one of the three policies is omitted. Integrated optimal energy policy can reduce the number of premature deaths from air pollution by about 14,000 annually in Europe and over 3 million per year globally, by lowering the chronic exposure to ambient particulate matter. Only the optimal strategy combining the three types of energy policy can constrain the global average atmospheric temperature increase to a limit of 3 C with respect to the pre-industrial level. (author)

  7. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  8. RESPONSES OF WETLAND ECO-SECURITY TO LAND USE CHANGE IN WESTERN JILIN PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-qiang; ZHANG Bai; YANG Guang; WANG Zong-ming; ZHANG Shu-qing

    2005-01-01

    By the use of the software of ARCGIS, dynamic changes of the landscape elements, landscape structure,conversion processes of the landscape gradients and the responses of wetland eeo-security to land use/cover changes (LUCC) in the western Jilin Province were studied from 1930 to 2000. The results show that the landscape elements of grassland, wetland, forestland and water area shrank rapidly, and wetlands underwent huge losses in the study period due to the conversion from wetland into arable land and grassland in large quantities. The responses of wetland eco-security to LUCC were inverse evolvement of wetland vegetation, loss of biodiversity, water deficiency in wetland ecosystem, the changes of the heterogeneity of wetlands and the fragmentation of the wetland habitats. Suggestions were given for protection of wetlands and the regional sustainable development.

  9. National Security and International Policy Challenges in a Post Stuxnet World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butrimas Vytautas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The international community has focused too much on addressing cybercrime and cyber hacktivist questions. The list of usual suspects responsible for cyber incidents associated with attacks involving the theft of intellectual property, sensitive private data, money and disruption of web services unfortunately has grown beyond the attention seeking student hacker, cybercriminal or social hacktivist. The public appearance of the Stuxnet family of malware designed to destroy specifically targeted critical infrastructure components in June of 2010 gave perhaps the first indication that States have entered cyberspace as one of the perpetrators of malicious cyber activity. The problem of States actively preparing and executing cyber-attacks against the critical infrastructures of other States has been largely ignored by the international community. These attacks raise national security issues concerning threats to the economic and social well-being of States. However the pervasive presence of cyber space as the common environment where all modern industrial processes take place and the interrelations developed among the critical infrastructure of other States raise cross-border security issues as well. The international community must act in order to insure that the use of this new weapon by States will not get out of hand and be the cause of new and more serious international conflicts. Three solutions and a possible model are proposed to manage this disruptive activity of States in cyberspace at the international level.

  10. Impacts of the Climate Change on Agricultural Food Security, Traditional Knowledge and Agroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on both impacts of the climate change on agriculture and food security, and multidisciplinary scientific assessment and recommendations for sustainable agro ecological solutions including traditional knowledge responding to these impacts. The climate change will very likely affect four key dimensions of the food security including availability, accessibility, utilization and sustainability of the food, due to close linkage between food and water security and climate change. In one of the most comprehensive model studies simulating impacts of global climate change on agriculture to date, it was estimated that by 2080, in a business-as-usual scenario, climate change will reduce the potential output of global agriculture by more than 3.2 per cent. Furthermore, developing countries will suffer the most with a potential 9.1 per cent decline in agricultural output, for example with a considerable decrease of 16.6 per cent in Africa. Some comprehensive studies pointed out also that all regions may experience significant decreases in crop yields as well as significant increases, depending on emission scenarios and the assumptions on effectiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2 fertilization. One of the tools that would ensure the food security by making use of local sources and traditional knowledge is agroecology. Agroecology would contribute to mitigation of the anthropogenic climate change and cooling down the Earth’s increasing surface and lower atmospheric air temperatures, because it is mainly labour-intensive and requires little uses of fossil fuels, energy and artificial fertilisers. It is also necessary to understand the ecological mechanisms underlying sustainability of traditional farming systems, and to translate them into ecological principles that make locally available and appropriate approaches and techniques applicable to a large number of farmers.

  11. Unimpeded Dissemination of Scientific Research Versus National Security Needs Discussed at Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Emily

    In the United States, the only mechanism for restricting publication of scientific research results because of national security concerns is classification by federal agencies according to deemed levels of sensitivity. In the wake of heightened fears following the events of 11 September, 2001, the U.S. government issued in March 2002 a new classification category, ``sensitive but unclassified,'' which many in the U.S. scientific community consider vague and ill-defined. Certain research in both the life and physical sciences is potentially subject to being classified in this manner. The issuance of this a new classification category has raised concerns in the scientific community of a potential for unnecessary restrictions on the dissemination of data and other material that emanates from government-sponsored research programs.

  12. Building a Data Warehouse for National Social Security Fund of the Republic of Tunisia

    CERN Document Server

    Gouider, Mohamed Salah; 10.5121/ijdms.2010.2207

    2010-01-01

    The amounts of data available to decision makers are increasingly important, given the network availability, low cost storage and diversity of applications. To maximize the potential of these data within the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) in Tunisia, we have built a data warehouse as a multidimensional database, cleaned, homogenized, historicized and consolidated. We used Oracle Warehouse Builder to extract, transform and load the source data into the Data Warehouse, by applying the KDD process. We have implemented the Data Warehouse as an Oracle OLAP. The knowledge extraction has been performed using the Oracle Discoverer tool. This allowed users to take maximum advantage of knowledge as a regular report or as ad hoc queries. We started by implementing the main topic for this public institution, accounting for the movements of insured persons. The great success that has followed the completion of this work has encouraged the NSSF to complete the achievement of other topics of interest within the NSSF. ...

  13. The atomic power state and national security - the hazardous nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have chosen the uranium/plutonium cycle, the problems involved in safety engineering of power plant, and the power industry's structural pattern in order to show and to prove the doubtfulness of safety philosophies developed for nuclear energy which in fact is not mastered by the country's technological, social, or economic capabilities. The party 'The Greens' considers nuclear energy to be a hazard to national security and therefore demands prompt abandonment of nuclear power in order to save man and the natural environment. Surplus power supply is to be replaced by the concept of demand-tailored power generation, which is to be placed on the following footing: (1) purposeful and intelligent utilisation of energy allowing dramatic reduction of energy consumption; (2) Use and promotion of renewable energy sources; (3) Abandonment of monopolistic and undemocratic structures in the energy sector of the economy. (orig./HSCH)

  14. EMPOWERING NIGERIAN YOUTHS THROUGH TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR ENHANCING NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Chidozie Chinedu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian government had initiated several youth empowerment programmes through TVET, but a lot of these programmes lack structure and their impact not felt by the nation’s youths. This is evident in the substantial number of youth that still lack work skills-which often results to unemployment, insecurity, loss of lives and properties and chaos. The study therefore, sought to investigate, TVET empowerment skills required by youths as a means for enhancing national security. Descriptive survey research design was used and data was obtained using a structured questionnaire known as the Empowerment Skill Inventory Checklist (ESIC. Eighty five TVET lecturers in post-secondary vocational institutions took part in the study. Findings revealed that youths require vocational skills in areas such as horticulture, business, engineering and construction works. Also recommended techniques and strategies for career development that include specific skills such as business skills, financial management skills, basic computation skills, communication skills and adaptation skills.

  15. Food safety and quality through radiation technology: its implications to national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    that the dose used did not modify the sensory properties in such a way that they were detected by both sets of respondents. The study recommended that food irradiation technology be adopted by the national government as one of the means to achieve national food security. The results of this study provide science-based evidence in collaborating previous studies on the role of food irradiation technology in ensuring food security such as when used for post-harvest treatment of agricultural crops and for quarantine treatment of fruits and vegetables for export. It must, however, be recognized that the general population may still have fear of radiation. As such, a concerted effort using the quad-media and other government instrumentalities be utilized to effect a paradigm shift of the populace and increase public awareness and acceptance of irradiated food. One can rightly say that food irradiation technology is a tool for national development, and enhances national security through food security. (author)

  16. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  17. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Environment Compliance Department

    2012-01-01

    The storm water pollution prevention program at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) intends to protect the quality of storm water runoff through: (1) reducing the exposure of metal accumulation areas to precipitation, (2) implementation of Best Management Practices, (3) sampling during rain events and subsequent analysis, and (4) routine surveillances. When prescribed, the analytical data is compared to a set of cut-off concentration values to determine how the Y-12 Complex relates to other metal fabrication industries in the state of Tennessee. The quality of the storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek indicated some improvement in 2011. This improvement is attributable to the completion of several construction, demolition and remediation projects which occurred in 2010 and 2011. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and the timely implementation of improved storm water control measures as deemed necessary.

  18. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clean Water Compliance Section of the Environment Compliance Department

    2012-01-01

    The storm water pollution prevention program at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) intends to protect the quality of storm water runoff through: (1) reducing the exposure of metal accumulation areas to precipitation, (2) implementation of Best Management Practices, (3) sampling during rain events and subsequent analysis, and (4) routine surveillances. When prescribed, the analytical data is compared to a set of cut-off concentration values to determine how the Y-12 Complex relates to other metal fabrication industries in the state of Tennessee. The quality of the storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek indicated some improvement in 2011. This improvement is attributable to the completion of several construction, demolition and remediation projects which occurred in 2010 and 2011. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and the timely implementation of improved storm water control measures as deemed necessary.

  19. Automated Template Matching Method for NMIS at the Y-12 National Security Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a template matching method used by the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) to identify weapons components. The method is applied to NMIS's active source (252Cf) radiation measurements for HEU components, utilizing four scintillation detectors. NMIS measures the spatial and temporal distribution of neutron and gamma radiation after a 252Cf fission. This method further processes these measurements to extract pattern recognition features for the matching algorithm, and finds the closest matching component in the NMIS library of reference component features (templates). This identification method is being developed for use at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The goal of this development is to obtain high accuracy with the constraints of short measurement times and a small number of reference template measurements

  20. 国家文化安全的“非传统”研究%National Cultural Security in the Perspective of Non-traditional Security Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘一禾

    2011-01-01

    "非传统安全"研究视野中的国家文化安全是一种立体多维概念,强调以"个体"为安全主体、以"人的安全"为"国家安全"的终极目的。这个视角中的"国家文化安全"主要指人们认为自己所属"国家—民族"的"基本价值"和"文化特性"不会在全球化大势下出现断裂、退化或消亡的"安全感"。%National cultural security in"non-traditional security" studies is a multidimensional concept,which pays more attention to "individuals" as the safety subject,and takes "human security" and "national security" as the ultimate purpose of national security.In this perspective,"national cultural security" mainly refers to the "sense of security" that people have in believing that the basic value system and cultural characteristics of the "state-nation" will not rupture,degrade or vanish in the tendency of globalization.The theory and methodology of "non-traditional security" remind us that the connotation of national cultural security has expand ed gradually,and the widespread concern of "cultural threat" and "culture safety" have become complicated and interactive between nations.

  1. HUMAN RIGHTS IN TIME OF GLOBALIZING SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Garb; Damir Črnčec

    2013-01-01

    Diversity of processes in the contemporary international environment and the attendant effects, including security risks bring rapid changes in society. On the other hand, new opportunities and challenges are characterized by globalization of security and modern security paradigm, triggered by the overwhelming number of processes within existing systems of national security that modify the state's role in ensuring the safety of its citizens or residents.In the contemporary security paradigm a...

  2. Resonating, Rejecting, Reinterpreting: Mapping the Stabilization Discourse in the United Nations Security Council, 2000–14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Curran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the evolution of the conceptualisation of stabilization in the UN Security Council (UNSC during the period 2001–2014. UNSC open meetings provide an important dataset for a critical review of stabilization discourse and an opportunity to chart the positions of permanent Members, rotating Members and the UN Secretariat towards this concept. This article is the first to conduct an analysis of this material to map the evolution of stabilization in this critical chamber of the UN. This dataset of official statements will be complemented by a review of open source reporting on UNSC meetings and national stabilization doctrines of the ‘P3’ – France, the UK and the US. These countries have developed national stabilization doctrines predominantly to deal with cross-governmental approaches to counterinsurgency operations conducted during the 2000s. The article therefore presents a genealogy of the concept of stabilization in the UNSC to help understand implications for its future development in this multilateral setting. This article begins by examining efforts by the P3 to ‘upload’ their conceptualisations of stabilization into UN intervention frameworks. Secondly, the article uses a content analysis of UNSC debates during 2000–2014 to explore the extent to which the conceptualisation of stabilization resonated with other Council members, were rejected in specific contexts or in general, or were re-interpreted by member states to suit alternative security agendas and interests. Therefore, the article not only examines the UNSC debates surrounding existing UN ‘stabilization operations’ (MONUSCO, MINUSTAH, MINUSCA, MINUSMA, which could be regarded as evidence that this ‘western’ concept has resonated with other UNSC members and relevant UN agencies, but also documents the appearance of stabilization in other contexts too. The article opens new avenues of research into concepts of stabilization within the UN, and

  3. The role of Canada's national parks in a changed climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a requirement to manage national parks for completeness or wholeness, to maintain a functional ecosystem with all its parts, including processes, and to maintain biological diversity. Climate change has the potential to affect vegetation distribution, and will not merely manifest itself as a change in zones, but will be characterized by a flora with new dominants. Canadian national parks within the Prairie provinces are on or near ecotones, the transition from forest to tundra and grasslands. Forest fire frequency and severity is likely to increase, with the potential of transforming the boreal forest into remnant units. A flexible national system of designating areas must be devised to provide protection for the ephemeral biological systems which will be transformed and moved in response to climatic change. The adoption of adaptive management is critical, and should include monitoring, communication, protection through networks, and park service leadership. Benign neglect management must be replaced with management for wilderness. 15 refs

  4. Transition-ready technologies and expertise from the Chemical and Biological National Security Program at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, P A; McBride, M T

    2006-02-22

    HSARPA has initiated a new Bioinformatics and Assay Development solicitation, BIAD2 (BAA 06-01), to address a number of technology gaps and requirements for biodetection (www.hsarpabaa.com). This solicitation will leverage the vast research and development capabilities of the private sector and academia in order to meet the needs of HSARPA and Homeland Security. In order to meet these requirements, this solicitation will: (1) Develop and validate actionable assays for the public and private sector; (2) Develop and validate new assays and novel assay methodologies to enhance existing detection systems and enable future detection platforms; (3) Develop next generation assays which are robust against novel, emerging and engineered threats; (4) Develop novel assays that detect low levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based viral threats in complex backgrounds; (5) Develop novel assays to characterize the viability, degree of virulence or toxicity, and countermeasure resistance of a biological agent; and (6) Develop new bioinformatics tools to support assay development and assay validation The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioassays and Signature Program (BSP) develops nationally-validated detection and identification assays to cover the full range of biological threat agents, starting from human, animal, and plant pathogens on the Select Agent list. The assays that have been co-developed by the CDC and the BSP are used internationally and represent the gold standard for molecular detection of select agent pathogens for the public health community. They are also used in the DHS environmental monitoring operations such as BioWatch and DHS National Security Special Events support. These reagents have been used to process and analyze more than 5 million samples and have delivered exceptional performance for the end users, with zero false positives since their deployment. Currently, highly-multiplexed nucleic acid assays that represent the &apos

  5. National food security: a framework for public policy and international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Huchet-Bourdon, Marilyne; Laroche-Dupraz, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper does not set out to redefine and re-explain the food security concept, but to look into the links between food security and international trade. First, we propose a conceptual framework to sum up the relationships between food security, international trade and public policies. Second, we check whether the widely used food security indicators are really suited to monitoring the impacts of government interventions and external trade shocks on the food security level. We use the Bonil...

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Safeguards and Security quarterly progress report ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Mansur, D.L.; Ruhter, W.D.; Strait, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    LLNL carries out safeguards and security activities for DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) and other organizations within and outside DOE. LLNL is supporting OSS in 6 areas: safeguards technology, safeguards and materials accountability, computer security--distributed systems, complex-wide access control, standardization of security systems, and information technology and security center. This report describes the activities in each of these areas.

  7. Food Security Hotspots in India under Changing Climate and Growing Populatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global climate change, unprecedented population growth, and rapid urbanization have elevated the possibility of food and water shortages in many regions across the world. The likelihood of such shortages in the future is further exacerbated by the fact that increased greenhouse forcing and rapid growth in human population will continue for at least the next several decades. These socio-environmental changes will likely put some regions under enormous economic and environmental stress by forcing them to adapt to new conditions. India with its rapidly growing population and high rates of urbanization and industrialization is one such region whose agricultural resources will be particularly vulnerable to the impact of these changes. This study collectively reviews and analyses the possible impacts of climate change, population growth and resulting land use change on the availability of food and water in the coming decades for India. By analyzing and fusing a wide variety of existing data and research on the impact of land use change, population, and climate change, on water and food resources this study develops an understanding of the broader implications of each of the changes on food security in the region. In addition, the study focuses on the need to assess and quantify the combination of such impacts at a regional level and identify food security hotspots spatially across India that will help to narrow down regions in the country which will be severely affected and need priority adaptation and mitigation measures.

  8. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  9. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  10. A study on the development of national guide for implementing nuclear security culture in ROK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Moonsung; Lee, Youngwook; Yoo, Hosik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Among the extended concepts, a remarkable thing is that nuclear security began to be focused on the human factor as well as technical factors (hardware and software system) because most security lapses at nuclear power facilities result from human failings such as low motivation, miscalculation, or malice. Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) is designed to improve the performance of the human factor and to make its interface with security technology and regulations more effective and smooth. There is a need to develop a variety of more efficient tools for achieving sustainable nuclear security culture. We studied for the implementing guide to establish and enhance the nuclear security culture. We have developed the Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guidelines for licensees in order to enhance nuclear security culture. Licensees have separately established a separate code of conduct on nuclear security culture for their daily business based on such Implementing Guidelines. The Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guidelines were developed with sufficient consideration of both the IAEA Security Series on nuclear security culture and the Korean circumstances. In all, the Korean government and licensees have timely established and applied the Implementing Guidelines and code of conduct and consequently paved the way for further improvements of the Korean nuclear security regime. The nuclear security culture will facilitate and optimize the human aspects in our nuclear security programs.

  11. A study on the development of national guide for implementing nuclear security culture in ROK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the extended concepts, a remarkable thing is that nuclear security began to be focused on the human factor as well as technical factors (hardware and software system) because most security lapses at nuclear power facilities result from human failings such as low motivation, miscalculation, or malice. Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) is designed to improve the performance of the human factor and to make its interface with security technology and regulations more effective and smooth. There is a need to develop a variety of more efficient tools for achieving sustainable nuclear security culture. We studied for the implementing guide to establish and enhance the nuclear security culture. We have developed the Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guidelines for licensees in order to enhance nuclear security culture. Licensees have separately established a separate code of conduct on nuclear security culture for their daily business based on such Implementing Guidelines. The Nuclear Security Culture Implementing Guidelines were developed with sufficient consideration of both the IAEA Security Series on nuclear security culture and the Korean circumstances. In all, the Korean government and licensees have timely established and applied the Implementing Guidelines and code of conduct and consequently paved the way for further improvements of the Korean nuclear security regime. The nuclear security culture will facilitate and optimize the human aspects in our nuclear security programs

  12. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site - 13058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950's to the early 1990's. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second

  13. Giving Back: Collaborations with Others in Ecological Studies on the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott A. Wade (NFO); Kathryn S. Knapp (NFO); Cathy A. Wills (NSTec)

    2013-02-24

    Formerly named the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was the historical site for nuclear weapons testing from the 1950s to the early 1990s. The site was renamed in 2010 to reflect the diversity of nuclear, energy, and homeland security activities now conducted at the site. Biological and ecological programs and research have been conducted on the site for decades to address the impacts of radiation and to take advantage of the relatively undisturbed and isolated lands for gathering basic information on the occurrence and distribution of native plants and animals. Currently, the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees the radiological biota monitoring and ecological compliance programs on the NNSS. The top priority of these programs are compliance with federal and state regulations. They focus on performing radiological dose assessments for the public who reside near the NNSS and for populations of plants and animals on the NNSS and in protecting important species and habitat from direct impacts of mission activities. The NNSS serves as an invaluable outdoor laboratory. The geographic and ecological diversity of the site offers researchers many opportunities to study human influences on ecosystems. NNSA/NSO has pursued collaborations with outside agencies and organizations to be able to conduct programs and studies that enhance radiological biota monitoring and ecosystem preservation when budgets are restrictive, as well as to provide valuable scientific information to the human health and natural resource communities at large. NNSA/NSO is using one current collaborative study to better assess the potential dose to the off-site public from the ingestion of game animals, the most realistic pathway for off-site public exposure at this time from radionuclide contamination on the NNSS. A second

  14. Options for support to agriculture and food security under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture and food security are key sectors for intervention under climate change. Agricultural production is highly vulnerable even to 2C (low-end) predictions for global mean temperatures in 2100, with major implications for rural poverty and for both rural and urban food security. Agriculture also presents untapped opportunities for mitigation, given the large land area under crops and rangeland, and the additional mitigation potential of aquaculture. This paper presents a summary of current knowledge on options to support farmers, particularly smallholder farmers, in achieving food security through agriculture under climate change. Actions towards adaptation fall into two broad overlapping areas: (1) accelerated adaptation to progressive climate change over decadal time scales, for example integrated packages of technology, agronomy and policy options for farmers and food systems, and (2) better management of agricultural risks associated with increasing climate variability and extreme events, for example improved climate information services and safety nets. Maximization of agriculture's mitigation potential will require investments in technological innovation and agricultural intensification linked to increased efficiency of inputs, and creation of incentives and monitoring systems that are inclusive of smallholder farmers. Food systems faced with climate change need urgent, broad-based action in spite of uncertainties.

  15. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  16. Climate change scenarios for Canada's national parks : a users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening level impact assessment has shown that the implications of climate change for Canada's national parks are considerable. Climate change scenarios will be an important component in examining the potential climate change impacts and the implications of adaptation strategies. Most climate change scenarios are based on vulnerability, impact and adaptation research. This user's manual describes the development of 3 types of climate change scenarios including scenarios from global climate models (GCMs), bioclimate scenarios and daily scenarios for use by Parks Canada. The manual offers advice to first-time climate change scenario users in choosing and interpreting climate change, bioclimate and daily scenarios. It also addresses the theoretical and practical foundations of each climate scenario and shows how to access data regarding the various scenarios. Hands-on exercises are included as an interpretive aid. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 19 figs

  17. Security an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Purpura, Philip P

    2011-01-01

    Section I The History and Profession of SecurityDefinition, Role, and History of Security Security Defined The Contexts of Security The Roles of Security The History of Security Security in an Environment of Threats, Terrorism, and All-Hazards Threats and Hazards Terrorism National Strategies The Profession and Business of Security The Business of Security Professionalism and Security Associations Ethics Regulation of the Security Industry Security Training Higher Education Careers Section II Protecting People and AssetsSecurity Methodology Methodology Defined Security Business Proposals Secur

  18. Marking the enemy, marking the other : the intersection of national security and diversity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has alternately been criticized for being too cozy with foreign scientists and too quick to scapegoat or profile workers with foreign ancestries. In the wake of the investigation of alleged espionage that focused on Taiwanese-born American nuclear scientist Wen Ho Lee, political leaders and the news media questioned the Lab's commitment to security and the wisdom of its close collaborations with foreign scientists. Wen Ho Lee was of course an American citizen and not a foreign scientist, and many of his supporters felt that his Asian ancestry made him too convenient of a target in a case focused on Chinese espionage. Thus, charges of racial profiling and scapegoating were also aimed at the Lab, the Department of Energy, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In the wake of the controversy some Asian American groups have been encouraging a boycott of the national laboratories run by the Department of Energy, and at Los Alamos, the number of Asian Americans applying for jobs, post docs, and student positions is substantially down.

  19. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    This is the second annual storm water report prepared in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) on December 1, 2011, and the corresponding Y-12 Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) which became effective on September 7, 2012. However, Appendix A does contain some analytical data gathered under the previous NPDES permit and SWP3 for comparison purposes. The quality of storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek remained relatively stable from 2012 to 2013. However, there was one largely unexpected high concentration of mercury noted in an area that is not known to have previously been a mercury use area. This was noted in Sector AA, Outfall 014. This outfall is normally sampled on a rotating basis but, due this elevated concentration, will be sampled again in 2014. The Y-12 Complex will continue to implement appropriate BMPs and reduce outside material storage ares where possible. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and timely implementation of proper storm water control measures.

  20. Indian Agricultural Scenario and Food Security Concerns in the Context of Climate Change: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Purnamita; Sirohi, Smita

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the trends in foodgrain production in India, the determinants of its growth and domestic foodgrain supply projections to draw inferences about the future foodgrain production trends. The foodgrain supply forecasts are examined in relation to the likely demand of foodgrains to answer whether India would have a situation of food surplus or deficit. The paper summarizes the supply and demand side aspects of food security in the context of climate change-...

  1. The Risk of Social Security Benefit Rule Changes: Some International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    John McHale

    1999-01-01

    Against a background of projections of sharply increasing elderly dependency rates, workers in the major industrial economies are apprehensive that their social security benefit entitlements will be cut before or after they retire, leaving them with inadequate retirement income. This paper looks at recent benefit rule changes in the G7 countries to see what can be learned about such political risk in PAYG pension systems. From this small sample, I find that projections of rising costs under c...

  2. Agriculture and food security challenge of climate change: a dynamic analysis for policy selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdous Ahmed; Abul Quasem Al-Amin; Zeeda Fatimah Mohamad; Santha Chenayah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study presents an empirical examination of climate change related to vulnerability impacts on food security and remedial adaptation options as a suitable strategy by prioritizing needs over a 50-year period. An Empirical Dynamic Commutable General Equilibrium Model for Climate and the Economy (EDCGECE) is applied using future strategies for Malaysia against a baseline scenario of existing conditions, following the top-down options. The model takes into account various climatic v...

  3. Climate Change, Nutrition and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2010-01-01

    Food security and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa have long been affected by variations in the weather. Vulnerability to these hazards, along with economic shocks and an adverse political environment, is often uneven in a community. Some individuals and households are more susceptible to emergencies or crises than others, and thus determining who is most vulnerable are and how they are responding to a shock or crises is essential to understand the impact on food security. Daily, quantitative and global observations derived from satellite remote sensing instruments can contribute to understanding how food production has declined due to drought, flood or other weather-related hazard, but it can say nothing about the likelihood that the people living in that area are suffering food insecurity as a result. As Amartya Sen argued, a famine can occur even when there is an absolute surplus of food in a region. Thus organizations like the US Agency for International Development's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) work to integrate biophysical and socio-economic indicators together with on-the ground assessments to estimate the food security consequences of a variety of events. Climate change is likely to restructure local, regional and global agricultural systems and commodity markets. Although remote sensing information has been used to identify seasonal production declines for the past two decades, new ways of using the data will need to be developed in order to understand, document and respond to the impact of climate change on food security as it is manifested in shorter term shocks. In this article, the contribution of remote sensing is explained, along with the other factors that affect food security

  4. Long-term energy security in a national scale using LEAP. Application to de-carbonization scenarios in Andorra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses the long-term energy security in a national scale using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) modelling tool. It builds the LEAP Andorra model, which forecasts energy demand and supply for the Principality of Andorra by 2050. It has a general bottom-up structure, where energy demand is driven by the technological composition of the sectors of the economy. The technological model is combined with a top-down econometric model to take into account macroeconomic trends. The model presented in this paper provides an initial estimate of energy demand in Andorra segregated into all sectors (residential, transport, secondary, tertiary and public administration) and charts a baseline scenario based on historical trends. Additional scenarios representing different policy strategies are built to explore the country's potential energy savings and the feasibility to achieve the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in April 2015 to UN. In this climatic agreement Andorra intends to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 37% as compared to a business-as-usual scenario by 2030. In addition, current and future energy security is analysed in this paper under baseline and de-carbonization scenarios. Energy security issues are assessed in LEAP with an integrated vision, going beyond the classic perspective of security of supply, and being closer to the sustainability's integrative vision. Results of scenarios show the benefits of climate policies in terms of national energy security and the difficulties for Andorra to achieving the de-carbonization target by 2030.

  5. Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenzien, Susan; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This report is required by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2013. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2013. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, and publishing documents. In addition, integrated UGTA required reading and corrective action tracking was instituted.

  6. Underground Test Area Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Quality Assurance Report Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This report is mandated by the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and identifies the UGTA quality assurance (QA) activities for fiscal year (FY) 2012. All UGTA organizations—U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); Desert Research Institute (DRI); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I); National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec); and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)—conducted QA activities in FY 2012. The activities included conducting assessments, identifying findings and completing corrective actions, evaluating laboratory performance, revising the QAPP, and publishing documents. In addition, processes and procedures were developed to address deficiencies identified in the FY 2011 QAPP gap analysis.

  7. Macedonian's first national communication under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acknowledging the significance of the climate change problem and the necessity to take effective actions for its mitigation, the Republic of Macedonia ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on December 04, 1997 (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia - International agreements 61/97), and became Party to the Convention on April 28, 1998. As a Party to the Convention, the country has committed to produce the First National Communication to the Conference of the Parties (CoP). The First National Communication of Macedonia is the very first national report on the country's conditions regarding climate change issues, prepared following the guidelines adopted by CoP for preparation of national communications by Parties not included in the Annex I to the Convention. Preparation of the National Communication is seen as an initial step in the actual implementation of the UNFCCC in the country. It allowed development of expertise in each sector involved in the preparation of the National Communication, enhanced institutional and technical capacities in these fields and increased the public awareness concerning the UNFCCC and climate change related issues. This report contains the analyses, results and recommendations of technical expertise undertaken by expert institutions in the country that implemented complex activities in the thematic areas, fully utilizing the resources and results of relevant prior or ongoing national and international related activities. At the same time, the report will serve as a basis for future action, research and upgrading, offering opportunities for policy improvement related to climate change and the process of preparation of future National Communications. (Original)

  8. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper......For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...... to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and...

  9. Energy security, trans-national pipelines and China's role in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, China's transformation from a regional energy supplier to one of the world's largest net energy importers, in particular with regards to oil and gas, has led to an increasing sense of energy insecurity in Chinese policy circles. Guaranteeing adequate supplies of energy to fuel economic growth is a central element in Beijing's efforts to maintain legitimacy in the face of economic reform and transformation. To combat energy insecurity a number of initiatives are being undertaken to diversify energy inputs, suppliers, and the means of their transport. Among these initiatives are a series of trans-national pipeline projects that will transport oil and gas from Eastern Siberia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, effectively reducing China's overall reliance on international sea lanes and maritime choke-points, in particular the Strait of Malacca. An analysis of these projects can shed light on how China's energy security policies are playing out on a regional level, how they are complicated and aided by various competing and converging interests of regional actors, and how they are re-shaping traditional regional dependencies. Indeed, more complex interdependencies among suppliers, consumers and transit states in continental Asia seem to be emerging as a consequence of China's growing role as an energy consumer. In the end, these pipelines help to diversify China's oil and gas suppliers and transport routes, easing its reliance on Middle Eastern oil and maritime transit, but they are by no means an alternative to the latter. China will continue to rely heavily on international oil markets and maritime shipping routes to deliver Middle Eastern oil. Suring up international markets and finding means to cooperate on international maritime security issues are thus and will remain in China's best interest. (author)

  10. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  11. Implementing Virtual Private Networking for Enabling Lower Cost, More Secure Wide Area Communications at Sandia National Laboratories; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual Private Networking is a new communications technology that promises lower cost, more secure wide area communications by leveraging public networks such as the Internet. Sandia National Laboratories has embraced the technology for interconnecting remote sites to Sandia's corporate network, and for enabling remote access users for both dial-up and broadband access

  12. 78 FR 32241 - U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Department of the Air Force U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space, Department of the Air Force, DOD..., Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space, seeks industry views and perspectives...

  13. 76 FR 43319 - Record of Decision for the Continued Operation of the Y-12 National Security Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... the 2002 ROD (67 FR 11296), which was based on the Final SWEIS for the Y-12 National Security Complex... facility in the ROD (73 FR 77644) for the Complex Transformation Supplemental PEIS (SPEIS) (DOE/EIS-0236-S4... (NOI) in the Federal Register (70 FR 71270), announcing its intent to prepare this Y-12 SWEIS....

  14. Industry Issue Paper: Airline Passenger Profiling Systems after 9/11: Personal Privacy versus National Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ravich, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the Transportation Security Administration’s forthcoming computerized profi ling system called “Secure Flight.” Secure Flight is the latest generation of so-called “computer assisted passenger pre-screening systems.” Such systems invite considerable privacy and civil liberty concerns, evoking references to an Orwellian society. This article confronts the central legal, political, and social tension borne of profi ling systems such as Secure Flight, namely the conflict betwe...

  15. 75 FR 44828 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Program (``SBP'') and so that Members would be prevented from lending securities through the SBP that were... the SBP and so that Members would be prevented from lending securities through the SBP that were... particular security that exceeds the number of shares available to NSCC through Member deliveries. This...

  16. 76 FR 4405 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Tolerance Comparison Provisions for Fixed Income Securities January 14, 2011. I. Introduction On November 19..., municipal bond, and unit investment trust (collectively ``CMU'') fixed income securities. Matching requires... accuracy of fixed income trade reporting. In 2005, the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board...

  17. Raising New Zealand’s Terrorism Threat Level: Is Transparency Important in National Security?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shortt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mid-October 2014, ten years after the New Zealand Government confirmed the establishment of a Combined Threat Assessment Group (CTAG to advise it on a range of potential threats, the prime minister announced, for the first time, the raising of New Zealand’s domestic terrorism threat level. Unfortunately, the assessment that gave rise to the threat level’s change (or a version of it was not made public. Therefore, how were New Zealanders or others expected to properly understand the environment giving rise to the threat changes, and to judge whether the assessors got the setting right. This paper argues increased public transparency is appropriate when additional security measures resulting from a change in threat perception impact citizens’ lives and cost tax-payers more money. In presenting this argument, the paper briefly describes the role of threat assessments and how threat levels are set. In the absence of a public version of New Zealand’s threat assessment giving a cohesive, concise and transparent outline of the threat environment, the paper presents publicly available information from well-informed high office holders to see if that provides alternative and suitable transparency. Finally, the paper compares New Zealand’s terrorism threat assessment transparency processes with those of four countries with similar characteristics to New Zealand to see if alternative models of public transparency are available for consideration.

  18. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  20. Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-02

    This Soil Management Plan applies to all activities conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that involve soil disturbance and potential management of waste soil. The plan was prepared under the direction of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Soil disturbances related to maintenance activities, utility and building construction projects, or demolition projects fall within the purview of the plan. This Soil Management Plan represents an integrated, visually oriented, planning and information resource tool for decision making involving excavation or disturbance of soil at Y-12. This Soil Management Plan addresses three primary elements. (1) Regulatory and programmatic requirements for management of soil based on the location of a soil disturbance project and/or the regulatory classification of any contaminants that may be present (Chap. 2). Five general regulatory or programmatic classifications of soil are recognized to be potentially present at Y-12; soil may fall under one or more these classifications: (a) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) pursuant to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facilities Agreement; (b) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (c) RCRA 3004(u) solid waste managements units pursuant to the RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 permit for the ORR; (d) Toxic Substances and Control Act-regulated soil containing polychlorinated biphenyls; and (e) Radiologically contaminated soil regulated under the Atomic Energy Act review process. (2) Information for project planners on current and future planned remedial actions (RAs), as prescribed by CERCLA decision documents (including the scope of the actions and remedial goals), land use controls implemented to support or maintain RAs, RCRA post-closure regulatory requirements for

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot · CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain · CAS 02-59-01, Septic System · CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain · CAS 02-60-02, French Drain · CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain · CAS 02-60-04, French Drain · CAS 02-60-05, French Drain · CAS 02-60-06, French Drain · CAS 02-60-07, French Drain · CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall · CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap · CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 · The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities, Security and Safeguards Division, Safeguards and Security Program Office, Protective Force Oversight Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to identify and describe the duties and responsibilities of Facility Security and Safeguards (FSS) Safeguards and Security (SS) organizations (groups/offices) with oversight functions over the Protection Force (PF) subcontractor. Responsible organizations will continue their present PF oversight functions under the Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF) assessment, but now will be required to also coordinate, integrate, and interface with other FSS S and S organizations and with the PF subcontractor to measure performance, assess Department of Energy (DOE) compliance, reduce costs, and minimize duplication of effort. The role of the PF subcontractor is to provide the Laboratory with effective and efficient protective force services. PF services include providing protection for the special nuclear material, government property and classified or sensitive information developed and/or consigned to the Laboratory, as well as protection for personnel who work or participate in laboratory activities. FSS S and S oversight of both performance and compliance standards/metrics is essential for these PF objectives to be met

  4. 76 FR 10262 - Information Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... 46 CFR Part 503 RIN 3072-AC40 Information Security Program AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission... relating to its Information Security Program to reflect the changes implemented by Executive Order 13526--Classified National Security Information--that took effect January 5, 2010, and which prescribes a...

  5. Human Security: A Thematic Guidance Note for Regional and National Human Development Report Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Oscar; Gasper, Des

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Many important aspects of human development relate also to people’s security: loosely defined as people’s freedom from fear and freedom from want in a broad sense. Applying a human security approach offers an opportunity to analyse many issues in an informative way. This note explains how one might go about doing that. Human security relates to much more than security from violence and crime. A report team wanting to look at the security of people’s livelihoods (economic,...

  6. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    evelo, stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  7. Ecosystem Management: Tomorrow’s Approach to Enhancing Food Security under a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rivington

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that a sustainable ecosystem management approach is vital to ensure the delivery of essential ‘life support’ ecosystem services and must be mainstreamed into societal conscience, political thinking and economic processes. Feeding the world at a time of climate change, environmental degradation, increasing human population and demand for finite resources requires sustainable ecosystem management and equitable governance. Ecosystem degradation undermines food production and the availability of clean water, hence threatening human health, livelihoods and ultimately societal stability. Degradation also increases the vulnerability of populations to the consequences of natural disasters and climate change impacts. With 10 million people dying from hunger each year, the linkages between ecosystems and food security are important to recognize. Though we all depend on ecosystems for our food and water, about seventy per cent of the estimated 1.1 billion people in poverty around the world live in rural areas and depend directly on the productivity of ecosystems for their livelihoods. Healthy ecosystems provide a diverse range of food sources and support entire agricultural systems, but their value to food security and sustainable livelihoods are often undervalued or ignored. There is an urgent need for increased financial investment for integrating ecosystem management with food security and poverty alleviation priorities. As the world’s leaders worked towards a new international climate change agenda in Cancun, Mexico, 29 November–10 December 2010 (UNFCCC COP16, it was clear that without a deep and decisive post-2012 agreement and major concerted effort to reduce the food crisis, the Millennium Development Goals will not be attained. Political commitment at the highest level will be needed to raise the profile of ecosystems on the global food agenda. It is recommended that full recognition and promotion be given of the linkages

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory safeguards and security quarterly progress report to the US Department of Energy quarter ending September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Mansur, D.L.; Ruhter, W.D.; Steele, E.; Strait, R.S.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the details of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory safeguards and securities program. This program is focused on developing new technology, such as x- and gamma-ray spectrometry, for measurement of special nuclear materials. This program supports the Office of Safeguards and Securities in the following five areas; safeguards technology, safeguards and decision support, computer security, automated physical security, and automated visitor access control systems.

  9. The impact of changes in DOE computer security on safeguards systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent changes in the Department of Energy regulations on classified computer security have introduced a number of significant requirements for automated information systems and networks. These changes are necessary because of changes in computer technology, a reduced level of clearances, and increased personnel access, such as DOE open-quotes Lclose quotes clearances and international inspections, in the facilities. These changes will affect all computer-based systems that process, or are connected to computers that process, classified data. The additional and modified requirements are identified and described. The impact of the requirements on safeguards computer-based systems, such as instruments, database systems, and networks, is reviewed. Some simple examples of typical safeguards systems are discussed with suggestions on how the systems can comply with the requirements

  10. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Holz, Barbara A [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Goldenberg, Nancy G [Carey & Co; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2014-01-09

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the

  11. Climate politics in the Lower Mekong Basin. National interests and transboundary cooperation on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard Lange, R.; Moerck Jensen, K.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to intensify water security concerns in international river basins. UNFCCC and DAC-donors have been important generators of political attention to the climate agenda among governments in the Mekong Basin in relation to regional cooperation, national policy-making and capacity building. However, the formal commitment to climate action is not necessarily reflected in the everyday business of development. In this paper we use a political economy approach to understand when and how climate change becomes a political priority for the governments of Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and for transboundary cooperation. Uneven distribution of climate hazards and vulnerabilities create different national risk perceptions and commitment to climate action. Donor funding and national development strategies are also strong drivers of climate action and inaction. Climate change is sometimes used as a scapegoat for domestic policy failures and as a tool to acquire donor funding. We recommend prioritizing climate action in the context of immediate development challenges and 'no regrets' interventions that are likely to enhance adaptive capacity and governments' commitment. (Author)

  12. 76 FR 68523 - Fee Schedule for the Transfer of U.S. Treasury Book-Entry Securities Held on the National Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Fiscal Service Fee Schedule for the Transfer of U.S. Treasury Book-Entry Securities Held on the National Book-Entry System AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... U.S. Treasury book-entry securities maintained on the National Book-Entry System (NBES) that...

  13. 75 FR 67807 - Fee Schedule for the Transfer of U.S. Treasury Book-Entry Securities Held on the National Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Fiscal Service Fee Schedule for the Transfer of U.S. Treasury Book-Entry Securities Held on the National Book-Entry System Authority: 31 CFR 357.45. AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt, Fiscal Service, Treasury... applicable to transfers of U.S. Treasury book-entry securities maintained on the National Book-Entry...

  14. 77 FR 67062 - Fee Schedule for the Transfer of U.S. Treasury Book-Entry Securities Held on the National Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... Fiscal Service Fee Schedule for the Transfer of U.S. Treasury Book-Entry Securities Held on the National Book-Entry System AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... U.S. Treasury book-entry securities maintained on the National Book-Entry System (NBES) that...

  15. 78 FR 66803 - Fee Schedule for the Transfer of U.S. Treasury Book-Entry Securities Held on the National Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Fiscal Service Bureau of the Fiscal Service Fee Schedule for the Transfer of U.S. Treasury Book-Entry Securities Held on the National Book-Entry System AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Fiscal Service... schedule applicable to transfers of U.S. Treasury book-entry securities maintained on the National...

  16. National Institute of Justice (NIJ): improving the effectiveness of law enforcement via homeland security technology improvements (Keynote Address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John S.

    2005-05-01

    Law enforcement agencies play a key role in protecting the nation from and responding to terrorist attacks. Preventing terrorism and promoting the nation"s security is the Department of Justice"s number one strategic priority. This is reflected in its technology development efforts, as well as its operational focus. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the national focal point for the research, development, test and evaluation of technology for law enforcement. In addition to its responsibilities in supporting day-to-day criminal justice needs in areas such as less lethal weapons and forensic science, NIJ also provides critical support for counter-terrorism capacity improvements in state and local law enforcement in several areas. The most important of these areas are bomb response, concealed weapons detection, communications and information technology, which together offer the greatest potential benefit with respect to improving the ability to law enforcement agencies to respond to all types of crime including terrorist acts. NIJ coordinates its activities with several other key federal partners, including the Department of Homeland Security"s Science and Technology Directorate, the Technical Support Working Group, and the Department of Defense.

  17. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…

  18. Access to Justice for the Wrongfully Accused in National Security Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Kalajdzic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the casualties in the ‘war on terror’ is the presumption of innocence. It is now known that four Canadians who were the subject of investigation by the RCMP and CSIS were detained and tortured in Syria on the basis of information that originated in and was shared by Canada. None has ever been charged with a crime. On their return home, all four men called for a process that would expose the truth about the role of Canadian agencies in what happened to them, and ultimately help them clear their names and rebuild their lives. To date, in varying degrees, all four men continue to wait for that “process.” In this paper, I examine the access to justice mechanisms available to persons who are wrongfully accused of being involved in terrorist activities. Utilizing the case study of one of the four men, Abdullah Almalki, I explore the various processes available to him: (i a complaint to the relevant domestic complaints bodies, the Security Intelligence Review Committee and the Commission for Public Complaints Against the RCMP; (ii a commission of inquiry; and (iii a civil tort claim. Due in large part to the role national security confidentiality plays in these mechanisms, all three models are found to be ineffective for those seeking accountability in the national security context. Parmi les victimes de la «guerre contre le terrorisme» figure la présomption d’innocence. On sait maintenant que quatre Canadiens qui ont fait l’objet d’enquêtes par la GRC et le SCRS ont été détenus et torturés en Syrie suite à des renseignements ayant leur origine au Canada et partagés par le Canada. Nul d’entre eux n’a jamais été accusé de crime. À leur retour, tous les quatre hommes ont demandé un processus qui exposerait la vérité au sujet du rôle d’agences canadiennes dans ce qui leur est arrivé et qui éventuellement leur aiderait à rétablir leur réputation et refaire leur vie. À ce jour, à des degrés divers, tous

  19. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA. PMID:24457326

  20. REGULATION OF AUSTRALIAN MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: LESSONS FROM THREE CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; McKenna, Michael; Rayner, Johanna; Hawes, Jazmin

    2016-03-01

    In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2016] HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. This legislation was previously heavily criticised by the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. The third concerns the deregistration of Tareq Kamleh, an Australian doctor of German-Palestinian heritage who came to public attention on ANZAC Day 2015 with his appearance online in a propaganda video for the Islamic State terrorist organisation al-Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa'al Sham, also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh. Australia's professional regulatory system should presumptively respect professional virtues, such as loyalty to the relief of individual patient suffering, when dealing with doctors (whether in Australia or ISIS-occupied Syria) working under regimes whose principles appear inconsistent with those of ethics and human rights. PMID:27323633