WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing market conditions

  1. Changed market conditions for biogas production; Foeraendrade marknadsvillkor foer biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colnerud Granstroem, Sigrid; Gaaverud, Henrik; Glimhall, Alexandra

    2010-10-15

    The Swedish gas market consists mainly of the natural gas network that extends through the southwestern Sweden, and the local biogas markets. Biogas share of the Swedish gas market is growing steadily. The fact that the Swedish gas net is limited and fragmented forms an obstacle for biogas use to expand. That the gas market as a whole, natural gas included, must develop and expand is therefore a prerequisite for the large potential for Swedish Biogas to be realized. This in contrast with the ultimate objective to completely replace natural gas in the Swedish gas market. When policy changes are made in order to support biogas it is crucial for long-term competitiveness of biogas that these changes should not impact the natural gas market and hinder its development. Such a scenario would ultimately mean that also biogas development opportunities deteriorate. Biogas operations encounter three main problems that prevent or impede its expansion in the gas market. First, the potential for profitability in biogas production must be enhanced. Second, natural gas and biogas markets should be more integrated with each other. Thirdly, the biogas must be distributed in a cost-effective manner. The present investigation aims to supplement the Natural Gas Act with special provisions which takes into account the input and transmission of biogas. In addition to the production of biogas, it is now the producer's responsibility to clean the gas from water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide and to augment the calorific value of the gas to the standard of Danish natural gas quality by propane addition and to ensure that the physical connection to network is available. There are thus a number of options available for shifting demarcation between biogas production and network operations. Short-term competitiveness of biogas would be strengthened most if purification and spiking the gas with propane and the connection to the network was imposed on network owners. In the

  2. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  3. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    , waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have......In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met...

  4. Quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges wrapped with different plastic films under simulated marketing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Malinconico, M; Avella, M; Di Lorenzo, M L; Mura; Palma, A

    2013-01-01

    significant. No decay was detected in fruit treated with IMZ. 'Sanguinello' oranges can be stored under retail conditions for a month by the only means of film wrapping without important changes in chemical, eating and marketing quality provided fruit are treated with an effective fungicide to prevent decay and that in-package gas composition is not markedly changed with respect to air.

  5. Impact of changing conditions in the oil market on energy policies in the ESCWA region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The present study has been prepared in the implementation of the ESCWA work programme and priorities for 1988/1989. It is aimed at examining energy issues of major concern to the region particularly the changes in the oil market, fluctuations of oil prices and their impact on energy plans and policies. The study is also intended to serve as a background document to the Meeting organized to discuss salient energy issues arising from recent developments in the oil market. It has therefore been designed to deal with downstream and upstream activities, adjustments to contractual terms, and market and national energy policies following the violent fluctuations of oil prices. Some futuristic views on the oil market are also presented and the study includes an examination of national and regional entities involved in energy issues and development of oil resources in the ESCWA region. (Author)

  6. Features of the Institutional Structure of the Polish Stock Market under Conditions of Transformational Changes in the Global Financial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko Nataliia I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under modern conditions of transformational changes in the global financial environment, the international stock market acquires stable features of activization of investment activity, formation of a large network of professional participants in the stock market and its multi-level institutional structure, expansion of the range of trade in securities, access of economic entities of different countries to financial resources and diversification of mechanisms of concentration, etc. There conducted a study of peculiarities of the institutional structure of the Polish stock market in the context of transformational changes in the global economic system. The factors influencing the volume of capitalization of the Warsaw Stock Exchange are analyzed; the dependence of the capitalization of the Exchange on foreign portfolio investments in shares of Polish issuers is revealed. Based on the results of own calculations of multiple correlation coefficients, the level of dependence between capital stock market indicators and assets of such financial institutions in Poland as investment and open pension funds, insurance companies is determined, and a significant interconnection of assets of investment and open pension funds and insurance companies is revealed. The obtained results can become a basis for institutional investors in the process of making effective decisions on expanding the range of trading in securities.

  7. Spot market natural gas strategies and reliability dealing with changing industry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Many in the energy industry thought the natural gas buying game had finally settled down to a predictable pattern in the 90's. After a tumultuous decade in the 80's they are ready to turn their attention to new challenges such as electricity wheeling and cogeneration. They were wrong. There is plenty of change left in the natural gas industry for the rest of the century. This growth will dramatically increase the number of options available to Energy Buyers, giving them new flexibility to design programs that meet goals for cost reduction, supply reliability, and administrative effort. However, with new options also come the responsibility for choices. Energy Managers of well designed gas programs will make these choices after careful consideration of the pro's and con's of each option. In short, the effective Buyer will develop a natural gas strategy. This report will begin by reviewing the basic types of change occurring in the industry, and then discuss some of the varied strategy options available to the Energy Buyer

  8. Modeling the water-energy nexus under changing energy market and climate conditions: a case study in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Fumagalli, Elena; Giuliani, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and growing population are expected to severely affect freshwater availability by the end of 21th century. Many river basins, especially in the Mediterranean region, are likely to become more prone to periods of reduced water supply, risking considerable impacts on the society, the environment, and the economy, thus emphasizing the need to rethink the way water resources are distributed, managed, and used at the regional and river basin scale. This paradigm shift will be essential to cope with the undergoing global change, characterized by growing water demands and by increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes. Most of the literature traditionally focused on predicting the impacts of climate change on water resources, while our understanding of the human footprint on the hydrological cycle is limited. For example, changes in the operation of the Alpine hydropower reservoirs induced by socio-economic drivers (e.g., development of renewable energy) have been already observed over the last few years and have produced relevant impacts on multiple water uses due to the altered distribution of water volumes in time and space. Modeling human decisions as well as the links between society and environmental systems becomes key to develop reliable projections on the co-evolution of the coupled human-water systems and deliver robust adaptation strategies. This work contributes a preliminary model-based analysis of the behaviour of hydropower operators under changing energy market and climate conditions. The proposed approach is developed for the San Giacomo-Cancano reservoir system located in the Lake Como catchment. The identification of the current operating policy is supported by input variable selection methods to select the most relevant hydrological and market based drivers to explain the observed release time series. The identified model is then simulated under a set of future scenarios, accounting for both climate and socio-economic change (e

  9. Asymmetric conditional volatility in international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nuno B.; Menezes, Rui; Mendes, Diana A.

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that a negative shock in stock prices will generate more volatility than a positive shock of similar magnitude. The aim of this paper is to appraise the hypothesis under which the conditional mean and the conditional variance of stock returns are asymmetric functions of past information. We compare the results for the Portuguese Stock Market Index PSI 20 with six other Stock Market Indices, namely the SP 500, FTSE 100, DAX 30, CAC 40, ASE 20, and IBEX 35. In order to assess asymmetric volatility we use autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity specifications known as TARCH and EGARCH. We also test for asymmetry after controlling for the effect of macroeconomic factors on stock market returns using TAR and M-TAR specifications within a VAR framework. Our results show that the conditional variance is an asymmetric function of past innovations raising proportionately more during market declines, a phenomenon known as the leverage effect. However, when we control for the effect of changes in macroeconomic variables, we find no significant evidence of asymmetric behaviour of the stock market returns. There are some signs that the Portuguese Stock Market tends to show somewhat less market efficiency than other markets since the effect of the shocks appear to take a longer time to dissipate.

  10. Market conditions and hedge fund survival

    OpenAIRE

    Mark A. Carlson; Jason Steinman

    2008-01-01

    As the hedge fund industry has grown, there has been increased concern that, during sharp market moves, hedge fund failures could exacerbate the deterioration in financial conditions and deepen a crisis. However, there has not been much formal analysis regarding the impact of financial market conditions on hedge fund survival. To help fill this gap, this paper examines the relationship between financial market conditions and the likelihood of hedge fund failure after controlling for performan...

  11. Changes to timber market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2008-01-01

    Ten thousands of tree trunks have ended up in the Liptovska Mara lake. The fact that state owned company Lesy SR decided to store the timber in the reservoir as it could not sell it on the market represents a small revolution in the industry. About a year ago timber processing companies were fighting for timber and suddenly it cannot be sold and has to be stored in the reservoir waiting for better times. When the forestry and timber processing industry will not be in such a difficult situation as it is now. Timber, floor and furniture manufacturers claim that the demand for their products and consequently also prices are falling. Some have already started to decrease production and started making redundancies. And when manufacturers complain, the timber suppliers are not happy either. The reason is that the industry has been hit by several blows at the same time. In last three to four years forests in Slovakia, Czech Republic, Austria, Scandinavia and in Canada have suffered several heavy windstorms after which large volumes of timber had to be processed quickly. So there was an excess of timber, particularly spruce. This created an ideal situation for the processing industry where the more agile companies increased their market share and offered timber at more competitive prices. (authors)

  12. Near-term market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Information is reviewed available to DOE on uranium marketing and price situation. It is concluded that past procurement activity and slippage in needs has placed the uranium users in a comfortable supply position for the next few years. As a consequence, there has been a relatively low level of procurement activity the last few years, which have been accompanied by price stability. U.S. procurement has strongly favored U.S. suppliers, however, the potential exists for procurement of foreign uranium, particularly in long-term contracts. Domestic producers, having expanded their production and sales capability, will be in a strong position for deliveries over the next several years

  13. Marketing communications in conditions of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanov Galjina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to reveal potential economic benefits deriving from implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications strategy in the period of the global financial crisis. Possibilities for implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications strategy in the Western Balkans are analyzed based on the assessment of macro-marketing environmental factors and consumers attitudes. Study results have shown satisfactory conditions for the implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications in four countries of the region. Consequently, in the period of the most recent economic crisis companies operating on this market which decide to implement regionally integrated marketing communications strategy may make significant cost-savings through centralization of their marketing communications activities, organizational learning and synergy rather then from cutting their media budgets.

  14. Market changes - fact or fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    Key changes that have taken place in the electric market in Alberta in light of the structural changes mandated by the Department of Energy through the restructuring initiative embodied in the Electric Utilities Act of 1996, are described. This historical review is undertaken in an effort to determine the extent of real changes and how much more changes have to occur to consider the market to be fully deregulated and truly competitive. Three questions are used to determine the extent of changes: (1) is there a customer choice of power supplies? (2) is there real opportunity to enter the generation market? (3)are decisions about pricing and investment for generation guided by competitive market forces? The author provides detailed responses to each of his own questions. With regard to consumer choice the answer is a very qualified one, i.e. there is some choice, but the extent is dependent on how much the consumer is prepared to ante up for power, and how long he is prepared to wait. The question of opportunities to enter the generation market is answered by saying that we are not there yet, but getting closer. With regard to pricing and investment in generation, the author's view is that we are still a long way from prices and investment being determined by competitive market forces, notwithstanding the fact that this is one of the principal purposes of the Act. All in all, progress is being made, but only a successful auction of the Power Purchase Arrangements (PPAs) , economic direct access rates at the transmission and distribution levels, and increase in non-utility generation will be acceptable as credible indicators of a truly competitive market

  15. Conditions for the Existence of Market Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, William D. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that most graduate-level economics textbooks rarely mention the need for consumers to be above their minimum wealth position as a condition for market equilibrium. Argues that this omission leaves students with a mistaken sense about the range of circumstances under which market equilibria can exist. (MJP)

  16. Evaluation of the International coffee market conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FISAKOVA O.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes analysis of coffee market and its conditions for coffee companies. Also, coffee export amounts and prices are compared and analyzed. Statistics were collected over few last years to present accurate research

  17. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  18. Change Implementation in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette; Sundgaard, Elin

    2010-01-01

    firm (new Danish C.E.O. and Danish production managers) and establishment of administration at a new production site lead to changes in the sub-systems elements of both machines and people and also the changes in the metarules (new authority system) and values and norms.......  This paper seeks to identify the types of development changes taking place in Danish subsidiaries in Baltic countries in the accounting function. A longitudinal case study is used. The paper uses Laughlin's ‘colonizing‘ model of organizational change to understand the driving forces for change....... The knowledge of change in the Danish subsidiaries in an institutional context can help managers in subsidiaries to gain a better understanding of the overall situation and make more appropriate decisions in change implementation in subsidiaries in emerging markets. The environmental disturbance in the case...

  19. Market Strategies for Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still reflect the political, non-market components. Using empirical information from the largest multinational companies worldwide, this article examines current market responses, focusing on the drivers (threats and opportunities) and the actions being taken by companies to address climate change. It also develops a typology of climate strategies that addresses the market dimensions, covering both the aim (strategic intent) and the degree of cooperation (form of organisation). The aim turns out to be either innovation or compensation, while the organisational arrangements to reach this objective can be oriented at the company level (internal), at companies' own supply chain (vertical) or at cooperation with other companies (competitors or companies in other sectors - horizontal). The typology can assist managers in deciding about the strategic option(s) they want to choose regarding climate change, also based on the insights offered by the paper about the current state of activities of other companies worldwide.

  20. Competing in changing energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannell, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents two perspectives: first, that of a successful exporter of energy products into world markets and second, that of a producer and seller of energy to consumers in South Australia and New South Wales - a large proportion of whom are privately and publicly owned trading organisations. It looks at Santos' experience in winning export markets for its liquid products; provides an overview of the changes - occurring and prospective to the Australian energy sector; and finally, discusses the outlook for Santos' South Australian gas business. The Australian energy-supply sectors have entered a period of unprecedented change. With energy being a contributor, and in many cases accounting for a large share of a traded good's cost, the impact of the emerging developments in the energy sector are of considerable significance

  1. Investors’ Risk Appetite and Global Financial Market Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda Gonzalez-Hermosillo

    2008-01-01

    A structural vector autoregression model is developed to analyze the dynamics of bond spreads among a sample of mature and developing countries during periods of financial stress in the last decade. The model identifies and quantifies the contribution on bond spreads from global market conditions (including funding liquidity, market liquidity, as well as credit and volatility risks), contagion effects, and idiosyncratic factors. While idiosyncratic factors explain a large amount of the change...

  2. STAFF MARKETING IN MODERN RUSSIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya N. Kretova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The conception of staff marketing, which was developed abroad, is effectively used in the developed countries for a long time. Its main advantage consists in the possibility of organizing some planning for the implementation of staff strategy: staff marketing provides the enterprise on the long-term basis with human resources capable of forming strategic potential, which would allow to implement the planned activities. Numerous problems of formation and development of civilized market relations in our country do not allow to fully implement the detailed models of staff marketing in domestic realities. On the basis of the analysis of theoretical developments and factors that have a practical impact on the implementation of marketing personnel in modern Russian conditions, the authors describe the essential elements of the conception. The primary purposes of staff marketing for domestic enterprises, grouped into the internal and external marketing are substantiated and disclosed. The special attention is paid to increasing the staff loyalty, which has dominant influence on business outcomes. The algorithm of events for the development of motivation system is proposed; at the stage of studying job satisfaction it is recommend to apply analytical calculations with the use of Shewhart control charts. Unlike traditional statistical tools based on the inspection of already implemented results, this approach is aimed at preventing negative tendencies and avoids losses associated with dissatisfaction with difficulty, as the individual employee and the team as a whole. Modern Russian enterprises can fully realize the conception of staff marketing only through rethinking of the consequences for all directions of work with the staff, as reflected in the definition of objectives, motivating staff and ensuring social responsibility of the enterprise.

  3. Modelling Danish local CHP on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    with the liberalisation process of the energy sectors of the EU countries, it is however anticipated that Danish local CHP are to begin operating on market conditions within the year 2005. This means that the income that the local CHPs previously gained from selling electricity at the feed-in tariff is replaced in part...... the consequences of acting in a liberalised market for a given CHP plant, based on the abovementioned bottom-up model. The key assumption determining the bottom line is the electricity spot price. The formation of the spot price in the Nordic area depends heavily upon the state of the water reservoirs in Norway...

  4. Structural Change in Southern Softwood Stumpage Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The potential for structural change in southern stumpage market models has impacts on not only our basic understanding of those markets, but also on harvest, inventory and price projections, and related policy. In this paper, we test for structural change in both sawtimber and pulpwood softwood stumpage markets in the U.S. South over the period 1950-1994. Test...

  5. Energy sector in conditions of market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schervashidze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The main dilemma of energy sector in market conditions is: regulation of the monopole producer and/or competition. There is no simple answer and the arguments for and against should be based on the macro economical determination of what kind of market is available for particular energy goods (perfect, monopolistic, oligopolistic, competition of monopolists) and what is the final purpose (improvement in efficiency, service, energy independence, regional development, etc.). Two polar models of economic management in energy sector are distinguished: 1) Free access to transfer net or competition between producers. 2) State regulation of the local monopolist. The experience of Great Britain and US are described as examples of both models. A special attention is paid to pricing methods at regulated monopole. 7 refs. (author)

  6. Beyond Needs Assessments: Marketing as Change Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Views marketing techniques as agents of change providing valuable assistance to community college decision makers. Discusses the importance of a balance among the four P's of marketing (i.e., promotion, price, place, and product); and seven procedural steps in developing a sound marketing strategy. (DMM)

  7. Marketing and social change: the parallels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, G

    1995-01-01

    Social marketing became respectable only in the late 1970s in places like Indonesia, Brazil, Egypt, Honduras, and Gambia. In practice social change and marketing are both about modifying group behavior. Social change provides opportunities for marketing, which is the process that identifies the unmet consumer need and satisfies it at a profit. Social research and production technologies are involved in market segmentation, target group selection, pricing, distribution, selling, and promotion. The crucial, people-centered and community-based characteristic of marketing is its social relevance. Marketing is a neutral methodology and social marketing is its adaptation to social imperatives. Among a set of underlying ideas related to marketing is the primacy of the consumer in all marketing decisions. Marketing clusters are a way of analyzing a situation, making a product, and pricing and distributing it. Demand is the driving force behind marketing with the components of price, performance, and decision. The benefit obtained from the product must justify the price. Advertising is commercial mass persuasion, the centerpiece of promotion; it is also needed for marketing communications. Promotional tools include special price offers, merchandizing, and dealer incentive schemes. Straightforward information rarely causes lasting behavioral changes. In a Bangladeshi community, 90% of women could have correct knowledge about oral rehydration salts, yet only 8% of them might actually use them correctly. Information that is resisted does not work, yet huge amounts of money go into producing manuals, leaflets, radio programs, and posters. The issues of distribution and competition are often neglected in social marketing programs. Other deficiencies are failure to monitor, evaluate, and innovate. To be successful, social marketing must aim at a 100% conversion of the market actors. Some successes of the social marketing approach include: a nutrition education and behavior change

  8. Energy markets and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Innovations mechanisms on energy markets are discussed, in particular valorization of energy products which invokes decarbonization of energy recourses. The valorization, meaning higher value of energy products, is expressed as electrification and entry of modern renewable energy based on

  9. Hydro investment analysis under new market conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    Full text: A future energy system with stronger coupling to Europe and with an increased share of non-regulated renewables will lead to increasing variability of the demand faced by the hydro system. In a market based system these variations will be reflected by larger daily price variations, both in the Elspot day ahead market, the Elbas intraday market and in the balancing market. With its unique regulation capabilities, hydro power will be very well positioned to handle these variations. However, existing model concepts for long term hydro scheduling were not developed for this framework, and do not take the new market conditions into account to a sufficient degree. Therefore hydro scheduling tools used for upgrading and investment analysis as well as analysing consequences of new environmental demands need adaptation to a finer temporal resolution, and to perform optimisation under varying constraints and uncertain input data for inflow and electricity prices. Focus is on investment analysis for a river system or power producer. Existing models can be grouped in the long-term (scheduling models with a time horizon up to 5 years) EOPS (Vansimtap), EOPS-ST (SimtapEffekt) and ProdRisk, and the shortterm scheduling models with a typical time horizon up to a few weeks, but focus on 1-2 days (SHOP and ID-SIM). A perfect tool in the present context would combine the properties of the long term stochastic optimisation models with the modelling details of SHOP and/or ID-SIM. However, this is probably not possible and simplifications will be necessary. Some important deficiencies in the present long term models are: Insufficiently realistic plant models in the relevant optimization models; Time delays are not handled; Handing of flexible / state dependent constraints; Handling of ramping constraints; Modelling of the cost of frequent regulations (wear and tear); Reserve markets As a result of these deficiencies the investment analysis does not adequately assess the value

  10. A focus on the consumer: social marketing for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaire, L E

    1985-01-01

    Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing principles to advance a social cause, issue, behavior, product, or service. Social marketing has added a framework to social efforts that heretofore lacked organization and has inspired projects that otherwise might never have been initiated. In the US, social marketing techniques have been particularly successful in the health field. Although advertising and other communications are central to social marketing, the discipline also depends upon other elements of what is termed the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. Social marketing is a cyclical process involving 6 steps: analysis; planning; development, testing, and refining elements of the plan; implementation; assessment of in-market effectiveness; and feedback. In developing countries, health has similarly been the greatest beneficiary to date of applied social marketing techniques. Family planning programs and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) projects have used social marketing techniques effectively in numerous developing countries. Social marketing has been even more widely applied in the sale of contraceptives in developing countries. Contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs are well established in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Nepal, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Egypt. More recently programs have been established in Honduras, Guatemala, Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) is a project funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) and is working with existing CSM programs and helping to launch new CSM programs. CSM programs are successfully functioning as legitimate marketing organizations in developing countries and are using local private sector resources in the process. Program results are encouraging. Social marketing requires both experience and sensitivity to local conditions. Many developing countries now have their own marketing resources

  11. Market conditions in Hungary, central europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, S.

    2000-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in Hungary covering 38% of electricity consumption in the country. The nuclear electricity production of the four VVER440/213 type units in the year of 1999 was 14096 GWh, the second best result in the history of the company. After very detailed safety analyses Paks NPP started a safety upgrading program in 1996, and today the CDF values of the reactor units reached an internationally accepted value. The operational and safety culture and the level of safety was evaluated and reviewed by different international organizations like the IAEA, WENRA, WANO. Based on the conclusions of these international organizations the Paks plant w111 be ready for EU accession after the completion of the ongoing safety upgrading program. Capacity enhancement as a part of the preparation for the market conditions resulted a power upgrade around 20 MW for all four units. This way a relatively small investment in comparison with new installations resulted more efficient to market nuclear capacity. Last year the cost of a generated 1 kWh electricity was 5.98 Ft, which is still to be decreased in 2000. To upgrade the competitiveness of nuclear generation lots of efforts were done in the areas of plant management cost reduction, man-power efficiency upgrade. Un-bundling of activities not directly related to electricity generation in one hand, and more efficient cooperation with other VVER operators and the Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. in certain areas on the other hand are good examples for efficient steps in economic improvement. The company as one of the electricity producers also should follow the capabilities of producers in the neighboring countries like Slovakia and Ukraine, where electricity production is with government subsidiary. To find the right balance between the necessary investments and the market induced cost reduction is one of the most important task in Hungary in Eastern-Europe especially when the nuclear energy

  12. STAFF MARKETING IN MODERN RUSSIAN CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya N. Kretova; Natalya N. Mitina

    2017-01-01

    The conception of staff marketing, which was developed abroad, is effectively used in the developed countries for a long time. Its main advantage consists in the possibility of organizing some planning for the implementation of staff strategy: staff marketing provides the enterprise on the long-term basis with human resources capable of forming strategic potential, which would allow to implement the planned activities. Numerous problems of formation and development of civilized market relatio...

  13. CONDITIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Winkler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes are one of the most typical phenomena experienced by contemporary organizations and are an inherent element of their functioning. The change introduction process is complex and it is often accompanied by a phenomenon of resistance to change on the part of the employees in an organization, which is considered as the main cause of failure in the change implementation process. The purpose of the article is to discuss the basic conditions for implementing changes related both to their adequate defining and overcoming resistance to change.

  14. Market strategies for climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still

  15. Assessment of the condition of a consumer market: interactive research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Yevgenyevna Sudakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of an assessment of a condition of the consumer market are presented in the article on the basis of official statistics data. At the heart of an assessment, the method of the indicative analysis lies. The technique includes five modules: quality of consumer goods, works, services; food security, nonfood safety; safety of services; security of participants of the consumer market. Also results of interactive Internet research of the condition of the ultimate consumer are presented in the article, by means of the carried out research. Interactive research is presented by 3 blocks: the general block (allows to make the respondent’s portrait; the special block (allows to estimate the changes in price, quality and the range of consumer goods and services; the additional block (allows respondents to leave comments. On the basis of the conducted research, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the assessment of the state received on the basis of methodical tools, shows positive dynamics, nevertheless, the condition of the consumer market remains unsatisfactory that also is confirmed by results of interactive research. The recommendations, allowing to lower the rise in prices and increase the quality of consumer goods and services are presented in the article

  16. Changes in the International Wine Market

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahović, Branislav; Puškarić, Anton; Tomašević, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Knowing international market is a basis for segmentation and making right and timely marketing decisions regarding wine export. In this piece, we have analized the international wine market, and determined changes in international turnover, with largest importers and exporters for the period of 2001 - 2011. The average wine export in the world was 8,4 tons, with a growth tendency of 5,0% per year. Converted in money, the average export amounted to 22 billion US Dollars, which makes wine one o...

  17. Joint route planning under varying market conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, Frans; Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Fleuren, Hein; Salomon, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their

  18. Frame conditions for a well-functioning end user market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livik, Klaus

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this report is to describe and define different frame conditions being necessary for the development of a well-functioning end user market. The report describes the sharing of roles between end users, grid owners, suppliers, system operators and market operators in the power market, and it points out how the interplay between these roles should be arranged. A particular attention is laid on how to involve the end user relations into the five different market roles during the development of a more active end user market. Products and eventual potentials are described and discussed being based on estimates as well as load measurements. 17 figs., 4 tabs

  19. HOW RETAILING HAS CHANGED? WHAT MARKETING DID FOR THIS CHANGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica ERDEI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retailing is carried on by those business which sell goods to the final consumer. The obvious example is provided by the shops we all know and deal with. The retailing stage, therefore, is the one where goods reach the end of their journey from the manufacturer. This does not that in those instances there is not retailing. The manufacturer or wholesaler who sells direct to the consumer is acting as a retailer; he adds retailing to his other activities. What ever channel of distribution is used, the retailing function always exists. In the past almost all retailers confined their activities to retailing; they did not combine it with other activities. These we can call “traditional” retailers. The functions of the traditional retailer where/and are: they break bulk into saleable portions; they put the goods in a saleable condition; they make goods immediately available to consumers; they measure consumer preferences. But the times have changed! In the “new” retailing the retailer provides a long range of services to whom he sells and to those from whom he buys. We’ll have in mind in this paper the refrigeration engineering and the “artificial cold”, the creative services at the point of sale (POS, the POS marketing, the marketing activities a the point of promotion (POP, the international diversity. In recent years most retail businesses tend to grow, and the statistics proves this, as it is shown in the paper.

  20. Changing health behaviors with social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Almazor, M E

    2011-08-01

    Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.

  1. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  2. Social marketing: Pitfalls and promise for change

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 1971, social marketing (SM) has been adopted as a behaviour change approach to address various social issues, including those of public health and the environment. In a context of proliferating health promotion and intervention approaches, as well as a changing communication environment, SM as a field has had to respond to various challenges. The purpose of this research was to explore the current context of SM, understand the challenges to the practice of SM, and explore it...

  3. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... to the employees. This study contributes to the literature on four main dimensions. First, we extend the analysis of organisational change to a public sector setting. Second, while previous findings remain inconclusive regarding causal effects due to problems of endogeneity, our analysis contributes to research...

  4. Change of Subsidiary Mandates in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Petersen, Bent; Wad, Peter

    2011-01-01

    fails to conceptualize how the specificities of emerging market business environments affect subsidiary mandate evolution. The paper develops a theoretical model for business environment change influence on subsidiary mandates, and demonstrates how the model can capture much of recent years dramatic......In recent years, the activities of Danish MNCs in India have expanded dramatically. Previously dormant subsidiaries have been transformed into integral components in the global strategies of Danish MNCs, either as crucial cash cows catering to the rapidly growing Indian markets, or as platforms...

  5. Hedge Fund Performance Attribution Under Various Market Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Stafylas, Dimitrios; Anderson, Keith Philip; Uddin, Muhammad Moshfique

    2018-01-01

    We investigate US hedge funds’ performance. Our proposed model contains exogenous and endogenous break points, based on business cycles and on a regime switching process conditional on different states of the market. During difficult market conditions most hedge fund strategies do not provide significant alphas. At such times hedge funds reduce both the number of their exposures to different asset classes and their portfolio allocations, while some strategies even reverse their exposures. Dir...

  6. Conditional CAPM: Time-varying Betas in the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Fischberg Blank

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conditional CAPM is characterized by time-varying market beta. Based on state-space models approach, beta behavior can be modeled as a stochastic process dependent on conditioning variables related to business cycle and estimated using Kalman filter. This paper studies alternative models for portfolios sorted by size and book-to-market ratio in the Brazilian stock market and compares their adjustment to data. Asset pricing tests based on time-series and cross-sectional approaches are also implemented. A random walk process combined with conditioning variables is the preferred model, reducing pricing errors compared to unconditional CAPM, but the errors are still significant. Cross-sectional test show that book-to-market ratio becomes less relevant, but past returns still capture cross-section variation

  7. The money market in Montenegro: Conditions, development and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović-Grba Danijela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The money market represents a segment of financial markets wherein the objects of trading are funds with short-term maturities. The money market in Montenegro is still in its early stages of development, and is characterized by a narrow scope of trading material and by a relatively narrow variety of participants. The reasons for such slow development of the Montenegrin money market are numerous: lack of regulations, dollarization as a model of monetary and foreign exchange regime, excessive liquidity of domestic banks, insufficient liquidity in the corporate sector, limited protection of creditor rights, and minimal corporate transparency. Short-term government bonds ("T-bills"-traded exclusively on the primary market-are the only short-term securities on the Montenegrin money market. Montenegrin banks are the biggest investors in T-bills. Foreign investors withdrew from the primary T-bill market after a decrease in T-bill interest rates. For a while, many considered that inadequate solutions in the Law on Securities were the main setbacks to organizing a secondary T-bill market. However, amendments to this Law did not spark the development of a T-bill market, nor any other short-term securities market. Adequate legislation is essential for the development of the money market, but it is not a sole precondition. A decrease in banks’ liquidity (as competition from other financial institutions increases and/or deposit interest rates decline is important to induce the money market’s development. We can expect a concurrent decrease in lending interest rates only as the conditions of creditor rights protection and business operations transparency improve. Only under such conditions can we expect banks and other financial and non-financial legal entities to begin issuing short-term securities.

  8. Utility residual fuel oil market conditions: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Planning for residual fuel oil usage and management remains an important part of the generation fuel planning and management function for many utilities. EPRI's Utility Planning Methods Center has maintained its analytical overview of the fuel oil markets as part of its overall fuel planning and management research program. This overview provides an update of recent fuel oil market directions. Several key events of the past year have had important implications for residual fuel oil markets. The key events have been the changes brought about by the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath, as well as continuing environmental policy developments. The Persian Gulf conflict has created renewed interest in reducing fuel oil use by utilities as part of an overall reduction in oil imports. The policy analysis performed to date has generally failed to properly evaluate utility industry capability. The Persian Gulf conflict has also resulted in an important change in the structure of international oil markets. The result of this policy-based change is likely to be a shift in oil pricing strategy. Finally, continued change in environmental requirements is continuing to shift utility residual oil requirements, but is also changing the nature of the US resid market itself

  9. Power systems control complex optimization in the new market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumm, L.; Kurrel, U.; Tauts, A.; Terno, O.; Zeidmanis, I.; Krisans, Z.

    2000-01-01

    A generalization and development of the theory and methods for complex optimisation of the performance and development control of an interconnected system (IPS) under new market conditions (mainly multicriterial and game approaches) is given considering the specifics of IPS at the international level in post-socialist countries and in particular in the Baltic states. Thereby the kernel of the mathematical apparatus of this theory the Generalized Reduced Gradient Method (GRGM) is further generalised and developed with the application of multicriterial and game methods to meet various market conditions. (author)

  10. Artificial changes of weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, I.D.; Vasil'ev, I.V.; Fedulina, I.N.; Zakizhan, Z.Z.; Khalimov, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Unfavorable weather conditions have undesirable ecological consequences, causes remarkable economical damage. In the paper authors consider physical factors and technical methods of influence on cloud formation. (author)

  11. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  12. The impact of modern technology on changing marketing actions in organisations. Marketing 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Świeczak Witold

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the theory that modern technologies are changing the way in which marketing is organised and that they will transform the prevailing composition of the market, while enterprises should come to terms with the act that having a market share will no longer suffice to maintain the market leader position. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key challenges generated by technological innovations and to identify the opportunities for marketing in light of the n...

  13. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Ellis, E.C.; Letourneau, A.

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here

  14. EU SINGLE FINANCIAL MARKET – PROSPECTS FOR CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mikita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has revealed the weaknesses of the European financial market, which triggered the European Union (EU work on further integration of this market. The aim of this article is to present the direction of changes concerning the integration of the EU financial market. These changes are mainly related to the issue of supervising the EU financial market, regulating the institutions operating in this market, protecting customers, improving the effectiveness of the market, its transparency and liquidity, as well as improving management in crisis situations.

  15. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  16. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  17. Estimating market probabilities of future interest rate changes

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušek, Martin

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the market consensus forecast of future monetary policy development and to quantify the priced-in probability of interest rate changes for different future time horizons. The proposed model uses the current spot money market yield curve and available money market derivative instruments (forward rate agreements, FRAs) and estimates the market probability of interest rate changes up to a 12-month horizon.

  18. Changing patterns of competition in European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heren, P.

    1996-01-01

    Despite a period of statism in the European natural gas market, the author argues that economic, political and regulatory pressures are approaching which will force dramatic change in the market, and identifies factors relating to pipeline capacity, competition, prices and market changes and fuel use which will drive the changes. A historical perspective is used as a framework to explain the inevitability of these changes. (UK)

  19. Renewable energy act. How did the framework conditions in the amendment 2012 change? Direct marketing of electric power and modifications in the biogas sector; Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz. Wie haben sich die Rahmenbedingungen in der Novelle 2012 geaendert? Strom-Direktvermarktungen und Veraenderungen in der Biogasbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipper, Bernd-Ruediger

    2013-06-01

    On 1 January 2012, the EEG 2012 and some other legal texts became effective. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the changing framework conditions in the amendment 2012. In particular, the direct marketing of electric power and the modifications in the biogas sector are considered.

  20. A decomposition of local labour-market conditions and their relevance for inequalities in transitions to vocational training

    OpenAIRE

    Hillmert, Steffen; Hartung, Andreas; Weßling, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    We investigate to what extent individual transitions to vocational training in Germany have been affected by local labour-market conditions. A statistical decomposition approach is developed and applied, allowing for a systematic differentiation between long-term change, short-term fluctuations, and structural regional differences in labour-market conditions. To study individual-level consequences for transitions to vocational training, regionalized labour-market data are merged with longitud...

  1. The dynamic conditional relationship between stock market returns and implied volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Y.; Ryu, Doojin; Song, Jeongseok

    2017-09-01

    Using the dynamic conditional correlation multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (DCC-MGARCH) model, we empirically examine the dynamic relationship between stock market returns (KOSPI200 returns) and implied volatility (VKOSPI), as well as their statistical mechanics, in the Korean market, a representative and leading emerging market. We consider four macroeconomic variables (exchange rates, risk-free rates, term spreads, and credit spreads) as potential determinants of the dynamic conditional correlation between returns and volatility. Of these macroeconomic variables, the change in exchange rates has a significant impact on the dynamic correlation between KOSPI200 returns and the VKOSPI, especially during the recent financial crisis. We also find that the risk-free rate has a marginal effect on this dynamic conditional relationship.

  2. Market conditions driving international franchising in emerging countries

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how a number of market conditions may constrain entry mode choice into Middle East nations. Specifically, this paper focuses on master franchising and analyzes the determining factors in this entry mode decision. A quantitative approach was applied to a sample of Spanish franchisors operating through 96 franchisee outlets across 6 Middle East countries in January 2010. They are Bahrain, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Findings show th...

  3. Effects of daylight savings time changes on stock market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, M Hakan; Dogan, Nukhet; Onar, Bahar

    2010-04-01

    The presence of daylight savings time effects on stock returns and on stock volatility was investigated using an EGARCH specification to model the conditional variance. The evidence gathered from the major United States stock markets for the period between 1967 and 2007 did not support the existence of the daylight savings time effect on stock returns or on volatility. Returns on the first business day following daylight savings time changes were not lower nor was the volatility higher, as would be expected if there were an effect.

  4. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  5. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  6. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, Peter H; Ellis, Erle C; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  7. Adam Smith, Market and Social Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Adam Smith (1723-1790) provided us with a remarkable synthesis of the economic and political ideas of his time and developed a conceptual system to analyse social interactions that mattered for the wealth of nations. He proposed a radically different roadmap for the future development of the soci......Adam Smith (1723-1790) provided us with a remarkable synthesis of the economic and political ideas of his time and developed a conceptual system to analyse social interactions that mattered for the wealth of nations. He proposed a radically different roadmap for the future development...... of the society he lived in. The fact that his original analyses were rooted in a given historical context and were founded on a well thought-through conceptual system should not be ignored. The galvanising effect of the dribs and drabs of Adam Smith ideas that have been bandied about are a long way from...... the powerful insights imbued in the original ideas. Putting those back into context, looking into how Smith proceeded then, trying to update his observations, might help us to be more attentive to the market changes and social challenges of our times....

  8. Changes in Chinese Education under Globalisation and Market Economy: Emerging Issues and Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao; Guo, Yan; Beckett, Gulbahar; Li, Qing; Guo, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    Fuelled by forces of globalisation, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to the "socialist market economy". This study examines changes in Chinese education under globalisation and market economy, focusing on the teaching and living conditions of teachers. The study reveals that the profound transformation of…

  9. Secondary SWU market - the changing circumstance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The author gives historical background on the uranium enrichment services (SWU) market before evaluating where the market currently stands and where it may be going, particularly in light of the new DOE Facility Requirement (FR) contract. The SWU market came into being as the most economic alternative available to a holder of excess SWU commitments. The FR contract will probably lead to three levels of marketplace activity: material for use within FR contracts from existing DOE inventories; shuffle transactions involving DOE source SWUs to be placed into remaining adjustable, fixed-commitment contracts; and non-DOE origin SWU and worldwide inventory and excess commitments. He concludes that the amount of transactions involving DOE SWU commitments will continue to dwindle, particularly as DOE becomes more and more of a marginal supplier in the overseas market. An appendix summarizes DOE fixed-commitment contract assignments

  10. Brand name changes help health care providers win market recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesling, G

    1993-01-01

    As the healthcare industry continues to recognize the strategic implications of branding, more providers will undertake an identity change to better position themselves in competitive markets. The paper examines specific healthcare branding decisions, the reasons prompting brand name decisions and the marketing implications for a change in brand name.

  11. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  12. Market conditions for wind power and biofuel-based cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the prerequisites for biofuel-based cogeneration plants and for wind power, with special emphasis on following factors: 1/ The effect on the Swedish energy market of the opening of the power transmission networks for free competition within the electric power supply sector. 2/ A market model for the connection between the prices on fossil fuels, biomass fuels, electric power, and heating on the Swedish market. The analysis is made for three scenarios concerning carbon dioxide/energy taxation and the oil price development. The three scenarios are: A. Constant prices on heating oil and coal., B. An internationally uniform carbon dioxide tax, which successively is raised to SEK 0.40 per kilo carbon dioxide to the year 2010. In the year 2005 this will correspond to a doubling of the present prices on crude oil., C. An unilateral Swedish energy- and carbon dioxide tax of todays model (without exception for electric power generation), with constant import prices on heating oil and coal. The decisive factors for bio-cogeneration are construction- and operation costs, the costs of biofuels, and the sales price on electric power and heat. For wind power it is the construction- and operation costs that settle the conditions. 18 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Problems of gas marketing, particularly with respect to Swiss conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunzinger, W

    1981-07-01

    Rising gas prices have required a change in Switzerland's marketing strategy to a greater emphasis on the residential, commercial, and service sectors. A Swiss committee on energy in 1978 reported on three different scenarios for Swiss energy development. Excluding district heating and cogeneration use, natural gas consumption, though modest by world standards, grew 13.3% in 1979 to reach 7848 GWhr, or 4.2% of the total energy consumption. The Swiss gas industry association in 1979 began an information campaign to send out a series of six letters about gas.

  14. Health marketing and behavioral change: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirez, Cristina-Mihaela; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Health marketing as a part of social marketing, must influence individuals, voluntarily, through various social programmes, in order to accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior in favour of a healthier lifestyle. Acting on individual behavior change, social marketing can influence the behaviour of those who decide public policies, with positive effects in social change. In time, in order to understand and predict a behavior, a number of theories, models and tactics were developed with the aim to identify factors and mechanisms with the greatest impact in the changing process. Cognitive- social theories proved to be more effective, because they offer guidelines for conducting research in behavioral change.

  15. Health marketing and behavioral change: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirez, Cristina-Mihaela; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Health marketing as a part of social marketing, must influence individuals, voluntarily, through various social programmes, in order to accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior in favour of a healthier lifestyle. Acting on individual behavior change, social marketing can influence the behaviour of those who decide public policies, with positive effects in social change. In time, in order to understand and predict a behavior, a number of theories, models and tactics were developed with the aim to identify factors and mechanisms with the greatest impact in the changing process. Cognitive- social theories proved to be more effective, because they offer guidelines for conducting research in behavioral change. PMID:29696059

  16. Welfare States and Labour Market Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    to labour markets, and whether there might be in the future, including arguments pro and con the possible impact thereof. The article thus provides a review of knowledge within the field, with a focus especially on how this can or might have an impact on welfare states, given the often strong connection...

  17. Changing Prices in a Weak Housing Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Dianqing

    2008-01-01

    @@ First, the adjustment in housing prices are in some cases just a regular marketing strategy. Speculation is restrained by macrocontrol policies, which naturally slows down a price increase.It is also predictable that some unreasonably high prices will need to be readjusted.

  18. Changing winds. BTM's world market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.

    2006-01-01

    An update of what has happened in the past year in the worldwide wind energy market, and what is expected to happen in the near future, are given. In 2005, the USA was the world's single biggest wind market, installing 2431 MW. Data are also given for some European and Asian states, and Australasia. The increase in the USA was due to the reintroduction of the Production Tax Credit. Vestas maintained its position as world leader in turbine manufacture but its market share decreased from 34% to 27.9%. Data for all top ten manufacturers are given. In 2005, there were increases of up to 30% in the price of turbines due to an increase in cost of raw materials and increased profit margins in a seller's market. The increase in prices has had a marked impact on offshore systems where the economics were already marginal. Summaries of the future prospects of 15 individual countries are given, together with forecasts for 2011-2015

  19. Market redesign and regulatory change : how companies doing business in Alberta's power markets will be affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Power Pool of Alberta (PPA) began its operations in 1996 based on a model with a single price set based on day ahead offers/bids and real time dispatch. The Electric Utilities Act was amended in 1998 and direct sales were permitted in 1999. The Power Purchase Arrangement Auction was implemented in 2000. Significant events took place in 2001, including: (1) retail competition, (2) PPAs began operations, (3) restrictions on direct sales were removed, (4) forward exchange operation, and (5) ancillary services market. In 2002, the Market Achievement Plan II was implemented and government industry structure was reviewed. There are several considerations regarding market redesign, such as day ahead market, capacity market, congestion management, and Northwest Regional Transmission Organization (RTO West). The role of the International Standard Organization (ISO) was discussed, with reference to the Independent System Operator, Independent Market Operator, and Transmission and Market Planner. Redesign must involve all participants and include informed, phased in changes

  20. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small......Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environment...... community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation...

  1. Marketing resources management in conditions of domestic enterprises’ innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Belovodskaya; Ya.A. Kovalenko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. In the article the urgency of differentiation of concepts marketing potential and marketing resource is examined. The appropriateness of marketing resources allocation into a separate part of the resource base of innovation-directed enterprises is defined. Theoretical bases of marketing resources management for innovation-oriented enterprise are investigated. The author's approach to classification of marketing resources and formation of principles of their management ...

  2. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Lyasnikov; Yu. V. Lyasnikova

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinationa...

  3. The impact of modern technology on changing marketing actions in organisations. Marketing 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świeczak Witold

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theory that modern technologies are changing the way in which marketing is organised and that they will transform the prevailing composition of the market, while enterprises should come to terms with the act that having a market share will no longer suffice to maintain the market leader position. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key challenges generated by technological innovations and to identify the opportunities for marketing in light of the new communication and information technologies so that quantifiable benefits can be gained. The research topic underpinning this paper is: 1 an analysis of social media use by the Millennial generation; 2 an evaluation of the attitudes of SMEs towards the incorporation of information technology into their current marketing practices; 3 determining the implementation possibilities of Marketing 4.0 by promoting a flexible approach to organising marketing actions. Following a review of the available literature on the subject, we will present a concept of the model of the flexible organisation of marketing actions. The D3I2C concept combines today’s marketing actions and digital transformation. It can be harnessed by academia and other organisations seeking guidance on the implementation of transformation in the organisation of marketing actions.

  4. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  5. Proceedings of the 12. forum: Croatian Energy Day: Energy consumers in open market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Jelavic, B.

    2003-01-01

    The theme of the 12. Forum: Energy Day in Croatia is energy sector liberalisation and the new position of the consumers, changing rapidly and acquiring a completely new perspective. By means of market opening of various energy forms the consumer gains right to choose the energy supplier, quite a radical change in relation to the former, monopolistic relationship. This means that the consumer becomes the centre of attention, as has already been achieved at the mobile phone market. Within new market environment, the consumer becomes product buyer, buyer of the product in principle bearing market characteristics as any other product. However, energy markets reveal numerous peculiarities, distinguishing them from the markets of goods and services, as we have known them for centuries, which function according to well-known market conditions. While part of the energy sector will permanently remain a natural monopoly (transmission / transportation and distribution networks), the opening of the considered market requires information science development, which means it is necessary to apply advanced technology for e.g. measuring devices, etc. In view of such market circumstances it is essential to define the quality of the product including supply stability, voltage quality or agility in responding to customer complaints. On the other hand, these factors cannot be adjusted to each individual consumer-buyer at the moment or at least not ones. The position of the customers-buyers has been solved differently in various countries. The aim of this Forum is to put forward and explain experience and solutions connected to the new customer-buyer role in market circumstances. It is our wish that the participants discuss problems connected to the consumer-buyer position under the following aspects: Present status of market opening for various energy forms in the countries of the EU and in the transition countries; technical preconditions for energy market opening such as information

  6. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. forests, wood-product markets, and forest recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland; Darius Adams; Ralph Alig; Carter J. Betz; Chi-Chung Chen; Mark Hutchins; Bruce A. McCarl; Ken Skog; Brent L. Sohngen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problems of projecting social and economic changes affecting forests and review recent efforts to assess the wood-market impacts of possible climate changes. To illustrate the range of conditions encountered in projecting socioeconomic change linked to forests, we consider two markedly different uses: forest products markets and forest...

  7. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Second Wind Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  8. THE TAKING OF MARKETING DECISIONS IN CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY AND RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir GROSU

    2011-01-01

    The choice of method of developing marketing decision alternatives and their evaluation depends significantly on the availability of initial information. The decision maker may not possess all the information or possess insufficiently precise information about external environmental conditions and their changes in the future. Such a situation is often observed in the case of macro-environment factors, but can also refer to the company's microenvironment. Given these circumstances, in differen...

  9. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Wu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort. We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors. Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.

  10. Financial crisis and market risk premium: Identifying multiple structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. García-Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market returns is, by now, well-documented in the literature. However, in this article we examine the long-run relationship between stock and bond markets returns over the period from 1991:11 to 2009:11, using Bai and Perron’s multiple structural change approach. Findings indicate that while the market risk premium is usually positive, periods with negative values appear only in three periods (1991:1-1993:2, 1998:3-2002:2 and from 2007:1-2009:11 leading to changes in the GDP evolution. Thereby, the study shows the presence of structural breaks in the Spanish market risk premium and its relationship with business cycle. These findings contribute to a better understanding of close linkages between the financial markets and the macroeconomic variables such as GDP. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are provided.

  11. The Money Market in Montenegro - Conditions, Development and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Vukajlović-Grba

    2007-01-01

    The money market represents a segment of financial markets wherein the objects of trading are funds with short-term maturities. The money market in Montenegro is still in its early stages of development, and is characterized by a narrow scope of trading material and by a relatively narrow variety of participants. The reasons for such slow development of the Montenegrin money market are numerous: lack of regulations, dollarization as a model of monetary and foreign exchange regime, excessive l...

  12. Does social marketing provide a framework for changing healthcare practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Zoë Slote; Clarkson, Peter John

    2009-07-01

    We argue that social marketing can be used as a generic framework for analysing barriers to the take-up of clinical guidelines, and planning interventions which seek to enable this change. We reviewed the literature on take-up of clinical guidelines, in particular barriers and enablers to change; social marketing principles and social marketing applied to healthcare. We then applied the social marketing framework to analyse the literature and to consider implications for future guideline policy to assess its feasibility and accessibility. There is sizeable extant literature on healthcare practitioners' non-compliance with clinical guidelines. This is an international problem common to a number of settings. The reasons for poor levels of take up appear to be well understood, but not addressed adequately in practice. Applying a social marketing framework brings new insights to the problem." We show that a social marketing framework provides a useful solution-focused framework for systematically understanding barriers to individual behaviour change and designing interventions accordingly. Whether the social marketing framework provides an effective means of bringing about behaviour change remains an empirical question which has still to be tested in practice. The analysis presented here provides strong motivation to begin such testing.

  13. Can social marketing approaches change community attitudes towards leprosy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy

    2006-06-01

    This essay explores how the concept of social marketing can be employed to change attitudes towards leprosy. Firstly, the concept of social marketing is discussed, then the attitudes that people have about leprosy, the stigma that people with leprosy and their families may face, and the detrimental effects that this can have on their lives. The effect of knowledge and education on attitudes towards leprosy is discussed, as this can be a key component of social marketing campaigns. Various methods of social marketing used to change attitudes and reduce stigma are examined, such as mass media campaigns, school based education, methods which involve community leaders, and the integration and improvement of leprosy services. Principles of social marketing which can lead to the success of campaigns such as incorporating local beliefs are emphasized. The success of the social marketing campaign in Sri Lanka is described, which aimed to remove the fear of leprosy, and to encourage patients to seek and comply with treatment. Finally, it is argued that social marketing, used correctly, can be highly effective at changing community attitudes towards leprosy, reducing stigma and improving the lives of patients, who become able to seek treatment sooner as they lose their fear of stigmatization.

  14. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  15. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  16. Examining supply changes in Australia's cocaine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Chalmers, Jenny; Bright, David A; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Sindicich, Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Media attention to cocaine use and supply has increased following some of the largest cocaine seizures in Australia's history. Whether there has been an expansion in supply remains unclear. This paper examines the evidence behind assertions of increased supply in Australia and the scale and nature of any apparent increase, using proxy indicators of cocaine importation, distribution and use. Eight proxies of cocaine importation, distribution and use were adopted, including amount of importation, mode of importation and supply flows to Australia. Each proxy indicator was sourced using publicly available and Australia-wide data, including information on the total weight of border seizures, mode of detection and country of embarkation of individual seizures. Data permitting, trends were examined for up to a 12 year period (1997-1998 to 2009-2010). Since 2006-2007 there was evidence of increased cocaine importation, albeit less than between 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. There were further signs that the 2006-2007 expansion coincided with a diversification of trafficking routes to and through Australia (beyond the traditional site of entry-Sydney) and shifts in the geographic distribution of use. The congruity between indicators suggests that there has been a recent expansion in cocaine supply to and distribution within Australia, but that the more notable shift has concerned the nature of supply, with an apparent growth in importation and distribution beyond New South Wales. The diversification of cocaine supply routes may increase risks of market entrenchment and organised crime throughout Australia. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. The pallet industry: a changing hardwood market

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.P. Dempsey; D.G. Martens

    1991-01-01

    From its inception during World War II, the wooden pallet industry has grown to become the Nation's largest industrial consumer of hardwood lumber products. Since most of the raw material in wooden pallets is lower grade lumber, the pallet industry's growth, efficiency, and changing raw material inputs must be of concern to the grade hardwood lumber industry...

  18. Renewable energy market conditions and barriers in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalan, Cicek Bezir; Murat, Oeztuerk; Nuri, Oezek

    2009-01-01

    Decentralized wind, hydropower, biogas and biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and solar electricity energy systems are the most commonly found renewable energy technologies promoted for rural energy supply within sustainable developments programs. They are, therefore, seen to have a central place in the practice of sustainable development and in allowing less development countries to bypass the environmentally damaging fossil fuel intensive paths made by industrialized countries. On the political front, many less development countries are critical of pressure on them to adopt environmental energy technologies. Turkey is situated the meeting point of three continents (Asia, Europe and Africa) and stands as a bridge between Asia and Europe. The country is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. As Turkey's economy has expanded in recent years, the consumption of primary energy has increased. Presently in order to increase the energy production from domestic energy resources, decrease the use of fossil fuels as well as reduce of green house gas emissions different renewable energy sources are used for energy production in Turkey. The share of energy production from renewable energy sources has increased during the last 10 years. Turkey must import most of the energy to meet her needs. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energies. The lack of knowledge about renewable energy technologies by most policy-makers, potential consumers, and energy firm managers has played against renewable energy developments. The paper presents renewable energy used in Turkey and Europe Union and evaluation of the market conditions and barriers of renewable energy use in Turkey. (author)

  19. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  20. Changes of hierarchical network in local and world stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwary, Enayet Ullah; Lee, Jong Youl; Nobi, Ashadun; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-10-01

    We consider the cross-correlation coefficients of the daily returns in the local and global stock markets. We generate the minimal spanning tree (MST) using the correlation matrix. We observe that the MSTs change their structure from chain-like networks to star-like networks during periods of market uncertainty. We quantify the measure of the hierarchical network utilizing the value of the hierarchy measured by the hierarchical path. The hierarchy and betweenness centrality characterize the state of the market regarding the impact of crises. During crises, the non-financial company is established as the central node of the MST. However, before the crisis and during stable periods, the financial company is occupying the central node of the MST in the Korean and the U.S. stock markets. The changes in the network structure and the central node are good indicators of an upcoming crisis.

  1. Conditions for a market uptake of climate services for adaptation in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Cavelier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper reports the results of a collaborative survey of French research institutes concerned with environmental issues, which examined the potential for a market uptake of climate services for adaptation in France. The study is based on a review of existing reports on the market of climate services, and on interviews of 68 climate service providers and users in public and private organizations. Although the study does not allow to provide quantified estimations regarding the present and future size of the market, its results offer new perspectives with implications extending far beyond the sole case of France: first, while the market is still in its infancy, significant opportunities exist in sectors such as flooding risks, and, to a slightly lesser extent, hydro and nuclear energy and viticulture. In addition, the study identifies critical conditions for the uptake in climate services: (1 a coordinated delivery of data, information, expertise and training by public research institutes concerned with climate change and its impacts; (2 the inclusion of adaptation in the regulation and in public and private tenders. Finally, (3 uncertainties in climate projections appear as a major barrier to the uptake of climate services. However, ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction as planned by the COP-21 Paris Agreement contribute to reducing this uncertainties by allowing users to select a subset of climate change projections, avoiding those for which adaptation is most problematic.

  2. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  3. Housing and the wood industry, trends & market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Al Schuler; K. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Housing markets continue to have major impacts on the secondary wood industry. So, what are the steps being taken by wood products manufacturers in order to stay viable? As a follow-up to last year's article, "Housing Market's Impact on the Secondary Woodworking Industry" (Wood & Wood Products, July 2010), the focus of this year's study was...

  4. Xenon changes under power-burst conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Under ordinary operating conditions the xenon concentration in a reactor core can change significantly in times on the order of hours. Core transients of safety significance are much more rapid and hence calculations are done with xenon concentration held constant. However, in certain transients (such as reactivity initiated accidents) there is a very large power surge and the question arises as to whether under these circumstances the xenon concentration could change. This would be particularly important if the xenon were reduced thereby tending to make the accident autocatalytic. The objective of the present study is to quantify this effect to see if it could be important

  5. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyasnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinational companies and the development of proposals for improving this process.Methodology. To complete this article, no such analysis methods were used as comparative and Economics and Statistics.Conclusions / relevance. The results are of practical value, they can be used in a lecture course teachers of educational institutions in the preparation of managers, as well as direct marketing specialists. In the study, the author was able to draw a number of conclusions that facilitate the development of the set of eff ective combinations, each of which represents a unique scenario of territorial expansion. Promising further expansion of the practice of implementation of marketing approaches in the organization of the entities of multinational companies, in Vol. H. The use of new technologies.

  6. Trade networks evolution under the conditions of stock market globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopylova Olga Volodymyrivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern perception of the stock market in terms of information technologies rapid development and under the institutionalists influence has been significantly modified and becomes multifaceted. It was detected that the main function of the market is activated, information asymmetry is minimized and more advanced financial architecture space is formed through trade networks. Formation of the modern trade networks has started on the basis of the old infrastructure, that had the highest tendency to self-organization and adaptation. The proposed architecture of trade networks of the stock market has a very clear vector of subordination – from top to bottom and has a number of positive points.

  7. Social marketing: an approach to planned social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, P; Zaltman, G

    1971-07-01

    This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge.

  8. Electricity and gas: does market liberalization change something?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Since mid-2004, all professional consumers in France can change of gas and power supplier. Even if Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF), the historical French electric and gas utilities, have lost some market shares, no heavy drain on their train of clients has occurred. The new intervening parties focus their offer and target 'the most profitable clients' with a mix which combines attractive prices and new services. This article explains what has changed with the deregulation of energy markets in terms of organization, prices and tariffs. (J.S.)

  9. Has microblogging changed stock market behavior? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the stock market behavior for a long-lived subset of firms in Shanghai and Shenzhen CSI 300 Index (CSI 300 Index) both before and after the establishment of firms' Microblogging in Sina Weibo. The empirical results show a significant increase in the relative trading volume as well as the decreases in the daily expected stock return and firm-level volatility in the post-Sina Weibo period. These findings suggest that Sina Weibo as an alternative information interaction channel has changed the information environment for individual stock, enhanced the speed of information diffusion and therefore changed the overall stock market behavior.

  10. Study of trends in the trucking market in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Popovych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the transport services market in accordance with its segmentation from the position of statistics on the field of automotive freight. The tendencies of development dynamics and road trucking transport market structure, and particularly the impact of transportation logistics market, including foreign trade cargo traffic of road transport, on the basic trends and the impact of logistics infrastructure development for aggregate indicators of development of transport communications, the size and dynamics of development, market compatibility on investment attractiveness. Balance of consumer, wholesale and logistics market in Ukraine, having similar development trends are established. Market logistics of trucking transport services have a steady trend of development in an objective decline in growth. The necessity of modernization policies in the transport sector at the state level as a software-oriented transport sector investment resources of the economy, taking into account that the share of road transport in the transport system of the country demonstrates the dynamic development with a positive trend in demand for transportation of goods.

  11. Innovation in regulation of rapidly changing health markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gerald; Henson, Spencer; Peters, David H

    2014-06-24

    The rapid evolution and spread of health markets across low and middle-income countries (LMICs) has contributed to a significant increase in the availability of health-related goods and services around the world. The support institutions needed to regulate these markets have lagged behind, with regulatory systems that are weak and under-resourced. This paper explores the key issues associated with regulation of health markets in LMICs, and the different goals of regulation, namely quality and safety of care, value for money, social agreement over fair access and financing, and accountability. Licensing, price controls, and other traditional approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services have played an important role, but they have been of questionable effectiveness in ensuring safety and efficacy at the point of the user in LMICs. The paper proposes a health market systems conceptual framework, using the value chain for the production, distribution and retail of health goods and services, to examine regulation of health markets in the LMIC context. We conclude by exploring the changing context going forwards, laying out implications for future heath market regulation. We argue that the case for new approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services in LMICs is compelling. Although traditional "command and control" approaches will have a place in the toolkit of regulators, a broader bundle of approaches is needed that is adapted to the national and market-level context of particular LMICs. The implication is that it is not possible to apply standard or single interventions across countries, as approaches proven to work well in one context will not necessarily work well elsewhere.

  12. The new capitalists: a structural change from the stock market economy to the free market economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshyaran, M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper an alternative mechanism to the stock market is proposed. Two elements are taken away: (1) middlemen, and (2) shareholder lack of involvement. Structural elements are identified. Equilibrium-stability conditions are defined. A measures of effectiveness is suggested.

  13. The conditionings of the credit market in agriculture. The macroeconomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kułyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have evaluated the relationship of the credit market to the agricultural sector. The weakness of appropriate resource allocation from the credit market has been emphasized. We paid attention both to the external environment of agriculture itself, as well as to the way it has been shaped as a result of the process of globalization. The effect was examined of the influence of particular macroeconomic indicators adjusted according to the range of the interest rate as a result of change in the price of agricultural products. The period of the research covered the years 1990-2010. A discussion was carried out to allow for the setting apart of factors that influenced conditions which shaped the cost of financial loans and credit. The character of dependencies or related factors were analysed. The different significance of individual accounts was shown.

  14. Changes in the world market in oil and oil refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristik, Julija

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980's the world market for crude oil and oil products has faced significant changes that are going to have a grate influence on the supply and consumption of crude oil derivatives in Macedonia. The knowledge of these changes would have a grate contribution in planning the future development of this part of the energetic system of Macedonia. The purpose of this paper (which is a short version of the introductory report for the ZEMAK session with a theme 'Energetic policy and development of energetics in Macedonia') is to present the actual situation on the market for crude oil products, as well as to give the main factors that would have influence on this market in the future. (author). 4 refs., 3 ills

  15. Market development of organic products in Europe: conditions and role of Organic Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Otto; Fontguyon, Guy de; Sans, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The contribution presents some of the main results of a European program of investigation (titled Organic Marketing Initiatives – OMIs – and Rural Development). Firstly, consumer behavior, as well as attitudes, expectations, motives and buying barriers concerning organic food are explored. Then, authors give a brief overview of the organic market analysis of 18 European countries, based on a Delphi inquiry. Finally, the third part highlights the role of OMIs in the organic market development ...

  16. PRINCIPLES OF MARKET ECONOMY AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE RUSSIAN INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Voronina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with result analysis of incoming of native instrument making into market economy. Reasons of dramatically worsening of many of enterprises condition and factors that are putting obstacles to its improvement are shown. Also variants of competiveness increasing ofRussian instruments are considered taking in account possible structure changes in its sphere.

  17. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  18. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  19. Driving Change in the research and HE information market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of a federated network of repositories of information for research and higher education, and discusses the main engines for change in that market using availability and use of information as parameters. The value chain is used as an analytical instrument in

  20. Climate change: impacts on electricity markets in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A C; Haddeland, Ingjerd

    This paper studies some impacts of climate change on electricity markets, focusing on three climate effects. First, demand for electricity is affected because of changes in the temperature. Second, changes in precipitation and temperature have impact on supply of hydro electric production through a shift in the inflow of water. Third, plant efficiency for thermal generation will decrease because the temperature of water used to cool equipment increases. To find the magnitude of these partial effects, as well as the overall effects, on Western European energy markets, we use the multi-market equilibrium model LIBEMOD. We find that each of the three partial effects changes the average electricity producer price by less than 2%, while the net effect is an increase of only 1%. The partial effects on total electricity supply are small, and the net effect is a decrease of 4%. The greatest effects are found for Nordic countries with a large market share for reservoir hydro. In these countries, annual production of electricity increases by 8%, reflecting more inflow of water, while net exports doubles. In addition, because of lower inflow in summer and higher in winter, the reservoir filling needed to transfer water from summer to winter is drastically reduced in the Nordic countries.

  1. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN TRADE UNDER CONDITIONS OF MARKET GLOBALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Sokolov Mladenovic, Djordje Cuzovic,

    2015-01-01

    Under contemporary business conditions, market globalisation has become inevitable. Such relationships on the market make trade companies use different means to acquire and maintain long-term competitive advantage. One of them is the concept of corporate social responsibility, which is, under conditions of globalisation, seen as a redesign of the classic marketing concept. The aim of this paper is to highlight the development of corporate social responsibility in trade, in the context of mark...

  3. Conditional Relationship Between Beta and Return in the US Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bing XIAO

    2016-01-01

    According to the CAPM, risk is measured by the beta, and the relation between required expected return and beta is linear. This paper examines the conditional relationship between beta and return in the US stock market. The conditional covariances and variances used to estimate beta are modeled as an ARCH process. The beta return relationship is tested upon the sign of the excess market return. The implication of the sign of the excess market return follows Morelli (2011). This study shows th...

  4. How do skilled traders change the structure of the market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2012), s. 66-71 ISSN 1057-5219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956; GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Heterogeneous agent model * Market structure * Skilled traders * Hurst exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/vacha-how do skilled traders change the structure of the market.pdf

  5. State policy change: Revenue decoupling in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kytson L.

    The study seeks to answer the question, why are states adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market, by investigating the relationship between policy adoption and attributes of the electricity market, the structure of the state utility commissions, and the political climate of the state. The study examines the period 1978-2008. Two econometric models, the marginal risk set model and the conditional risk set model, are estimated to predict the influence of covariates on the probability of the state adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market. The models are both variants of the Cox proportional hazard model and use different underlying assumptions about the nature of adoption of revenue decoupling and when the states are considered to be at risk of adoption. Results suggest that market attributes, such as the source of electricity generation in the state, state energy intensity, and the distribution of non-public and public utilities, significantly influence the adoption of the policy. Also, the method of selecting commissioners and the party affiliation of elected officials in the state are important factors. The study concludes by suggestions to improve the implementation and evaluation of revenue decoupling in the electricity markets.

  6. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  7. Variance swap payoffs, risk premia and extreme market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    This paper estimates the Variance Risk Premium (VRP) directly from synthetic variance swap payoffs. Since variance swap payoffs are highly volatile, we extract the VRP by using signal extraction techniques based on a state-space representation of our model in combination with a simple economic....... The latter variables and the VRP generate different return predictability on the major US indices. A factor model is proposed to extract a market VRP which turns out to be priced when considering Fama and French portfolios....

  8. The economy of a mining company in market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpisek, J.; Sitensky, I.; Dolezal, L.; Woller, F.

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings contain 21 contributions, out of which 3 have been inputted in INIS. Two deal with coal and its market prices and with problems associated with the present damping of coal mining in the Czech Republic, the third is concerned with chemical extraction of uranium and the possible ways of its termination and remedial actions to rehabilitate the landscape. All three contributions deal with the respective topics in economy terms. (M.D.). 1 tab., 12 refs

  9. Thermal performance of marketed SDHW systems under laboratory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua

    A test facility for solar domestic hot water systems, SDHW systems was established at the Technical University of Denmark in 1992. During the period 1992-2012 21 marketed SDHW systems, 16 systems from Danish manufacturers and 5 systems from manufacturers from abroad, have been tested in the test...... comfort, avoiding simple errors, using the low flow principle and heat stores with a high degree of thermal stratification and by using components with good thermal characteristics....

  10. Wind power and the conditions at a liberalized power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Wind power is undergoing a rapid development nationally as well as globally and in a number of countries covers an increasing part of the power supply. At the same time an ongoing liberalization of power markets is taking place and to an increasing extent the owners of wind power plants will themselves have to be responsible for trading the power at the spot market and financially handling the balancing. In the western part of Denmark (Jutland/Funen area), wind-generated power from time to time covers almost 100% of total power consumption. Therefore some examples are chosen from this area to analyse in more detail how well large amounts of wind power in the short-term are handled at the power spot market. It turns out that there is a tendency that more wind power in the system in the short run leads to relatively lower spot prices, while less wind power implies relatively higher spot prices, although, with the exception of December 2002, in general no strong relationship is found. A stronger relationship is found at the regulating market, where there is a fairly clear tendency that the more wind power produced, the higher is the need for down-regulation, and, correspondingly, the less wind power produced, the higher is the need for up-regulation. In general for the Jutland/Funen area the average cost of down-regulation is calculated as 1 2 c euros/kWh regulated for 2002, while the cost of up-regulation amounts to 0 7 c euros/kWh regulated. (author)

  11. Regional strategy and its features in the conditions of market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Myroshnyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “region” is defined. It is studied that in the conditions of modern market economy for an effective management of financial resources it is necessary providing the enterprise activities with optimal amount of these resources, their rational use, maximization of income and providing the appreciation of market enterprise value. In such conditions the issues of improvement of management of production processes, the effective use of financial, labor, and material resources become topical. The transition to the modern market economy caused the changes of all the economic system and, for the first, regional enterprises. The terms of managing the economy suffered transformations, which found an expression in the changes of ownership patterns, the terms of government control, and the tax system. The non-public sector of economy appeared as a result of reforms, modern banking system, markets of commodities, services, capital. It gives an opportunity for the reproduction on an expanded scale, the increase of enterprise profits, and the income of its proprietors. One is able to achieve this goal only under the optimal management of finances. In the modern conditions of managing the economy the control system is to be migrated to regions differing one to another in national, historical, geographical, economic and other peculiarities. A structural policy that must foresee the transition of state economy to a new resource-provided, hi-tech and economically safe model of operation is realized in Ukraine. Establishing in the country of free economic zones, where the favourable custom, currency-financial, tax and other conditions of economic activity are in force, is very promising. The territorial social-and-economic structure of Ukraine is based upon the principles of unity and integral state power, an appropriate balance of socio-economic development of separate territories taking into account historical and cultural traditions, demographic and

  12. Impact of climate change on electricity systems and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramowli, Shankar N.

    (Section 111 (d)) rules for the U.S. Northeast region. This dissertation applies an analytical model and an optimization model to investigate the implications of co-implementing an emission cap and an RPS policy for this region. A simplified analytical model of LP-CEM is specified and the first order optimality conditions are derived. The results from this analytical model are corroborated by running LP-CEM simulations under different carbon cap and RPS policy assumptions. A combination of these policies is shown to have a long-term beneficial effect for the final ratepayers in the region. This research conceptually explores the future implications of climate change and extreme weather events on the regional electricity market framework. The significant findings from this research and future policy considerations are discussed in the conclusion chapter.

  13. Modeling the time-changing dependence in stock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frezza, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The time-changing dependence in stock markets is investigated by assuming the multifractional process with random exponent (MPRE) as model for actual log price dynamics. By modeling its functional parameter S(t, ω) via the square root process (S.R.) a twofold aim is obtained. From one hand both the main financial and statistical properties shown by the estimated S(t) are captured by surrogates, on the other hand this capability reveals able to model the time-changing dependence shown by stocks or indexes. In particular, a new dynamical approach to interpreter market mechanisms is given. Empirical evidences are offered by analysing the behaviour of the daily closing prices of a very known index, the Industrial Average Dow Jones (DJIA), beginning on March,1990 and ending on February, 2005.

  14. Changing market values? Tensions of contradicting public management discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2016-01-01

    that the discursive tensions between such value-laden practices indicate a changing marketization associated with collaboration and trust, yet also competition. Research limitations/implications To research it becomes critical to advance theoretical and empirical knowledge on the constitutive effects of such complex......The purpose of this paper is to address studies of New Public Governance (NPG) as a post-New Public Management (NPM) tendency. Although NPG is considered a contrast to NPM and its market incentives, it argues that the practices emerging in tensions of NPM and NPG discourses indicate not a clear......-cut shift away from NPM, but rather changes that combine competition with collaboration and trust. Design/methodology/approach It offers a discourse approach to advance the theorizing and empirical unfolding of the tensions of contradicting, yet co-existing discourses of NPM and NPG and their effects...

  15. World uranium supply and demand: The changing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.; Mueller Kahle, E.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of uranium supply and demand under the current conditions of this developing global market. While an analysis is possible, it should be borne in mind that available information is not always complete under conditions of major reorganization, and consequently some speculative assessment is required. Therefore, although this article is based on the latest information available, it should be considered as background material for further analysis rather than as an accurate forecast for the future. The level of uncertainty is particularly high regarding the future availability of nuclear materials produced in newly independent States emerging from the former Soviet Union

  16. The Gravity Law of Marketing - a Major Reason for Change to a Better Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Victor DANCIU

    2010-01-01

    Companies develop marketing strategies only for success. But, sooner or later, even the most successful strategies begin to wear out and lose their impact on the performances of the company. The mutual attraction between the marketing strategy and the performance of the company is known as the law of marketing gravity. Once a marketing strategy loses impact on the marketing performance as a result of the law of marketing gravity a fundamental change is needed. This change mu...

  17. Retirement in the Context of the Changes of Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noêmia Lazzareschi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims: (i to present work relations that emerged from the process of flexibility labour markets in the 90 and the distinction between the processes of  flexibility, deregulation and news precarious labor relations, understood by most authors as part of the neoliberal reforms of the last decades of the twentieth century. This distinction  is necessary because, in Brazil, labor relations are rigidly regulated since the promulgation of the Consolidation of Labor Laws in 1943 and have always been precarious; (ii to present social security reforms undertaken by governments Fernando Henrique Cardoso and  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the new reform bill and its impact on the calculation of the value of retirement in the context of the changes of working conditions that made new labor relations.  

  18. Audit market competition: auditor changes and the impact of tendering

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, V.; Fearnley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition within the external audit market and the recent phenomenon of audit tendering has renewed interest in the factors influencing auditor changes. In this paper, a questionnaire instrument is used to elicit perceptions of the factors which influence auditor-client realignments in this new environment and to indicate the relative influence of economic and behavioural factors. Positive, statistically significant associations were found between unsolicited approaches and the co...

  19. Analysis on the Changes in Consumer Behavior and Marketing Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there’s a huge change in the media use habit, demand and route to get the information for the consumers, and the right of consumers to release information is mostly realized, indicating an actual return of consumer sovereignty. In such a background, it is undoubtedly the best choice for the marketing of enterprise brand to focus on the target people, manage the client relation and increase the socialized videos.

  20. The Role of Labor Markets in Structural Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ricaurte

    2010-01-01

    Why did services become the dominant sector in industrialized economies? While abundant literature exists on the transition from agriculture to industry (i.e., the industrial revolution), there is no consensual explanation for the second wave of structural change. I argue that sectoral differences in regulation affecting the degree of competition in labor and goods markets explain: (a) the rise in the services sector share of output and employment, (b) international differences in cross-secto...

  1. MIDDLEMEN IN THE MARKET FOR GRAIN: CHANGES AND COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eschelbach Hansen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of middlemen in the market for grain changed with the advent of standardized grain grading. Prior to grain grading, economies of scale were limited because of the requirement that middlemen develop strong personal reputations though the maintenance of multi-faceted relationships with clients. Grain grading homogenized grain, making it possible for middlemen to take advantage of economies of scale in their operations.

  2. Labour Market Policy under Conditions of Permanent Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; de la Porte, Caroline; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Social investment (SI) is part of a strategy to modernize the European welfare states by focusing on human resource development throughout the life-course, while ensuring financial sustainability. Recognizing that this strategy was only partially implemented by the EU member states prior to the f...... and marketing of skills - grew in importance. If this trend continues across Europe, there is a risk that SI will become lost in translation and end up as a clearer neo-liberal version of workfarism.......Social investment (SI) is part of a strategy to modernize the European welfare states by focusing on human resource development throughout the life-course, while ensuring financial sustainability. Recognizing that this strategy was only partially implemented by the EU member states prior...... to the financial and Eurozone crises, this article investigates whether reforms and expenditure patterns in labour market policy (LMP) have moved more towards or away from SI following the 2008 financial crisis. We use quantitative and qualitative data to investigate the degree to which there have been shifts...

  3. Effects of technological change in regional labor markets in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.

  4. Performance of African Agricultural Exports and External Market Access Conditions under International Trade Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron Omare

    2004-01-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is currently facing challenges in international trade with respect to external market access conditions and competition in world markets as a result of trade liberalization efforts under the world trade organization (WTO) agreements and in particular the agreement on agriculture (AoA). This paper presents the performance of agricultural exports for selected countries and indicates external market barriers faced and the resulting implications of the barriers on ...

  5. Trends in the market of poultry production in the conditions of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available according to the author, in modern conditions of globalization of food markets, the researching the state of the domestic market of poultry products in order to provide the population with high-grade food products is important. It is established that the formation of demand in the poultry market is mainly due to production by domestic producers, while imports for the period under review are being reduced and meet mainly the needs of processing industry enterprises.

  6. Modeling correlated information change: from conditional beliefs to quantum conditionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    In this paper, we propose a unified logical framework for representing and analyzing various forms of correlated information change. Our main thesis is that “logical dynamics,” in the sense of van Benthem (Exploring logical dynamics. CSLI Publications, Stanford, 1996; Logical dynamics of information

  7. Changing markets - Medicinal plants in the markets of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Paniagua Zambrana, Narel Y; Moya Huanca, Laura Araseli; Hart, Robbie

    2016-12-04

    Given the importance of local markets as a source of medicinal plants for both healers and the population, literature on market flows and the value of the plant material traded is rather scarce. This stands in contrast to wealth of available information for other components of Bolivian ethnobotany. The present study attempts to remedy this situation by providing a detailed inventory of medicinal plant markets in the La Paz-El Alto metropolitan area, hypothesizing that both species composition, and medicinal applications, have changed considerably over time. From October 2013-October 2015 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 plant vendors between October 2013 and October 2015 in the Mercado Rodriguez, Mercado Calle Santa Cruz, Mercado Cohoni, Mercado Cota Cota, and Mercado Seguencoma and Mercado El Alto in order to elucidate more details on plant usage and provenance. The results of the present study were then compared to previous inventories of medicinal plants in La Paz and El Alto studies to elucidate changes over time and impact of interview techniques. In this study we encountered 163 plant species belonging to 127 genera and 58 families. In addition, 17 species could not be identified. This species richness is considerably higher than that reported in previous studies (2005, 129 species of 55 families; 2015, 94 identified species). While the overall distribution of illness categories is in line with older reports the number of species used per application, as well as the applications per species, were much higher in the present study. Overall, informant consensus was relatively low, which might be explained by the large number of new species that have entered the local pharmacopoeia in the last decade, although some species might simply have been missed by previous studies. In course of the present study it became apparent that even well known species might often be replaced by other apparently similar but botanically unrelated species due to

  8. Changes of uranium market price and trend in recent years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingwu; Chen Zuyi

    2008-01-01

    The market price (especially the spot price ) of uranium has experienced significant changes since 2004. Several stages of uranium price are summed up. It is the slow increase period of uranium price from 1991 to 2004, The uranium price rapid rise from 2005 to 2007. The price of uranium jumped sharply from the fourth quarter 2006 to first half of 2007. The price of uranium rapid declined and tended to be stable from second half 2007 to this day. Characteristics, reason and change trend of uranium price in these stages are summarized. (authors)

  9. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    The FDA hydrolysis capacities and bacterial biomass concentrations (estimated by determination of ATP content) of growth cultures prepared from activated sludge and wastewater, were measured to find out whether the FDA activity would reflect bacterial biomass under different physiological states...... of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...... revealed differences up to two orders of magnitude of the ratio. Based on these results it was concluded that the FDA activity should not be applied for measurements of viable biomass in environments in which different physiological conditions occur....

  10. INSURANCE MARKETING OF INNOVATIONS IN THE REGIONAL MARKET OF SERVICES UNDER PRESENT CONDITIONS: STRATEGIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative development of insurance activities must be directed towards creation of new insurance products. Up-to-date innovative insurance marketing should be carried out on the basis of an efficient innovative process management system. For a big insurance company with a largeclient base, high service standards may be warranted only through implementation of innovations linked with newest information technologies.

  11. Optimization of Combine Heat and Power Plants in the Russian Wholesale Power Market Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chuchueva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the relevant problem to optimize the combine heat and power (CHP plants in the Russian wholesale power market conditions. Since 1975 the CHP plants specialists faced the problem of fuel rate or fuel cost reduction while ensuring the fixed level of heat and power production. The optimality criterion was the fuel rate or fuel cost which has to be minimized. Produced heat and power was paid by known tariff. Since the power market started in 2006 the power payment scheme has essentially changed: produced power is paid by market price. In such condition a new optimality criterion the paper offers is a profit which has to be maximized for the given time horizon. Depending on the optimization horizon the paper suggests four types of the problem urgency, namely: long-term, mid-term, short-term, and operative optimization. It clearly shows that the previous problem of fuel cost minimization is a special case of profit maximization problem. To bring the problem to the mixed-integer linear programming problem a new linear characteristic curves of steam and gas turbine are introduced. Error of linearization is 0.6%. The formal statement of the problem of short-term CHP plants optimization in the market conditions is offered. The problem was solved with IRM software (OpenLinkInternational for seven power plants of JSC “Quadra”: Dyagilevskaya CHP, Kurskaya CHP-1, Lipetskaya CHP-2, Orlovskaya CHP, Kurskaya CHP NWR, Tambovskaya CHP, and Smolenskaya CHP-2.The conducted computational experiment showed that a potential profit is between 1.7% and 4.7% of the fuel cost of different CHP plants and depends on the power plant operation conditions. The potential profit value is 2–3 times higher than analogous estimations, which were obtained solving fuel cost minimization problem. The perspectives of the work are formalization of mid-term and long-term CHP plants optimization problem and development of domestic software for the new problem

  12. Energy and environment market conditions in Mexico. Business focus series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The report provides: (1) an overview of the Mexican economy and the energy and environmental sectors; (2) specific market assessments of the oil and gas sector, the electric power sector, the industrial air pollution control sector, and the municipal and industrial water pollution control sector; and (3) an analysis of the Mexican business climate and procedures. Each of the sectors is projected to show significant growth over the next several years. The Mexican government has taken many positive steps to improve the country's business climate, including trade and foreign exchange liberalization, foreign investment incentives, and strengthened intellectual property regulation. The North American Free Trade Agreement is expected to further improve the business climate in Mexico

  13. Educational Services Market as a Factor of Formation of Professional Mobility and Conditions for Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakin, Vasily Vasilevich; Zeynalov, Guseyn Gardash ogly

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem stated in the article is conditioned by the fact that the inclusion of Russia into the international market area requires a new quality in educators--professional mobility. The market is not an end in itself, but the environment in which educators must learn to fulfill their personal, intellectual and creative…

  14. PREDICTION AND ANALYSIS OF SLOVAKIAN TIMBER TRADE ON GLOBAL MARKET CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Gejdoš

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Slovakian forestry the main source of finance is the wood sale. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the assortments supply structure (quality management, prices development for the coniferous sawlogs and to set the future prediction of this development in new global market conditions, which are affected mainly by the global climate changes. Price changes were analysed for the period of the years from 2000 to March 2016 for the spruce and fir sawlogs. Data about the volume supply of raw-wood assortments in Slovakia for years 2005-2014 were collected from “Green Reports“ published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. From the influence factors in the studied period, the biggest impact was assigned to the global economic crisis. The prediction captures the further decline of prices of raw-wood assortments. In the second half of the year 2016 the price of sawlogs decreased by € 4 per 1 m3. Local impacts, the structure of wood processors and specific trade area in Slovakia affected substantially the structure of assortments on Market. There is also some space for a better evaluation of harvested wood.

  15. Confidence in Airline Performance in Difficult Market Conditions: An Analysis of JetBlue's Financial Market Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Triant; Walker, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the stock market s reaction to JetBlue s Initial Public Offering (1PO) and subsequent price movements of the stock. In particular, w e examine whether the euphoria surrounding JetBlue s IPO carried over to other firms in the sector by testing whether the shares of JetBlue s competitors showed a significant price reaction to JetBlue s IPO. JetBlue's IPO took place just a few months following September 11, 2001. These events resulted in dramatic changes in the airline industry and had significant implications on the economic gains of airlines. We examine JetBlue s accounting and stock performance and compare it to the relative performance of Southwest Airlines (SWA), a representative of the loa-cost carrier group. In addition, we compare both JetBlue's and SWA's financial condition and the relative performance of their stock to two mainline U S. carriers, Continental and Northwest. representatives of the conventional-cost carrier group. We analyze whether there are any performance differences among the low-cost carriers and between low-cost carriers and conventional-cost carriers. In particular, we examine whether low-cost carriers were able to sustain the economic impacts of 9/11 better than the conventional-cost carriers.

  16. Fast Change Point Detection for Electricity Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkeley, UC; Gu, William; Choi, Jaesik; Gu, Ming; Simon, Horst; Wu, Kesheng

    2013-08-25

    Electricity is a vital part of our daily life; therefore it is important to avoid irregularities such as the California Electricity Crisis of 2000 and 2001. In this work, we seek to predict anomalies using advanced machine learning algorithms. These algorithms are effective, but computationally expensive, especially if we plan to apply them on hourly electricity market data covering a number of years. To address this challenge, we significantly accelerate the computation of the Gaussian Process (GP) for time series data. In the context of a Change Point Detection (CPD) algorithm, we reduce its computational complexity from O($n^{5}$) to O($n^{2}$). Our efficient algorithm makes it possible to compute the Change Points using the hourly price data from the California Electricity Crisis. By comparing the detected Change Points with known events, we show that the Change Point Detection algorithm is indeed effective in detecting signals preceding major events.

  17. The Determinant Factors Of Sectoral Stock Return In Bullish And Bearish Condition At Indonesian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defrizal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract this study aims to explain determinant factors of sectoral stock return in bullish and bearish condition at Indonesian capital market. This study used a multi-factor asset pricing model with sectoral stock return as the dependent variable and stock market return interest rates and exchange rate as independent variables. The Identification of stock market condition by using a Markov Switching Models which are also used as the basis for segmenting the data into bullish and bearish conditions. Estimates of the model used the robust least square method. This study used data from Indonesian Stock Exchange to the observation period from January 1996 to December 2013. The results of this study were 1 simultaneously stock market return interest rates and exchange rate affected the sectoral stock return in bullish and bearish condition. 2 Partially the stock market return positively effect and is as a main factor in determining the sectoral stock return in all industries in either bullish condition or bearish condition while the effect of the interest rates and exchange rate do not consistently affect the sectoral stock return in different industries and market conditions.

  18. HERDING BEHAVIOR UNDER MARKETS CONDITION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatemri Ouarda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents four main contributions to the literature of behavior herding. Firstly, it extends the behavioral researches of herding of the investors on a developed market and mainly on a European market as a whole. Secondly, we are interested in examination of herding behavior at the level of sectors by using data at the levels of companies. Thirdly, this document estimates the implications of herding behavior in terms of returns, volatility and volume of transaction. Fourthly, the herding behavior is revealed as well during the period of the recent global financial crisis in 2007-2008 and of Asian crisis. Our results reveal a strong evidence of herding behavior sharply contributed to a bearish situation characterized by a strong volatility and a trading volume. The repercussion of herding during the period of the recent financial crisis is clearly revealed for the sectors of the finance and the technology.

  19. The climate change/energy efficiencies market in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    In December 1997, one hundred and sixty countries negotiated the Kyoto Protocol, where a commitment was made by industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 5.2 per cent below their 1990 level. This objective was to be achieved by 2008 to 2012. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was promoted by Brazil in Kyoto. The CDM defines the mechanism by which investment, technologies and practices from developed countries are implemented in developing country projects. It is then possible to credit the emissions avoided by these projects against the supplier's own commitment to reducing GHG. An essential element of good business practice for the private sector and programs sponsored by the government in Brazil is sound environmental management. The Brazilian Federal Government, research institutes and few leading private companies are concerned with the climate change market. Climate change and environmental efficiency projects in Brazil are frequently funded by international financial institutions (IFIs), namely the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). International partners who can help in obtaining IFIs funds are sought after by Brazilian companies. Before entering the Brazilian market, Canadian entrepreneurs should examine all aspects of exporting environmental equipment. Some investment in Brazil might be required to achieve long term penetration of the market. Since national companies are offered preferential treatment for obtaining government contracts, a local partner is almost indispensable. The cost of doing business in Brazil might even be increased when considering the import taxes, such as federal excise taxes, state value-added taxes, and the merchant marine tax. Brazil can represent a springboard to the South American markets due to its membership in trade groups like the Mercosul and the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI). 14 refs

  20. Measuring market share of petrol stations using conditional probability approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Shamshuritawati; Lwee, Xue Yin

    2017-05-01

    Oil and gas production is the strength of Malaysia's growth over past decades. It is one of the most strategic economic branches in the world. Since the oil industry is essential for the economic growth of a country, only a few undertakings have been achieved to establish. It is a very risky business. Therefore the dealer must have some information in hand before setting up a new business plan. Understanding the current business situation is an important strategy to avoid risky ventures. In this study, the aim is to deliver a very simple but essential way to identify the market share based on customer's choice factors. This approach is presented to encourage the non-statisticians to use it easily in helping their business performance. From this study, the most important factors differ from one station to another station. The results show that the factors of customer's choice for BHPetrol, Caltex, PETRON, PETRONAS and SHELL are site location, service quality, service quality, size of the petrol station, and brand image, respectively.

  1. Crude oil price shocks and stock returns. Evidence from Turkish stock market under global liquidity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Istemi [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Aydogan, Berna [Izmir Univ. of Economics (Turkey). Dept. of International Trade and Finance

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of crude oil price variations on the Turkish stock market returns. We have employed vector autoregression (V AR) model using daily observations of Brent crude oil prices and Istanbul Stock Exchange National Index (ISE- 1 00) returns for the period between January 2, 1990 and November 1, 2011. We have also tested the relationship between oil prices and stock market returns under global liquidity conditions by incorporating a liquidity proxy variable, Chicago Board of Exchange's (CBOE) S and P 500 market volatility index (VIX), into the model. Variance decomposition test results suggest little empirical evidence that crude oil price shocks have been rationally evaluated in the Turkish stock market. Rather, it was global liquidity conditions that were found to account for the greatest amount of variation in stock market returns.

  2. The perspectives of the French market of biogas. Conditions for market takeoff are finally met

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at analysing the business model of biogas projects (investment costs, electric power production costs, expected profitability, etc.), at assessing the opportunities created by the new legal framework (re-assessment of electricity purchase tariffs, authorization of biogas injection into the natural gas network, legal status of installations), at comparing the dynamics of the different production processes (agriculture, industry, household wastes, etc.) and future sources of growth, and at assessing the ambitions of the different actors and at analysing their strategies

  3. Indoor air quality investigation at air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned markets in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H.; Lee, S.C.; Chan, L.Y.

    2004-01-01

    To characterize indoor air quality at the markets in Hong Kong, three non-air-conditioned and two air-conditioned markets were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants measured included PM 10 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), total bacteria count (TBC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). The indoor and outdoor concentrations of these target air pollutants at these markets were measured and compared. The effects of air conditioning, temperature/relative humidity variation and different stalls on the indoor air quality were also investigated. The results indicated that all of the average indoor concentrations of PM 10 , TBC, CO and NO 2 at the markets were below the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objectives (HKIAQO) standards with a few exceptions for PM 10 and TBC. The elevated PM 10 concentrations at Hung Hom, Ngau Tau Kok and Wan Chai markets were probably due to the air filtration of outdoor airborne particulates emitted from vehicular exhaust, whereas high concentrations of airborne bacteria at Sai Ying Pun and Tin Shing markets were linked to the use of air conditioning. Correlation analysis demonstrated that indoor bacteria concentrations were correlated with temperature and relative humidity. The operation of air conditioning did not significantly reduce the levels of air pollutants at the markets. However, the higher indoor/outdoor ratios demonstrated that the operation of air conditioning had influence on the levels of bacteria at the markets. It was found that average PM 10 concentration at poultry stalls was higher than the HKIAQO standard of 180 μg/m 3 , and was over two times that measured at vegetable, fish and meat stalls. Furthermore, the concentration of airborne bacteria at the poultry stalls was as high as 1031 CFU/m 3 , which was above the HKIAQO standard of 1000 CFU/m 3 . The bacteria levels at other three stalls were all below the HKIAQO standard

  4. Powering change in low-income energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma; Garside, Ben

    2011-06-15

    Market-based interventions to improve access to energy rarely benefit the poorest, especially if they are driven by specific technologies or external agendas, such as climate change mitigation. Failure to understand local needs and preferences results in inappropriate goods and services and low uptake. Yet business can deliver low-carbon technologies to the 'bottom billion' and support sustainable development. To do so, they must work more closely with government agencies, development practitioners and local communities in designing and delivering products and services. Impact should be measured in terms of development benefits, not products sold or carbon emissions saved.

  5. Community benefits in a changing health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Market changes in the health industry--mergers, acquisitions, and other transactions--are eliminating many of the traditional sources of care for people who have no insurance or poor coverage. There are fewer public or private nonprofit hospitals with a charitable mission. Moreover, through Medicaid contracting, a portion of the funds that once supported broad public health goals now go to private HMOs that serve only their own members. Advocates are responding with the demand that health providers--nonprofit and for-profit, hospitals and health plans--collaborate with the residents of communities where they do business to improve people's health.

  6. Dental Usage Under Changing Economic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard J.; Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan; Schimmel, Jody; St Clair, Patricia A.; Pepper, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between changes in household finances (wealth and income) and changes in dental utilization at the onset of the recent recession in a population of older Americans. Methods Data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were analyzed for U.S. individuals aged 51 years and older during the 2006 and 2008 waves of the HRS. We estimated logistic models of (1) starting and (2) stopping dental use between 2006 and 2008 survey periods as a function of changes in household wealth and income, controlling for other potentially confounding covariates. Results We found that only when household wealth falls by 50 percent or more were older adults less likely to seek dental care. Changes in household income and other changes in household wealth were not associated with changes in dental utilization among this population. Conclusions Older Americans’ dental care utilization appeared to be fairly resilient to changes in household finances; only when wealth fell by 50 percent or more did individuals decrease dental use. This finding might extend to other health care services that are preventive, routine, and relatively inexpensive. PMID:22994647

  7. North African oil and foreign investment in changing market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattouh, Bassam; Darbouche, Hakim

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the experiences of the North African oil producers of Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan within the oil industry have followed separate paths, which have led them into different relations with foreign oil companies. While reflecting broader trends of 'resource nationalism', these relations have also been affected by a number of factors specific to these countries. In tracing the evolution of the oil investment frameworks of these countries, as well as their concomitant relations with IOCs, this paper probes the roles played by these factors and argues that the type and size of remaining reserves as well as the capability of NOCs are likely to determine the most future developments in the region's oil industry.

  8. Creation of Power Reserves Under the Market Economy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnitko, A.; Gerhards, J.; Lomane, T.; Ribakov, S.

    2008-09-01

    The main task of the control over an electric power system (EPS) is to ensure reliable power supply at the least cost. In this case, requirements to the electric power quality, power supply reliability and cost limitations on the energy resources must be observed. The available power reserve in an EPS is the necessary condition to keep it in operation with maintenance of normal operating variables (frequency, node voltage, power flows via the transmission lines, etc.). The authors examine possibilities to create power reserves that could be offered for sale by the electric power producer. They consider a procedure of price formation for the power reserves and propose a relevant mathematical model for a united EPS, the initial data being the fuel-cost functions for individual systems, technological limitations on the active power generation and consumers' load. As the criterion of optimization the maximum profit for the producer is taken. The model is exemplified by a concentrated EPS. The computations have been performed using the MATLAB program.

  9. HSE under ever-changing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiborg, R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper relates to the health, safety and environment (HSE) area on the Ekofisk field on the Norwegian continental shelf. Experience from the first twenty years operation indicated that rapid forced change to introduce new technology and work methods had a tendency to increase the number of negative events in HSE. In 1991/92 significant changes had to be initiated in order to continue safe operations, reduce downtime, deliver the service expected by third parties and secure economically viable operations into the next century. The last 4-5 years prove that a motivated work force, with solid well planned programs and the right tools, can achieve both improved HSE performance and reduce shut-downs in the middle of accelerated change programs. 14 figs

  10. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environme...

  11. Georgian climate change under global warming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Elizbarashvili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Georgian Climate change has been considered comprehensively, taking into account World Meteorological Organization recommendations and recent observation data. On the basis of mean temperature and precipitation decadal trend geo-information maps for 1936–2012 years period, Georgian territory zoning has been carried out and for each areas climate indices main trends have been studied, that best characterize climate change - cold and hot days, tropical nights, vegetation period duration, diurnal maximum precipitation, maximum five-day total precipitation, precipitation intensity simple index, precipitation days number of at least 10 mm, 20 mm and 50 mm, rainy and rainless periods duration. Trends of temperature indices are statistically significant. On the Black Sea coastline and Colchis lowland at high confidence level cold and hot days and tropical nights number changes are statistically significant. On eastern Georgia plains at high level of statistical significance, the change of all considered temperature indices has been fixed except for the number of hot days. In mountainous areas only hot day number increasing is significant. Trends of most moisture indices are statistically insignificant. While keeping Georgian climate change current trends, precipitation amount on the Black Sea coastline and Colchis lowland, as well as in some parts of Western Caucasus to the end of the century will increase by 50% and amounts to 3000 and 6000 mm, respectively this will strengthen humidity of those areas. Besides increasing of rainy period duration may constitute the risk for flooding and high waters. On eastern Georgia plains, in particular Kvemo Kartli, annual precipitation amount will decrease by 50% or more, and will be only 150–200 mm and the precipitation daily maximum will decrease by about 20 mm and be only 10–15 mm, which of course will increase the intensity of desertification of steppe and semi-desert landscapes.

  12. The Influence of the Technical Condition of a Building on the Property’s Market Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziembicka Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The housed property’s market value is influenced by a set of characteristic qualities, among which is the technical condition of a building. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of the technical condition of a building on the market price of the dwelling units, depending, among others, on the chosen method and the approach to the assessment of the housing wear degree. The analysis has been performed based on the estimation of the market value of an illustrative dwelling unit located in a building erected with the use of prefabricated large panel technology in selected variants. The study is based on data from the period between January and December 2012, which are related to the sale of rights to dwelling units from the secondary market. The information was obtained from a transactional database based on the Partner Data Exchange system with the Walor software.

  13. Conditional Relationship Between Beta and Return in the US Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing XIAO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the CAPM, risk is measured by the beta, and the relation between required expected return and beta is linear. This paper examines the conditional relationship between beta and return in the US stock market. The conditional covariances and variances used to estimate beta are modeled as an ARCH process. The beta return relationship is tested upon the sign of the excess market return. The implication of the sign of the excess market return follows Morelli (2011. This study shows the importance of recognizing the sign of the excess market return when testing the beta-return relationship. The approach also allows us to distinguish the size effect and the effect of economic cycles.

  14. Agroclimatic conditions in Europe under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Miroslav; Olesen, J. E.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Skjelvag, A. O.; Eitzinger, J.; Seguin, B.; Peltonen-Sainio, P.; Rotter, R.; Iglesias, A.; Orlandini, S.; Dubrovský, Martin; Hlavinka, P.; Balek, J.; Eckersten, H.; Cloppet, E.; Calanca, P.; Vucetic, V.; Nejedlík, P.; Kumar, S.; Lalic, B.; Mestre, A.; Rossi, F.; Kozyra, J.; Alexandrov, V.; Semerádová, D.; Žalud, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2011), s. 2298-2318 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : agroclimatic extremes * agroclimatic index * climate- change impacts * crop production * environmental zones Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.862, year: 2011

  15. Ultrastructural changes in osteocytes in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. V.; Oganov, V. S.; Zolotova, N. V.

    We examined the histology and morphometry of biosamples (biopsies) of the iliac crest of monkeys, flown 14 days aboard the "Bion-11", using electron microscopy. We found, that some young osteocytes take part in the activization of collagen protein biosynthesis in the adaptive remodeling process of the bone tissue to microgravity conditions. Osteocyte lacunae filled with collagen fibrils; this correlates with fibrotic osteoblast reorganization in such zones. The osteolytic activity in mature osteocytes is intensified. As a result of osteocyte destruction, the quantity of empty osteocytic lacunae in the bone tissue increases.

  16. Modelling cladding response to changing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulkki, Ville; Ikonen, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland ltd (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    The cladding of the nuclear fuel is subjected to varying conditions during fuel reactor life. Load drops and reversals can be modelled by taking cladding viscoelastic behaviour into account. Viscoelastic contribution to the deformation of metals is usually considered small enough to be ignored, and in many applications it merely contributes to the primary part of the creep curve. With nuclear fuel cladding the high temperature and irradiation as well as the need to analyse the variable load all emphasise the need to also inspect the viscoelasticity of the cladding.

  17. Formation and dimensions of marketing culture under the contemporary conditions of competition

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanskienė, Rūta; Žostautienė, Daiva

    2002-01-01

    Companies seeking to retain their position in the market are in search for competitive advantages. Alas, under contemporary conditions only traditional advantages are not sufficient; such as price, nicer or more convenient package, as competitors rapidly emulate such advantages. The advantages that would not be immediately emulated and the consumer could evaluate them as an exclusive attribute of the company’s activities are necessary nowadays. Such advantages may be provided by marketing cul...

  18. Financial market response to extreme events indicating climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila-Hughes, J. K.

    2016-05-01

    A variety of recent extreme climatic events are considered to be strong evidence that the climate is warming, but these incremental advances in certainty often seem ignored by non-scientists. I identify two unusual types of events that are considered to be evidence of climate change, announcements by NASA that the global annual average temperature has set a new record, and the sudden collapse of major polar ice shelves, and then conduct an event study to test whether news of these events changes investors' valuation of energy companies, a subset of firms whose future performance is closely tied to climate change. I find evidence that both classes of events have influenced energy stock prices since the 1990s, with record temperature announcements on average associated with negative returns and ice shelf collapses associated with positive returns. I identify a variety of plausible mechanisms that may be driving these differential responses, discuss implications for energy markets' views on long-term regulatory risk, and conclude that investors not only pay attention to scientifically significant climate events, but discriminate between signals carrying different information about the nature of climatic change.

  19. Efficient Marketing Strategies in the Financial-Banking Field in Crisis Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitran Paula Cornelia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial-banking marketing will have to radically reform. The specialists in this field will needto give up the classic and aggressive tactics totally not transparent. They will sit in front of the clients withnon sophisticated products dressed up in strident colours. The change of the marketing tactics inside avisionary, unitary strategy will be the key to launch again the loaning on a healthy market. The bankingsystem will have to keep up with Europe, not only for the services offered to clients, but also for themarketing and promotion strategies afferent to the banking segment found in a continuous change during thelast decade. The social marketing will have to leave for always the theory sphere and all the adoptedstrategies must go through social responsibility: precise developing objectives with tangible results over time.

  20. Estimating time-varying conditional correlations between stock and foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan, Hüseyin

    2006-02-01

    This study explores the dynamic interaction between stock market returns and changes in nominal exchange rates. Many financial variables are known to exhibit fat tails and autoregressive variance structure. It is well-known that unconditional covariance and correlation coefficients also vary significantly over time and multivariate generalized autoregressive model (MGARCH) is able to capture the time-varying variance-covariance matrix for stock market returns and changes in exchange rates. The model is applied to daily Euro-Dollar exchange rates and two stock market indexes from the US economy: Dow-Jones Industrial Average Index and S&P500 Index. The news impact surfaces are also drawn based on the model estimates to see the effects of idiosyncratic shocks in respective markets.

  1. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  2. Changes On the Housing Market of the Downtown Area in Selected Polish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rącka Izabela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Large Polish cities are currently dealing with an increasing significance of downtown areas, extending outside of the city centers (meaning the area directly surrounding the city square. The downtown alone seems to influence the fate of entire cities, facilitating their success or contributing to their failure. A good demographic, social and economic condition of a downtown, its positive image and the dynamic development of the part of the city perceived as the business and administration centre and a meeting place of residents and tourists, contribute to the image and potential of the whole city to a great extent. Changes in urban surroundings, the signs of which may be observed in spatial, aesthetic, architectural, urban-planning and socio-economic aspects, determine the functioning and condition of local real estate markets. Whether potential buyers consider the real estate attractive depends on the assessment of its significant features, of which transaction price is representative. The main research objective of the article is the identification, assessment and interpretation of differences in prices registered in the years 2009-2014 in downtown residential real estate markets. These considerations have been referred to analogical phenomena within the entire cities under examination. The detailed research objective is an attempt to explain the sources of individual reactions of the analyzed real estate markets in downtown areas. The cities under research include: Bydgoszcz, Kalisz, Toruń and Wrocław. The authors applied quantitative analysis (statistical, comparative to transaction data registered in local residential real estate markets.

  3. Betting and Belief: Modeling the Impact of Prediction Markets on Public Attribution of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Nay, J. J.; van der Linden, M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite overwhelming scientific evidence and an almost complete consensus among scientists, a large fraction of the American public is not convinced that global warming is anthropogenic. This doubt correlates strongly with political, ideological, and cultural orientation. [1] It has been proposed that people who do not trust climate scientists tend to trust markets, so prediction markets might be able to influence their beliefs about the causes of climate change. [2] We present results from an agent-based simulation of a prediction market in which traders invest based on their beliefs about what drives global temperature change (here, either CO2 concentration or total solar irradiance (TSI), which is a popular hypothesis among many who doubt the dominant role of CO2). At each time step, traders use historical and observed temperatures and projected future forcings (CO2 or TSI) to update Bayesian posterior probability distributions for future temperatures, conditional on their belief about what drives climate change. Traders then bet on future temperatures by trading in climate futures. Trading proceeds by a continuous double auction. Traders are randomly assigned initial beliefs about climate change, and they have some probability of changing their beliefs to match those of the most successful traders in their social network. We simulate two alternate realities in which the global temperature is controlled either by CO2 or by TSI, with stochastic noise. In both cases traders' beliefs converge, with a large majority reaching agreement on the actual cause of climate change. This convergence is robust, but the speed with which consensus emerges depends on characteristics of the traders' psychology and the structure of the market. Our model can serve as a test-bed for studying how beliefs might evolve under different market structures and different modes of decision-making and belief-change. We will report progress on studying alternate models of belief-change. This

  4. 23 CFR 635.109 - Standardized changed condition clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.109 Standardized changed condition clauses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the following changed conditions contract... contract or if unknown physical conditions of an unusual nature, differing materially from those ordinarily...

  5. The end of mass homeownership? Changes in labour markets and housing tenure opportunities across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundel, Rowan; Doling, John

    2017-01-01

    With continued economic growth and expanding mortgage markets, until recently the pattern across advanced economies was of growing homeownership sectors. The Great Financial Crisis (GFC) has however, undercut this growth resulting in the contraction of homeownership access in many countries and the revival of private renting. This paper argues that these tenure changes are not solely a consequence of the GFC, and therefore, reversible once long-term growth returns. Rather, they are the consequences of more fundamental changes especially in labour markets. The very financialisation that fuelled the growth of homeownership has also led to a hollowing out of well-paid, secure jobs-exactly those that fit best with the taking of housing loans. We examine longer-term declines in labour market security across Europe from before the GFC, identifying an underlying correlation between deteriorated labour market conditions and homeownership access for young adults. While variations exist across European countries, there is evidence of common trends. We argue that the GFC both accelerated pre-existing labour insecurity dynamics and brought an end to offsetting such dynamics through the expansion of credit access with the likelihood of a return to an era of widespread homeownership growth starkly decreased.

  6. Labour market specific institutions and the working conditions of labour migrants:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Based on a respondent driven sampling survey with 500 Polish migrant workers in Denmark, this article argues that specific labour market institutions and sector differences need to be taken into account when explaining the working conditions of migrant workers. Comparing the working conditions...... of Polish and Danish workers, it is shown that labour market institutional arrangements provide a better explanation for the differences found between the two groups than differences in individual characteristics of the migrants and the Danish workforce. In addition, the article argues that factors...... such as institutionalized wage variability within sectors and the decentralized regulation of working conditions are important when assessing the potential implication of migrant workers in the labour market....

  7. Professional preparation in physical education: changing labor market and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Tani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Professional preparation is indeed a complex and dynamic process because it involves a number of interacting elements, which change in time. The objective of the present essay is to analyze the professional preparation in physical education, with the focus on the relation between the very dynamic labor market and the required competence of the professionals to deal with the associated demands. There is no doubt that the professional preparation must not aim to train professionals to merely repeat means for solving practical problems, but professionals with the capacity to repeat the process of solving problems. Consequently, professional preparation programs need to be formative instead of informative and prepare professionals capable of using scientific thinking and method to solve practical problems of intervention.

  8. Complex dynamics and chaos control of duopoly Bertrand model in Chinese air-conditioning market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Qi Guo; Zeng, Xiang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A dynamic duopoly Bertrand model with bounded rationality and quadratic cost function. •In Chinese air-conditioning market the boundary equilibrium point is locally stable. •The Lyapunov dimension of the chaos attractor is 1.9585. •The adjustment speeds may cause a market structure to behave chaotically. •The chaotic behavior can be controlled by decreasing the degree of substitutability. -- Abstract: A dynamic duopoly Bertrand model with quadratic cost function which is closer to reality and different from previous researches is discussed. The model is applied into air-conditioning market where the boundary equilibrium point is locally stable. Numerical simulations illustrate that the stability of Nash equilibrium strongly depends on the speed of adjustment of bounded rational player. The adjustment speeds and the degree of substitutability may undermine the stability of the equilibrium and cause a market structure to behave chaotically. The Lyapunov dimension of the chaos attractor is 1.9585 under some conditions. The stabilization of the chaotic behavior can be obtained by reducing the degree of substitutability. The results have an important theoretical and practical significance to Chinese air-conditioning market

  9. How to change environmental conditions for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commers, Matthew J; Gottlieb, Nell; Kok, Gerjo

    2007-03-01

    Since the Lalonde report, contemporary public-health theory has given steadily more attention to the role of environments in influencing health status. Environments, both social and physical, influence health directly or through complex interactions with behavior, genetics and health-care systems. They are also important for public-health because environments are the complex systems through which people are both empowered and exercise their empowerment. If public-health professionals are to play a significant role in influencing environments for health, they need analytical instruments that enable them to link specific environmental conditions with the actions necessary to improve them. These instruments must also enable public-health professionals to identify points of leverage for stimulating key actors to take the actions necessary to make environments more promoting of health. This article first presents one such analytical instrument. Then, building on examples relating to socio-economic health inequities, the analytical instrument is applied to reveal how it can add value to health professionals' effectiveness in planning interventions for more health-promoting environments.

  10. Changing Energy Requirements in the Mediterranean Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demosthenous

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of climate change on energy requirements in the Mediterranean. Energy requirements, especially for space heating and cooling, are closely linked to several weather variables, mainly air temperature. The analysis is based on daily temperature outputs from several regional climate models run at a resolution of 25 km × 25 km in the framework of EU project ENSEMBLES using the A1B emissions scenario. The impacts of changes in temperature on energy requirements are investigated using the concept of degree days, defined as the difference of mean air temperature from a base temperature. Base temperature should be chosen to coincide with the minimum energy consumption. In this way, changes in heating and cooling requirements between the reference and the future period are calculated and areas about to undergo large changes identified. These changes are calculated between a 30-year reference period 1961–1990 and a near future period 2021–2050 taking the ensemble mean of all regional climate models. The near-term future has been chosen instead of the frequently used end-of-the-century period to assist policy makers in their planning. In general, a decrease in energy requirements is projected under future milder winters and an increase under hotter summers.

  11. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Enabling Conditions, U.S., 2016, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting conditions enabling market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem...

  12. Impact of monetary policy changes on the Chinese monetary and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Luo, Yong; Xiong, Jie; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    The impact of monetary policy changes on the monetary market and stock market in China is investigated in this study. The changes of two major monetary policies, the interest rate and required reserve ratio, are analyzed in a study period covering seven years on the interbank monetary market and Shanghai stock market. We find that the monetary market is related to the macro economy trend and we also find that the monetary change surprises both of lowering and raising bring significant impacts to the two markets and the two markets respond to the changes differently. The results suggest that the impact of fluctuations is much larger for raising policy changes than lowering changes in the monetary market on policy announcing and effective dates. This is consistent with the “sign effect”, i.e. bad news brings a greater impact than good news. By studying the event window of each policy change, we also find that the “sign effect” still exists before and after each change in the monetary market. A relatively larger fluctuation is observed before the event date, which indicates that the monetary market might have a certain ability to predict a potential monetary change, while it is kept secret by the central bank before official announcement. In the stock market, we investigate how the returns and spreads of the Shanghai stock market index respond to the monetary changes. Evidences suggest the stock market is influenced but in a different way than the monetary market. The climbing of returns after the event dates for the lowering policy agrees with the theory that lowering changes can provide a monetary supply to boost the market and drive the stock returns higher but with a delay of 2 to 3 trading days on average. While in the bear market, the lowering policy brings larger volatility to the market on average than the raising ones. These empirical findings are useful for policymakers to understand how monetary policy changes impact the monetary and stock markets

  13. The Conditions of Creation and Prospects of Weather Derivatives Development on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the possibility of creations and prospects of weather derivatives development on the domestic market the first of all should be identify the business areas that are strongly exposed for weather risk, which are: energy, agricultural, building and transportation. The specificity of the Polish climate is the high volatility of the major weather factors like temperature or precipitations. Similar to other European countries where weather derivatives markets already exist (e.g.: Germany, France, and United Kingdom. Having in mind dynamic grow of companies with regards to management processes, used technologies and marketing strategies, the exposure for weather risk is getting higher. Therefore, there is a strong pressure for creation of mechanisms and instruments that will allow reducing that kind of risks. Currently in Poland there are no conditions for development of weather derivatives market due to lack of demand. That situation is caused by low level of awareness regarding to possibilities of reducing weather risks. Within a few years the demand for such the instruments will appear ñ together with growing awareness. Once the demand for weather derivative will appear, the existing infrastructure of financial sector is ready for its implementation. Of course it is hard to say what will be the direction of whether derivatives grow on the domestic financial market but taking into consideration its dynamic grow and strong correlations with global markets, there is a small probability that weather derivatives will not appear on the Polish market ñ it is only the matter of time.

  14. Use of the conditional marketing authorization pathway for oncology medicines in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, J; Boon, W P C; Bouvy, J C; Ebbers, H C; de Jong, J P; De Bruin, M L

    2015-11-01

    Conditional marketing authorization (CMA) in the European Union (EU) is an early access pathway for medicines that show promising therapeutic effects, but for which comprehensive data are not available. Using a mixed quantitative-qualitative research design, we evaluated how CMA has been used in marketing authorization of oncology medicines in the period 2006 to 2013. We show that compared to full marketing authorization, CMA is granted based on less comprehensive data. However, this is accompanied by significantly longer assessment times and less consensus among regulators about marketing authorization. Moreover, development time from first-in-human testing to marketing authorization did not differ between full marketing authorization and CMA, but was significantly longer for CMA compared to accelerated approved products in the United States (US). Results indicate that CMA is not used by companies as a prospectively planned pathway to obtain early access, but as a "rescue option" when submitted data are not strong enough to justify full marketing authorization. © 2015, The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Conditional co-movement and dynamic interactions: US and BRIC equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amanjot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to capture conditional or time-varying co-movement and dynamic interactions between the US and BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China equity markets across the sample period 2004 to 2014 by employing diverse econometric models. The sample period is further divided into three different sub-periods concerning the US financial crisis period, viz. pre-crisis, crisis, and post-crisis periods. The vector autoregression- dynamic conditional correlation-multivariate asymmetric generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedastic [VAR-DCC-MVAGARCH (1.1] model and Toda-Yamamoto’s (1995 Granger causality tests are employed for the purpose of overall analysis in a multivariate framework. The results report the existence of time-varying co-movement between the US and BRIC equity markets, whereby co-movement between the US and Brazilian markets is found to be the highest, followed by the Russian, Indian, and Chinese equity markets. Dynamic interactions are also registered between the respective US/BRIC comovements during different sub-periods. The results have important implications for market participants and policymakers.

  16. THE THEORY OF EFFICIENT MARKETS AND A MODEL OF RATIONAL INVESTOR – FROM CONDITIONS OF RISK TO TERMS OF CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dobrowolski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical assumption about the informative effectiveness of financial markets is very important, although the discussion about its compatibility with the reality still re-mains open. The article summarises the key elements of the theory of efficient markets, paying particular attention to the adopted in this theory assumption about a rational inves-tor, which also appears in other models and theories related to the financial markets (such as capital asset pricing model CAPM or Markowitz Portfolio Theory. The views on the way and criteria for decision-making by a rational investor have changed over the centu-ries. Today, the dominant theory in this regard is the theory of expected utility. However, it characterizes the decision-making process under risk conditions, which are not the most common economic environment, particularly in an economy subjected to the process of globalisation. Thus, the problem of using the models of decision making under conditions of uncertainty, ignorance and terms of conflict in the efficient market theory and the theo-ry of expected utility is under consideration in the final part of the article.

  17. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  18. Adapting to environmental and market change: Insights from Fish Producer Organizations in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadzic, V.; Antunes, P.; Grin, J.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure the best market conditions for their fish, vessel owners are incentivized to create Fish Producer Organizations (PO), with obvious market advantages for fishers. However, the management of POs is not an easy task. This paper aims to understand how adaptation to environmental and market

  19. The impact of climate change on the electricity market. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mideksa, Torben K.; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will impact electricity markets through both electricity demand and supply. This paper reviews the research on this topic. Whereas there is much that remains unknown or uncertain, research over the last few years has significantly advanced our knowledge. In general, higher temperatures are expected to raise electricity demand for cooling, decrease demand for heating, and to reduce electricity production from thermal power plants. The effect of climate change on the supply of electricity from non-thermal sources shows great geographical variability due to differences in expected changes to temperature and precipitation. Whereas the research frontier has advanced significantly in the last few years, there still remains a significant need for more research in order to better understand the effects of climate change on the electricity market. Four significant gaps in the current research are regional studies of demand side impacts for Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Latin America, the effects of extreme weather events on electricity generation, transmission and demand, changes to the adoption rate of air conditioning, and finally, our understanding of the sensitivity of thermal power supply to changes in air and water temperatures. (author)

  20. Use of the conditional marketing authorization pathway for oncology medicines in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoekman, J; Boon, W P C; Bouvy, J C

    2015-01-01

    Conditional marketing authorization (CMA) in the European Union (EU) is an early access pathway for medicines that show promising therapeutic effects, but for which comprehensive data are not available. Using a mixed quantitative-qualitative research design, we evaluated how CMA has been used in ...

  1. Public Narratives under Intensified Market Conditions: Chile as a Critical Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santori, Diego

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to extend existing theorisations around the notion of public narratives by analysing their regulatory effects under intensified market conditions. My analysis suggests that public narratives constitute a liminal space, one that it is not exclusively real or imaginary, factual or normative, but that simultaneously affects and is…

  2. Changes in Agricultural Markets in Poland following its Accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyżewski Andrzej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to determine the most significant tendencies and changes observed in Poland’s core markets of agricultural products, which occurred during the period preceding Poland’s accession to the European Union (1994-2003 and after the accession (2004-2013. The key markets of agricultural products include markets with the largest value of commodity production during the analysed period, such as cereals, potatoes, sugar beet, rapeseed, fruit, vegetables, pork, beef and poultry, cows’ milks and eggs. The development of domestic production, consumption and real purchasing prices were observed and compared in order to achieve the main objective. The research was preceded by the characterisation of macroeconomic and resource conditionalities of agricultural production as well as the trade balance of the Polish agri-food sector. On the basis of the conducted studies, there were singled out three groups of markets in which the situation during the period following Poland’s accession to the EU developed in a similar way.

  3. Changes in consumer behavior on the market with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Turčínková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Czech Republic has experienced significant changes on the market with food in last two decades. The paper presents summary of results of conducted analyses focusing on changes in levels of most important food categories, changes in consumer preferences, and suggests what trends we can expect in the near future. The analyses were based on date from Czech Statistical Office Yearbooks, EUROSTAT, INCOMA and GfK, and data from primary researches conducted on sample of total 2522 households in the Czech Republic through questionnaire researches in 2005, 2006 and 2007. The results show that in the Czech Republic, the ratio of expenditures for food out of total consumer expenditures is slowly decreasing and advances to (still lower level typical for traditional EU countries. We have experienced growth of demand for products with higher added value; customers put more emphasis on perceived quality, longer durability and special product characteristics. Czech con­su­mers increase their consumption of vegetables and fruit, bottled beverages, wine and alcoholic beverages, cheese, they decreased their consumption of meat (in total, milk and potatoes, stagnation was typical for bakery products, sugar and fats and oils. Development in all social classes was very similar. For the future, we can expect growing interest for food products in smaller packages and targeted at specific needs, growing demand for food products with higher added value, consumption of food formerly unusual for the Czech, more frequent out-of-home eating, and growing differences between individual segments of social groups, mainly due to uneven income distribution.

  4. Debt security market in lithuania: changes and tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    Zumaraitė, Birutė

    2007-01-01

    Security market in economically strong countries has deep developing traditions and acts strong role in financial system. Debt securities market helps to allocate the financial recourses between separate institutions. Also the strong role in financial system plays debts securities market, especially government bonds that help to form the lending resources effectively. Interest rate of government bonds is the main point, which turns rates of lending and borrowing. The incomes, which are gained...

  5. Essays on agricultural adaptation to climate change and ethanol market integration in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisabokhae, Ruth Ada

    Climate factors like precipitation and temperature, being closely intertwined with agriculture, make a changing climate a big concern for the entire human race and its basic survival. Adaptation to climate is a long-running characteristic of agriculture evidenced by the varying types and forms of agricultural enterprises associated with differing climatic conditions. Nevertheless climate change poses a substantial, additional adaptation challenge for agriculture. Mitigation encompasses efforts to reduce the current and future extent of climate change. Biofuels production, for instance, expands agriculture's role in climate change mitigation. This dissertation encompasses adaptation and mitigation strategies as a response to climate change in the U.S. by examining comprehensively scientific findings on agricultural adaptation to climate change; developing information on the costs and benefits of select adaptations to examine what adaptations are most desirable, for which society can further devote its resources; and studying how ethanol prices are interrelated across, and transmitted within the U.S., and the markets that play an important role in these dynamics. Quantitative analysis using the Forestry and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (FASOM) shows adaptation to be highly beneficial to agriculture. On-farm varietal and other adaptations contributions outweigh a mix shift northwards significantly, implying progressive technical change and significant returns to adaptation research and investment focused on farm management and varietal adaptations could be quite beneficial over time. Northward shift of corn-acre weighted centroids observed indicates that substantial production potential may shift across regions with the possibility of less production in the South, and more in the North, and thereby, potential redistribution of income. Time series techniques employed to study ethanol price dynamics show that the markets studied are co-integrated and strongly

  6. The Impact of Sovereign Credit Rating Changes on Emerging Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    YIN, WEIGUO

    2008-01-01

    This study investigate the impact of sovereign rating change in emerging markets by using 42 sample counties over the period Jan. 1999 to Aug. 2008. The concurrent relationship between sovereign rating changes and the associated stock market spread can be established: the spreads tend to rise (fall) when upgrades (downgrades) occur. Surprisingly, according to Fitch report regarding the emerging market liquidity, we divide the whole time line into two sub-periods. It is found that rating chang...

  7. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prüggler, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  8. Commissioning healthcare for people with long term conditions: the persistence of relational contracting in England's NHS quasi-market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alison; Mays, Nicholas; Shaw, Sara E; Rosen, Rebecca; Smith, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991, there has been a series of reforms of the English National Health Service (NHS) entailing an increasing separation between the commissioners of services and a widening range of public and independent sector providers able to compete for contracts to provide services to NHS patients. We examine the extent to which local commissioners had adopted a market-oriented (transactional) model of commissioning of care for people with long term conditions several years into the latest period of market-oriented reform. The paper also considers the factors that may have inhibited or supported market-oriented behaviour, including the presence of conditions conducive to a health care quasi-market. We studied the commissioning of services for people with three long term conditions - diabetes, stroke and dementia - in three English primary care trust (PCT) areas over two years (2010-12). We took a broadly ethnographic approach to understanding the day-to-day practice of commissioning. Data were collected through interviews, observation of meetings and from documents. In contrast to a transactional, market-related approach organised around commissioner choice of provider and associated contracting, commissioning was largely relational, based on trust and collaboration with incumbent providers. There was limited sign of commissioners significantly challenging providers, changing providers, or decommissioning services.In none of the service areas were all the conditions for a well functioning quasi-market in health care in place. Choice of provider was generally absent or limited; information on demand and resource requirements was highly imperfect; motivations were complex; and transaction costs uncertain, but likely to be high. It was difficult to divide care into neat units for contracting purposes. As a result, it is scarcely surprising that commissioning practice in relation to all six commissioning developments was dominated by a relational approach. Our findings

  9. The Gravity Law of Marketing - a Major Reason for Change to a Better Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor DANCIU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Companies develop marketing strategies only for success. But, sooner or later, even the most successful strategies begin to wear out and lose their impact on the performances of the company. The mutual attraction between the marketing strategy and the performance of the company is known as the law of marketing gravity. Once a marketing strategy loses impact on the marketing performance as a result of the law of marketing gravity a fundamental change is needed. This change must be made according to a new marketing thinking during a cyclic process for development of the new marketing strategy. This paper is aiming to point out that companies must recognize the limited viability of their marketing strategies, identify the causes of the strategic wear out and implications of the law of the marketing gravity. All these should be a solid ground for marketing strategic change which must be included in the general plans of change of the company and implemented with the particular tools of the strategic management of change.

  10. Systems analysis on the condition of market penetration for hydrogen technologies using linear programming model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Ihara, S.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be an important energy carrier, especially in the frame of global warming problem solution. The purpose of this study is to examine the condition of market penetration of hydrogen technologies in reducing CO 2 emissions. A multi-time-period linear programming model (MARKAL, Market Allocation)) is used to explore technology options and cost for meeting the energy demands while reducing CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The results show that hydrogen technologies become economical when CO 2 emissions are stringently constrained. 9 figs., 2 refs

  11. Carbon flows, financial markets and climate change mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    After initial debates and controversies, from the late 1980s onwards market instruments became fully accepted in environmental governance. However, with their inclusion in transnational and global environmental governance, market institutions seem to be in for a new round of discussions.

  12. A note on the conditional correlation between energy prices: Evidence from future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, Massimiliano; Zagaglia, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We model the joint movements of daily returns on one-month futures for crude oil, heating oil and natural gas through the multivariate GARCH with dynamic conditional correlations and elliptical distributions introduced by Pelagatti and Rondena [Pelagatti, M.M., Rondena, S., 2007. 'Dynamic Conditional Correlation with Elliptical Distributions', unpublished manuscript. Universita di Milano - Bicocca, August]. Futures prices of crude and heating oil covary strongly. The conditional correlation between the futures prices of natural gas and crude oil has been rising over the last 5 years. However, this correlation has been low on average over two thirds of the sample, suggesting that future markets have no established tradition of pricing natural gas as a function of developments on oil markets. (author)

  13. Approach of optimum cross-section choice for cable lines in market prices conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, S.; Petrichenko, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an approach for choosing the optimum cross section for cable lines in conditions of incomplete and uncertain information is considered. The existing method economic current's density has the disadvantages connected with the assumptions and the lack of reliable information. In the work the modification of the economic intervals' method is offered under market conditions of prices. The method is based on search of minimum total annual costs for lines' construction. As example, 20, 110, 330 kV cable lines with copper vein are selected. Economic nomograms with different standard cross-sections are calculated and constructed for practical using of method. The choice of cross-sections by economic considerations is actual and for modern market conditions of economy. The graphics using MathCAD software are offered. (Authors)

  14. Economic efficiency of brown coal mine ''Konin'' in market economy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeruzel, M.

    1995-01-01

    The economic situation of ''Konin'' brown coal mine located in Central Poland is analysed. The main problem of the mine is the coal price which is still regulated despite market economy. It causes many difficulties and therefore a change of energy policy is postulated. The basic economic results for 1993 as well as prognosis of investment costs up to 2020 are given. The changes of management system and the strategy planning training are also described. 2 ills, 1 tab

  15. Short-Term Expectation Formation Versus Long-Term Equilibrium Conditions: The Danish Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hetland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary contribution of this paper is to establish that the long-swings behavior observed in the market price of Danish housing since the 1970s can be understood by studying the interplay between short-term expectation formation and long-run equilibrium conditions. We introduce an asset market model for housing based on uncertainty rather than risk, which under mild assumptions allows for other forms of forecasting behavior than rational expectations. We test the theory via an I(2 cointegrated VAR model and find that the long-run equilibrium for the housing price corresponds closely to the predictions from the theoretical framework. Additionally, we corroborate previous findings that housing markets are well characterized by short-term momentum forecasting behavior. Our conclusions have wider relevance, since housing prices play a role in the wider Danish economy, and other developed economies, through wealth effects.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL MARKETS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ROMANIA AS A EU MEMBER STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU CRISTIAN DOBRE

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Financial markets are increasingly becoming an area of major interest to the European Union in its efforts to achieve competitive global development levels similar to those of the United States. The Lisbon Agenda is a testimony to this, although the latest assessments are not at all optimistic about the achievement of the target as expected for 2010. To meet its objectives, the EU has generated a comprehensive package of regulatory initiatives, composed of directives and regulations that translate its policies into the field. The paper aims at a careful review of all of them. Approximation of investment and capital markets is made from the two major chapters of Community policies whose freedom of movement within the internal market is a fundamental desideratum of the European Union: the free movement of capital and freedom of movement of services. Financial markets are an integral part of European capital under current conditions, so development regulation helps European Union member states achieve their financial goals. At the same time, by imposing these regulations, we observe the European Union's intention to act as a starter of systems to bring to the development of states and not to leave behind the countries that are in difficulty, through a rigorous and transparent regulation of the financial markets.

  17. Conditions for Change Related to Groupware in a Distributed Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Pors, Jens Kaaber

    2003-01-01

    general types of settings where the groupware has been used: Newly established organizational units, special interest groups, short term projects, and teams handling recurrent tasks. We characterize these settings and present the overall conditions that have proven to be critical to the deployment...... of groupware in the case. Challenges and expectations are discussed and ideas concerning strategies for change are suggested. It is concluded that change related to groupware faces conditions that challenge ambitious goals in three of the settings, while conditions in general favour successful change related...

  18. Global nuclear markets in the context of climate change and sustainable development. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article (Chapter Two) focuses on the global nuclear markets in the context of policies regarding climate change and sustainable development. The global market realities and the export potential of the canadian nuclear industry are becoming crucial features of the nuclear political economy. The article examines the role of exports in the evolution of nuclear policy in Canada, and looks more closely at nuclear power and CANDU projects in the specific context of global competitive markets. It examines the trends in electricity and nuclear energy in the market for nuclear reactors. Finally, this article locates these changes in the context of the issues that are inherent in climate change and sustainable development

  19. The Changing Nature of Theory and Practice in Marketing: on the Value of Synchrony

    OpenAIRE

    O'Driscoll, Aidan; Murray, John

    1998-01-01

    Any academic discipline with a closely associated area of professional endeavour is profoundly affected by the relationship between its theory and practice. Synchrony in theory and practice adds value to the management of enterprise and to the advance of the discipline. Mindful of this assertion, this article explores the changing nature of theory and practice in marketing. It examines current trends in marketing practice which are occurring as a result of change in markets, technology and or...

  20. North Sea market update: Changes in both concept and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, M.; Bru, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The current paradox facing the North Sea offshore industry is that while it is experiencing a current market boom, within two years contractors may be scrambling around in a much reduced market. West Europe is running at a massive $15.1 billion. A veritable feast giving contractors, especially in Norway, a full workload and the headache of a severe skilled workforce shortage. Themes discussed cover Norwegian needs, Danish developments, UK utilisation, Dutch demand, and new breed. 4 figs

  1. Demographic Changes in the U.S. into the Twenty-First Century: Their Impact on Sport Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofacre, Susan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Issues confronting sport marketers as U.S. demographics change include more older people, ethnic groups, working women, and minorities; television hours watched; and changes in family makeup. As the changes affect marketing, sport marketing will have to become more efficient in defining and reaching different markets. (SM)

  2. LDC gas buyers adjusting to vastly changed market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1997-01-01

    In a just-released study, RKS Research and Consulting reported that while power and gas marketing firms may become key players in the deregulated energy business, few of their customers and seeing a national leader emerge. The report said while 75% of large customers interviewed already use energy marketers, only 25% evidence a clear understanding of these firms' skills and product /offerings. The study found that the energy users considered reliable energy supply, service dependability and quality/reliability of fuel sources their top three criteria and apply that to utilities and energy marketing firms. The marketers may offer some unique services, such as a commanding market presence, fuel diversity, skill in using financial derivatives and record of successful risk management, but those offerings are generally at the bottom of the list that energy users use when considering power and gas marketers, the study said. What does this all mean to the gas utilities, both in terms of buying supplies as well as providing gas against their newly emerging competitors? The author asked gas buyers from five LDCs to discuss the challenges they face in doing their jobs today. Their comments are relevant because it is not only an example of a new way of doing business, but is also indicative of the choices and problems one will endure in buying energy in an increasingly deregulated environment. And remember this: the utilities are still the predominant buyers of gas

  3. Structural changes, market concentration and vertical integration: would they lead to more stable markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmassebi, H.

    1991-01-01

    This communication is concerned with three major developments that are likely to have significant impact on the future structure of world oil markets: oil company mergers and acquisitions, shift of exploration and production activity from the United States to overseas, and joint venture agreements between producing countries and oil companies aimed at further downstream integration by OPEC. The last two developments are likely to contribute substantially to price and market stability in the future

  4. Structural changes, market concentration and vertical integration: would they lead to more stable markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahmassebi, H.

    This communication is concerned with three major developments that are likely to have significant impact on the future structure of world oil markets: oil company mergers and acquisitions, shift of exploration and production activity from the United States to overseas, and joint venture agreements between producing countries and oil companies aimed at further downstream integration by OPEC. The last two developments are likely to contribute substantially to price and market stability in the future.

  5. Logistics Concepts at the Industrial Enterprise under Conditions of the Globalization of Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushkina Nataliia V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the dynamics of indicators of Ukraine’s foreign trade in goods and services; conduct a comparative analysis of logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets; determine the ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises. The study analyzes the dynamics of volumes of exports–imports of goods and transport services in Ukraine; freight traffic by mode of transport; export, import and transit of goods; foreign direct investment from countries of the world in the Ukrainian economy. Modern information systems and logistics concepts used at industrial enterprises under conditions of the globalization of markets are considered. The ways to improve the management of international production and distribution activities of industrial enterprises are defined and systematized. Prospects for further research in this direction are the development of proposals for information support of providing services for customers of the industrial enterprise.

  6. Modeling Conditional Volatility of Indian Banking Sector’s Stock Market Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amanjot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to capture conditional variance of Indian banking sector’s stock market returns across the years 2005 to 2015 by employing different GARCH based symmetric and asymmetric models. The results report existence of persistency as well as leverage effects in the banking sector return volatility. On an expected note, the global financial crisis increased conditional volatility in the Indian banking sector during the years 2007 to 2009; further evidenced from Markov regime switches. The exponential GARCH (EGARCH model is found to be the best fit model capturing time-varying variance in the banking sector. The results support strong implications for the market participants at the time of devising portfolio management strategies.

  7. Adaptations in phytoplankton to changing conditions in tropical estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.

    adaptation in the algae is to counteract the changing light conditions with depth to which they are exposed during their floatation. The green alga Tetraselmis gracilis was found to have a high requirement for phosphorus and this organism occurs...

  8. SOME CHANGES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AFFECTING MARKETING IN THE YEAR 2000,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report considers how far the year 2000 is from today, then some of the changes in the information technology one might expect, and lastly how these changes might affect marketing and its segmentation. (Author)

  9. Unsupervised Condition Change Detection In Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for unsupervised change detection which combines independent component modeling and probabilistic outlier etection. The method further provides a compact data representation, which is amenable to interpretation, i.e., the detected condition changes can be investig...... be investigated further. The method is successfully applied to unsupervised condition change detection in large diesel engines from acoustical emission sensor signal and compared to more classical techniques based on principal component analysis and Gaussian mixture models.......This paper presents a new method for unsupervised change detection which combines independent component modeling and probabilistic outlier etection. The method further provides a compact data representation, which is amenable to interpretation, i.e., the detected condition changes can...

  10. LPG markets face upheaval as buyers press for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the system used for selling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) where the sellers set the market price with Saudi Arabia dominating the market. The introduction and acceptance of a new method for setting the export price in relation to the spot price, the production of more LPG for export than forecast, the impact on the Saudi Arabian methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) industry of California's banning MTBE additives to petrol,and the possibility of Asian buyers renegotiating the supply agreements are discussed. Details of Saudi Arabia's petrochemical plants planning to use LPG and world LPG production for 1998 are tabulated. The US market, and new systems for trading and pricing are considered. (UK)

  11. THE TRANSFORMATION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES IN CONDITIONS OF MARKET RELATIONS DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Planning and distribution economy with state ownership of agricultural enterprises, which were dominant in the early 90s the economy of the country, was unable to provide normal functioning of the agricultural land use in the conditions of transition to market relations. To switch to another economic system began a gradual process of transformation of agricultural enterprises. The result of this process was the change in the structure of agrarian enterprises due to privatization and raspaevaniya land, and appearance from small-scale farms to large agricultural enterprises. Today identified market actors (enterprises in agriculture: business companies, private enterprises, production cooperatives, farmers, public enterprises, other forms of management. The most common kind of private business are farms. They are one of the most promising and effective forms of management with high agriculture, appropriate level of production organization, prudent attitude to the land and best landscaping. However, today the formation of farming in Ukraine has not yet reached the level of development, which is observed in economically developed countries. The overall economic decline and inadequate legislation has forced farmers to rely on themselves. Notes the insufficient level of their competitiveness, making it impossible to provide the expanded reproduction, determines the risk of insolvency and, as a consequence, leads to bankruptcy. Farmers receive government support, but it is weak and temporary, which greatly impedes their development. Practical state support only a few farms that can affect the distribution of funds. Agricultural cooperation is one of the effective forms of management, which aims to unite the producers in the direction of increase of efficiency of use of their resource potential. However, today there are a number of unresolved problems that hinder the effective development of agricultural cooperatives. Since 2000 years, the initiative in

  12. Impact of climate change on Taiwanese power market determined using linear complementarity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Ching-Pin; Tseng, Tze-Chi; Huang, An-Lei; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Hu, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of climate change on average temperature is estimated. ► Temperature elasticity of demand is measured. ► Impact of climate change on Taiwanese power market determined. -- Abstract: The increase in the greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere causes significant changes in climate patterns. In turn, this climate change affects the environment, ecology, and human behavior. The emission of greenhouse gases from the power industry has been analyzed in many studies. However, the impact of climate change on the electricity market has received less attention. Hence, the purpose of this research is to determine the impact of climate change on the electricity market, and a case study involving the Taiwanese power market is conducted. First, the impact of climate change on temperature is estimated. Next, because electricity demand can be expressed as a function of temperature, the temperature elasticity of demand is measured. Then, a linear complementarity model is formulated to simulate the Taiwanese power market and climate change scenarios are discussed. Therefore, this paper establishes a simulation framework for calculating the impact of climate change on electricity demand change. In addition, the impact of climate change on the Taiwanese market is examined and presented.

  13. Applying social marketing in health care: communicating evidence to change consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies.

  14. A Study of Demand Response Effect of Thermal Storage Air-Conditioning Systems in Consideration of Electricity Market Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omagari, Yuko; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    This paper evaluates the economic impact of the introduction of customer-owned Thermal Storage Air-conditioning (TSA) systems, in an electricity market, from the viewpoint of the load service entity. We perform simulations on the condition that several thousand customers install TSA systems and shift peak demand in an electricity market by one percent. Our numerical results indicate that the purchase cost of the LSE was reduced through load management of customers with TSA systems. The introduction of TSA systems also reduced the volatility of market clearing price and reduced the whole-trade cost in an electricity market.

  15. The Changing Legal Climate for Marketing and Advertising in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S. Watson

    Although advertisers and marketers can expect stronger controls in all West European countries, especially by governments, they must be alert to country-by-country differences. Political moves to the left in any country will hasten controls. Consumerism is militant in some countries, practically dormat in others. Although self regulation is strong…

  16. Ensa, a nuclear enterprise in a changing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Since it was set up in 1973, the bussines activities of Equipos Nucleares have adapted to Spanish and international market demands. This article describes its history, its resources, it work and its future prospects centering around the nuclear product, both in component manufacturing and in maintenance services. (Author)

  17. Papers of the CAMPUT 2003 educational conference : Markets in Transition : The changing face of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The North American energy landscape is evolving: markets are in transition and regulatory roles are shifting. Regulators, government policy makers, and industry representatives exchanged information concerning the changes facing regulatory agencies, industry and energy users. The eleven sessions of the conference were entitled: (1) the future of the regulator in a continental energy market, (2) gas markets in transition, (3) electricity markets in transition (including Regional Transmission Organization/Standard Market Design issues), (4) are open access markets the answer? (5) the changing face of regulation, what's up? (6) energy policy updates in British Columbia and Atlantic Canada, (7) Ontario electricity update and deregulation one year later, (8) northern issues, (9) intervener funding, (10) affiliate transactions, regulatory and business issues, and (11) cost of capital update. The conference featured 43 presentations, of which two were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Papers of the CAMPUT 2003 educational conference : Markets in Transition : The changing face of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The North American energy landscape is evolving: markets are in transition and regulatory roles are shifting. Regulators, government policy makers, and industry representatives exchanged information concerning the changes facing regulatory agencies, industry and energy users. The eleven sessions of the conference were entitled: (1) the future of the regulator in a continental energy market, (2) gas markets in transition, (3) electricity markets in transition (including Regional Transmission Organization/Standard Market Design issues), (4) are open access markets the answer? (5) the changing face of regulation, what's up? (6) energy policy updates in British Columbia and Atlantic Canada, (7) Ontario electricity update and deregulation one year later, (8) northern issues, (9) intervener funding, (10) affiliate transactions, regulatory and business issues, and (11) cost of capital update. The conference featured 43 presentations, of which two were indexed separately for inclusion in the database

  19. Medical Underwriting In Long-Term Care Insurance: Market Conditions Limit Options For Higher-Risk Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C; Cohen, Marc; Shi, Xiaomei; Stevenson, David G

    2016-08-01

    A key feature of private long-term care insurance is that medical underwriters screen out would-be buyers who have health conditions that portend near-term physical or cognitive disability. We applied common underwriting criteria based on data from two long-term care insurers to a nationally representative sample of individuals in the target age range (50-71 years) for long-term care insurance. The screening criteria put upper bounds on the current proportion of Americans who could gain coverage in the individual market without changes to medical underwriting practice. Specifically, our simulations show that in the target age range, approximately 30 percent of those whose wealth meets minimum industry standards for suitability for long-term care insurance would have their application for such insurance rejected at the underwriting stage. Among the general population-without considering financial suitability-we estimated that 40 percent would have their applications rejected. The predicted rejection rates are substantially higher than the rejection rates of about 20-25 percent of applicants in the actual market. In evaluating reforms for long-term care financing and their potential to increase private insurance rates, as well as to reduce financial pressure on public safety-net programs, policy makers need to consider the role of underwriting in the market for long-term care insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. [Does co-operation research provide approaches to explain the changes in the German hospital market?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, C; Leidl, R

    2004-11-01

    The German hospital market faces an extensive process of consolidation. In this change hospitals consider cooperation as one possibility to improve competitiveness. To investigate explanations of changes in the German hospital market by theoretical approaches of cooperation research. The aims and mechanism of the theories, their relevance in terms of contents and their potential for empirical tests were used as criteria to assess the approaches, with current and future trends in the German hospital market providing the framework. Based on literature review, six theoretical approaches were investigated: industrial organization, transaction cost theory, game theory, resource dependency, institutional theory, and co-operative investment and finance theory. In addition, the data needed to empirically test the theories were specified. As a general problem, some of the theoretical approaches set a perfect market as a precondition. This precondition is not met by the heavily regulated German hospital market. Given the current regulations and the assessment criteria, industrial organization as well as resource-dependency and institutional theory approaches showed the highest potential to explain various aspects of the changes in the hospital market. So far, none of the approaches investigated provides a comprehensive and empirically tested explanation of the changes in the German hospital market. However, some of the approaches provide a theoretical background for part of the changes. As this dynamic market is economically of high significance, there is a need for further development and empirical testing of relevant theoretical approaches.

  1. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  2. Competition as an Effective Tool in Developing Social Marketing Programs: Driving Behavior Change through Online Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Corina SERBAN

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby c...

  3. How has sovereign bond market liquidity changed? : an illiquidity spillover analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Michael; Lillo, Fabrizio; Pelizzon, Loriana

    2016-01-01

    Amid increasing regulation, structural changes of the market and Quantitative Easing as well as extremely low yields, concerns about the market liquidity of the Eurozone sovereign debt markets have been raised. We aim to quantify illiquidity risks, especially such related to liquidity dry-ups, and illiquidity spillover across maturities by examining the reaction to illiquidity shocks at high frequencies in two ways: a) the regular response to shocks using a variance decomposition and, b) the ...

  4. The development of the Kozloduy NPP in the conditions of liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses specificities of the energy sector as a business system in the condition of liberalized energy market. The government influence the business system through the rate of economical stability and and possibility for prognosis, as well as through the direct influence of the field government institutions on the process of the development of the economical structures. The finance system influences the government ability to support and lead the industrial development. Two main system types are known: decentralized management (in countries with developed stock markets and a system for entrusting of activities on contract basis) and centralized (the success of the policy is connected with the success of the economical growth). Another aspect of the management in a business environment is the procedure of decision making for the firm policy formation and applying of a model for firm development. The transition to liberalized market means a significant limitation of the role of the government, which in the Bulgarian case should replace the state control system in real time and the state credit. Since the low amortization the electricity production has low cost price and possibility for generation of rehabilitation funds, i.e for extension of the service life on minimal cost. The funds can be used for improvement of the stability of the sector. For the purposes of the analysis made, system parameters are reviewed with regard of the market realities. The Balkan region is semi-closed energy system 40% of the electricity is imported from several countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Albania. The prices are greatly influenced by the moment conditions of the electricity production and industry in the region. The policy should be oriented in two directions: expectations for interests in the privatization of electric energy companies and appropriate strategy for preservation of the market positions. The analysis of the factors influencing nuclear energy

  5. ASSESSING CHANGES IN THE U.S. HARDWOOD SAWMILL INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.

  6. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  7. REGARDLESS OF THE ATTRACTIVE MARKET CONDITIONS, THE ROMANIAN BIOGAS SECTOR DID NOT ADVANCE. AN INDUCTIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLODNIȚCHI R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania is one of Europe’s traditional producers of energy from renewable sources. After the regime change 1989 nothing happened in this market until 2008 when the Romanian renewable sector went through a remarkable boom. 5.000 MW new capacities were installed mainly in wind, PV and biomass plants but almost none in biogas plants. There is plenty of substrate available, some of it for free, and the support mechanism is also very generous when it comes to biogenic gas, so how come today there are less than 15 MW installed in biogas capacities? This question lies at the base of our research covering several company intern and extern aspects. This particular article addresses the risks induced by technology vs. the market risks on the basis of a study case from Romania. We analyse the profitability indicators of the first landfill gas recovery facility from Romania which was after implementation less profitable than expected.

  8. Climate Change and Market Collapse: A Model Applied to Darfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Olsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A recurring argument in the global debate is that climate deterioration is likely to make social conflicts over diminishing natural resources more common in the future. The exact mechanism behind such a development has so far not been successfully characterized in the literature. In this paper, we present a general model of a community populated by farmers and herders who can either divide up land in a market economy or in autarky. The key insight from our model is that decreasing resources can make trade between the two groups collapse, which in turn makes each group’s welfare independent of that of the other. Predictions from the model are then applied to the conflict in Darfur. Our analysis suggests that three decades of drought in the area can at least partially explain the observed disintegration of markets and the subsequent rise of social tensions.

  9. Electricity market under change - experiences from the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannefors, N.

    1995-11-01

    Several US states face a major restructuring of the electric power market with the deregulation. The present report describes this process, in particular the preparations of the utilities and other actors on the market for the reforms. Competition in power production was introduced 1978, and since 1992 some independent power producers have been permitted to sell electric power directly to the customers. These steps have increased pressure on authorities and regional utilities to deregulate and reduce costs. Three main developments are noted among the utilities: Lowered production cost, Selling power with extra options, Offering services outside the traditional distribution area. Other strategies can be diversification, alliances with telephone, computer or software companies which can bring new products

  10. The Role of Markets and Governments in Helping Society Adapt to a Changing Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an economic perspective of adaptation to climate change. The paper specifically examines the role of markets and government in efficient adaptation responses. For adaptations to be efficient, the benefits from following adaptations must exceed the costs. For private market goods, market actors will follow this principle in their own interest. For public goods, governments must take on this responsibility. Governments must also be careful to design institutions that encourage efficiency or they could inadvertently increase the damages from climate change. Finally, although in a few cases actors must anticipate climate changes far into the future, generally it is best to learn and then act with respect to adaptation

  11. Marketing under the changing rules of the game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.

    2001-01-01

    Enron Corporation is the largest e-commerce site in the world with 685,000 transactions had 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It specializes in energy marketing and was ranked near the top of Fortune's 500 most admired companies. Enron Canada was established in 1991 and is currently one of the largest buyers and sellers of natural gas and electricity with a diversified customer base that includes both producers and end-users. The author presented a brief overview of Enron Canada's participation in the energy market in Alberta before discussing the risk management strategy adopted by the company. The risk management tools used and the risk management philosophies were outlined, including risk management program development. This program development is divided into a series of steps as follows: definition of risk appetite, clarification of electricity risks, a review of physical operation characteristics, definition of the risk management program and policy, definition of controls, reporting, definition of tools and tactics, and implementation of active business processes. Credit and contracting issues were explained with a few examples thrown in to illustrate the concepts. The market fundamentals were reviewed, and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, why prices are so high in Alberta. The next topic discussed was EnronOnline, which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. The benefits of the system were reviewed. tabs., figs

  12. Marketing under the changing rules of the game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D. [ENRON Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Enron Corporation is the largest e-commerce site in the world with 685,000 transactions had 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It specializes in energy marketing and was ranked near the top of Fortune's 500 most admired companies. Enron Canada was established in 1991 and is currently one of the largest buyers and sellers of natural gas and electricity with a diversified customer base that includes both producers and end-users. The author presented a brief overview of Enron Canada's participation in the energy market in Alberta before discussing the risk management strategy adopted by the company. The risk management tools used and the risk management philosophies were outlined, including risk management program development. This program development is divided into a series of steps as follows: definition of risk appetite, clarification of electricity risks, a review of physical operation characteristics, definition of the risk management program and policy, definition of controls, reporting, definition of tools and tactics, and implementation of active business processes. Credit and contracting issues were explained with a few examples thrown in to illustrate the concepts. The market fundamentals were reviewed, and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, why prices are so high in Alberta. The next topic discussed was EnronOnline, which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. The benefits of the system were reviewed. tabs., figs.

  13. Effects of Daylight Saving Time changes on stock market volatility: a reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Nukhet

    2011-12-01

    There is a rich array of evidence that suggests that changes in sleeping patterns affect an individual's decision-making processes. A nationwide sleeping-pattern change happens twice a year when the Daylight Saving Time (DST) change occurs. Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi argued in 2000 that a DST change lowers stock market returns. This study presents evidence that DST changes affect the relationship between stock market return and volatility. Empirical evidence suggests that the positive relationship between return and volatility becomes negative on the Mondays following DST changes.

  14. Technology Change And Working Conditions – A Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2004-01-01

    When technology change improves working conditions, the success is often attributed to skilful change agents. When it is not, the blame is on “resistance to change” and “resilient cultures”. How can these failures be understood differently? A cultural perspective on technology change might be a way...... to facilitate technology change processes that lead to improved working conditions. The research based project described here has developed a special homepage that explains how this might be achieved. The homepage is targeted at working life professionals. The homepage presents theoretical explanations...... of the concept of organizational culture, a model for analysis and several practical case stories. This paper explains how the project tries to reach a broad spectrum of professionals in order to facilitate their use of a cultural perspective. It also discusses the ethical consequences of the cultural...

  15. Back to the future? Understanding Change in Food Habits of Farmers' Market Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Cicatiello, C.; Franco, S.; Pancino, B.; Marinov, D.; Davide, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses how attending farmers markets may affect consumers’ willingness to change food habits toward high-quality products. A discrete choice model was applied using data col-lected through an extensive field survey in 2009, which involved 400 consumers in 12 different farmers’ markets

  16. Analysis of soybean supply to price changes in the domestic market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that farmers' responses were not encouraging in the production and supply of soybean in the domestic markets with respect to the dictate of prices, price expectations and price of groundnut as a chosen competitive enterprise. Keywords: Response, soybean supply, price changes, soybean market, ...

  17. The relationship between local area labor market conditions and the use of Veterans Affairs health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2013-03-13

    In the U.S., economic conditions are intertwined with labor market decisions, access to health care, health care utilization and health outcomes. The Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system has served as a safety net provider by supplying free or reduced cost care to qualifying veterans. This study examines whether local area labor market conditions, measured using county-level unemployment rates, influence whether veterans obtain health care from the VA. We used survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in years 2000, 2003 and 2004 to construct a random sample of 73,964 respondents self-identified as veterans. VA health service utilization was defined as whether veterans received all, some or no care from the VA. Hierarchical ordered logistic regression was used to address unobserved state and county random effects while adjusting for individual characteristics. Local area labor market conditions were defined as the average 12-month unemployment rate in veterans' county of residence. The mean unemployment rate for veterans receiving all, some and no care was 5.56%, 5.37% and 5.24%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate in a veteran's county of residence was associated with an increase in the probability of receiving all care (0.34%, p-value = 0.056) or some care (0.29%, p-value = 0.023) from the VA. Our findings suggest that the important role of the VA in providing health care services to veterans is magnified in locations with high unemployment.

  18. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  19. Climate Changes and Their Impact on Agricultural Market Systems: Examples from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Karin Barrueto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models foresee changes in temperature and precipitation regimes that shift regional climate zones and influence the viability of agricultural market systems. Understanding the influence of climate change on the different sub-sectors and functions of a market system is crucial to increasing the systems’ climate resilience and to ensuring the long-term viability of the sectors. Our research applies a new approach to climate change analysis to better understand the influence of climate change on each step of an agricultural market system—on its core (processing units, storage facilities and sales and support functions (sapling supply, research, insurance and agricultural policy. We use spatial climate analyses to investigate current and projected changes in climate for different regions in Nepal. We then analyse the risks and vulnerabilities of the sub-sectors banana, charcoal, coffee, macadamia, orange, vegetables and walnut. Our results show that temperatures and precipitation levels will change differently depending on the climatic regions, and that climate change elicits different responses from the market functions both between and within each of the different sub-sectors. We conclude that climate-related interventions in market systems must account for each different market function’s specific response and exposure to climate change, in order to select adaptation measures that ensure long-term climate resilience.

  20. Why can rossing uranium mine keep mining even in low price conditions of uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    Rossing uranium mine is the only operating uranium mine in the world where the uranium occurs in intrusive alaskite. In the past 10 years, uranium market regressed in the world, uranium production weakened, expenditures of capital for uranium exploration were insufficient. Uranium spot market price rapidly decreased from $111.8/kg U in late 1970's to $22.1/kg U in mid-1990's. Why can Rossing uranium mine mined with traditional underground and open pit operation can keep running even in low price conditions of uranium market? Augumenting research on the deposit, mineral and technology, decreasing production cost and improving selling strategy can not only maintain Rossing's uranium production at present, but also ensure sustainable development in the coming 15 years. Exploration of low-costed uranium deposits is very important. However, obvious economic benefits can be obtained, as Rossing uranium mine does, by augumenting geological-economical research on the known uranium deposits of hard-rock type and by using new techniques to improve the conventional techniques in the uranium mine development. (authors)

  1. RESEARCH OF CONDITION OF PUBLIC DRUG ASSISTANCE DURING INDEPENDENCE YEARS OF UKRAINE - FORMATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Boryshchuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the correspondence of existing legislative and regulatory requirements of the pharmaceutical industry development, the analysis of the formation of the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market, the condition of drug assistance according to European requirements and recommendations of the WHO. For the study archival materials, publications in scientific journals, and mass media were used, laws and provisions regulating pharmaceutical activity were studied and a survey among citizens was conducted. Systematic and logical methods, analytical and comparative analysis were applied, and own researches were performed. For 22 years of Ukrainian statehood formation the following institutes were created: Pharmacological College, Pharmacopoeia Committee and State Service for Quality Control of Drugs which were transported to other institutes. Important laws were adopted: the Law of Ukraine «On Medicines», the Law of Ukraine «On small-scale privatization», the Law of Ukraine «On large-scale privatization» and others, which contributed to the formation and development of the pharmaceutical market. In comparison with 1990 the amount of drugstore chains increased two and a half times and in 2013 in the country already worked 15 566 drugstores, including 3 025 in villages. Specific peculiarity of pharmaceutical market formation in Ukraine was the creation of powerful own regional and all-Ukrainian drugstore chains, that is greatly different from such situation in EU countries, where the legislation allows to have only one or two drugstores. As the result of pharmaceutical market formation the drugs nomenclature increased eight times and now makes up more than 20 000 names, including 92.4 % generic drugs. According to publications, Ukraine lacks about 40 % of drug molecules needed for medical treatment, and 30 % of studied drugs are not proved. There is the problem of uncontrollable turnover and drugs consumption in Ukraine

  2. Structural Changes in the Korean Housing Market before and after Macroeconomic Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify structural changes in the Korean housing market for evaluating the sustainability of the Korean housing market and to derive important implications to seek housing business strategies and public policies. Two time periods were analyzed: April 2001–December 2007 and January 2008–December 2014 to identify the impact after the global financial crisis of 2008. The market was divided into transaction, chonsei, and monthly rent. The correlations were analyzed using a vector error correction model (VECM. A key result was that during the economic depression, demand for chonsei did not flow to the transaction market; this phenomenon affected the overall recovery of the housing market. The supply of chonsei today is rapidly decreasing with the depression in the transaction. Increases in chonsei prices are expected to continue along with the possibility that demand for chonsei will flow into the transaction or monthly rent market. Based on recent trends, the chonsei market, once main stream, will gradually weaken, and the Korean housing market will reorganize into transactions and monthly rent. This structural change may turn the Korean housing market into a target for long-term investments.

  3. Global climate change impacts on forests and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohui Tian; Brent Sohngen; John B Kim; Sara Ohrel; Jefferson Cole

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an economic analysis of climate change impacts in the global forest sector. It illustrates how potential future climate change impacts can be integrated into a dynamic forestry economics model using data from a global dynamic vegetation model, theMC2model. The results suggest that climate change will cause forest outputs (such as timber) to increase...

  4. Stock Indices as Generalizing Indicators of the Stock Markets Condition in the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuba M. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the degree of interdependence of stock markets in separate countries of the European Union, namely: France, Germany, Great Britain, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary on the basis of studying the changes in stock indexes, as well as determining the existence of tendencies of approximating the dynamics of the national stock index «PFTS Index» to the corresponding dynamics of stock indexes in surveyed countries. The article analyzes the dynamics of changes in stock indices in the UK (FTSE, Germany (DAX 30, France (CAC 40 and pan-European ones (EURO STOXX 50, as well as changes in stock indices in Poland (WIG 20, Czech Republic (PX, Hungary (BUX. Calculations of the coefficients of pair correlation between changes in stock indices in the studied countries have been performed. The calculation results show a substantial connection between the indicators of changes in stock indices and allow to make a conclusion that in the dynamics of stock indices of national stock markets of the studied EU countries some common trends are observed, moreover, in the behavior of the considered indices common local trends are noticed as well. The author calculated the coefficient of pair correlation between the indicators of changes in the national stock index «PFTS Index» and the stock indices of the «old» and «new» EU countries. The calculations showed that the PFTS Index does not demonstrate a high level of correlation with stock indices of the «old» EU countries and has a tendency of approaching the corresponding dynamics of stock indices of the «new» EU countries.

  5. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  6. Volatility measurement with directional change in Chinese stock market: Statistical property and investment strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjun; Xiong, Xiong; He, Feng; Zhang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The stock price fluctuation is studied in this paper with intrinsic time perspective. The event, directional change (DC) or overshoot, are considered as time scale of price time series. With this directional change law, its corresponding statistical properties and parameter estimation is tested in Chinese stock market. Furthermore, a directional change trading strategy is proposed for invest in the market portfolio in Chinese stock market, and both in-sample and out-of-sample performance are compared among the different method of model parameter estimation. We conclude that DC method can capture important fluctuations in Chinese stock market and gain profit due to the statistical property that average upturn overshoot size is bigger than average downturn directional change size. The optimal parameter of DC method is not fixed and we obtained 1.8% annual excess return with this DC-based trading strategy.

  7. The reaction of Polish market to last year's changes on international coke and steel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czornik, G.; Gabriel, D. [Polski Koks S.A. (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    The presentation, outlined in 16 slides/overheads, discussed the following: Poland's position in the world market; the Polish coking industry and the world coke and steel industry; the reaction of Polish coke plants; the effect of the increase in coke prices; ownership changes in Poland's coking industry scenarios for the future; the role of Polski Koks in Poland's coking industry; and sales and exports of coke by Polski Koks.

  8. Floral advertisement scent in a changing plant-pollinators market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filella, Iolanda; Primante, Clara; Llusià, Joan; Martín González, Ana M; Seco, Roger; Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Rodrigo, Anselm; Bosch, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-12-05

    Plant-pollinator systems may be considered as biological markets in which pollinators choose between different flowers that advertise their nectar/pollen rewards. Although expected to play a major role in structuring plant-pollinator interactions, community-wide patterns of flower scent signals remain largely unexplored. Here we show for the first time that scent advertisement is higher in plant species that bloom early in the flowering period when pollinators are scarce relative to flowers than in species blooming later in the season when there is a surplus of pollinators relative to flowers. We also show that less abundant flowering species that may compete with dominant species for pollinator visitation early in the flowering period emit much higher proportions of the generalist attractant β-ocimene. Overall, we provide a first community-wide description of the key role of seasonal dynamics of plant-specific flower scent emissions, and reveal the coexistence of contrasting plant signaling strategies in a plant-pollinator market.

  9. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, T.; Londo, H.M.

    2008-06-01

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels

  10. Relationship Marketing, Engine of Sustainable Development and Organisational Change in the Romanian Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Al Pop; Mihaela Roman; Adina Săniuţă; Carmen Petrişoaia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a conceptual clarification of the terms sustainable development and organisational change. It studies the role of relationship marketing for implementing these two concepts. The main objectives are the perception of the three concepts by Romanian business decision-makers and their ‘sensitivity’ to organisational changes, with regard to implementing the relationship marketing at company level. Information was gathered via exploratory research, using qualitative in-de...

  11. MARKETING RESPONSES TO CHANGING CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN THE FRESH BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Procopio, Mary Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The fresh meat industry is changing the way it markets its products. The decline in red meat consumption that has resulted from greater consumer concerns about the "healthfulness" of red meat, coupled with changes in consumer lifestyles emphasizing a need for convenience is contributing to the diminishment of "commodity selling" in favor of a true "marketing" approach (Pierson and Allen, 1986). In a traditional industry such as meats, the shift from a commodity-selling perspective (i.e., sell...

  12. Analysis of Changes in Market Shares of Commercial Banks Operating in Turkey Using Computational Intelligence Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Amasyali, M. Fatih; Demırhan, Ayse; Bal, Mert

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the change in market share of 30 domestic and foreign banks, which have been operating between the years 1990 and 2009 in Turkey by taking into consideration 20 financial ratios of those banks. Due to the fragile structure of the banking sector in Turkey, this study plays an important role for determining the changes in market share of banks and taking the necessary measures promptly. For this reason, computational intelligence methods have been used in the study. Acc...

  13. Combined heat and gamma-irradiation treatments for the control of strawberry diseases under market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Terblanche, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    The spoilage of strawberries under local market conditions was investigated. It was confirmed that the major losses are due to 'leak' disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind. It was also established that further fruit losses in summer are due to anthracnose caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds. This is the first time that the latter pathogen has been isolated and identified and recognised as a problem on strawberries in South Africa. Studies with R. stolonifer in culture showed that 46 degrees Celsius for 20 min (the previous international standard heat treatment for fruit) was disappointing, while a treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 min effectively inhibited spore germination. Irradiation studies with cultures of R. stolonifer and C. acutatum showed that a dose of 200 and 100 krad, respectively, resulted in excellent inhibition of spore germination. However, irradiating in nitrogen gas resulted in a tenfold reduction in the effectiveness of the irradiation treatments. The use of nitrogen during irradiation, therefore, cannot be considered, especially where an effective control of the fungal pathogens is desired. Investigations with different cultivars clearly demonstrated the synergistic effect on disease control obtained when combining heat and irradiation treatments. The combination treatment (moist heat at 50-52 degrees Celsius for 10 min plus 200 krad), besides effectively controlling both diseases in strawberries, did not adversely affect berry quality. In simulated transport tests it was shown that a minimal amount of berry softening did occur with this treatment, but this adverse effect was negligible compared with the beneficial effect obtained from disease control. In semi-commercial experiments it was shown that the combination heat and irradiation treatment effectively controlled spoilage diseases for a period of several days from picking, thus allowing sufficient time to market the fruit under local market

  14. Shaping forest safety nets with markets: Adaptation to climate change under changing roles of tropical forests in Congo Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkem, Johnson; Kalame, Fobissie B.; Idinoba, Monica; Somorin, Olufunso A.; Ndoye, Ousseynou; Awono, Abdon

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests hold several goods and services used by forest-dependent people as safety nets to traverse difficult periods of resource supply. These same goods and services are constantly surrounded by emerging markets linking remote communities with major urban centers nationally and internationally. How these markets affect adaptation remains unclear. This paper examines the roles of markets in non-timber forest products that normally serve as safety nets for forest communities, and the implications for climate change adaptation in the Congo Basin. Following the identification and prioritization of forest-based development sectors for adaptation by stakeholders, the types of markets and trades surrounding the identified sectors were examined in two provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a case study in order to evaluate revenue flows and their potential contribution to adaptation by local communities. The distribution of the market revenue leaves local people with returns much lower than the worth of the commodity, while wholesalers and retailers reap most of the benefits and profit from the high variability in volume and market earnings for the same commodity across provinces. Markets may increase the value of a commodity as observed in this study, but their contributions to adaptation appear highly limited for local communities following their distribution among the stakeholders in the market chain. This is likely to be worse in free market settings, especially when it diminishes the safety net roles of forest goods and services. Markets should therefore complement rather than substitute forests roles for adaptation to climate change in tropical forest countries. Capturing the benefits of trade for adaptation is crucial but will require policy reforms and further research that addresses the complexity in benefit sharing.

  15. Dividend policy as a signaling mechanism under different market conditions: Evidence from the Casablanca Stock Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Saoud, Siham; Agnaou, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Does the signaling value of dividend policy depend on market conditions? Do investors respond to dividend policy differently in different periods? This study answers these questions by using a sample of firms from the Casablanca Stock Exchange during the period between 2003 and 2007. We find a si...... growth period. One of the reasons for our results may be that investors pay lesser attention to the signaling value of dividends during the periods when they are earning higher returns on their investments.......Does the signaling value of dividend policy depend on market conditions? Do investors respond to dividend policy differently in different periods? This study answers these questions by using a sample of firms from the Casablanca Stock Exchange during the period between 2003 and 2007. We find...... a significantly negative relationship between dividend payout ratio and stock price volatility during the stable growth period. We also show a significantly positive relationship between dividend payout ratio and stock returns during the same period. However, this relationship turns insignificant during the high...

  16. [Informal sellers' health status and working conditions in the Bazurto market in Cartagena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Palencia, Isabel P; Castillo-Ávila, Irma Y; Banquez-Salas, Annia P; Castro-Ortega, Audrey J; Lara-Escalante, Hilda R

    2012-06-01

    Determining informal sellers' health status and working conditions in the Bazurto market in Cartagena. The target population consisted of informal sellers working in the Bazurto market; sample size consisted of 584 sellers. A check-list was used to describe their working conditions. A "health disorders" test and neurotoxic symptoms scale (Q16) were used to determine health status and the body mass index (BMI) for determining nutritional status. 583 sellers participated in the study, having an average age of 39 years (38-40 95 %CI). 87.8 % (512) of the participants were exposed to constant noise, 84.9 % (495) worked in places having high temperatures, 74.1 % (432) were exposed to dust, and 69.8 % (407) did not use personal protective equipment. They were working 10 hours a day on average. 71 % (414) suffered from physical exhaustion, 72.4 % (422) had headaches, 63.7 % (371) had back pain and 62.7 % (365) suffered from pains in their legs. The target population's physical environment was inadequate, they worked for too many hours and some workplaces were dangerous. The informal sellers' symptoms included back pain, headaches, leg pain, eye strain and physical fatigue.

  17. The role of energy planners in open-free market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alminana, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of the demand for electricity and natural gas usually follows seasonal patterns. In Mediterranean areas, in summer, a sharp increase in electricity needs in residential and commercial buildings coincides with a marked decrease in natural gas consumption. Air-conditioning systems are an increasingly significant factor in peak electricity demand in premises of all economic areas, particularly residential and commercial but also industrial sectors. Efforts made in recent years regarding the development of low cost air-conditioning equipment have produced in turn an increasing number of shortages due to lack of capacity in the production-transmission-distribution chain. Recent examples in Barcelona (June 2003) or Mallorca (July 2003) are just a reference for an ever-increasing problem. In open-free market conditions, how can this situation be overcome? Energy suppliers adopt strategies of Demand Side Management (DSM) in order to reduce negative impact of load curves which are not 'flat enough'. However, negative impacts are mainly seen in terms of economic operation, ignoring other effects such as energy or environmental collateral effects. From our point of view, Integrated Resources Planning (IRP) is a more powerful tool to take into account all three effects: economic, energy and environmental. IRP cannot be carried out by single energy suppliers, only by an Energy Planner. Two specific technologies can help balance energy loads from excess power demand (peak shaving) and reduced gas consumption (valley filling) in summer: High Efficiency Cogeneration / Trigeneration; High Efficiency Gas-Based Air-Conditioning. Recent COM(2003)416 final Directive 'on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market' (Brussels, July 23, 2003) can be adopted as a confirmation of the above issues. (author)

  18. Future aridity under conditions of global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Malekinezhad, Hossein; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Global climate change is anticipated to cause some major changes in hydroclimatic conditions around the world. As aridity is a reliable indicator of potential available water, assessment of its changes under future climatic conditions is important for proper management of water. This study employs the UNESCO aridity/humidity index, which is a derivative of precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), for assessment of aridity. Historical (1901-2005) simulations and future (2006-2100) projections of 22 global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are studied. The Nested Bias Correction (NBC) approach is used to correct possible biases of precipitation (simulated directly by the GCMs) and PET (estimated by applying FAO56-Penman-Monteith model on simulated parameters of the GCMs). To detect future aridity changes, the areal extents of the aridity zones in the past and future periods as well as through four sub-periods (2006-2025, 2026-2050, 2051-2075, and 2076-2100) of the future are compared. The results indicate that changes in climate will alter the areal extents of aridity zones in the future. In general, from the first sub-period towards the last one, the area covered by hyper-arid, arid, semi-arid, and sub-humid zones will increase (by 7.46%, 7.01%, 5.80%, and 2.78%, respectively), while the area of the humid regions will decrease (by 4.76%), suggesting that there will be less water over the global land area in the future. To understand the cause of these changes, precipitation and PET are also separately assumed to be stationary throughout the four future sub-periods and the resulting aridity changes are then analyzed. The results reveal that the aridity changes are mostly caused by the positive PET trends, even though the slight precipitation increase lessens the magnitude of the changes.

  19. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  20. 75 FR 52378 - International Product Change-United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant Multi-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant... Inbound Market-Dominant Multi- Service Agreements to the Market-Dominant Products List pursuant to 39 U.S... the Postal Regulatory Commission to Add Market-Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal...

  1. Government control of markets of financial services of Ukraine in conditions of macroeconomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор Юрійович Мельников

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essence of financial services market of Ukraine is considered in the article. The mechanism and features of state regulation of financial services market in the context of macroeconomic instability are determined, the fundamentals of the theory of regulation of market economy and segments of the financial market of Ukraine are determined

  2. Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, G Ferris; Connolly, G N

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory oversight of tobacco product design has gained momentum in the US and internationally. Appropriate standards for assessing commercial brands and characterising product features must be considered a priority. An area of potential concern is in-market design changes adopted within a single commercial brand over time. Internal tobacco industry documents were identified and used to assess internal discussion of product guidelines and practices regarding in-market brand changes. Commercial tobacco products undergo a constant process of revision in-market, beginning at the most basic level of physical product characteristics and components, and including every aspect of design. These revisions commonly exceed guidelines for acceptable product variance adopted within the industry. While consumer and market testing is conducted to ensure that products remain acceptable to users, explicit marketing often may not accompany brand changes. In the absence of such marketing, it should not be assumed that a brand remains unchanged. For manufacturers, assessment of competitor brands includes identification and analysis of non-routine changes; that is, those changes likely to significantly alter the character of a given brand. Regulators must adopt a similar practice in determining standards for product evaluation in the face of ongoing commercial product revision.

  3. Forecasting conditional climate-change using a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Akbar Akbari; Friedel, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed to forecast the likelihood of climate-change across spatial landscape gradients. This hybrid approach involves reconstructing past precipitation and temperature using the self-organizing map technique; determining quantile trends in the climate-change variables by quantile regression modeling; and computing conditional forecasts of climate-change variables based on self-similarity in quantile trends using the fractionally differenced auto-regressive integrated moving average technique. The proposed modeling approach is applied to states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) in the southwestern U.S., where conditional forecasts of climate-change variables are evaluated against recent (2012) observations, evaluated at a future time period (2030), and evaluated as future trends (2009–2059). These results have broad economic, political, and social implications because they quantify uncertainty in climate-change forecasts affecting various sectors of society. Another benefit of the proposed hybrid approach is that it can be extended to any spatiotemporal scale providing self-similarity exists.

  4. The French market of thermal solar and its perspectives. Conditions are met for a sustained and durable market growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at assessing the rebound ability of the thermal solar energy market, at assessing the impact of the large legal framework which aims at developing thermal solar energy, at assessing the weight of French industries with respect to the German giants, and at understanding the strategy of equipment manufacturers and installers/integrators. The report presents the operating principles and applications of thermal solar energy production, presents the European and the French regulatory context, discusses the situation of France with respect to its commitments in terms of renewable energy as heat source, comments the dynamics of the French market, discusses the business model of this sector, and comments the position and strategies of front-end and back-end actors, i.e. equipment manufacturers on the one hand, and installers on the other hand

  5. Interplay between past market correlation structure changes and future volatility outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musmeci, Nicoló; Aste, Tomaso; Di Matteo, T.

    2016-11-01

    We report significant relations between past changes in the market correlation structure and future changes in the market volatility. This relation is made evident by using a measure of “correlation structure persistence” on correlation-based information filtering networks that quantifies the rate of change of the market dependence structure. We also measured changes in the correlation structure by means of a “metacorrelation” that measures a lagged correlation between correlation matrices computed over different time windows. Both methods show a deep interplay between past changes in correlation structure and future changes in volatility and we demonstrate they can anticipate market risk variations and this can be used to better forecast portfolio risk. Notably, these methods overcome the curse of dimensionality that limits the applicability of traditional econometric tools to portfolios made of a large number of assets. We report on forecasting performances and statistical significance of both methods for two different equity datasets. We also identify an optimal region of parameters in terms of True Positive and False Positive trade-off, through a ROC curve analysis. We find that this forecasting method is robust and it outperforms logistic regression predictors based on past volatility only. Moreover the temporal analysis indicates that methods based on correlation structural persistence are able to adapt to abrupt changes in the market, such as financial crises, more rapidly than methods based on past volatility.

  6. Changes in the Medicare home health care market: the impact of reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunha; Davitt, Joan K

    2009-03-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 introduced 2 new reimbursement structures, the Interim Payment System (IPS, 1997-2000) and the Prospective Payment System (PPS, begun October 2000) for Medicare home health agencies (HHAs) under the fee-for-service program. This article describes and compares the impact of these changes on the Medicare home health market from a period before the BBA through the IPS and PPS in relation to agency characteristics. A secondary analysis of 1996, 1999, and 2002 Provider of Services data was conducted on all Medicare-certified HHAs. Frequencies and rates of change were calculated by agency characteristics to describe changes in the number of active agencies through those years. Logistic regression models were used to compare factors associated with market exits under different payment systems. The results indicate dramatic but disproportional changes in response to the IPS and the PPS among Medicare home health care agencies. Agency closures were greater and market entries fewer during the IPS, but more branch offices/subunits were closed during the PPS. Proprietary and freestanding agencies experienced greater volatility throughout, with the greatest number of closures seen in Region VI (Dallas). These results demonstrate the direct impact of policy changes on the home health care market and highlight the need to evaluate policy changes to understand both intended and unintended impacts on health markets. Future research should analyze the effect of these policy changes on other healthcare providers and systems and their impact on health outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries.

  7. Climate Change, Global Food Markets, and Urban Unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Francis Gavin 512-471-6267 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Climate Change, Global Food...Russia led then-President Dmitry Medvedev to impose export restrictions on wheat, barley, and rye . Food security is fundamental to human security. Prior...how much food is grown and where it is grown. Second, climate change will increase the frequency of localized crop failures due to more frequent

  8. Conditional CAPM in the Brazilian Market: a study of the Moment, Size and Book to Market effects between 1995 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Valle e Flister

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the ability of the conditional CAPM to explain anomalous returns related to momentum, size and book-to-market effects using Lewellen and Nagel’s (2006 methodology in the Brazilian stock market. To this end we studied a sample of Bovespa’s stocks in a monthly basis from July 1995 to June 2008. The results indicate that only the book-to-market effect presents statistical significance. The conditional model, tested from time series of 12 months, also showed no significant gains in relation to the unconditional form. However, there are evidences that betas do vary over time, suggesting that the sample size on beta calculations may influence portfolio choices, i.e., the evidence of variation in betas over time means that analysis based on the CAPM should be cautious when using unconditional models.

  9. Communication and marketing as climate change-intervention assets a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The understanding that global climate change represents a profound threat to the health and well-being of human and nonhuman species worldwide is growing. This article examines the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behavior in ways consistent with climate change prevention and adaptation objectives. Specifically, using a framework based on an ecologic model of public health, the paper examines: (1) the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behaviors of concern, including support for appropriate public policies; (2) potential target audiences for such programs; and (3) the attributes of effective climate change messages. Communication and marketing interventions appear to have considerable potential to promote important population behavior change objectives, but there is an urgent need for additional translational research to effectively harvest this potential to combat climate change.

  10. Long-term changes in the surface conditions of PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Dylla, H.F.; Rossnagel, S.M.; Picraux, S.T.; Borders, J.A.; Magee, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Long-term changes in the surface conditions of the PLT vacuum vessel wall have been monitored by the periodic analysis of a variety of sample substrates (stainless steel, alumina, silicon), exposed to PLT discharges for periods of up to several months and subsequently removed for analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), photoelectron spectroscopy, ion backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy

  11. Changes in Greenland ice bed conditions inferred from seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Takagi, Ryota; Kanao, Masaki; Tsuboi, Seiji; Tono, Yoko; Childs, Dean; Zhao, Dapeng

    2018-04-01

    Basal conditions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are a key research topic in climate change studies. The recent construction of a seismic network has provided a new opportunity for direct, real-time, and continuous monitoring of the GrIS. Here we use ambient noise surface wave data from seismic stations all over Greenland for a 4.5-year period to detect changes in Rayleigh-wave phase velocity between seismic station pairs. We observe clear seasonal and long-term velocity changes for many pairs, and propose a plausible mechanism for these changes. Dominant factors driving the velocity changes might be seasonal and long-term pressurization/depressurization of the GrIS and shallow bedrock by air and ice mass loading/unloading. However, heterogeneity of the GrIS basal conditions might impose strong regionalities on the results. An interesting feature is that, even at adjacent two station pairs in the inland GrIS, one pair shows velocity decrease while another shows velocity increase as a response to the high air and snow pressure. The former pair might be located on a thawed bed that decreases velocity by increased meltwater due to pressure melting, whereas the latter pair might be located on a frozen bed that increases velocity by compaction of ice and shallow bedrock. The results suggest that surface waves are very sensitive to the GrIS basal conditions, and further observations will contribute to a more direct and quantitative estimation of water balance in the Arctic region.

  12. The influence of labor market changes on first-time medical school applicant pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, David A; Morrison, Emory

    2014-12-01

    To explore whether the number and composition of first-time applicants to U.S. MD-granting medical schools, which have fluctuated over the past 30 years, are related to changes in labor market strength, specifically the unemployment rate and wages. The authors merged time series data from 1980 through 2010 (inclusive) from five sources and used multivariate time series models to determine whether changes in labor market strength (and several other macro-level factors) were related to the number of the medical school applicants as reported by the American Medical College Application Service. Analyses were replicated across specific sex and race/ethnicity applicant pools. Two results surfaced in the analyses. First, the strength of the labor market was not influential in explaining changes in applicant pool sizes for all applicants, but was strongly influential in explaining changes for black and Hispanic males. Increases of $1,000 in prevailing median wages produced a 1.6% decrease in the white male applicant pool, while 1% increases in the unemployment rate were associated with 4.5% and 3.1% increases in, respectively, the black and Hispanic male applicant pools. Second, labor market strength was a more important determinant in applications from males than in applications from females. Although stakeholders cannot directly influence the overall economic market, they can plan and prepare for fewer applications from males, especially those who are black and Hispanic, when the labor market is strong.

  13. Neuroeconomic Conditioning of the Influence of a Market Demand of Consumers on an Innovative Character of Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gardocka-Jałowiec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is an identification of key sources of an innovative character and their conditioning in contemporary Polish economy. In the discussion, it is stated that consumers – the smallest, but the most numerous economic unit – through their expectations of the way / form of meeting their own needs, create a direction and dynamics of innovative business and confirm or undermine the legitimacy of accepted directions of actions of the supply side and greatly determine their economic force. In addition, the discussion concerning market decisions (their sources of consumers and businessmen is based on the results of neuroanatomical brain research. Analyses, that were carried out, allow for stating that: 1 consumers in a market play take on the following roles: creators of an innovative activity based on the reported potential demand; evaluating results of actions taken by innovative businessmen through effective demand; 2 in Poland, there has been a gradual redefinition of key factors of innovative character; 3 businessmen (over 90% consider coming closer to consumers, meeting their needs through the use of the Internet, interactive and social media as the most important initiatives; 4 an action of businessmen within the scope of improving operative efficiency, aiming at accelerating reactions to market consumers expectations increase; 5 brain activity accounts for nearly ¾ decisions made – each choice constitutes a completely real process engaging a particular neuron number (including von Economo neurons, which influences particular behaviour; 6 a network of neural connections in the brain changes as one gains knowledge and experience – in effect, brain structures become more flexible.

  14. The CFE Treaty and changed conditions in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed in November 1990 by sixteen nations, members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and six nations, members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO). It was resigned to prevent a major surprise attack in Europe by the conventional forces of one Treaty Organization against those of the other and was the first major arms control treaty to address conventional weapons. This paper focuses on how CFE adapted to changes in the military-political situation in Europe which occurred after 1990 and failed to adapt to others. Suggestions are offered on how it might be changed to make it more relevant under these changed conditions.

  15. Techniques for Analyzing the Attractiveness of International Commodity Markets Under Conditions of Economic Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Pryhara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines existing techniques and proposes its own for analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in light of the globalization of world economic processes. Taking into account the supranational nature of the world economic environment when examining categories in the attractiveness of international commodity markets, the author introduces a multilevel system of indicators: market attractiveness at the mega-level – global level; market attractiveness at the macro-level national level; market attractiveness at the mezo-level – level of an individual sector. The attractiveness of international commodity markets is considered to be the degree of conformity between market environment factors and the mega-, macro- and mezo-levels of the economic interests of enterprises concerning the entry into and strategies for their activity on the international commodity markets in the short-, medium- and long-term. The author designs a stage-by-stage technique for strategically analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in order to frame efficient market strategies of enterprises. Relying on the proposed techniques, she rates the integrated indicators of market accessibility and the possibility of realizing the economic interests of enterprises in target markets, bringing the index data into a matrix of «market accessibility – opportunity for realizing the economic interests of enterprises.» The analysis of a country’s position in the matrix makes it possible to frame efficient market strategies for enterprises.

  16. Level shift two-components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity modelling for WTI crude oil market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Kuek Jia; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the crude oil volatility using a two components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model with the inclusion of abrupt jump feature. The model is able to capture abrupt jumps, news impact, clustering volatility, long persistence volatility and heavy-tailed distributed error which are commonly observed in the crude oil time series. For the empirical study, we have selected the WTI crude oil index from year 2000 to 2016. The results found that by including the multiple-abrupt jumps in ARCH model, there are significant improvements of estimation evaluations as compared with the standard ARCH models. The outcomes of this study can provide useful information for risk management and portfolio analysis in the crude oil markets.

  17. An overview of a free-market approach to climate change and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Richard L; Bettelheim, Eric C; Swingland, Ian R

    2002-08-15

    This paper describes the convergence of environmental and financial markets, reviews the evolution of market-based environmental programmes as an example of the seven-stage evolutionary process witnessed in a variety of markets and summarizes the emergence of greenhouse-gas-mitigation markets and their potential role in advancing land stewardship, biodiversity and other environmental services. Emissions trading has been developed to meet the demand to reduce pollution while avoiding economic disruption. Consistent with the seven-stage pattern of market evolution, the US programme to reduce the damage from acid rain established a standardized environmental commodity, developed 'evidence of ownership' necessary for financial instruments and provided the infrastructure to efficiently transfer title. The success of the system in reducing pollution at low cost has provided a model for other market-based environmental protection initiatives. The demand for cost-effective action to reduce the threat of climate change has initiated the same evolutionary process for markets to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Many of the land- and forest-management practices that can capture and store atmospheric CO(2) can also provide other environmental benefits, such as biodiversity preservation and enhanced water quality. The presence of a carbon-trading market will introduce a clear financial value for capture and mitigation of CO(2) emissions, thus introducing a new source of funding for land stewardship and forest rehabilitation. The market is now emerging through a variety of 'bottom-up' developments being undertaken through governmental, multilateral, private-sector and non-governmental-organization initiatives. The extension of markets to other emerging environmental issues is now underway, and the linkages between environmental sustainability and capital markets are being more deeply understood. The early evidence indicates that environmental sustainability can be compatible with

  18. Board changes and the efficiency of the Nigerian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatundun Adelegan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides some evidence on shareholders wealth effects of management board changes in Nigeria from 1997 to 2005. The study presents the total wealth effect and also distinguishes the wealth effects of announcements of new appointments, board resignations and retirements, death and mixed announcements.

  19. Social Marketing, Stages of Change, and Public Health Smoking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…

  20. Hydrological Responses to Land-Use Change Scenarios under Constant and Changed Climatic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Yu, Wenjun; Ge, Yingchun

    2016-02-01

    This study quantified the hydrological responses to land-use change scenarios in the upper and middle Heihe River basin (HRB), northwest China, under constant and changed climatic conditions by combining a land-use/cover change model (dynamic conversion of land use and its effects, Dyna-CLUE) and a hydrological model (soil and water assessment tool, SWAT). Five land-use change scenarios, i.e., historical trend (HT), ecological protection (EP), strict ecological protection (SEP), economic development (ED), and rapid economic development (RED) scenarios, were established. Under constant climatic condition, hydrological variations are only induced by land-use changes in different scenarios. The changes in mean streamflow at the outlets of the upper and the middle HRB are not pronounced, although the different scenarios produce different outcomes. However, more pronounced changes are observed on a subbasin level. The frequency of extreme flood is projected to decrease under the SEP scenario, while under the other scenarios, no changes can be found. Two emission scenarios (A1B and B1) of three general circulation models (HadCM3, CGCM3, and CCSM3) were employed to generate future possible climatic conditions. Under changed climatic condition, hydrological variations are induced by the combination of land-use and climatic changes. The results indicate that the impacts of land-use changes become secondary when the changed climatic conditions have been considered. The frequencies of extreme flood and drought are projected to decrease and increase, respectively, under all climate scenarios. Although some agreements can be reached, pronounced difference of hydrological responses can be observed for different climate scenarios of different GCMs.

  1. 77 FR 47472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... proposed rule change to make certain amendments that, in part, clarified the operation of the new Market... equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market...-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by...

  2. The paradigm change in international natural gas markets and the impact on regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, Coby; Correlje, Aad; De Jong, Jacques; Toenjes, Christoph

    2006-04-01

    CIEP was strongly involved in the preparation of the discussions on the regulation of gas markets at the World Gas Conference in Amsterdam, 6-9 June 2006. CIEP's new study on gas market regulation served as the starting note for the strategic panel discussion 'The art of regulation'. It combines a theoretical foundation for the discussion on gas market regulation with the outcomes of a series of workshops, which addressed gas market regulation in various parts of the world. In particular, the authors aimed at examining whether changing circumstances in international gas markets require adaptations in current regulatory regimes.The study highlights that the regulation of gas markets, made up of elements such as international agreements, licensing and permitting procedures, competition policy, consumer protection and network access regulation, needs to take the specific regional circumstances of the gas market in question into account. There is no 'one size fits all' solution that is applicable to all gas markets in order to bring about the investments necessary

  3. Marketing strategies in financial crisis : with change in mobile phone technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir, Rizwan; Ur Rehman, Attiq

    2010-01-01

    The financial crisis has affected every economy during the last decade thus under this changing environment that effect the marketing strategies and these strategies began to change according to the buying behavior of the people. In this research the consumer perspective is examined with the change in mobile phone technology. This is an industry of constant change and innovation in which manufacturers are continually developing new technologies for consumers. As the buying behavior of the con...

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF MARKET STABILITY FACTORS ON THE CHANGES IN SHARE PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Геннадьевич Семенов

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to fundamental analysis, share price tends to its intrinsic value. An appreciably large body of research has been devoted to foreign stock markets; meanwhile, the Russian stock market has been studied insufficiently. The hypothesis of fundamental analysis of the Russian stock market was tested in this paper. The effect of market stability factors (P/E; P/B; P/CF; P/D on changes in share prices was studied. The data from the financial reports on IFRS – GAAP and the data on share prices of 54 companies over the period of 2003–2013 were used. The results give grounds for claiming that the postulates of fundamental analysis cannot be used for the Russian stock market: the market stability factors do not correlate with the changes in share prices. Next, the possible reasons for this speculative behavior of the Russian stock market were considered. The methods for analyzing the reports and the financial and economic situation in order to determine the company value were proposed in this paper.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-5

  5. PATTERN FORMATION OF BUSINESS CONDITIONS IN DOMESTIC MARKET OF CROP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Strapchuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to detect crop production on agricultural enterprises clusters at a price by defining their amplitude of price fluctuations. Methodology. The study is based on grouping of statistical data from agricultural enterprises using cluster analysis, followed by reliability evaluation of pre-selected clusters by t-test and charting the scope by the selected index. Cluster analysis of agricultural enterprises in Ukraine has been conducted using "STATISTICA" program. Distance between clusters was calculated as the Euclidean distance. The object of the study was data on the prices for agricultural enterprises by regions of Ukraine in 2013. As a result, an appropriate number of groups according to the produce types in the regions of Ukraine, plane in market prices, have been determined. The process of consistent combination of objects in clusters is shown in the graphs as agglomerative clustering dendrogram of the regions of Ukraine for such products as wheat, grain corn and sunflower seeds. In general, there have been examined: 7311 businesses growing wheat, 5034 – growing corn and 6124 companies growing sunflower. Results. During a year-long study of price fluctuations in agricultural enterprises within regions of Ukraine similarities in nature of absolute and relative changes in the formed clusters were established. Four clusters on wheat, five clusters on corn, three clusters on sunflower seeds have been allocated during the study. The study of the selected groups confirms significant differences between them and allows the sectors and enterprises of the cluster with high variability of prices to build their own marketing strategy based on the position of expectations and search for sale options according to the most favorable price. Practical value. The established differences on the selected clusters make it possible to forecast the price situation in various regions of Ukraine in terms of its differences from average

  6. The international gas markets. Of major changes and challenges for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Already in the 2010 edition of its World Energy Outlook the World Energy Agency noted an unprecedented degree of uncertainty surrounding the international energy markets. The rate of change in these markets is indeed stupendous, posing formidable tasks to business companies as well as the political leadership. The European gas markets face new challenges in protecting their security of supply which stem from the combined effects of the shift of LNG trade flows into the Pacific region, decreasing rates of home production and the ongoing transformation process within the EU.

  7. Pass-through of Change in Policy Interest Rate to Market Rates

    OpenAIRE

    M. Idrees Khawaja; Sajawal Khan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the pass through of the change in policy interest rate of the central bank of Pakistan to market interest rates. The market rates examined include KIBOR, six month deposit rate and weighted average lending rate. More or less complete pass-through of the change in policy rate to KIBOR is observed within one month. However, the magnitude of change in policy rate to deposit and lending rate is not only low but is slow as well. The pass-through to the weighted average lending ...

  8. Should Marketers Try to Change Consumers Unfavourable Attitude for their Product into Favourable?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday O. E. Ewah; Patrick M. Igbaji; Christian I. Umeh

    2014-01-01

    This is an empirical study of the interplay between consumers' attitude toward marketers’ products and marketers; wish to elicit favourable buying behaviour from the consumer. According to the study the process of this transformation of consumer’s attitude is not quite easy. The marketers have to put their acts together by producing products to match consumers attitude or build a gradual change that will result to favourable buying decision from the consumer.

  9. The Effect of Agricultural Growing Season Change on Market Prices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBeurs, K.M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    to plan effective adaptation strategies. Remote sensing data can also provide some understanding of the spatial extent of these changes and whether they are likely to continue. Given the agricultural nature of most economies on the African continent, agricultural production continues to be a critical determinant of both food security and economic growth (Funk and Brown, 2009). Crop phenological parameters, such as the start and end of the growing season, the total length of the growing season, and the rate of greening and senescence are important for planning crop management, crop diversification, and intensification. The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as: "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life". Food security roughly depends on three factors: 1) availability of food; 2) access to food and 3) appropriate use of food, as well as adequate water and sanitation. The first factor is dependent on growing conditions and weather and climate. In a previous paper we have investigated this factor by evaluating the effect of large scale climate oscillation on land surface phenology (Brown et al., 2010). We found that all areas in Africa are significantly affected by at least one type of large scale climate oscillations and concluded that these somewhat predictable oscillations could perhaps be used to forecast agricultural production. In addition, we have evaluated changes in agricultural land surface phenology over time (Brown et al., 2012). We found that land surface phenology models, which link large-scale vegetation indices with accumulated humidity, could successfully predict agricultural productivity in several countries around the world. In this chapter we are interested in the effect of variability in peak timing of the growing season, or phenology, on the second factor of food security, food access. In this chapter we want to determine if there is a link between market prices

  10. How interactive marketing is changing in financial services

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Merlin; Laughlin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the impact of the Internet and related information and communications technology developments on how financial services (FS) are distributed and how customers are managed, in particular, not only how companies can differentiate between “good” and “bad” customers and manage them appropriately but also how customers can be “bad” and escape the consequences. It also explores how changes in information asymmetry between suppliers and customers affects who gain...

  11. Reassessing Rogers' necessary and sufficient conditions of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and, second, by providing guidelines for therapeutic practice. The role of the necessary and sufficient conditions in process-experiential therapy, an emotion-focused therapy for individuals, and their limitations in terms of research and practice are discussed. It is proposed that although the conditions are necessary and important in promoting clients' affect regulation, they do not take sufficient account of other moderating variables that affect clients' response to treatment and may need to be balanced with more structured interventions. Notwithstanding, Rogers highlighted a way of interacting with clients that is generally acknowledged as essential to effective psychotherapy practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Value Premium and Country Risk as Dimensions to Estimate Conditional Returns: a Study of the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian de Castro Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asset pricing is a widely explored theme in the financial literature. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of value premium is still controversial, since although easily detected in developed and emerging markets, little is know about the economic forces that explain its existence. In this context, this article examines value premium in the Brazilian market and investigates the influence of the country risk variable as an additional risk factor for estimating conditional returns in this market not captured by value premium. For that, we employ a five-factor model, formulated by adding the country risk factor to the model of Carhart (1997. We apply the statistical procedure adopted by Fama & French (1993 to the period between 1994 and 2012, with data on nonfinancial companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results confirm the existence of value premium in the Brazilian market, and country risk and value premium together are significant factors to explain conditional returns.

  13. The changing trend in marketing of financial services: an empirical study on bank performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Eniola Alao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The long years of marketing practices in the Nigerian banking industry has recorded low level standards relative to global standard practice. The effect on the overall industry performance measurable basically in terms of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and brand equity has been on the negativity. In some cases, banks overall performance level was never assessed based on customer orientation, value and other customer related measures rather on some quick financial indicators. This poor orientation towards marketing has rather become a forgone especially in the banking area of financial services in Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to examine the changing trend towards embracing marketing philosophy and the extent of the banks’ performance level in response to changing expectations of customers. Theoretical issues relating marketing, customer philosophy, financial marketing, customer loyalty, satisfaction, and brand equity were explored to establish the key performance variables and the existing relationships amongst them. Empirical study was equally carried out with the use of questionnaire, administered on randomly selected banks’ customers and management staff. Data collected were analyzed on the basis of critical measures which include customer awareness, market sensitivity to financial delivery, customer profile and sophistication through the use of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. The result among other things shows that there is a significant relationship between the new trend towards marketing orientation, financial services in the banking industry and performance level. Based on this study, we recommend improved marketing performance and training to enhance service delivery, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty across all banks in the geographical places of the Nigerian financial markets.

  14. What can price volatility tell us about market efficiency? Conditional heteroscedasticity in historical commodity price series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Földvári, P.; van Leeuwen, B.

    2011-01-01

    The development in the working of markets has been an important topic in economic history for decades. The volatility of market prices is often used as an indicator of market efficiency in the broadest sense. Yet, the way in which volatility is estimated often makes it difficult to compare price

  15. Dynamic conditional correlation analysis of financial market interdependence : An application to Thailand and Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Lestano, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic linkages among financial markets in Thailand and Indonesia. In particular, we focus on the cross-border relationship in individual markets and on the relationship between finan- cial markets within each country. We find that while tight monetary policy pursued by

  16. The changing marketing of smokeless tobacco in magazine advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laurel E; Pederson, Linda L; Stryker, Jo Ellen

    2011-07-01

    Concerns about secondhand smoke, increasing indoor smoking bans, and health concerns regarding cigarettes are contributing to the development of new smokeless tobacco (ST) products by the tobacco industry and the repositioning of traditional ST products. The objective of this research was to systematically document the changing advertising strategies and themes of the ST industry. Using descriptive content analysis, this study analyzed 17 nationally circulated magazines for ST advertisements (ads) from 1998-1999 and 2005-2006, recording both magazine and advertisement characteristics (e.g., themes, selling proposition, people portrayed, and setting/surroundings.) Ninety-five unique ads were found during the two time periods-occurring with total frequency of 290 ad placements in 816 issues. One hundred ninety-one ads were found in the 2005-2006 sample, while 99 were found in the 1998-1999 magazines. Significant differences in ST ads were identified between time periods and magazine types. A greater percentage of ads were found in the latter time period, and the average number of ads per issue increased (0.24 in 1998-1999 and 0.49 in 2005-2006, p advertise in men's magazines with themes appealing to men and "traditional" ST users, the ST industry appears to be simultaneously changing its message placement and content in order to include readers of general adult magazines who may not currently use ST.

  17. The interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operations in small European countries, 1980 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We study the interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operating procedures in 11 European countries from c. 1980 up to the launch of EMU. Aspects of money market development such as the size and structure of different market segments, and institutional and regulatory changes, are addressed. We recount and empirically examine the extent of reorientation of monetary policy instruments away from quantitative direct control instruments toward indirect market-based...

  18. Marine Vessel Models in Changing Operational Conditions - A Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Sørensen, Asgeir; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    conditions (VOC). However, since marine systems operate in changing VOCs, there is a need to adapt the models. To date, there is no theory available to describe a general model valid across different VOCs due to the complexity of the hydrodynamic involved. It is believed that system identification could......This tutorial paper provides an introduction, from a systems perspective, to the topic of ship motion dynamics of surface ships. It presents a classification of parametric models currently used for monitoring and control of marine vessels. These models are valid for certain vessel operational...

  19. Rhetorical Strategies of Consumer Activists: Reframing Market Offers to Promote Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Scaraboto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer researchers have most frequently looked at the influence the marketplace has on consumers’ identity projects, while the reverse process – how consumers’ identity projects influence the marketplace and general culture – is an important issue that has received less attention. Aiming to contribute to the development of this literature, we conduct a qualitative netnographic investigation of the Fat Acceptance Movement, an online-based movement led by consumer-activists who attempt to change societal attitudes about people who are fat. Our main goal is, therefore, to investigate how consumer activists who congregate online, that is, cyberactivists, reframe market offers while attempting to promote market and cultural change. We identify several rhetorical strategies employed by online consumer activists in their quests to change themselves, other consumers, and the broader culture. Our findings advance consumer research on how consumers may mobilize resources to initiate and promote self-, market-, and cultural transformations.

  20. Relationship Marketing, Engine of Sustainable Development and Organisational Change in the Romanian Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Al. Pop

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a conceptual clarification of the terms sustainable development and organisational change. It studies the role of relationship marketing for implementing these two concepts. The main objectives are the perception of the three concepts by Romanian business decision-makers and their ‘sensitivity’ to organisational changes, with regard to implementing the relationship marketing at company level. Information was gathered via exploratory research, using qualitative in-depth interview based on a conversation guide. The conclusions of the study prove that the interlocutors have a relatively clear knowledge of the concepts, but without making a direct connection between sustainable development and major organisational changes triggered by implementing the relationship marketing. The authors recommend the development of a system which centralises all company connections with its stakeholders, to fully capitalise on its accumulated relational capital

  1. WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF TIMBERLAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN THE U.S. TIMBER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.

  2. Future of printing: changes and challenges, technologies and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Digitalization within the graphic arts industry is described and it is explained how it is improving and changing the print production strategies and which new kinds of print production systems are developed or can be expected. The relationship of printed media and electronic media is analyzed and a positioning for the next century is given. The state of the art of conventional printing technologies, especially using direct imagine techniques, and their position within the digital workflow are shortly described. Non-impact printing multicolor printing systems are explained, based on general design criteria and linked to existing and newly announced equipment. The use of high-tech components for building up successful systems with high reliability, high quality and low production costs is included with some examples. Digital printing systems open many opportunities in print production: distributed printing, personalization, print and book on demand are explained as examples. The overview of the several printing technologies and their positioning regarding quality and productivity leads to the scenario about the important position of printed media, also in the distant future.

  3. EMISSIONS FROM INDIRECT LAND USE CHANGE: DO THEY MATTER WITH FUEL MARKET LEAKAGES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drabik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect land use change, an agricultural market leakage, has been a major controversy over the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA requirement for corn-ethanol to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 20 percent relative to gasoline it is assumed to replace. This paper shows that corn-ethanol policies generate far greater carbon leakage in the fuel market itself. Hence, corn-ethanol does not meet EPA’s threshold, regardless of ethanol policy and whether one includes emissions from land use change.

  4. Book keeping in Bulgaria in conditions of transition to market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlozar Stefanov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to analyze the problems that Bulgarian accounting system encounters in the run of economical changes, and, based on that, to outline the tendencies in its development under conditions of a world undergoing globalization on a larger scale. Emphasis has been given on more essential problems, as presenting information in financial reports, accounting investments and business – combinations, realized as privatization deals

  5. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  6. Climatic conditions and child height: Sex-specific vulnerability and the protective effects of sanitation and food markets in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmi, Prajula; Block, Steven A; Shively, Gerald E; Masters, William A

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life are known to have impacts on later health outcomes, but causal mechanisms and potential remedies have been difficult to discern. This paper uses the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys of 2006 and 2011, combined with earlier NASA satellite observations of variation in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at each child's location and time of birth to identify the trimesters of gestation and periods of infancy when climate variation is linked to attained height later in life. We find significant differences by sex: males are most affected by conditions in their second trimester of gestation, and females in the first three months after birth. Each 100-point difference in NDVI at those times is associated with a difference in height-for-age z-score (HAZ) measured at age 12-59 months of 0.088 for boys and 0.054 for girls, an effect size similar to that of moving within the distribution of household wealth by close to one quintile for boys and one decile for girls. The entire seasonal change in NDVI from peak to trough is approximately 200-300 points during the 2000-2011 study period, implying a seasonal effect on HAZ similar to one to three quintiles of household wealth. This effect is observed only in households without toilets; in households with toilets, there is no seasonal fluctuation, implying protection against climatic conditions that facilitate disease transmission. We also use data from the Nepal Living Standards Surveys on district-level agricultural production and marketing, and find a climate effect on child growth only in districts where households' food consumption derives primarily from their own production. Robustness tests find no evidence of selection effects, and placebo regression results reveal no significant artefactual correlations. The timing and sex-specificity of climatic effects are consistent with previous studies, while the protective effects of household sanitation and food markets are

  7. Propaganda, News, or Education: Reporting Changing Arctic Sea Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

    2010-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center provides information on Arctic sea ice conditions via the Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis (ASINA) website. As a result of this effort to explain climatic data to the general public, we have attracted a huge amount of attention from our readers. Sometimes, people write to thank us for the information and the explanation. But people also write to accuse us of bias, slant, or outright lies in our posts. The topic of climate change is a minefield full of political animosity, and even the most carefully written verbiage can appear incomplete or biased to some audiences. Our strategy has been to report the data and stick to the areas in which our scientists are experts. The ASINA team carefully edits our posts to make sure that all statements are based on the science and not on opinion. Often this means using some technical language that may be difficult for a layperson to understand. However, we provide concise definitions for technical terms where appropriate. The hope is that by communicating the data clearly, without an agenda, we can let the science speak for itself. Is this an effective strategy to communicate clearly about the changing climate? Or does it downplay the seriousness of climate change? By writing at a more advanced level and avoiding oversimplification, we require our readers to work harder. But we may also maintain the attention of skeptics, convincing them to read further and become more knowledgeable about the topic.

  8. Spirometry Changes in Cold Climatic Conditions of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya, Iyamanda B; Laxmi, Chettangada C; Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Raju, Trichur R; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function is one of the important physiological measures that is known to be affected during the changes in the altitude. There is dearth of literature on changes in the pulmonary function variables in the cold climate conditions of Antarctica. We carried out spirometry before, during and after one year stay at Antarctica in members of the Indian expedition. Spirometry was carried out on 23 members of the XXVI Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica at baseline, after six months of expedition and at the end of one year, using standard guidelines. The tests were carried out indoor in temperature controlled laboratory. The pulmonary function test parameters did not vary across the period. Although, both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) showed a decreasing trend but did not attain any statistical significance. However, peak expiratory flow (PEFR) rate was reduced significantly. Our study did not show consistently significant change in the pulmonary function parameters in the members of the Indian Antarctic expedition.

  9. Wte Power Plant Operation on the Energy Market Under the Influence of Legislation Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomić, T.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of combined heat and power waste-to-energy plant is investigated in theconditions of implementation of the new legal framework for waste disposal and management aswell as new power market conditions. As waste management is a core issue of sustainabledevelopment of r...

  10. Changing Ocean, Changing Economics: Impact of Rising Temperatures on the American Lobster Landings and on the US-Canada Lobster Economics in the Emerging Chinese Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C. H. J.

    2016-02-01

    Record high temperatures in 2012 pushed the start date of the Maine lobster fishing season three weeks earlier than normal. High landings during a compressed time period more than doubled the volume experienced in June and July. As supply outpaced demand, an average 40% decrease in ex-vessel price significantly reduced fishermen's profitability. This study examined how the timing and location of lobster landings is affected by ocean temperatures, number of trips, distance fished from shore, price, and seasonality. Weekly lobster landings and the number of fishing trips in eastern, central, and western Maine from 2008 to 2014 were combined with NERACOOS buoy temperatures to model the change in productivity. The model shows warming leads to significant increases in landings. We also used monthly landings, prices, and trade of live and processed lobster between the U.S. and Canada from 1990 to 2014 to specify a system of equations that captures how both markets are integrated and how they respond to changing market conditions. The model shows that an increase in landings in both areas leads to an increase in lobster trade and then to an increase in US imports of frozen lobster meat. Furthermore, lobster exports to the emerging Chinese market started to expand after 2012 and grew to account for 21% and 11% of the exports value from U.S. and Canada, respectively. From 2010 to 2014, a sub-system model is specified to address how increasing demand in the Chinese market for hard-shell lobster could create incentives to delay production and increase the supply of hard-shell live lobster. The full model was then used to explore ways in which this coastal social-ecological system can adapt to increasing ocean temperature and how the integrated global market might alter the economic implications of the next ocean heatwave.

  11. Long-term biomass resources for energy aim - quantities, costs and conditions of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, M.; Abildtrup, J.; Vodder Nielsen, K.; Petersen, S.M.; Varming, S.

    2001-01-01

    This project assesses the agricultural, technical and economic possibilities for producing the planned quantity of energy crops in year 2015. The assessments in this project are based on two essential assumptions: 1) The total demand for straw and energy crops to meet the energy plans is added up, and the available amount of straw is used first and energy crops will be used for the remaining amount. 2) As long as the present economic conditions for set-aside prevails, it will only be the set-aside areas that will be available for energy crop production. Energy crops are not seen as economic competitive with other cash-crops on the reform areas.Three different scenarios for the agricultural crop production up to year 2015 are outlined; a reference scenario where the current development is extrapolated; an environment scenario in which a higher degree of environmental awareness is taken into account and a market scenario in which the economic competitiveness of agricultural production gains more focus. (au)

  12. Sustainable resilience in property maintenance: encountering changing weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Rimante Andrasiunaite; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to develop a methodological approach for project management to integrate sustainability and resilience planning in property maintenance as an incremental strategy for upgrading existing properties to meet new standards for sustainable and climate resilient...... buildings. Background: Current maintenance practice is focused on the technical standard of buildings, with little consideration of sustainability and resilience. There is a need to develop tools for incorporating sustainable resilience into maintenance planning. Approach: The study is primarily theoretical......, developing the concept of sustainable resilience for changing weather conditions Results: The paper suggests a decision support methodology that quantifies sustainable resilience for the analytical stages of property maintenance planning. Practical Implications: The methodology is generic and expected users...

  13. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically...... separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases....

  14. Modelling climate change impacts on stream habitat conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, Eva; Conallin, John; Karthikeyan, Matheswaran

    Impact from groundwater abstraction on freshwater resources and ecosystems is an issue of sincere concern in Denmark and many other countries worldwide. In addition, climate change projections add complexity to the existing conflict between water demands to satisfy human needs and water demands...... required to conserve streams as biologically diverse and healthy ecosystems. Solutions to this intensifying conflict require a holistic approach whereby stream biota is related to their physical environment at catchment scale, as also demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive. In the present study......, climate impacts on stream ecological conditions were quantified by combining a heat and mass stream flow with a habitat suitability modelling approach. Habitat suitability indices were developed for stream velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrate. Generally, water depth was found...

  15. Competition as an Effective Tool in Developing Social Marketing Programs: Driving Behavior Change through Online Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina ŞERBAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby contributing to beneficial causes. However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness. The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Therefore, the online environment can be considered a good solution for better serving consumers’ social needs. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. In conclusion, this article opens new opportunities for social marketers to address society’s problems and supports the integration of the online communication tools in the competition strategy.

  16. Responsiveness of Higher Education to Changing Job Market Demand in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bipasha; Islam, Kazi Maruful

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh economy has been transforming towards a market-based economy from a state-dominated centrally planned economy since the early 1980s, the pace of transformation has been slow though. The aim of this article is to see how the higher education system responds to the changes in the structure of the economy. The article argues that the…

  17. Change Management at a Danish University: The Introduction of a Common Market for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the approach to the management of change taken by a Danish university when introducing a university-wide market for education and it explores the different positions taken by some of the central stakeholders in one of the faculties involved. I argue that neither the inadequacies of a popular management model nor insufficient…

  18. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)∼(t-T) -Ω , with Ω positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n ' (|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.

  19. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-06-01

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)∼(t-T)(-Ω) , with Ω positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n'(|t-T|) of "preshocks" before the interest-rate change at time T . This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the "sign effect," in which "bad news" has a larger impact than "good news." Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a "market under-reaction" that lasts at least one trading day.

  20. Inside Moves: As Technologies and Job Descriptions Change, Communications and Marketing Offices Opt for Strategic Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maura King

    2011-01-01

    Realists recognize reorganizations for what they are: opportunities to do things better--to change business as usual to reflect best practices, new tools and technologies, and current challenges in the marketplace. At educational institutions, perhaps no area is as sensitive to those shifts as communications and marketing offices. The advances in…

  1. Enhancing the Capacity to Create Behavior Change: Extension Key Leaders' Opinions about Social Marketing and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators endeavor to create and measure outcomes beyond knowledge gain. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the role of social marketing as a method for creating behavior change within the University of Florida Extension system through key leader opinions. Additionally, the study sought to identify perceptions about…

  2. Globalization and Institutional Change : Are Emerging Market Economies in Europe and Asia Converging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that globalization leads to a smaller world by institutional convergence. Politico-economic orders become alike across the world. The article analyzes institutional change triggered by the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 and compares developments in emerging markets in Europe

  3. MODELS OF THE 5 PORTERS COMPETITIVE FORCES METHODOLOGY CHANGES IN COMPANIES STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT ON COMPETITIVE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I Zubin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some different types of approaches to 5 Porters Forces model development in thisarticle. Authors take up the negative attitude researcher reasons to this instrument and inputsuch changes in it, which can help to fi nd the best way to companies growing up on competitive market.

  4. Mezinárodní konference ENHR 09 – Prague Changing Housing Markets: Integration and Segmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Vojtková, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2009), s. 1141-1142 ISSN 0038-0288. [ENHR 09 Prague: Changing Housing Markets : Integration and Segmentation. Praha, 28.06.2009-01.07.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : international conference * housing * integration Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2009 www.enhr2009.cz

  5. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-06-01

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)˜(t-T)-Ω , with Ω positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n'(|t-T|) of “preshocks” before the interest-rate change at time T . This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the “sign effect,” in which “bad news” has a larger impact than “good news.” Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a “market under-reaction” that lasts at least one trading day.

  6. Effects of freezing conditions on quality changes in blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuehui; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Dongyu; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jianrong

    2018-03-12

    Freezing preservation is one of the most effective methods used to maintain the flavour and nutritional value of fruit. This research studied the effects of different freezing conditions, -20 °C, -40 °C, -80 °C, and immersion in liquid nitrogen, on quality changes of freeze-thawed blueberries. The water distribution estimates of blueberries were measured based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis. The pectin content, drip loss, and fruit texture were also detected to evaluate quality changes in samples. The freezing curves of blueberry showed super-cooling points at -20 °C and - 40 °C, whereas super-cooling points were not observed at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen. After freeze-thaw treatment, the relaxation time of the cell wall water (T 21 ), cytoplasm water and extracellular space (T 22 ), and vacuole water (T 23 ) were significantly shortened compared to fresh samples, which suggested a lower liquidity. Although the freezing speed for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen was faster than other treatments, samples treated at -80 °C showed better quality regarding vacuole water holding, drip loss, and original pectin content retention. This study contributed to understanding how freezing temperature affects the qualities of blueberries. The super-fast freezing rate might injure fruit, and an appropriate freezing rate could better preserve blueberries. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Integration of the market of the European Community and the change of the industrial structure; EC shijo togo to sangyo kozo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T; Uno, K; Tanimoto, T; Yamashita, T [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan). Institute for Industrial Research

    1994-11-22

    This paper describes progress of the cooperation as to the integration of EC market and the change of industrial structure. For the structural change in the industry and economy accompanied by the integration of EC, effects of the Maastricht Treaty on the economic structure of EC are described. It is considered that the EC countries are affected by the political and economical restrictions due to the agreement of this treaty. For the change in the distribution structure accompanied by the integration of EC, obstruction factors of the deregulation of EC transportation market are especially investigated. Differences in the distribution capacity, various regulations and standards, and labor condition among individual countries are pointed out as the obstruction factors. For the unity of Germany and its economical and administrative influence, various problems are pointed out as to the economical confusion, progress in the de-nationalization of enterprises, management of real estate and land, etc. For the structural change in the road freight market in the member nations of EC, the structure of road freight market is made clear for the previous West Germany before the integration of European market. It is confirmed that the internationalization of the German domestic market is being promoted.

  8. Risk analysis for CHP decision making within the conditions of an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad; Kozuh, Mitja

    2007-01-01

    Decision making under uncertainty is a difficult task in most areas. Investment decisions for combined heat and power production (CHP) are certainly one of the areas where it is difficult to find an optimal solution since the payback period is several years and parameters change due to different perturbing factors of economic and mostly political nature. CHP is one of the most effective measures for saving primary energy and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of EU directives on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will accelerate CHP installation. The expected number of small CHP installations will be very high in the near future. A quick, reliable and simple tool for economic evaluation of small CHP systems is required. Since evaluation is normally made by sophisticated economic computer models which are rather expensive, a simple point estimate economic model was developed which was later upgraded by risk methodology to give more informative results for better decision making. This paper presents a reliable computer model entitled 'Computer program for economic evaluation analysis of CHP' as a tool for analysis and economic evaluation of small CHP systems with the aim of helping the decision maker. The paper describes two methods for calculation of the sensitivity of the economic results to changes of input parameters and the uncertainty of the results: the classic/static method and the risk method. The computer program uses risk methodology by applying RISK software on an existing conventional economic model. The use of risk methodology for economic evaluation can improve decisions by incorporating all possible information (knowledge), which cannot be done in the conventional economic model due to its limitations. The methodology was tested on the case of a CHP used in a smaller hospital

  9. Mathematical models and methods for analysis of distributed power generation on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    day and a common hourly electricity spot price is found. Intra-day markets for balancing power also exist. The raison d’etre for this type of market is that although supply and demand are balanced on a day-ahead basis, actual demand is impossible to forecast with complete accuracy. Thus on the day...... of operation actual demand and planned supply never match precisely. The system operator must then procure so-called balancing power in the intra-day market to maintain the physical balance of the system at all times. The present thesis considers the effects of large amounts of distributed electricity...... in advance as opposed to purchasing the needed volumes in the intra-day balancing market. The thesis itself provides an introduction to the Nordic power system and market with emphasis on the Danish situation. After presenting a few classic topics in power system operation, the situation post...

  10. Major Change in the Quality Management of the Qualitative Market Research

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to explore a major change in the quality management of a distinct category of services, respectively the qualitative research. The essence of the change consists in the creation of an international standard aiming to increase the quality and professionalism of the market, opinion and social research, also including the qualitative research. The approach is entirely focused on the services provided by companies specialized in this field to all the organizatio...

  11. Marketing Strategic Change in Expansionof Disneyland : Cases Study of Disneyland's Overseas Expansion in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Xu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Problem: The international theme park industry is growing but is also facing a series of bottleneck problems. Disneyland as one of the most famous theme parks, is trying to expand its kingdom to China. With the success and failure of the three previous oversea Disneyland, marketing strategic changes are becoming crucial and critical in the expansion of theme parks. Recognizing the elements that lead to strategic changes and generate proper strategies are preconditions of any successful expans...

  12. Malaria healthcare policy change in Kenya: implications on sales and marketing of antimalarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Peter K; Nyaoke, Lorraine; Minja, David

    2012-03-01

    Malaria healthcare policy change in Kenya aimed at improving the control of malaria but faced a number of challenges in implementation related to marketing of the drugs. This research investigated the effect of the change of the national malaria policy on drug sales and strategic marketing responses of antimalarial pharmaceutical companies in Kenya. A descriptive cross-sectional design was employed to describe the existing state of antimalarials market in Kenya after the change of the malaria healthcare policy. Policy change did result in an increase in the sales of Coartem®. Novartis Pharma recorded a 97% growth in sales of Coartem® between 2003 and 2004. However, this increase was not experienced by all the companies. Further, SPs (which had been replaced as first-line therapy for malaria) registered good sales. In most cases, these sales were higher than the sales of Coartem®. Generally, the sales contribution of SPs and generic antimalarial medicines exceeded that of Coartem® for most distributors. The most common change made to marketing strategies by distributors (62.5%) was to increase imports of antimalarials. A total of 40% of the manufacturers preferred to increase their budgetary allocation for marketing activities. In view of the fact that continued sale of SP drugs and limited availability of AL poses the risk of increasing the incidence of malaria in Kenya, it is therefore, recommended that pharmacy surveillance systems be strengthened to ensure drugs that have been rendered non-viable or that prescription-only medicines are not sold contrary to the national guidelines.

  13. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  14. Best practices: Strategic stigma change (SSC): five principles for social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2011-08-01

    This column describes strategic stigma change (SSC), which comprises five principles and corresponding practices developed as a best practice to erase prejudice and discrimination associated with mental illness and promote affirming behaviors and social inclusion. SSC principles represent more than ten years of insights from the National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment. The principles, which are centered on consumer contact that is targeted, local, credible, and continuous, were developed to inform the growth of large-scale social marketing campaigns supported by governments and nongovernmental organizations. Future social marketing efforts to address stigma and the need for evidence to determine SSC's penetration and impact are also discussed.

  15. Changing climatic conditions in the Upper Thames River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Many climate change impact studies have been conducted using a top-down approach. First, outputs from Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are considered which are downscaled in a second step to the river basin scale using either a statistical/empirical or a dynamic approach. The local climatic signal that is obtained is then used as input into a hydrological model to assess the direct consequences in the basin. Problems related to this approach include: a high degree of uncertainty associated with GCM outputs; and an increase in uncertainty due to the downscaling approach. An original inverse approach is developed in this work in order to improve the understanding of the processes leading to hydrological hazards, including both flood and drought events. The developed approach starts with the analysis of existing guidelines and management practices in a river basin with respect to critical hydrological exposures that may lead to failure of the water resources system or parts thereof. This implies that vulnerable components of the river basin have to be identified together with the risk exposure. In the next step the critical hydrologic exposures (flood levels for example) are transformed into corresponding critical meteorological conditions (extreme precipitation events for example). These local weather scenarios are then be statistically linked to possible large-scale climate conditions that are available from the GCMs. The developed procedure allows for the assessment of the vulnerability of river basins with respect to climate forcing. It also provides a tool for identifying the spatial distribution of the vulnerability and risk. Vulnerability is here characterized by the incremental losses, expressed either quantitatively or qualitatively, due to a change in the probability and magnitude of hazard events driven by climatic forcing. Vulnerability is seen as the basis for risk mitigation measures for hydrologic extremes at the basin level. The

  16. Aspect of the electrical power market in the condition on liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Marjan

    2003-01-01

    This paper comprise several topics of the electricity market area as investments and costs, production and efficiency, general issues on the market liberalization, with a discussion on the Macedonian specifics, as well as the market forces that drives the electricity trade. In this paper the main topic will be on the production and applied economics in this heavily engineering area. In the last years the traditional engineering approach requires synergy and wider approach including pure economic methods and techniques in order to derive efficient strategic decisions. The purpose here will be to illustrate simple examples of the economic thought in this area. (Original)

  17. Aspect of the electrical power market in the condition on liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Marjan

    2004-01-01

    This paper comprise several topics of the electricity market area as investments and costs, production and efficiency, general issues on the market liberalization, with a discussion on the Macedonian specifics, as well as the market forces that drives the electricity trade. In this paper the main topic will be on the production and applied economics in this heavily engineering area. In the last years the traditional engineering approach requires synergy and wider approach including pure economic methods and techniques in order to derive efficient strategic decisions. The purpose here will be to illustrate simple examples of the economic thought in this area. (Original)

  18. Oil Price and Equity Markets: Modeling Co-Movement and Conditional Value at Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Solvang, Jørn; Aarø, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Finance This paper studies the co-movement between oil prices and stock markets during the period 2006 – 2017 utilizing quantile regression. The studied stock indices are AEX, BOVESPA, CAC40, DAX30, EUROSTOXX50, FTSE100, SMI, S&P500 and TSX60, and the United States Oil Fund ETF represents the oil price. We investigate the co-movement and find a positive and significant co-movement between oil returns and stock market returns across quantiles for the stock market return d...

  19. Institutional change in European natural gas markets and implications for energy security: Lessons from the German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on institutional change in the German gas market driven by EU internal market and climate policies. It argues that institutional change has functional externalities for energy security. The German gas market provides a useful case study, as Germany is the biggest continental gas market, a major hub and transport country which has largely privatised, unbundled and separated its natural gas undertakings. Transition is ongoing, tending towards an internal market. Inter/national natural gas economics is in flux. Institutional evolution has repercussions for corporate and market structures, the operating of the system and the realization of transactions. Changes in the institutional framework crucially affect energy security, which is often associated with institutional stability. On the basis of this case study, it is argued herein that the security of natural gas supplies should be reexamined in the context of the developments described above, since overall the institutional changes in natural gas security lag behind the EU’s internal natural gas market development. - Highlights: • EU natural gas market regulation primarily aims to establish competitive markets. • German/EU regulatory approach has externalities for supply security. • Institutional changes and breaks with path dependencies take place in Germany/the EU. • Institutional change results in increasing uncertainty and complexity. • Subsequent change in perceptions and expectations may destabilise trade relations

  20. The Energy Market 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  1. The Energy Market 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  2. The changing face of the English National Health Service: new providers, markets and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Lucy

    2016-09-01

    One significant change in the English National Health Service (NHS) has been the introduction of market mechanisms. This review will explore the following questions: should we have markets in healthcare? What is the underlying philosophy of introducing more market mechanisms into the NHS? What are the effects of this and does it change the NHS beyond anything Bevan might have imagined in 1948? The review will use empirical studies, philosophical literature, bioethics discussion, policy and NHS documents. The NHS is facing unprecedented challenges at the beginning of the 21st century, with funding levels not meeting the increase in demand. The extent and appropriate role for market mechanisms in the NHS is hotly debated. It will be argued that we are moving towards a more market-based NHS and the possible effects of this will be discussed. Rarely are the policy changes in the NHS evidence based in any meaningful way and they are often driven by ideological considerations rather than clear evidence. There needs to be a greater reliance on evidence of what works and a continuing commitment to healthcare as a societal good. There needs to be a discussion of what the NHS should be-a funder and provider, a funder or a partial funder? How the balance of power between regulators, different types of provider, commissioners and ultimately patients will play out in this changing environment are also areas for future study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. From a fuel supplier to an active participant: Shell's view of the opportunities offered by a changing power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the last 10 years, the power generation market has seen radical changes. The coming years will see yet more change. Although the pace of change may be uneven across Europe, it is clear that the old reference points for the power generation market are no longer valid. Along with other market players, Shell has re-evaluated the role it wishes to play in the power generation market. Although it has long operated large generation capacity on its own sites, Shell's role has been that of a fuel supplier to monopoly power generation and distribution organizations, which were largely state controlled . Privatization and liberalization have been followed by changing market structures tending to push risk towards the producer. This evolution presents challenges for the normal IPP structure, where market risk is transferred and offers an opportunity for the active participation of the fuel supplier in meeting these challenges. In 1996, Shell decided to embrace the changes in power generation market. Already, significant steps have been taken in markets in Asia, Latin America and in Europe. The differing requirements of each of these markets means there are no standard solutions and requires Shell to devise flexible frameworks which meet the customer's needs. Shell is bringing its significant strengths to the power generation market and looks forward to participating on a world wide scale in the industry at this exciting phase in its development

  4. A reaction-diffusion model for market fluctuations - A relation between price change and traded volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvan, Steven; Bier, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Two decades ago Bak et al. (1997) [3] proposed a reaction-diffusion model to describe market fluctuations. In the model buyers and sellers diffuse from opposite ends of a 1D interval that represents a price range. Trades occur when buyers and sellers meet. We show analytically and numerically that the model well reproduces the square-root relation between traded volumes and price changes that is observed in real-life markets. The result is remarkable as this relation has commonly been explained in terms of more elaborate trader strategies. We furthermore explain why the square-root relation is robust under model modifications and we show how real-life bond market data exhibit the square-root relation.

  5. Competitive electric power markets and grid reliability : something has changed during the past decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluckiger, K.

    2005-01-01

    This white paper reviewed some of the fundamental changes in the way in which electricity is provided to customers. Previously, electricity was delivered by integrated electric utilities that owned both generation and transmission and directly served their customers. Restructuring altered the rules that govern control, operation, ownership and regulation of the industry. The traditional integrated utility has been disaggregated. Wholesale electricity costs are no longer regulated and prices are now set by supply and demand in a market context. Generation investment decisions are based on future expectations of market performance. It was suggested that transmission should become a facilitator of the competitive market. Inter-ties are an essential part of a competitive market, as a means to import power when needed and to export surplus energy. The role of transmission in facilitating new generation by providing non-discriminatory and efficient transport to the market was discussed. It was noted that the lack of transmission investment is resulting in economic penalties, rising losses and constraints on more economic generators. Transmission congestion is counterproductive to the interests of customers. A move away from regional planning to a recognition of the wider interconnectedness of the system was recommended. The current practice of deferring necessary maintenance as a way to generate short-term profit was examined. It was noted that despite the need for new transmission infrastructure, investment in merchant alternating current projects has been slow to materialize. Other challenges to transmission included the uncertainty of regulatory processes and investment recovery as well as the unpredictability of flow patterns in the bulk power system. It was concluded that competitive generation markets will not work with an inadequate transmission infrastructure. Transmission enables new generation by ensuring non-discriminatory and efficient transport to market

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CONDITIONS OF THE STOCK MARKET AND MONETARY POLICY ON THE BEHAVIOROF RISK INDICATORS SIZE, BOOK-TO-MARKET RATIO AND MOMENTUM, ON THE BRAZILIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mussa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Last years, empirical tests of APT (Arbitrage Pricing Theory models have been intensified on the national and international literature, mainly using firm´s characteristics to construct risk factors in addition to the market beta. The Fama-French 3-factors model and the Carhart 4-factors model are two samples intensively tested of this type of models, with evidences of relative success. On this scenario, it is important to deepen the studies of the factor´s behavior that compose these models. Following the way of international researches, the purpose of this article is to investigate the behavior of the factors: size, book-to-market ratio and momentum, on the Brazilian stock market, in conditions of i up and down markets ii expansive and restrictive monetary policy. The sample was composed by all stocks listed on BOVESPA, from June of 1995 to June of 2007. The methodology was the same used by Fama & French (1993 to construct the portfolios and risk factors. The results indicated that the stock market and monetary environment influence the regularities in the factor´s behavior, on the Brazilian Stock markets.

  7. Icing conditions over Northern Eurasia in changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulygina, Olga N; Arzhanova, Natalia M; Groisman, Pavel Ya

    2015-01-01

    Icing conditions, particularly in combination with wind, affect greatly the operation of overhead communication and transmission lines causing serious failures, which result in tremendous economic damage. Icing formation is dangerous to agriculture, forestry, high seas fishery, for land and off coast man-made infrastructure. Quantitative icing characteristics such as weight, thickness, and duration are very important for the economy and human wellbeing when their maximum values exceed certain thresholds. Russian meteorological stations perform both visual and instrumental monitoring of icing deposits. Visual monitoring is ocular estimation of the type and intensity of icing and the date of ice appearance and disappearance. Instrumental monitoring is performed by ice accretion indicator that in addition to the type, intensity and duration of ice deposits reports also their weight and size. We used observations at 958 Russian stations for the period 1977–2013 to analyze changes in the ice formation frequency at individual meteorological stations and on the territory of quasi-homogeneous climatic regions in Russia. It was found that hoar frosts are observed in most parts of Russia, but icing only occurs in European Russia and the Far East. On the Arctic coast of Russia, this phenomenon can even be observed in summer months. Statistically significant decreasing trends in occurrence of icing and hoar frost events are found over most of Russia. An increasing trend in icing weights (IWs) was found in the Atlantic Arctic region in autumn. Statistically significant large negative trends in IWs were found in the Pacific Arctic in winter and spring. (letter)

  8. Energie-Nederland. Financial and economic impact of a changing energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    A detailed study of the Dutch power market has been carried out, including an assessment of the financial implications for conventional power plants. This study is to provide insight into the potential implications of the 16% RES (renewable energy sources) target without prescribing a particular scenario or outcome, or suggesting possible solutions. The study focuses on the potential financial and economic impact of meeting the RES target under different market scenarios. Also, the potential impact on security of supply and the need for flexible back-up capacity in the period 2013-2020 are assessed. Furthermore, an analysis is performed of potential market prices that are required for the economic feasibility of flexible back-up generation capacity with a very limited load factor. For the assessment of the financial impact of a changing energy market, the Dutch power market is modelled under various scenarios. Use has been made of a detailed model of Northwest Europe, in which all power stations, interconnections, and constraints (i.e. RES potential) are accounted for. In all scenarios, the 16% RES target is a binding constraint in that model. This means the model determines the least-cost option to meet this target, including wind onshore and offshore (up to the limit estimated by ECN), dedicated biomass and co-firing of biomass, and other sources such as solar.

  9. Policy changes and the dynamics of capacity expansion in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Patricia; Van Ackere, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Capacity of supply is a crucial matter in electricity markets as it directly influences reliability of supply, price volatility and blackout risk. In this paper, we analyse the dynamics of capacity expansion in the Swiss electricity market and the impact of different policies such as nuclear phaseout and management of electricity exchanges - imports and exports - policies. This article develops the conceptualization model presented in [Ochoa, P., 2007b. Policy changes in the Swiss electricity market: a system dynamics analysis of likely market responses. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 41 (4):336-349.]. We build a system dynamics model based on the dynamics of capacity expansion explained in the latter paper and present and analyse different scenarios. We conclude that international electricity exchanges are important for the Swiss market as they help to lower costs and to increase the income of the utility companies; however, we illustrate the need for explicit policies for managing imports and exports of electricity to avoid import dependence from neighbouring countries. (author)

  10. Market conditions of the 'Energiewende'; Marktumfeld der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Fabian; Kraemer, Christian; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft

    2014-10-01

    For the future generation system with a large share of renewable energy sources, new technological and economic challenges especially for thermal power plants arise. The lower residual load goes hand in hand with falling market prices for electrical energy. Exemplary investigations conducted for this paper show contribution margins and profitability of the German power plant portfolio in the year 2023 in different power market designs.

  11. A Conditional Fourier-Feynman Transform and Conditional Convolution Product with Change of Scales on a Function Space II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple formula for conditional expectations over continuous paths, we will evaluate conditional expectations which are types of analytic conditional Fourier-Feynman transforms and conditional convolution products of generalized cylinder functions and the functions in a Banach algebra which is the space of generalized Fourier transforms of the measures on the Borel class of L2[0,T]. We will then investigate their relationships. Particularly, we prove that the conditional transform of the conditional convolution product can be expressed by the product of the conditional transforms of each function. Finally we will establish change of scale formulas for the conditional transforms and the conditional convolution products. In these evaluation formulas and change of scale formulas, we use multivariate normal distributions so that the conditioning function does not contain present positions of the paths.

  12. A conditional extreme value theory approach in value-at-risk forecasting: Evidence from Southeastern Europe and USA market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Selena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the recent financial crisis, the adequacy of different Value-at-Risk (VaR methodologies was heavily questioned. Current practice in VaR assessment relies on modeling the whole distribution of returns. As an alternative, in this paper we model tail behavior of returns, and thus VaR, using conditional Extreme Value Theory (EVT, which combines EVT and GARCH methodology. Moreover, we examine the performance of conditional EVT with the daily returns of seven stock market indices, of which six are from Southeastern Europe (BelexLine, BET, BUX, CROBEX, SBITOP, SOFIX from the period of September 2004 - April 2013, and one from USA market (Standard&Poors 500 Index from the period January 1998 - April 2013. Backtesting of historical daily returns proves that conditional EVT model gives good predictions for all indices and for all confidence levels.

  13. Teaching Primary School Music: Coping with Changing Work Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Peter Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The changing roles of two primary (elementary) school music teachers are explored in this article, and how these changed roles have impacted on music programmes in their respective schools. Change readiness provides the theoretical framework for investigating the way both teachers responded to their changing roles. The first teacher's role changed…

  14. Smart city planning under the climate change condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dexiang; Zhao, Yue; Zhou, Xi

    2017-08-01

    With the aggravation of climate change, extreme weather events occur continuously, cities are not resilient to climate change, and we need to change the concept of urban planning, centering on climate research and its research achievements, combining with the modern intelligent technology and formulating a smart city that resilience to the climate change, realizing the sustainable development of human, city, environment and society.

  15. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  16. The climate change/energy efficiencies market in the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    The People's Republic of China was one of the one hundred and fifty five countries that signed the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Brazil in June 1992. In December 1992, China ratified the UNFCCC. The Administrative Centre for China's Agenda 21 was created to implement the UNFCCC and a working group comprising representatives from fourteen government departments was formed. The objective of the group, led by the State Development Planning Commission, is to administer activities regarding climate change and its impacts. Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) concepts are included in the Kyoto protocol. China considers that there is a risk that developed countries might overuse CDM and JI to achieve their target instead of working towards reducing greenhouse gases emissions. Environmental degradation remains a problem in China despite great strides made in pollution control. The power sector is the largest polluter since 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by coal-fired power plants. Strong market demand for climate change and energy efficiencies technologies and equipment is ensured by increased investment in environmental pollution control and extensive environmental protection legislation. It is expected that the market for air pollution control equipment will increase by 50 per cent over the next two years, and an increase of 16 per cent over the same period is expected in the vehicle emissions control equipment market. Japanese, German, and American firms are all competing for a slice of the environmental market in China, as well as some domestic firms. The inconsistent application of laws, regulations and import practices at all levels of government might create access problems. The ultimate decision-making authority is sometimes difficult to figure out. Canadian companies wishing to gain access to the

  17. Icing Conditions Over Northern Eurasia in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Arzhanova, N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Climate of the Russian Federation for the national territory. This Reference Book addresses the current state of these weather phenomena. However, the ongoing and projected humidity changes in the high latitudes will strongly affect the circum-polar area (land and ocean) and impact the frequency and intensity of these potentially dangerous weather phenomena across the entire extratropical land area. Therefore the goal of the present study is to quantify icing conditions over the northern Eurasia. Our analysis includes data of 958 Russian stations from 1977 to 2012. Regional analysis of gololed characteristics was carried out using quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Maps (climatology, trends) are presented mostly for visualization purposes. The area-averaging technique using station values converted to anomalies with respect to a common reference period (in this study, from 1977 to 2012). Anomalies were arithmetically averaged first within 1N x 2E grid cells and thereafter by a weighted average value derived over the quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. This approach provides a more uniform spatial field for averaging.

  18. Structural change in Europe's gas markets: three scenarios for the development of the European gas market to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, A.; Bowitz, E.; Roland, K.

    2000-01-01

    Against the background of the European Union's Gas Directive, and the emergence of new players and markets in Europe's gas sector, this paper explores how company actions could shape the future for the gas industry. Starting with an examination of company strategies this paper develops three scenarios for the future: a 'Gradual Transformation' scenario where a single European gas market develops that is essentially oligopolistic in nature; a 'Vertical Integration' scenario, where upstream and downstream gas companies merge to form a vertically integrated gas supplier; and a 'Pull the Plug' scenario, where the current market structure decomposes into a competitive market. These scenarios are examined in terms of their impact on gas prices, demand and the distribution of gas rent along the supply chain. The paper highlights the fact that the EU's gas Directive is not sufficient for the introduction of competition into Europe's gas markets, but that company actions will be the key determinant, and they may favour alternative market structures. (Author)

  19. What role will climate change play in EU agricultural markets? An integrated assessment taking into account carbon fertilization effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P.; Blanco, M.; Van Doorslaer, B.; Ramos, F.; Ceglar, A.

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies point to climate change being one of the long-term drivers of agricultural market uncertainty. To advance in the understanding of the influence of climate change on future agricultural market developments, we compared a baseline scenario for the year 2030 with alternative simulation scenarios that differ regarding: (1) emission scenarios; (2) climate projections; and (3) the consideration of carbon fertilization effects on crop growth. For each simulation scenario, the CAPRI model provides global and EU-wide impacts of climate change on agricultural markets. Results showed that climate change would considerably affect agrifood markets up to 2030. Nevertheless, market-driven adaptation strategies (production intensification, trade adjustments) would soften the impact of yield shocks on supply and demand. As a result, regional changes in production would be lower than foreseen by other studies focused on supply effects.

  20. What role will climate change play in EU agricultural markets? An integrated assessment taking into account carbon fertilization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, P.; Blanco, M.; Van Doorslaer, B.; Ramos, F.; Ceglar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies point to climate change being one of the long-term drivers of agricultural market uncertainty. To advance in the understanding of the influence of climate change on future agricultural market developments, we compared a baseline scenario for the year 2030 with alternative simulation scenarios that differ regarding: (1) emission scenarios; (2) climate projections; and (3) the consideration of carbon fertilization effects on crop growth. For each simulation scenario, the CAPRI model provides global and EU-wide impacts of climate change on agricultural markets. Results showed that climate change would considerably affect agrifood markets up to 2030. Nevertheless, market-driven adaptation strategies (production intensification, trade adjustments) would soften the impact of yield shocks on supply and demand. As a result, regional changes in production would be lower than foreseen by other studies focused on supply effects.

  1. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  2. The effects of climatic conditions on attitudinal changes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changes associated with climate change and climatic events. The .... influence of rainfall on differences in perceptions towards building materials in poor ...... in the form of flash floods, cloud bursts, or sudden climatic events. Unusually high or ...

  3. Economic conditions of technical changes in world civil air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world economic environment of the turn of the century produced many new challenges to civil aviation in expectation of a continued growth in the transportation of passengers and cargo. To meet this growing demand, it will be necessary to increase the fleet and to modernise infrastructure – a process hampered by finances and capacity constraints.Such constraints are especially pressing with regard to the acquisition of new types of large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 and 747-8. Future dominance of the market is, however, difficult to predict, as this will be the outcome of a combination of uncertain parameters.

  4. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism ec...

  5. Comprehensive and market-based approaches to global-change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The summary highlights the need to take a system-wide approach to global change. The need to minimize costs while achieving environmental goals suggests the utility of employing market-based incentives that (1) ensure that the most is achieved by those who can do so at least cost and (2) encourage, innovation, rather than using 'command-and-control' tactics that mandate uniform adoption of centrally selected techniques. 18 refs

  6. Features of Marketing Activities on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Babiieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the trends of Internet marketing development. The differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing in the conditions of modern economy and active spreading of the Internet are determined. The problems of changing the trading infrastructure, the emergence of new channels for the distribution of goods and services, the changing nature of marketing communications, the benefits of interactive marketing are displayed.

  7. How renewables will change electricity markets in the next five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher-Tappeser, Ruggero

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells, onshore wind turbines, internet technologies, and storage technologies have the potential to fundamentally change electricity markets in the years ahead. Photovoltaic cells are the most disruptive energy technology as they allow consumers of all sizes to produce power by themselves—new actors in the power market can begin operating with a new bottom-up control logic. Unsubsidised PV markets may start to take off in 2013, fuelling substantial growth where PV power is getting cheaper than grid or diesel backup electricity for commercial consumers. Managing loads and achieving a good match between power consumption and weather-dependent power production will likely become a key issue. This consumption—production balance may trigger massive innovation and investment in energy management technologies involving different kinds of storage and controls. Increasing autonomy and flexibility of consumers challenges the top-down control logic of traditional power supply and pushes for a more decentralised and multi-layered system. How rapidly and smoothly this transformation occurs depends to a large extent on the adaptation speed of the regulatory framework and on the ability of market players to develop appropriate business models. The paper discusses conflicts of interest; hurdles and drivers; opportunities; and traps for this perspective. - Highlights: ► Accelerated cost decrease of photovoltaics rapidly changes all cost relations. ► PV power starts competing on the retail side, incentive policies lose control. ► Cheap solar self-supply pushes energy management and flexibility of prosumers. ► Prosumer flexibility challenges grids, requires variable tariffs in time and space. ► Bottom-up dynamics require new multi-level governance of grids and markets.

  8. Changing Climate, Changing Behavior: Adaptive Economic Behavior and Housing Markets Responses to Flood Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Bin, Okmyung; Kaminski, Bogumil; Koloch, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Spatial econometrics and analytical spatial economic modeling advanced significantly in the recent years. Yet, methodologically they are designed to tackle marginal changes in the underlying dynamics of spatial urban systems. In the world with climate change, however, abrupt sudden non-marginal

  9. What moves the European carbon market? Insights from conditional jump models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronwald, Marc; Ketterer, Janina [Munich Univ. (Germany). Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research

    2012-04-15

    This paper is concerned with carbon price volatility and the underlying causes of large price movements in the European emissions trading market. Based on the application of a combined jump-GARCH model the behavior of EUA prices is characterized. The jump- GARCH model explains the unsteady carbon price movement well and, moreover, shows that between 40 and 60 percent of the carbon price variance are triggered by jumps. Information regarding EUA supply and news from international carbon markets are identified as important drivers of these price spikes. These results can lead regulators the way if smoother carbon prices are desired.

  10. Estimating Non-Market Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, D.S.; Amelung, B.; Polome, P.

    2003-01-01

    A number of studies over the past few decades have attempted to estimate the potential impacts of climate change and climate policy. For reasons related to, inter alia, our incomplete understanding of the workings of many natural and social systems, the tremendous spatial and temporal variability in these systems, and the long time frames over which the issue of climate change will play out, there are large degrees of uncertainty in these estimates. Some of the most rancorous debates, however, have focused on those studies that have attempted to place economic values on these impacts. This should not be surprising as the outcomes of these studies have played an important role in the debates over climate policy. Rightly or wrongly, the estimates presented in these studies are often held up against similar estimates of the costs of mitigating against climate change. The process of economic valuation of environmental and social issues is still relatively young, much less its application to the potential impacts of climate change and climate policy. Issues such as climate change push existing techniques to their limits, and possibly beyond. Among the topics that have raised the most concern are the choice of the proper baseline against which to make comparisons, the treatment of uncertainty in human and natural systems, incomplete accounting, the actual valuation of specific impacts, and the aggregation of impacts over time and across widely differing societies. Some of the more recent studies have tried to address these issues, albeit not always satisfactorily. One aspect that makes the economic valuation of environmental and social issues difficult is that it requires addressing impacts that are not typically associated with economic markets, so called nonmarket impacts. In addition to not being traded in markets, many of these impacts affect goods and services that have the characteristic of being public goods, i.e. it is not possible to restrict their use to a

  11. Assessing facade value - how clients make business cases in changing real estate markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra den Heijer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance: The value of any intervention in the built environment is most relevant for the stakeholders that are investing in it. For them all costs need to be balanced with benefits - not necessarily directly financial, but adding value to the performance of the accommodated organization. Business cases contain performance criteria like competitive advantage (branding the organization, productivity (optimally supporting users of the building, profitability (on organizational level and sustainable development (monitoring the ecological footprint. In the changing real estate markets – from supply-driven to demand-driven and with increasingly higher vacancy rates – priorities in decisions about buildings have been shifting.Purpose: This paper elaborates on how (a the trends in real estate markets and (b changing priorities in decision making affect the quality demand for buildings and their facades.Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on research of the Real Estate Management chair in general (market analysis, transformation trends, conceptual frameworks and more specifically on decisions about university campuses in the past 10 years (14 campuses and 57 buildings assessed.Findings: This paper provides both conceptual frameworks to assess the (added value of interventions in the built environment for the client and their (changing priorities in the brief for buildings and their facades.

  12. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  13. Empowering wind power. On social and institutional conditions affecting the performance of entrepreneurs in the wind power supply market in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agterbosch, S.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on wind energy for electricity generation, analysing the evolution of the wind power supply market in the Netherlands. We analysed different kind of wind power entrepreneurs (energy distributors, small private investors, wind cooperatives and new independent wind power producers), their capacity to implement wind energy and the social and institutional conditions that affected their investments over the period 1989-2004. Central in the analyses are the institutional regulatory dimension and the social context as explanatory variables for the emergence and performance of these wind power entrepreneurs. Special attention is given to the liberalisation of the electricity market. The primary social actors for the implementation of wind energy projects in a liberalised market are entrepreneurs willing to invest. Understanding conditions that trigger entrepreneurs to invest in these projects, and understanding conditions that determine the chance of success for entrepreneurs to implement and exploit their projects, is vital for setting up effective policies to stimulate wind electricity generation. The analytical perspective that we used to study investment behaviour of wind power entrepreneurs and their capacity to implement wind energy can be referred to as the 'new institutional perspective'. Based on this new institutional perspective the concept of implementation capacity has been developed. Implementation capacity indicates the feasibility for wind power entrepreneurs to adopt wind turbines, and enables to explain, comparatively, changing possibilities in time for different types of entrepreneurs. The development of the wind power supply market is divided into three successive market periods: Monopoly powers (1989-1995), Interbellum (1996-1997) and Free market (1998-2002). We conducted case studies on the implementation capacity of the four entrepreneurial groups in each of the three market periods. The case studies led to conclusions

  14. Sistemas de salud en condiciones de mercado: las reformas del último cuarto de siglo* / Health systems under market conditions: the reforms carried out during the last quarter century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Girald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el ensayo explora los cambios a partir de la introducción de los mecanismos del mercado en las reformas del último cuarto de siglo. Metodología: se toma como eje analítico las condiciones de mercado, determinante de las configuraciones y de los resultados que presentan actualmente los sistemas de salud en la mayoría de los países. Se complementa con el análisis de la presencia o no de mecanismos de regulación que permitan reducir el impacto negativo de las imperfecciones del mercado sobre la salud. Discusión: el artículo parte de caracterizar varios tipos de mercados de servicios de salud y considera, de otro lado, la función estatal, y su articulación en la mezcla público- privado, luego de analizar algunas tipologías de los sistemas de salud relacionadas con los modelos de mercado. Conclusión: los mecanismos del mercado introducidos en las reformas de salud en el último cuarto de siglo en la mayoría de países de América Latina (al han transformado los servicios de salud en favor del mercado financiero transnacional, y han generado inequidad, ineficiencia, corrupción, desequilibrio financiero del sistema de salud, y malogrado las condiciones de salud de la población Objective: the essay explores the changes based on market mechanisms introduced in the reforms of the last quarter century. Methodology: market conditions are taken as an analytical axis determining the configurations and results of health systems seen today in the majority of countries. The analysis is complemented by the presence or absence of regulatory mechanisms which reduce the negative impact of market imperfections on health. Discussion: this paper aims to characterize various health care market types while taking into account the function of the State, and its articulation within the public-private sector after analyzing some of the types of health system that are related to the market models. Conclusion: the market mechanisms introduced in

  15. Using Prediction Markets to Generate Probability Density Functions for Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate-related uncertainty is traditionally presented as an error bar, but it is becoming increasingly common to express it in terms of a probability density function (PDF). PDFs are a necessary component of probabilistic risk assessments, for which simple "best estimate" values are insufficient. Many groups have generated PDFs for climate sensitivity using a variety of methods. These PDFs are broadly consistent, but vary significantly in their details. One axiom of the verification and validation community is, "codes don't make predictions, people make predictions." This is a statement of the fact that subject domain experts generate results using assumptions within a range of epistemic uncertainty and interpret them according to their expert opinion. Different experts with different methods will arrive at different PDFs. For effective decision support, a single consensus PDF would be useful. We suggest that market methods can be used to aggregate an ensemble of opinions into a single distribution that expresses the consensus. Prediction markets have been shown to be highly successful at forecasting the outcome of events ranging from elections to box office returns. In prediction markets, traders can take a position on whether some future event will or will not occur. These positions are expressed as contracts that are traded in a double-action market that aggregates price, which can be interpreted as a consensus probability that the event will take place. Since climate sensitivity cannot directly be measured, it cannot be predicted. However, the changes in global mean surface temperature are a direct consequence of climate sensitivity, changes in forcing, and internal variability. Viable prediction markets require an undisputed event outcome on a specific date. Climate-related markets exist on Intrade.com, an online trading exchange. One such contract is titled "Global Temperature Anomaly for Dec 2011 to be greater than 0.65 Degrees C." Settlement is based

  16. Best Practices for New Product Pricing: Impact on Market Performance and Price Level under Different Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, T.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    To date, research on new product pricing has predominantly been approached as a choice between market skimming and penetration pricing. Despite calls for research that addresses other complexities in new product pricing, empirical research responding to these calls remains scarce. This paper

  17. 14 CFR 272.10 - Conditions applicable to carriers serving a subsidized market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES... precondition to the payment of compensation necessary to maintain essential air service, whether or not the affected carrier is itself receiving subsidy compensation in the market, if it finds that: (1) Essential...

  18. Thinking on Sichuan-Chongqing gas pipeline transportation system reform under market-oriented conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanzhi

    2017-01-01

    The gas pipeline networks in Sichuan and Chongqing (Sichuan-Chongqing) region have formed a fully-fledged gas pipeline transportation system in China, which supports and promotes the rapid development of gas market in Sichuan-Chongqing region. In the circumstances of further developed market-oriented economy, it is necessary to carry out further the pipeline system reform in the areas of investment/financing system, operation system and pricing system to lay a solid foundation for improving future gas production and marketing capability and adapting itself to the national gas system reform, and to achieve the objectives of multiparty participated pipeline construction, improved pipeline transportation efficiency and fair and rational pipeline transportation prices. In this article, main thinking on reform in the three areas and major deployment are addressed, and corresponding measures on developing shared pipeline economy, providing financial support to pipeline construction, setting up independent regulatory agency to enhance the industrial supervision for gas pipeline transportation, and promoting the construction of regional gas trade market are recommended.

  19. About the ways of republican electrical engineering science development at the market economy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliyev, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text : The article is dedlcated to the ways of development of republican electro-technical science in the period of integration of Azerbaijan into world market economy. The most actual problems of this period were explained. The main problem directions of development of electro-technical science in present stage were formulated

  20. Essays on Labour Markets: Worker-Firm Dynamics, Occupational Segregation and Workplace Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S. Buhai (Sebastian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe main chapters of this book, “Essays on Labour Markets”, focus on analyzing the dynamics of the employment relationship between workers and firms (chapters 2 and 3), modelling occupational segregation and labour market inequalities between social groups (chapter 4) and characterizing

  1. Secure sustainable seafood from developing countries. Require improvements as conditions for market access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, G.S.; Sanchirico, J.N.; Roheim, C.A.; Bush, S.R.; Taylor, J.E.; Allison, E.A.; Anderson, J.L.; Ban, N.C.; Fujita, R.; Jupiter, S.; Wilson, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Demand for sustainably certified wild-caught fish and crustaceans is increasingly shaping global seafood markets. Retailers such as Walmart in the United States, Sainsbury's in the United Kingdom, and Carrefour in France, and processors such as Canadianbased High Liner Foods, have promised to source

  2. Climate conditions, and changes, affect microalgae communities… should we worry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Papiol, Gemma

    2018-03-01

    Microalgae play a pivotal role in the regulation of Earth's climate and its cycles, but are also affected by climate change, mainly by changes in temperature, light, ocean acidification, water stratification, and precipitation-induced nutrient inputs. The changes and impacts on microalgae communities are difficult to study, predict, and manage, but there is no doubt that there will be changes. These changes will have impacts beyond microalgae communities, and many of them will be negative. Some actions are currently ongoing for the mitigation of some of the negative impacts, such as harmful algal blooms and water quality, but global efforts for reducing CO 2 emissions, temperature rises, and ocean acidification are paramount for reducing the impact of climate change on microalgae communities, and eventually, on human well-being. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:181-184. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  3. The role of market fundamentals and speculation in recent price changes for crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    I hypothesize that the price spike and collapse of 2007-2008 are driven by both changes in both market fundamentals and speculative pressures. Contrary to arguments for a demand shock, I hypothesize that prices rise sharply in 2007-2008 because ongoing growth in Chinese oil demand runs into a sudden and unexpected halt to a decade long increase in non-OPEC production. This caused a loss of OPEC spare capacity because increased demand for OPEC production runs ahead of increases in OPEC capacity. These changes are reinforced by speculative expectations. Although difficult to measure directly, I argue for the role of speculation based on the following: (1) a significant increase in private US crude oil inventories since 2004; (2) repeated and extended break-downs (starting in 2004) in the cointegrating relationship between spot and far month future prices that are inconsistent with the law of one price and arbitrage opportunities; and (3) statistical and predictive failures by an econometric model of oil prices that is based on market fundamentals. These changes are related to the behavior and impact of noise traders on asset prices to sketch mechanisms by which speculative expectations can affect crude oil prices. - Research Highlights: → The 2007-2009 spike and collapse in oil prices is caused by a combination of market fundamentals and speculative expectations. → The rise is caused by an unexpected hiatus in non-OPEC oil production, not a sudden increase in demand. → The role of speculation is suggested by an increase in oil inventories, which reverses a twenty year period of declines, a decoupling between spot and futures prices, which violates the law of one price, and a breakdown of empirical models of oil prices based solely on market fundamentals. → Speculative expectations affect oil prices via noise traders, who create a risk that deters rational arbitrageurs from betting against them.

  4. Effect of Climate Change and Transaction Costs on Performance of a Groundwater Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    With surface water resources becoming increasingly stressed, groundwater extraction, much of it unmanaged, has increased globally. Incentive-based policies, such as the cap-and-trade system, have been shown to be useful in the context of groundwater management. Previous research has shown that optimal groundwater markets (i.e. incentives-based policy) outperforms water quotas (command and control policy) with regards to both economic and environmental outcomes. In this work, we investigate whether these advantages of a water market over water quotas hold when assumptions of perfect information are violated due to climate change and hydrogeologic heterogeneity. We also assess whether the benefits of a cap-and-trade system outweigh the costs of implementing it, and how changes in future climate affect the performance a cap-and trade system. We use a sub-basin of the Republican River Basin, overlying the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, as a case study. We develop a multi-agent system model where individual benefits of each self-interested agent are maximized subject to bounds on irrigation requirements and water use permits. This economic model is coupled with a calibrated physically based groundwater model for the study region. Results show that permitting farmers to trade results in increased economic benefits and reduced environmental violations. However, the benefits of trading are dependent on the total allocations and the resulting level of water demand. We quantify third party impacts and environmental externalities for different water allocations, and highlight the unequal distributional effects of uniform water allocations resulting in `winners' and `losers'. The study reveals that high transaction costs can reduce the efficiency of the cap-and-trade system even below that of water quotas. Future changes in climate are shown to significantly influence the dynamics of the water market, and emphasize the need to address climate

  5. The Icelandic economic collapse, smoking, and the role of labor-market changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Thorhildur; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is related to health deterioration through increased risk of various diseases. Changes in this health behavior could contribute to the documented health improvements during economic downturns. Furthermore, the reasons for changes in behavior are not well understood. We explore smoking behavior in Iceland before and after the sudden and unexpected economic crisis in 2008. Furthermore, to explore the mechanisms through which smoking could be affected we focus on the role of labor-market changes. Both real income and working hours fell significantly and economic theory suggests that such changes can affect health behaviors which in turn affect health. We use individual longitudinal data from 2007 to 2009, incidentally before and after the crisis hit. The data originates from a postal survey, collected by The Public Health Institute in Iceland. Two outcomes are explored: smoking participation and smoking intensity, using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and linear probability models. The detected reduction in both outcomes is not explained by the changes in labor-market variables. Other factors in the demand function for tobacco play a more important role. The most notable are real prices which increased in particular for imported goods because of the devaluation of the Icelandic currency as a result of the economic collapse.

  6. Estimating the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower and Power Marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently preparing an assessment of the effects of climate change on federal hydropower, as directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the Secure Water Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-11). This paper describes the assessment approach being used in a Report to Congress currently being prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The 9505 assessment will examine climate change effects on water available for hydropower operations and the future power supplies marketed from federal hydropower projects. It will also include recommendations from the Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) on potential changes in operation or contracting practices that could address these effects and risks of climate change. Potential adaption and mitigation strategies will also be identified. Federal hydropower comprises approximately half of the U.S. hydropower portfolio. The results from the 9505 assessment will promote better understanding among federal dam owners/operators of the sensitivity of their facilities to water availability, and it will provide a basis for planning future actions that will enable adaptation to climate variability and change. The end-users of information are Congressional members, their staff, the PMAs and their customers, federal dam owners/operators, and the DOE Water Power Program.

  7. Stages of drug market change during disaster: Hurricane Katrina and reformulation of the New Orleans drug market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Graves, Jennifer; Benoit, Ellen

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, numerous weather disasters have crippled many cities and towns across the United States of America. Such disasters present a unique opportunity for analyses of the disintegration and reformulation of drug markets. Disasters present new facts which cannot be "explained" by existing theories. Recent and continuing disasters present a radically different picture from that of police crack downs where market disruptions are carried out on a limited basis (both use and sales). Generally, users and sellers move to other locations and business continues as usual. The Katrina Disaster in 2005 offered a larger opportunity to understand the functioning and processes by which drug markets may or may not survive. Utilizing a variety of qualitative data including ethnographic field notes, in-depth interview transcripts, and focus group transcripts, we investigate the operation of the New Orleans drug market before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina. Our data clearly indicate that drug markets go through a series of stages in the wake of disaster in which they disintegrate and then reconstitute themselves. In the case of New Orleans, the post-Katrina drug market was radically different from the pre-Katrina drug market. Ultimately this manuscript presents a paradigm which uses stages as a testable concept to scientifically examine the disintegration and reformulation of drug markets during disaster or crisis situations. It describes the specific processes - referred to as stages - which drug markets must go through in order to function and survive during and after a natural disaster. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecosystem changes and life conditions in Colombia: Empiric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, German

    2004-01-01

    We study the relationship among biophysical variables, focusing on land cover and, socioeconomic, demographic and violence variables. The method to do so is identifying significant correlations that show multiple interactions between ecosystems and society. Using these correlations several related hypotheses are tested. What is seen is that life conditions seem more favored in intermediate conditions of transformation of ecosystems; this is less due to poverty than to better economic conditions. Violence relates itself more whit the first than with the latter although evidence shows that little transformed places are violent. What is proposed here is that as the ecosystems are transformed the resources get scarce and people get poorer; with this the pressure over these few resources, the environmental damage and the migrations increases, sometimes stimulated by violence too. In sum, here we show the importance of incorporation, in a deeper way, of the ecological and environmental variables to the study and following of the general conditions of the nation

  9. Uncertainties in extreme precipitation under climate change conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    of adaptation strategies, but these changes are subject to uncertainties. The focus of this PhD thesis is the quantification of uncertainties in changes in extreme precipitation. It addresses two of the main sources of uncertainty in climate change impact studies: regional climate models (RCMs) and statistical...... downscaling methods (SDMs). RCMs provide information on climate change at the regional scale. SDMs are used to bias-correct and downscale the outputs of the RCMs to the local scale of interest in adaptation strategies. In the first part of the study, a multi-model ensemble of RCMs from the European ENSEMBLES...... project was used to quantify the uncertainty in RCM projections over Denmark. Three aspects of the RCMs relevant for the uncertainty quantification were first identified and investigated. These are: the interdependency of the RCMs; the performance in current climate; and the change in the performance...

  10. Changing hydrological conditions in the Po basin under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Erika; Verdecchia, Marco; Giorgi, Filippo; Colaiuda, Valentina; Tomassetti, Barbara; Lombardi, Annalina

    2014-09-15

    The Po River is a crucial resource for the Italian economy, since 40% of the gross domestic product comes from this area. It is thus crucial to quantify the impact of climate change on this water resource in order to plan for future water use. In this paper a mini ensemble of 8 hydrological simulations is completed from 1960 to 2050 under the A1B emission scenario, by using the output of two regional climate models as input (REMO and RegCM) at two different resolutions (25 km-10 km and 25 km-3 km). The river discharge at the outlet point of the basin shows a change in the spring peak of the annual cycle, with a one month shift from May to April. This shift is entirely due to the change in snowmelt timing which drives most of the discharge during this period. Two other important changes are an increase of discharge in the wintertime and a decrease in the fall from September to November. The uncertainty associated with the winter change is larger compared to that in the fall. The spring shift and the fall decrease of discharge imply an extension of the hydrological dry season and thus an increase in water stress over the basin. The spatial distributions of the discharge changes are in agreement with what is observed at the outlet point and the uncertainty associated with these changes is proportional to the amplitude of the signal. The analysis of the changes in the anomaly distribution of discharge shows that both the increases and decreases in seasonal discharge are tied to the changes in the tails of the distribution, i.e. to the increase or decrease of extreme events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. E-business and its Application in Conditions of Central European Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Tolga Saruc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is highlighting possibilities in effective utilization of Information and Communication Technologies for supporting entrepreneurship (e-business for Small and Medium enterprises. The core research carried on for duration of twelve months covered analysis and following presentation of possibilities of practical utilization of e-business applications. Furthermore research was oriented towards innovative forms of marketing communication in Real Corporation conducting business in Central European market. Analyzing data on collected findings can add value towards gaining a significant competitive advantage in form of better understanding of real facts influencing entrepreneurship in principle. This can lead consequently to positive influence on corporate effectiveness in the environment of Small and Medium enterprises.

  12. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market volatility: a comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2010-12-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Berument, Dogan, and Onar (2010) challenged the existence of the previously documented daylight-saving effect. Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi's original finding (2000) was that average stock market returns on Mondays following time changes are economically and statistically significantly lower than typical Monday returns. Kamstra, et al. hypothesized that the effect may arise due to heightened anxiety or risk aversion on the part of market participants after they experience a 1-hr. disruption in their sleep habits, in accordance with prior findings in the psychology literature linking sleep desynchronosis with anxiety. Berument, et al. replicated the original findings using ordinary least squares estimation, but when they modeled the mean of returns using a method prone to producing biased estimates, they obtained puzzling results. The analysis here, based on standard, unbiased modeling techniques, shows that the daylight-saving effect remains intact in the U.S.

  13. The Reaction of Private Spending and Market Interest Rates to the Changes in Public Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przekota Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansionary fiscal policy is mired in controversy. Its proponents suggest that during recession, it stimulates investors’ activity and has a stabilizing effect on economic growth. However, its opponents point to the costs associated with the budget deficit and public debt handling. Increased public spending may result in an increase in the interest rates, which may, in turn, hinder private investment and weaken the multiplier effect of public spending. The following study examines how private spending and market interest rates reacted to changes in public spending in Poland. The study has shown that public spending stimulates private spending, which is consistent with the Keynesian model, but it also leads to an increase in market interest rates, which is consistent with the neoclassical model.

  14. Market mechanism based on the endogenous changing of game types such as Minority-Majority games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sanghyun; Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, Sooyong; Kim, Kyungsik

    2010-03-01

    In many social and biological systems agents simultaneously and adaptively compete for limited resources, thereby altering their environment. We propose a evolution function extending Minority-Majority Games that captures the competition between agents to make money. The dynamics changes the ratio of two types of boundedly rational traders, fundamentalists and chartists with the payoff function endogenously. In the previous game theories, the best strategies are not always targeting the minority but are shifting opportunistically between the minority and the majority. And using a mixture of local bifurcation theory and numerical methods, there are possible bifurcation routes to complicated asset price dynamics, chaotic attractors. Hereby we improve the thinking logic of the atoms for attaching the dynamics to the market. This working shows that removing unrealistic features of the game theories leads to models which reproduce a behavior close to what is observed in real markets.

  15. Deregulated electricity markets with thermal losses and production bounds: models and optimality conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aussel, D.; Červinka, Michal; Marechal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-38 ISSN 0399-0559 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309; GA ČR GA201/09/1957 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Deregulated electricity market * production bounds * mathematical program with complementarity constraints * M-stationarity * calmness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2016

  16. Cigarette smoke chemistry market maps under Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Michael J; Laffoon, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    This study extends the market mapping concept introduced by Counts et al. (Counts, M.E., Hsu, F.S., Tewes, F.J., 2006. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46, 225-242) to include both temporal cigarette and testing variation and also machine smoking with more intense puffing parameters, as defined by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH). The study was conducted over a two year period and involved a total of 23 different commercial cigarette brands from the U.S. marketplace. Market mapping prediction intervals were developed for 40 mainstream cigarette smoke constituents and the potential utility of the market map as a comparison tool for new brands was demonstrated. The over-time character of the data allowed for the variance structure of the smoke constituents to be more completely characterized than is possible with one-time sample data. The variance was partitioned among brand-to-brand differences, temporal differences, and the remaining residual variation using a mixed random and fixed effects model. It was shown that a conventional weighted least squares model typically gave similar prediction intervals to those of the more complicated mixed model. For most constituents there was less difference in the prediction intervals calculated from over-time samples and those calculated from one-time samples than had been anticipated. One-time sample maps may be adequate for many purposes if the user is aware of their limitations. Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, ammonia, chlorogenic acid, and reducing sugars. The filler information was used to improve predicting relationships for several of the smoke constituents, and it was concluded that the effects of filler chemistry on smoke chemistry were partial explanations of the observed brand-to-brand variation.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF FINANCE AND BANKING MARKETING IN THE PRESENT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Pistol, Gheroghe

    2009-01-01

    Taking into consideration the complexity and dynamics of economic and social life, in general, and especially actual environment which the economic entities and, particularly, the financial and economic crisis facing humanity, the role and the importance of marketing in the financial-banking activities is growing. This role is referring at: actual economic and social dynamism, providing financial and banking liquidity, managing financial and banking risk and customer operations. Responsible f...

  18. Money laundering in the norwegian securities market: on the conditions of money laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvaldsen, Karsten Olaf F.; Larsson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher's pdf version. Norwegian authorities often claim that the financial sector, and especially the securities market, is particularly vulnerable to activities of money laundering. Money laundering is a recurrent theme in the Norwegian media. Usually the media tend to present the forms and extent of money laundering in simple and rather vague terms. The numbers circulating in the media are based u...

  19. THE PROBLEM OF REGULATING THE MARKET OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENTS IN RUSSIA IN CONDITIONS OF FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Redko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment the Bank of Russia became the megaregulator of the fi nancial market of Russia that opens new opportunities and prospects for development on the one hand, with another - there is a full monopolization of control and supervision of its participants. The author of article describes actual problems of regulation of the market of collective investments, relying on the existing practice of activity of management companies. Analyzing a situation from the point of view of protection of interests of the investor, and also for development of this sector of economy he suggests to shift focus in regulation. The main attention, in his opinion, needs to be turned on involvement of the experts conducting practicians and analysts in the sphere of professional and trust management for development of optimal solutions of the existing problems of the fi nancial market, and also for creation of the transparent and healthy economic environment of his activity. Aiming efforts at the development of innovative instruments of collective investment, it is possible to make signifi cant progress in overcoming of the crisis phenomena in fi nancial sector of economy

  20. Influence of Time to Change's social marketing interventions on stigma in England 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Malcolm, Estelle; West, Keon; Rose, Diana; London, Jillian; Rüsch, Nicolas; Little, Kirsty; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-04-01

    England's Time To Change (TTC) social marketing campaign emphasised social contact between people with and without mental health problems to reduce stigma and discrimination. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the mass media component and also that of the mass social contact events. Online interviews were performed before and after each burst of mass media social marketing to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and associations between campaign awareness and outcomes. Participants at social contact events were asked about the occurrence and quality of contact, attitudes, readiness to discuss mental health and intended behaviour towards people with mental health problems. Prompted campaign awareness was 38-64%. A longitudinal improvement was noted for one intended behaviour item but not for knowledge or attitudes. Campaign awareness was positively associated with greater knowledge (β = 0.80, 95% CI 0.52-1.08) and more favourable attitudes (commonality OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.10-1.70; dangerousness OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.22-1.63) and intended behaviour (β = 0.75, 95% CI 0.53-0.96). Social contact at events demonstrated a positive impact (M = 2.68) v. no contact (M = 2.42) on perceived attitude change; t(211) = 3.30, P = 0.001. Contact quality predicted more positive attitude change (r = 0.33, Pmarketing campaign suggest that social contact can be used by anti-stigma programmes to reduce stigma.

  1. 76 FR 21085 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. By- Laws April 8, 2011. I. Introduction On February 8, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market... vote cast either ``for'' or ``against'' that director's election. In its filing, NASDAQ noted that...

  2. 78 FR 9575 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... reserve oil in such manner as to accurately account for its receipt, storage, and disposition. In a rule... FR] Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Change to Administrative Rules Regarding the Transfer and Storage of Excess Spearmint Oil AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  3. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change in Start Time of Public Hearing AGENCY... investigation No. 332-525, Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Project Leader Alan Treat (202-205- 3426 or [email protected] ), Deputy Project Leader...

  4. Commercial exchanges in B2B Dyads. A new model of decision-making in fast changing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Bragado, Elisa

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation presents a Model of Commercial Exchanges in B2B Dyads. This model explains how buying and selling decisions are made in industrial markets that are subject to continuous change, particularly the market for telecommunication products and services.Buying and selling decision-making

  5. The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents reprint of original work published in 1957 in "Journal of Consulting Psychology" in which Carl Rogers takes one small segment of theory of psychotherapy, of personality, and of interpersonal relationships; spells it out more completely; and explores its meaning and usefulness. Rogers examines psychological conditions necessary and…

  6. Unlocking Lock-in Conditions for Social Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria J.

    stream of innovation in sharing space for bicycling of the four cities. The case of Copenhagen demonstrates effectively the unlocking force toward social change that can be in great part linked to the forceful narratives and claims presented by actors or generated in the actors’ interplay. It also...... to deepen the analysis taking departure from this empirical work contributing to the discussion of how these practices of social innovation to share space succeed (or failed) in introducing new societal values and norms and creating ‘new imaginaries’ for progressive social and environmental change; also how...... to analyze to what extent these social innovative practices could be seen as extending (or not) ‘coping mechanisms’ for socio-economic exclusion in times of austerity, demographic changes and environmental crisis of the late capitalistic societies....

  7. Monitoring temporal gravity changes in different geological conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    20 (124) (2002), s. 125-131 ISSN 1211-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012807; GA ČR GA205/00/1470 Grant - others:Copernicus(XE) Project ASPELEA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : gravity changes * geodynamics * Western Bohemia * Corinth rift * Aswan Lake Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  8. Analysis of the green certificate market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storeboe, Inger Oeydis

    2001-04-01

    This report studies the advantages and disadvantages of a separate financial market for the environmental advantages in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. This market solution is evaluated against other financial systems used to promote the production of green electricity. By starting from a general equilibrium model for the green certificate market, the report discusses how the adaptation in the certificate market is influenced by changes in the market conditions. The certificate market is combined with a quota market for carbon dioxide, with and without international trade with electricity and certificate and market power in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources

  9. The study of socio economic factors’ influence on the capacity dynamics of the pharmaceutical market in contracting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Kotvitska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the effective functioning of pharmaceutical companies in the current economic conditions it is necessary to carry out product policy aimed to expanding the range of medicines that are most popular. In order to make the efficient product range of drugs in the pharmaceutical industrial enterprises the aim of our research was an analysis of the socio economic factors affecting the quantitative potential of the pharmaceutical market on the example of a group of dexketoprofen. Materials and methods. During the research we used retrospective, logical, correlation-regression methods, mathematical modeling and methods of factor analysis. In order to determine the dependence of the influence of socio economic factors on the quantitative potential of the pharmaceutical market and prediction of its development, we developed and tested on the example of a group of dexketoprofen the method of predicting the capacity of the pharmaceutical market with the definition of factors influencing its size, which is based on the correlation-regression method of analysis and which consists of eight main stages. Results. The article presents the results of the study of the impact of various socio economic factors on the development of quantitative potential of the pharmaceutical market. Considered twenty three factors combined into six groups. According to the results of correlation analysis, 14 factors that have the greatest impact on sales are selected. Using a step-by-step regression method, a regression model was developed, which included such factors as the average monthly wage and household expenditure on healthcare. The prediction of the quantitative potential of the pharmaceutical market for 2018 is carried out on the basis of extrapolation of the values of the factors that have the most effect on the resultant variable. Conclusions. A method for predicting the size of the potential of market of dexketoprofen based on multiple regression was developed. This

  10. Assessing facade value - how clients make business cases in changing real estate markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Den Heijer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Dr. ir. Alexandra den Heijer, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department of Real Estate & Housing, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands. Tel.: +31 15 278 4159; E-mail: a.c.denheijer@tudelft.nl RELEVANCE: The value of any intervention in the built environment is most relevant for the stakeholders that are investing in it. For them all costs need to be balanced with benefits - not necessarily directly financial, but adding value to the performance of the accommodated organization. Business cases contain performance criteria like competitive advantage (branding the organization, productivity (optimally supporting users of the building, profitability (on organizational level and sustainable development (monitoring the ecological footprint. In the changing real estate markets – from supply-driven to demand-driven and with increasingly higher vacancy rates – priorities in decisions about buildings have been shifting. PURPOSE: This paper elaborates on how (a the trends in real estate markets and (b changing priorities in decision making affect the quality demand for buildings and their facades. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This paper is based on research of the Real Estate Management chair in general (market analysis, transformation trends, conceptual frameworks and more specifically on decisions about university campuses in the past 10 years (14 campuses and 57 buildings assessed. FINDINGS: This paper provides both conceptual frameworks to assess the (added value of interventions in the built environment for the client and their (changing priorities in the brief for buildings and their facades

  11. Corporate Investments in Asian Emerging Markets: Financial Conditions, Financial Development, and Financial Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianxin; Gochoco-Bautista, Maria Socorro; Sotocinal, Noli

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the literature on the finance–growth nexus, this paper explores the mechanisms through which finance affects corporate investments and capital accumulation. We separate the effects of financial conditions from those of financial development. Based on a sample of firms from five Asian emerging economies, we find that (1) financial conditions and financial development affect corporate investments through different channels. Financial conditions affect firms' growth opportunities an...

  12. The Effects of the Clock and Kickoff Rule Changes on Actual and Market-Based Expected Scoring in NCAA Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Linna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clock rule changes were introduced in the 2006 season with the goal of reducing the average duration of the game; these changes were reversed in 2007. In addition, in 2007 the kickoff rule was changed to create more excitement and potentially more scoring. We examine what happened to actual and expected scoring during these National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA football seasons. The clock rule change in 2006 led to lower scoring which was not fully encompassed in the betting market, leading to significant returns to betting the under. Multiple rule changes in 2007 led to volatility in the betting market that subsided by season’s end.

  13. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  14. Hot house global climate change and the human condition

    CERN Document Server

    Strom, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Global warming is addressed by almost all sciences including many aspects of geosciences, atmospheric, the biological sciences, and even astronomy. It has recently become the concern of other diverse disciplines such as economics, agriculture, demographics and population statistics, medicine, engineering, and political science. This book addresses these complex interactions, integrates them, and derives meaningful conclusions and possible solutions. The text provides an easy-to-read explanation of past and present global climate change, causes and possible solutions to the problem, including t

  15. Expected changes in agroclimatic conditions in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Eitzinger, J.; Semerádová, D.; Hlavinka, P.; Balek, J.; Dubrovský, Martin; Kubu, G.; Štěpánek, P.; Thaler, S.; Možný, M.; Žalud, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, 1-2 (2011), s. 261-289 ISSN 0165-0009 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : CLIMATE - CHANGE * SOIL WORKABILITY * GROWING-SEASON * VARIABILITY * MODEL * AGRICULTURE * MOISTURE * IMPACTS * DROUGHT * UNCERTAINTIES Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.385, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y3j081l87j258848/fulltext.pdf

  16. Pipelines to Brussels: Natural gas exporters' strategies in a changing European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    On the political level several different processes will influence the future of the European gas market. The possibilities of large increases in demand due to environmental concerns, and economic development, particularly in Eastern Europe, are beginning to change the buyer's market of the 1980's into a seller's market in the 1990's. Turning to the individual producers, one should not rule out a possible extension of the Dutch export contracts beyond 2010, but the main actors are likely to be the Russian Federation and Norway, as the Algerians are unlikely to stabilize their economy and the political uncertainties. The Russian Federation and Norway seem to be in the best position to capture the demand increase assumed in the next ten to twenty years. However, if the demand forecasts of today turn out to be accurate, there is no reason to worry about future competition between the Russian Federation and Norway. The demand increase would give room for both producers to export large volumes to the European market. Even a conservative estimate of gas demand at about 300 billion m 3 in the year 2010, does give 90 billion m 3 to be filled in by additional deliveries. The ''environmental-scenario'', where a substantial number of coal and oil fired power stations are replaced with gas stations, could easily push demand up to 450 billion m 3 . In this scenario gas would take a larger share of the total energy consumption in Europe. This could make importers more concerned with diversification of their gas imports. On the other hand, the pressure for cleaner fuels could obtain a higher priority than diversification, especially if the political situation stabilizes in the exporting countries: the Russian Federation and Algeria. It could come to a choice between a concentration of gas imports from the Russian Federation and Norway, and the more polluting use of coal and oil. The solution to this choice is not obvious. 26 refs., 11 figs

  17. Global Changes in Drought Conditions Under Different Levels of Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Alfieri, L.; Wyser, K.; Mentaschi, L.; Betts, R. A.; Carrao, H.; Spinoni, J.; Vogt, J.; Feyen, L.

    2018-04-01

    Higher evaporative demands and more frequent and persistent dry spells associated with rising temperatures suggest that drought conditions could worsen in many regions of the world. In this study, we assess how drought conditions may develop across the globe for 1.5, 2, and 3°C warming compared to preindustrial temperatures. Results show that two thirds of global population will experience a progressive increase in drought conditions with warming. For drying areas, drought durations are projected to rise at rapidly increasing rates with warming, averaged globally from 2.0 month/°C below 1.5°C to 4.2 month/°C when approaching 3°C. Drought magnitudes could double for 30% of global landmass under stringent mitigation. If contemporary warming rates continue, water supply-demand deficits could become fivefold in size for most of Africa, Australia, southern Europe, southern and central states of the United States, Central America, the Caribbean, north-west China, and parts of Southern America. In approximately 20% of the global land surface, drought magnitude will halve with warming of 1.5°C and higher levels, mainly most land areas north of latitude 55°N, but also parts of South America and Eastern and South-eastern Asia. A progressive and significant increase in frequency of droughts is projected with warming in the Mediterranean basin, most of Africa, West and Southern Asia, Central America, and Oceania, where droughts are projected to happen 5 to 10 times more frequent even under ambitious mitigation targets and current 100-year events could occur every two to five years under 3°C of warming.

  18. Fade In: Exploring The Effects of Technological Change on Consumers and Firm Revenues in Home Entertainment Markets for Film

    OpenAIRE

    Axarlian, Gabriel Pablo

    2015-01-01

    AbstractFADE IN:EXPLORING THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE ON CONSUMERS AND FIRM REVENUES IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT MARKETS FOR FILM Gabriel Axarlian This dissertation is composed of three related works, two of which are similar in data and time span with the third being more independent in this respect. The three works focus on the nature of the film industry’s adaptation to changing technologies in home entertainment markets. My analysis studies the effectiveness of new strategies as well ...

  19. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  20. Regional feedbacks under changing climate and land-use conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle Bayer, L.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Strengers, B. J.; van Minnen, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    Ecosystem responses to a changing climate and human-induced climate forcings (e.g. deforestation) might amplify (positive feedback) or dampen (negative feedback) the initial climate response. Feedbacks may include the biogeochemical (e.g. carbon cycle) and biogeophysical feedbacks (e.g. albedo and hydrological cycle). Here, we first review the most important feedbacks and put them into the context of a conceptual framework, including the major processes and interactions between terrestrial ecosystems and climate. We explore potential regional feedbacks in four hot spots with pronounced potential changes in land-use/management and local climate: sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Europe, the Amazon Basin and South and Southeast Asia. For each region, the relevant human-induced climate forcings and feedbacks were identified based on published literature. When evapotranspiration is limited by a soil water deficit, heat waves in Europe are amplified (positive soil moisture-temperature feedback). Drought events in the Amazon lead to further rainfall reduction when water recycling processes are affected (positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback). In SSA, the adoption of irrigation in the commonly rainfed systems can modulate the negative soil moisture-temperature feedback. In contrast, future water shortage in South and Southeast Asia can turn the negative soil moisture-temperature feedback into a positive one. Further research including advanced modeling strategies is needed to isolate the dominant processes affecting the strength and sign of the feedbacks. In addition, the socio-economic dimension needs to be considered in the ecosystems-climate system to include the essential role of human decisions on land-use and land-cover change (LULCC). In this context, enhanced integration between Earth System (ES) and Integrated Assessment (IA) modeling communities is strongly recommended.

  1. Changes in external conditions and activity in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Tax reductions in the petroleum industry are conductive to increased activity and makes the respective provinces more attractive for investments compared with other regions. Changes in taxation in Great Britain and the Gulf of Mexico, which has been analyzed by ECON, show that reducing taxes on gross income has rendered marginal investments more profitable and that reducing the tax on profits may have advanced investments and cut the costs. The examples also show that it is possible to protect the public tax revenue under taxation rearrangements by essentially limiting the tax reductions to new activities

  2. Assessing changes in the U.S. hardwood sawmill industry with a focus on markets and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Bob. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening...

  3. Model or Myopia? Exploiting Water Markets to Address Population and Drought Risks in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, population demands, and evolving land-use represent strong risks to the sustainable development and stability of world-wide urban water supplies. There is a growing consensus that non-structural supply management instruments such as water markets have significant potential to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities in complex urban water systems. This paper asks a common question, what are the tradeoffs for a city using water market supply instruments?. This question emerges quickly in policy and management, but its answer is deceptively difficult to attain using traditional planning tools and management frameworks. This research demonstrates new frameworks that facilitate rapid evaluation of hypotheses on the reliability, resiliency, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of urban water supply systems. This study considers a broader exploration of the issues of "nonstationarity" and "uncertainty" in urban water planning. As we invest in new information and prediction frameworks for the coupled human-natural systems that define our water, our problem definitions (i.e., objectives, constraints, preferences, and hypotheses) themselves evolve. From a formal mathematical perspective, this means that our management problems are structurally uncertain and nonstationary (i.e., the definition of optimality changes across regions, times, and stakeholders). This uncertainty and nonstationarity in our problem definitions needs to be more explicitly acknowledged in adaptive management and integrated water resources management. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of exploring these issues in the context of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, USA determining how to use its regional water market to manage population and drought risks.

  4. Tesco Law and Tesco Lawyers: Will our Needs Change if the Market Develops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrom Sherr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how recent regulatory changes, and the on-going effects of the global economic crisis, have affected legal services in England and Wales, and asks if there are, consequently, “too many lawyers”. The Legal Services Act 2007 introduced new regulatory priorities, placing greater emphasis on competition within a market for legal services, and introducing “Alternative Business Structures”, which enable non-lawyers to own or manage bodies providing legal services, or to carry out reserved legal activities within a licensed body. The paper speculates about the effects of a changing market, illustrated with emerging examples. Whether or not there are too many lawyers depends on who is regarded as a lawyer, what tasks a lawyer should carry out, the structure of the market for legal services, and the needs of legal "consumers". El objetivo de este artículo es analizar cómo los cambios recientes en la regulación y los efectos continuados de la crisis económica global, han afectado a los servicios legales en Inglaterra y Gales, y cuestiona si, consecuentemente, hay “demasiados abogados”. La ley conocida como “Legal Services Act 2007” introdujo nuevas prioridades reguladoras, otorgando mayor énfasis a la competencia en el mercado de los servicios legales, e introduciendo “Estructuras Alternativas de Negocio”, lo que permitía, sin ser abogado, poseer o gestionar empresas de servicios legales, o desarrollar actividades legales reservadas a un órgano colegiado. El artículo especula sobre los efectos de un mercado cambiante, a través de ejemplos emergentes. Si hay demasiados abogados o no, depende de lo que se entiende como abogado, las tareas que un abogado debería desarrollar, la estructura del mercado de servicios legales, y las necesidades de los “consumidores” legales.

  5. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  6. Greenhouse policy without regrets. A free market approach to the uncertain risks of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.H.

    2000-07-01

    nothing to fear from climate change. A 'no regrets' approach to climate change would incorporate the following policy measures, among others: (1) Remove Regulatory Barriers to Innovation; (2) Eliminate Energy Subsidies; (3) Deregulate Electricity Markets; and (4) Deregulate Transportation Markets

  7. THE REAL ESTATE MARKET IN ROMANIA IN THE MARKET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Onica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A real estate market is a group of companies or people that are in contact, aimed at conducting real estate transactions. The market participants may be represented by buyers, sellers, tenants, owners, debtors and creditors, entrepreneurs, managers, investors and intermediaries. The concepts of anticipation and change, with the principles of supply and demand, substitution, balance and external conditions are extremely important in the market approach. An appraiser takes into account all these principles and simulateneously tries to consider all relevant conditions for the problem appraisal, so that they could reflect reality and the local market conditions.

  8. Projected climatic changes on drought conditions over Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Quishpe-Vásquez, César; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    In a context of global warming, the evapotranspiration processes will have a strong influence on drought severity. For this reason, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was computed at different timescales in order to explore the projected drought changes for the main watersheds in Spain. For that, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used in order to obtain current (1980-2010) and future (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) climate output fields. WRF model was used over a domain that spans the Iberian Peninsula with a spatial resolution of 0.088°, and nested in the coarser 0.44° EURO-CORDEX domain, and driving by the global bias-corrected climate model output data from version 1 of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM1), using two different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Besides, to examine the behavior of this drought index, a comparison with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which does not consider the evapotranspiration effects, was also performed. Additionally the relationship between the SPEI index and the soil moisture has also been analyzed. The results of this study suggest an increase in the severity and duration of drought, being larger when the SPEI index is used to define drought events. This fact confirms the relevance of taking into account the evapotranspiration processes to detect future drought events. The results also show a noticeable relationship between the SPEI and the simulated soil moisture content, which is more significant at higher timescales. Keywords: Drought, SPEI, SPI, Climatic change, Projections, WRF. Acknowledgements: This work has been financed by the projects P11-RNM-7941 (Junta de Andalucía-Spain) and CGL2013-48539-R (MINECO-Spain, FEDER).

  9. Market conditions for cogeneration plants. Ensuring efficiency; Marktbedingungen fuer KWK-Anlagen. Wirtschaftlichkeit sicherstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottersbach, Joerg; Otto, Falk; Schrader, Knut [BET Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und Technische Planung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Due to declining wholesale prices for electricity, the profitability of base load power and heat generation plants decreases significantly. Therefore, concepts such as the increased use of electricity or natural plant flexibility have to be developed. The improved framework conditions by means of the amended Combined Heat and Power Act are helpful. When modernising plants, it is even possible under favorable conditions and with a good concept to fully refinance the investment on the CHP surcharges.

  10. Give me 'strength to change': insights into a social marketing campaign in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Gill; Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we report on how formative research was utilised to design a social marketing campaign commissioned by a Primary Care Trust within an area of high social deprivation in the North of England. Men represent the majority of perpetrators of domestic violence and there is increasing interest in developing services for this group with the aim of changing abusive behaviour. However, men are known to be less likely to engage in help-seeking behaviours, and this reticence has been attributed to the social construction of masculinity. A further barrier for men seeking help in relation to domestic violence is the cultural construction of domestic violence. Formative research was undertaken to explore the perceptions and attitudes of a community population of males (n584). Focus groups explored barriers and drivers to help-seeking and identified effective communication messages. These findings were translated into the 'Strength to Change' campaign that minimised stigmatisation and blame while emphasising help-seeking as a 'strength' rather than a perceived weakness. Social marketing techniques facilitated an in-depth appreciation of local barriers to help-seeking and generated context-specific messages to encourage take-up of a new service for male perpetrators.

  11. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism economy after its democratic transition. Historically, the South African hotel industry became dominated by one- and two-star budget accommodation as a result of the country’s liquor legislation. With the reconfiguration of the hotel industry after 1990 to target the growing international tourism market, the role of budget hotels changed. This analysis examines the diminished role of budget hotels in South Africa’s hotel economy, the shifting nature of the budget hotel and location patterns of budget hotels from 1990 to the present. It shows that post-1990 budget hotels are mainly concentrated in large cities and secondary centres of South Africa, and that in small towns the former liquor-focused budget hotel has been replaced by other forms of accommodation.

  12. Changes in the dow effects in the romanian foreign exchange market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Stefanescu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the changes in the daily seasonality of the Romanian foreign market from January 2005 to February 2010. Our investigation employs data from the prices in the Romanian national currency, of the two main currencies used in the financial transactions: euro and US dollar. For the euro we find evidence of a Monday effect between January 2005 and June 2007, no DOW effect between July 2007 and September 2008, a Tuesday effect between October 2008 and April 2009 and a Thursday effect between May 2009 and February 2010. For the US dollar we identify only a Tuesday effect between October 2008 and April 2009. We relate these changes with the consequences of the Romania’s adhesion to the European Union and with the effects of the global crisis.

  13. Marketing Communications as Important Segment of the Marketing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Milena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New frameworks operating at the international level have led to the need for a broader and more complex involvement of companies in international economic flows. In such circumstances, focus on the international and global markets becomes inevitable. Each segment companies must adapt and evolve in accordance with such conditions. Marketing as an important activity of the company in selling products or services is also changing and expanding its activities in line with international market. This leads to the creation of an international marketing concept and system as a specific approach to the processing of international economic relations. An important segment of implementation of the marketing concept is the marketing communication, which in terms of the limited number of international barriers. It is certainly possible to overcome with a well-defined marketing strategy. Clearly defined marketing strategy and well-prepared marketing mix remove barriers, to meet the set goals and lead to positive results for the company.

  14. On a Heat Exchange Problem under Sharply Changing External Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishchenko, K. V.; Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Shurshalov, L. V.

    2018-02-01

    The heat exchange problem between carbon particles and an external environment (water) is stated and investigated based on the equations of heat conducting compressible fluid. The environment parameters are supposed to undergo large and fast variations. In the time of about 100 μs, the temperature of the environment first increases from the normal one to 2400 K, is preserved at this level for about 60 μs, and then decreases to 300 K during approximately 50 μs. At the same periods of time, the pressure of the external environment increases from the normal one to 67 GPa, is preserved at this level, and then decreases to zero. Under such external conditions, the heating of graphite particles of various sizes, their phase transition to the diamond phase, and the subsequent unloading and cooling almost to the initial values of the pressure and temperature without the reverse transition from the diamond to the graphite phase are investigated. Conclusions about the maximal size of diamond particles that can be obtained in experiments on the shock compression of the mixture of graphite with water are drawn.

  15. Parts giants will bring enormous change to China’s automotive aftersales market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正> The fourth worldwide largest independent automotive parts supplier-DENSO-is beefing up its presence in China by means of regional agents or chain stores, establishing its marketing system and developing the aftersales market in China. Some insiders have noticed that, recently, harvests at the engine OEM market, these giants have also flocked into the aftersales market.

  16. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  17. Hydropeaking in Nordic rivers - combined analysis from effects of changing climate conditions and energy demands to river regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Faisal Bin; Marttila, Hannu; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Alfredsen, Knut; Riml, Joakim; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Increasing national and international demands for more flexible management of the energy resources with more non-storable renewables being used in adapting to the ongoing climate change will influence hydropower operations. Damming and regulation practices of river systems causes homogenization of long term river dynamics but also higher temporal sub-daily flow variations i.e. hydropeaking. In Nordic countries, many major rivers and lakes are regulated for hydropower purposes, which have caused considerable changes in river biotic, hydrologic and morphologic structures. Due to rapidly changing energy markets in the Nordic countries (deregulation of the power market and adding of renewable but intermittent sources of energy like, wind, solar, etc.) sub-daily flow conditions are under change within regulated river systems due to the increased demand on hydropower for providing balancing power. However, holistic analysis from changes in energy markets and its effect on sub-daily river regimes is lacking. This study analyzes the effects of hydropeaking on river regime in Finland, Sweden and Norway using long term high resolution data (15 minutes to hourly time interval) from 72 pristine and 136 regulated rivers with large spatial coverage across Fennoscandia. Since the sub-daily discharge variation is masked through the monthly or daily analyzes, in order to quantify these changes high resolution data is needed. In our study we will document, characterize and classify the impacts of sub-daily flow variation due to regulation and climatic variation on various river systems in Fennoscandia. Further, with increasing social demands for ecosystem services in regulated rivers, it is important to evaluate the new demand and update hydropower operation plan accordingly. We will analyse ecological response relationships along gradients of hydrological alteration for the biological communities, processes of river ecosystems and climate boundaries together with considering the

  18. Adjusting tourist destination marketing strategy according to the changes in the environment: Case study Bukovicka sSpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riznić Dejan T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destinations are compelled to create new business opportunities constantly in order to respond to the challenges that arise under the influence of a number of changes in the environment. Few of them are supporting the requirements for analyzing and creating a sustainable business and marketing strategies. The paper starts with the analysis of relevant theory and practice in decisionmaking and choosing the marketing strategy of the tourist destination, pointing to the importance of continuous adjustment of marketing strategy in order to improve the business performance and competitive advantage. A new approach to the design and management of market relations, as well as the need for adjusting marketing strategies to the changes in the environment, is presented in the case of Bukovacka Spa. In deciding, great emphasis is placed on the role and importance of innovation in marketing approaches as well as on the need to develop socially responsible marketing in order to improve its business performance and response to changes in the environment and more successfully positioning.

  19. How should firms develop and or change their marketing competencies when developing relationships with consumers online?

    OpenAIRE

    Maklan, Stan

    2004-01-01

    An empirical study is reported which attempts both to improve marketing practice whilst developing key aspects of marketing and resource-based theory. The thesis describes how firms can develop marketing competencies to exploit emerging online marketing technology and business opportunities. In doing so, the thesis provides empirical evidence that opens up what is widely acknowledged in the literature as "the black box of resources". Specifically, it explores the way marketing ...

  20. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  1. Electricity market design for the future

    OpenAIRE

    robinson, david; Keay, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains why current electricity markets are not fit for purpose and propose a new market design. Electricity markets operating today were designed for the technical and economic conditions of the 1990's. These conditions have changed substantially, especially with increased penetration of intermittent renewables and the growing potential for distributed energy resources and consumer involvement. Today's markets are incompatible with these trends. They do not provide h...

  2. Deciphering flux adjustments of engineered E. coli cells during fermentation with changing growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Lian; Xiu, Yu; Jones, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation conditions are dynamic, due to transcriptional induction, nutrient consumption, or changes to incubation conditions. In this study, 13C-metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize two violacein-producing E. coli strains with vastly different productivities...

  3. Right-Wing Authoritarianism Predicts weakened Attitude Change in an Evaluative Counter-conditioning Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Beffara, Brice; Mermillod, Martial; Mierop, Adrien; Bret, Amélie; Corneille, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    RWA is associated with higher social prejudice. It is unclear, however, (i) whether RWA plays a role in attitude acquisition or attitude change (or both), and (ii) whether it influences attitudes unrelated to in/outgroup concerns. We relied on an evaluative conditioning-then-counter-conditioning paradigm simulating prejudice formation and change to examine this question. Neutral fictive group exemplars were first conditioned positively or negatively (attitude learning) and then counter-condit...

  4. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they're rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears

  5. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  6. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-05-01

    The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000-2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Bangkok as a magnet for rural labour: changing conditions, 1900-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyyanont, P

    1998-06-01

    This article describes labor force shifts, in Thailand, from rural areas to Bangkok during 1900-1970 and is a revision of a chapter from a doctoral thesis. Urban growth of Bangkok occurred primarily after World War II. Pre-war wages in rural areas were higher than coolie wages in Bangkok. Opportunity costs of changing occupations were high. Chinese immigration was the key to development of non-farm occupations. The Chinese from Siam were drawn to higher wages in Bangkok than were possible in South China ports. After the war, the Lewis-Fei and Ranis migration model fits a pattern of migration that adjusts the disequilibrium between urban and rural markets. There are shifts from low productivity rural sectors to urban high productivity sectors. Capital investment in commerce and industry raised urban labor productivity. The wage data suggest a growing gap between urban and rural sectors postwar. Rail travel during the 1950s brought higher wages for the unskilled in railroad construction. There was high agricultural productivity relative to labor input due to availability of land. Underpopulation meant little unemployment. After 1950, conditions changed. The population growth rate increased. More in rural areas lived below the poverty line. Low rice productivity constrained rural wages and incomes during the 1950s and 1960s. The more favored commercial crops needed less labor. Chinese immigration declined, and demand for labor increased in urban areas. Low urban wages due to cheap labor stimulated profits and growth. Major roads connected Bangkok to the south and the north. Bangkok was viewed as a magical and desirable place.

  8. Tools for Consumer Rights Protection in the Prediction of Electronic Virtual Market and Technological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Gangur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic virtual markets can serve as an alternative tool for collecting information that is spread among numerous experts. This is the principal market functionality from the operators’ point of view. On the other hand it is profits that are the main interest of the market participants. What they expect from the market is liquidity as high as possible and the opportunity for unrestricted trading. Both the operator and the electronic market participant can be considered consumers of this particular market with reference to the requirements for the accuracy of its outputs but also for the market liquidity. Both the above mentioned groups of consumers (the operators and the participants themselves expect protection of their specific consumer rights, i.e. securing the two above mentioned functionalities of the market. These functionalities of the electronic market are, however, influenced by many factors, among others by participants’ activity. The article deals with the motivation tools that may improve the quality of the prediction market. In the prediction electronic virtual market there may be situations in which the commonly used tools for increasing business activities described in the published literature are not significantly effective. For such situations we suggest a new type of motivation incentive consisting in penalizing the individual market participants whose funds are not placed in the market. The functionality of the proposed motivation incentive is presented on the example of the existing data gained from the electronic virtual prediction market which is actively operated.

  9. Structural changes in the German pharmaceutical market: price setting mechanisms based on the early benefit evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Cornelia; Sundmacher, Leonie; Busse, Reinhard

    2013-03-01

    In the past, free price setting mechanisms in Germany led to high prices of patented pharmaceuticals and to increasing expenditures in the pharmaceutical sector. In order to control patented pharmaceutical prices and to curb increasing pharmaceutical spending, the Act for Restructuring the Pharmaceutical Market in Statutory Health Insurance (AMNOG) came into effect on 1st January 2011. In a structured dossier, pharmaceutical manufacturers have to demonstrate the additional therapeutic benefit of the newly approved pharmaceutical compared to its appropriate comparator. According to the level of additional benefit, pharmaceuticals will be subject to price negotiations between the Federal Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds and the pharmaceutical company concerned (or assigned to a reference price group in case of no additional benefit). Therefore, the health care reform is a first step to decision making based on "value for money". The process of price setting based on early benefit evaluation has an impact on the German as well as the European pharmaceutical markets. Therefore, these structural changes in Germany are of importance for pricing decisions in many European countries both from a political point of view and for strategic planning for pharmaceutical manufacturers, which may have an effect on insured patients' access to pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The pro-economical behaviour of households and their knowledge about changes in the energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropuszyńska-Surma Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of energy and heat consumers is an important and interesting topic. For a long time the energy market was the classical example of a monopoly. In general, households are weak partners for energy companies, but energy markets are changing all over the world. This trend is noticeable in Poland too, but it is not as strong as in Germany or other countries where renewable energy sources (RES are very popular and widely used. So, here we investigate why the development of RES in Poland is so weak. The main aim of the paper is to highlight the key factors, especially ecological and economic ones, determining households’ decisions about installing RES in Poland. An additional aim is to present the level of energy awareness of households. We conducted a survey of Lower Silesia’s households in November and December 2015. Economic factors are the best motivators for households to install RES. Among the economic aspects, the respondents indicated potential savings and potential profits.

  11. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  12. Health education and marketing processes: 2 related methods for achieving health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Eddy, James M

    2008-01-01

    To make salient the striking similarities between the program planning processes used in both health education and contemporary marketing. Through a discussion of the analogous nature of both processes and a review of the literature, the authors (1) illustrate why marketing principles should be embraced and (2) suggest how marketing strategies can be integrated into health education needs assessments. Core health-marketing concepts are proposed along with 4 recommendations for future marketing activities in health education. To facilitate an advance in health education process and practice, scholars and practitioners should adopt a more consumer-centered, marketing mind-set.

  13. The 2007-2009 Financial Crisis: Changing Market Dynamics and the Impact of Credit Supply and Aggregate Demand Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Theoharry Grammatikos; Robert Vermeulen

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the impact of credit supply and aggregate demand sensitivity on 91 US industries' stock performance during the 2007-2009 financial crisis. We account explicitly for changes in the market model and investigate, next to stock returns, the changes in systematic risk and idiosyncratic return induced by the financial crisis. The results show that leverage has a significantly positive effect on systematic risk changes during the financial crisis. After accounting for the chang...

  14. Work and Change. Labor Market Adjustment Policies in a Competitive World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, New York, NY. Research and Policy Committee.

    The net effect on employment of structural changes now occurring in the United States will be determined by the actions that government, management, and labor take to create and support the conditions for new opportunity and to encourage people to move from old to new work. Many of the measures that need to be taken to ensure profitability involve…

  15. Closing the Gap--Information Systems Curriculum and Changing Global Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Kerry; Kamal, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The power of outsourcing basic computing technology such as computer programming, database design, customer service operations and system development, to mention a few have changed the conditions of employment in IT. Many of the projects that went off-shore did not perform well due to failure to consider important factors in business dimensions.

  16. The Porta Palazzo farmers’ market: local food, regulations and changing traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Eden Black

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’impact des réglementations sur les marchés de producteurs en Italie, ainsi qu’à l’approvisionnement local et les choix du consommateur. En regardant la vie quotidienne du marché, on réalise que les réglementations ne sont pas seulement imposées, mais aussi négociées et interprétées en fonction des besoins locaux. Des changements dans les attitudes concernant l’hygiène des aliments dévoilent un discours sur la modernité et met en valeur la lutte de la nouvelle Italie pour s’adapter à une société de plus en plus « consumériste »tout en cherchant à garder les traditions et l’ alimentation locale. Malgré la compétition des hypermarchés et les réglementations de plus en plus restrictives, les marchés de producteurs ont une clientèle très fidèle et la plus jeune génération a commencé à s’intéresser à l’alimentation produite localement. Ce nouveau groupe a en plus un grand désir de participer à la vie sociale du marché, aspect qui rend ces institutions publiques uniques.This article looks at the impact of regulations on farmers’ markets in Italy, local food supply and provisioning choices. By exploring the everyday running of the market, it becomes clear that regulations are not just imposed, but rather negotiated and interpreted to fit local needs. Changing attitudes towards food hygiene also uncover discourses of modernity and struggles to adapt to the new Italian ‘consumer society’ while holding onto tradition and local food. Despite competition from supermarkets and increasingly restrictive regulations, farmers’ markets in Italy have a faithful core group of clients and interest is slowly growing on the part of a young generation who want to eat locally and share in the social life of the market.

  17. Deregulation of the energy industry in the United States : access conditions to the American market and business opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcoux, D.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of deregulation in the North American electricity market on the energy industry in Quebec was discussed. Increased competition, a direct result of deregulation, can lead to open markets for Quebec utilities. It is expected that Quebec utilities such as Hydro-Quebec and Gaz-Metropolitain will profit from an open market since consumers will have the choice of electricity suppliers that will best suit their needs. Open markets enabling Hydro-Quebec to sell at market prices in the American market present tremendous opportunities for Quebec utilities, especially in view of the lower production costs, the accumulated knowledge about energy markets, and their aggressive policy to form constructive partnerships.. Figs

  18. Adjusting tourist destination marketing strategy according to the changes in the environment: Case study Bukovicka sSpa

    OpenAIRE

    Riznić Dejan T.; Cvijanović Janko; Vojnović Boško

    2014-01-01

    Tourist destinations are compelled to create new business opportunities constantly in order to respond to the challenges that arise under the influence of a number of changes in the environment. Few of them are supporting the requirements for analyzing and creating a sustainable business and marketing strategies. The paper starts with the analysis of relevant theory and practice in decisionmaking and choosing the marketing strategy of the tourist destination, pointing to the importance of con...

  19. The Changing Patterns of Advertising Strategy by Japanese Business Firms in the U.S. Market: Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiko Suzuki

    1980-01-01

    This article analyzes the changing pattern of advertisement strategy by Japanese business firms in the U.S. market. Taking the advertisement activities of four major industrial sectors that appeared in both Business Week and Newsweek during the 1965–1977 period as samples, this article has found that the Japanese advertisement strategy in the U.S. market has passed sequentially through the following four stages: (1) Nationality-Supportive, (2) Product-Attributes, (3) Challenge and Responses, ...

  20. Audit market structure, fees and choice in a period of structural change: evidence from the UK – 1998–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, S.; Beattie, V.; Goodacre, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on audit market concentration and auditor fee levels in the UK market in the crucial period of structural change following the PricewaterhouseCoopers’ (PwC) merger and encompassing Andersen’s demise (1998–2003). Given the current interest in auditor choice, analysis is also undertaken at the individual audit firm level and by industry sector. There is evidence of significant upward pressure on audit fees since 2001 but only for smaller auditees. Audit fee income f...

  1. Innovation in energy networks. A study on the changing relation between regulation, technology and market in liberalized energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenneke, R.W.; Bouwmans, I.; Kling, W.L.; Slootweg, J.G.; Stout, H.D.; De Vries, L.J.; Van Poelje, H.; Wolters, M.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the development a view on the future of the energy infrastructure for the next 10-15 years, including the related regulation, focusing on the strategic options for development of networks. Attention is paid to (1) planning concepts (to what extent should existing planning concepts be revised as a result of liberalization and technical innovation); and (2) positioning of networks (what are the consequences of the separation of energy markets in commercial and regulated sectors for the development of the energy sector) [nl

  2. 75 FR 6072 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... delisting process if such rule changes are found to benefit Nasdaq's financial position.\\46\\ [[Page 6075... SEC filing made by listing companies, including proxies and annual and quarterly financial reports... the changes that have taken place in the financial markets, the existing time periods are unreasonably...

  3. Air conditioning sector marketing. Situazione nel settore del condizionamento dell'aria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, J.; Biederman, R. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Predictions are that the space heating ventilation and air conditioning equipment sector will undergo significant expansion in the coming decade. Substantial technology inputs will be required to make new equipment conform to standards on energy efficiency and environmental compatibility, and strong competition in this sector will force equipment designers to seek low energy cost solutions. The European energy price situation is expected to favour the use of reversible gas heat pumps in space HVAC systems for buildings. New environmental regulations, especially those governing refrigerant typology, indoor air pollution and thermal comfort in office buildings, should also help to increase demand for new technologically advanced equipment conforming with international standards.

  4. Anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy under current conditions of the international markets volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Satsyk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered the theoretical and methodological basis of anti-cyclic regulation of the countries’ economy under conditions of the world economy globalization. It suggests the analysis of practices of implementing of anti-cyclic policy in highly developed states, its defining features and directions under current global financial and economic crisis. There has been researched a practical toolkit of economic cycles diagnostics and cyclic fluctuations of total business activity in Ukraine based on this study. There are suggested recommendations concerning the formation of the effective mechanism of anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy.

  5. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN THE TOURIST SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Cosic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing concept is widely applied in the contemporary conditions of business operations at the tourist market. However traditional marketing concept is more and more subjected to essential changes, firstly through strategic orientation of tourist companies and tourist destinations which are focused at developing relationships with potentional consumers as well as at maintaining and improving relationships with active consumers and stakeholders at the market.This paper is dealing with pointing out essential differences between traditional and relationship marketing, as well as analysing fields of activities in which key changes towards need for relationship marketing implementation are taking place and will take place.

  6. Fear conditioning-related changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell activities in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear conditioning-induced changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus have been reported in rabbits. It has been suggested that synaptic long-term potentiation and the resulting increases in firing rates of Purkinje cells are related to the acquisition of conditioned fear in mammals. However, Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of conditioned fear have not been analysed, and changes in Purkinje cell activities throughout the development of conditioned fear have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we tracked Purkinje cell activities throughout a fear conditioning procedure and aimed to elucidate further how cerebellar circuits function during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. Methods Activities of single Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebelli were tracked throughout a classical fear conditioning procedure in goldfish. A delayed conditioning paradigm was used with cardiac deceleration as the conditioned response. Conditioning-related changes of Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus were examined. Results The majority of Purkinje cells sampled responded to the conditioned stimulus by either increasing or decreasing their firing rates before training. Although there were various types of conditioning-related changes in Purkinje cells, more than half of the cells showed suppressed activities in response to the conditioned stimulus after acquisition of conditioned fear. Purkinje cells that showed unconditioned stimulus-coupled complex-spike firings also exhibited conditioning-related suppression of simple-spike responses to the conditioned stimulus. A small number of Purkinje cells showed increased excitatory responses in the acquisition sessions. We found that the magnitudes of changes in the firing frequencies of some Purkinje cells in response to the conditioned stimulus correlated with the magnitudes of the conditioned

  7. The influence of changing framework conditions on tourism: The case of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Kochurova, Elena; Keller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual bachelor thesis is an attempt to approach the important question of the impact of the framework conditions on the growth and the development of tourism of a given country. In a first step the relevant political and economic framework conditions for tourism are defined. In a second step, the main forms of systemic, cyclic, structural and stochastic of changes of these framework conditions are analyzed. In a third step, a model presenting the probable impacts of changes of ...

  8. Quality and marketable characteristics of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corym- bosum L. under the Kyiv region conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. О. Сіленко

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors present the results of the study biometric and qualitative characteristics of berries highbush blueberry varieties (Vaccinium corymbosum L. in a specific soil and climatic conditions Forest-steppe of Ukraine (Kiev. Investigations were carried out on 11 varieties of American highbush blueberry. Phenological observations, biometric surveys, tasting score and biochemical analysis of the berries have been conducted during the growing season. By results of researches the group of early-ripening varieties includes Bluestar, Earliblue, Patriot, the middle-ripening – Jonne, Atlantis, Bluegold, Bluecrop, Chyk and late-ripening varieties – Amanda, Darrow, Toro. Duration of collecting period of ripe berries was lower (16 days in varieties Bluestar, Earliblue, Jonne and Darrow. Berries were large sizes in the varieties of Darrow, Amanda, Jonne, in other varieties berries were medium size. By tasting score the berry of varieties Toro, Earliblue, Jonne and Darrow were the best. For biochemical parameters the better varieties were Amanda, Jonne and Earliblue.

  9. Proceedings of the Ninth forum: Croatian Energy Day: Restructuring, Privatisation and Market Changes of Grid-bound Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Restructuring, privatisation and market changes of grid-bound energy systems present processes that characterise the energy sector of today, and the achieved level of these processes vary considerably from one country to another and there is no ideal model. Therefore, the exchange of experiences and broad co-operation in the field is of vital importance. For the first time the concept of the future Croatian energy legislation, presently in the focus of domestic energy related attention, will be introduced. Restructuring includes the changes in organisation anbd economic relations in order to enhance efficiency and reduce operational costs, in keeping with the market trends. Privatisation is a process that should enable the creation of markets and competition. When defining the concept of privatisation, we should primarily design the market, determine the position of individual functioning during market creation, and then determine the course of privatisation. Experiences of developed countries tell us that it is necessary to find a balance between markets and state interventions, as well as among technological-technical, economic and social aspects of energy use

  10. Ageing towards meaningful work? Age, labour-market change, and attitudes to work in the Swedish workforce, 1979–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Örestig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A central finding in earlier research on work orientation is that there are substantial age-differences regarding attitudes to work. Generally, more older workers describe their jobs as intrinsically meaningful than younger workers. This result has been interpreted in three different ways, the psychological, the cultural, and the structural hypotheses, where the first emphasizes cognitive age-differences, the second sees age-differences as outcomes of generational differences, and the third regards them as expressions of labour-market inequalities. These different approaches lead to quite different hypotheses regarding recent developments, but the relevant research is limited. Drawing on data from the Swedish survey of living conditions (ULF, this study has examined attitudinal change within the Swedish workforce during 1979–2003. Three sub-periods, 1986-1987, 1994-1996, and 2001-2003 were compared with 1979, the year of reference. The results showed that a consistently smaller share of the workforce held extrinsic work values in the subsequent periods, and that this applied to all age-groups. Further, the results did not support the assumption of broader cultural differences between generations. Rather, the results provide support for the structural hypothesis. Older workers held extrinsic work values to a lesser degree than younger workers regardless of period. Most strikingly, the gap between the youngest group on the labour market (ages 16–29 and the older groups widened during the period. Furthermore, class differences in the distribution of the extrinsic attitude were intact throughout the study period; manual employees were consistently more likely to hold an extrinsic attitude than were service-class employees. This implies that differences in the probability of extrinsic work attitudes have been identifiable regardless of period, but that their prevalence has decreased as jobs involving features related to extrinsic work values

  11. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  12. Electricity market 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  13. The electricity market 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. We now have a common Nordic electricity market that includes all of the Nordic countries, with the exception of Iceland. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and increased trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish Energy Agency is the supervisory authority specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of 'The Electricity Market 2003' publication is to meet the need for generalized and easily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. The publication also includes summaries of the information from recent years concerning power generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  14. Prevention is still the best medicine. Condom social marketing campaign changes attitudes and actions in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L L

    1993-09-01

    In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students.

  15. Free Markets, Property Rights and Climate Change: How to Privatize Climate Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Dawson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal has been to devise a strategy that protects as much as possible the rights and liberties of all agents, both users of fossil fuels and people whose livelihoods and territories are at risk if the anthropogenic global warming (AGW hypothesis is true. To achieve this goal the standard climate policy instruments, taxes and emissions trading, should be discontinued. There are weaknesses in the theoretical perspectives used to justify these policy instruments and climate science cannot provide the knowledge that would be needed to justify their implementation. In their place I propose a privatised policy, based on Austrian and libertarian frameworks of thought, which share an interpretation of climate change as a putative interpersonal conflict rather than market failure. The use of fossil fuels, like any other economic activity, should be subject to side-constraints designed to avoid the infringement of other people’s property rights. Tort litigation on the basis of strict liability would protect these rights, insofar as they need protecting. By providing a public arena for the competitive testing of scientific hypotheses concerning climate change, such litigation would also promote the public understanding and even the advancement of climate science.

  16. Assessing the costs and market impacts of carbon sequestration, climate change, and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.

    2000-03-01

    This thesis provides fourteen journal articles and papers. Thirteen of these papers were published in referred journals, covering environmental economics, policy modelling, policy analysis, and the physical sciences. One paper was published as a USDA Forest Service research report. The papers in the thesis are divided into three topical areas: 1) Section 2: The Economics of Carbon Sequestration. Eight papers plus Appendix A of the thesis cover the development and application of models to estimate the economic costs and management consequences of policies to sequester carbon emissions by planting trees on agricultural land in the US or through more intensive forest management. 2) Section 3: The Economics of Climate Change Damages. Two papers of the thesis cover the development of models that can be used to estimate the market and nonmarket damages associated with the impacts of climate change on water resources in the US. 3) Section 4: The Economics of Acid Rain Damages. Three papers in the thesis examine the methods that were developed to estimate the damages due to acid rain in the US by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) and discuss more generally the role of economic policy analysis in this assessment. (EHS)

  17. Real reflections upon the air-conditioning market in the empire of Harun el Raschid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piock, R

    1982-04-01

    The conception Middle East is being interpreted in so many ways as the legendary fiction and tales which are being told of the country of the early caliph. Similar is the variety of the climatic zones, the economic systems and the political structure in this region. Homogeneous are really only the national characteristics of the people living in the region (orientals and semites), and their religion (Islam). Normally one understands by the expression - Middle East - the Asiatic States of the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabic States of Asia. These zones comprise climatically etesian climates (Lebanon, parts of Syria), alpine climates (Iraqi Kurdland), desert and grassland climates with rainfalls of 250 mm/annum but also tropical climate (South Jemen). Of similar variety are the characteristics of the states: we find republics, kingdoms and federal states in most instances with one governing class of rich people or party members and a mass of poor people. Fairly uniform are the economics - a state centralism. The state directs and invests, dependent on the country the liberalism of commerce is graduated differently. In rough outlines one can distinguish two climatic zones: a) countries with dry climate, temperatures between 40 and 46/sup 0/C/19% R.H. in summer and 0/sup 0/C/80% R.H. in winter during which water can be used for cooling. b) countries with humid climate, temperatures between 38 and 40/sup 0/C/55% R.H. in summer and -12/sup 0/C/85% R.H. in winter during which water for cooling would be available, but can not be used for physical reasons. The first group includes Syria, large parts of Iraq (excluding the South, Amman-Basrah region), the interior parts of Saudi-Arabia, the second South Iraq, Kuwait, the Gulf States and the coast districts of Saudi-Arabia. This arrangement appears to be significant, because from it emerges the distinct equipment of the air conditioning installations and the problems which arise there from.

  18. SELECTED MODELS OF RAIL MARKETS IN THE CONTEXT OF LIBERALIZATION OF THE RAIL MARKET IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Pietrzak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper author has made an attempt at presenting problems of the operation of European railway transport market against the background of changes taking place in the European Union transport market. These changes are the result of processes aimed at liberalizing the market. In addition, this article defines the conditions of reforms in the Eu-ropean rail market by highlighting various models of its functioning.

  19. Electricity reforms, democracy and technological change. (Electricity systems, 'market liberalization' reforms, internationalisation, and the need for new democratic governance system - the Danish case)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, F.

    2001-07-01

    At the end of the 1990s, Danish energy policy reached a turning point because of technical challenges due to the high proportion of fluctuating wind power production and the increased cogeneration share, and because of new regulation regimes being introduced in Denmark and its neighbouring countries. In this specific historical situation, with the above background, the questions that will be analysed in this publication are as follows: 1) Which governance systems are most efficient, with regard to achieving optimal goal performance by means of the present typical uranium/fossil fuel electricity supply systems? 2) Which governance systems are the most efficient in the transformation process from the present uranium/fossil fuel electricity supply systems to renewable energy-/conservation based electricity system? 3) Which changes in goal performance of the Danish electricity supply system has the 1999 Danish electricity 'liberalization' reform induced? 4) Will the Danish electricity supply system be able to maintain its consumer ownership institutions and remain independent of the 'third party' shareholder ownership structure after the 1999 Danish 'liberalization' reform? a) Are the Danish electricity companies able to compete on the Danish electricity market with foreign suppliers? b) Will the Danish energy companies be able to compete on the market for energy capital goods, or will foreign companies, for instance German power companies, buy them? Will the Danish consumer ownership model survive? c) Will the Danish 'flat' price structure survive on the future electricity market? d) Will the 1975-2000 energy technology innovation process survive under the new market conditions? How will conditions on the German market influence this development? The relevance of these questions is particulary enhanced when seen in relation to the goals of international, and especially Danish, energy policy. The main question therefore, is: will the development outlined under 1

  20. Market-stage analysis enhances strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R B

    1998-07-01

    Changing market conditions are challenging healthcare organizations to determine how to allocate resources and make operational planning decisions to prepare for future changes. A vital part of meeting these challenges is understanding the impact of market stages, and using that knowledge to build effective business strategies. Financial modeling that includes market-stage information provides insight into market opportunities and presents a clearer picture of the organizational changes that will need to be implemented at each stage. Effective strategic action should take into account critical success factors in market responsiveness, organizational responsiveness, operational effectiveness, and financial strength.