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Sample records for changing lighting conditions

  1. Adult Tea Green Leafhoppers, Empoasca onukii (Matsuda), Change Behaviors under Varying Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Longqing; Vasseur, Liette; Huang, Huoshui; Zeng, Zhaohua; Hu, Guiping; Liu, Xin; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-01

    Insect behaviors are often influenced by light conditions including photoperiod, light intensity, and wavelength. Understanding pest insect responses to changing light conditions may help with developing alternative strategies for pest control. Little is known about the behavioral responses of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to light conditions. The behavior of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, was examined when exposed to different light photoperiods or wavelengths. Observations included the frequency of locomotion and cleaning activities, and the duration of time spent searching. The results suggested that under normal photoperiod both female and male adults were generally more active in darkness (i.e., at night) than in light. In continuous darkness (DD), the locomotion and cleaning events in Period 1 (7:00-19:00) were significantly increased, when compared to the leafhoppers under normal photoperiod (LD). Leafhoppers, especially females, changed their behavioral patterns to a two day cycle under DD. Under continuous illumination (continuous quartz lamp light, yellow light at night, and green light at night), the activities of locomotion, cleaning, and searching were significantly suppressed during the night (19:00-7:00) and locomotion activities of both females and males were significantly increased during the day (7:00-19:00), suggesting a shift in circadian rhythm. Our work suggests that changes in light conditions, including photoperiod and wavelength, can influence behavioral activities of leafhoppers, potentially affecting other life history traits such as reproduction and development, and may serve as a method for leafhopper behavioral control.

  2. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. van Meeningen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur, European beech (Fagus sylvatica and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m−2 s−1, whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the

  3. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  4. Rapid changes in the light/dark cycle disrupt memory of conditioned fear in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn H Loh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of physiology and behavior including cognitive processes. Components of neural circuits involved in learning and memory, e.g., the amygdala and the hippocampus, exhibit circadian rhythms in gene expression and signaling pathways. The functional significance of these rhythms is still not understood. In the present study, we sought to determine the impact of transiently disrupting the circadian system by shifting the light/dark (LD cycle. Such "jet lag" treatments alter daily rhythms of gene expression that underlie circadian oscillations as well as disrupt the synchrony between the multiple oscillators found within the body. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected adult male C57Bl/6 mice to a contextual fear conditioning protocol either before or after acute phase shifts of the LD cycle. As part of this study, we examined the impact of phase advances and phase delays, and the effects of different magnitudes of phase shifts. Under all conditions tested, we found that recall of fear conditioned behavior was specifically affected by the jet lag. We found that phase shifts potentiated the stress-evoked corticosterone response without altering baseline levels of this hormone. The jet lag treatment did not result in overall sleep deprivation, but altered the temporal distribution of sleep. Finally, we found that prior experience of jet lag helps to compensate for the reduced recall due to acute phase shifts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute changes to the LD cycle affect the recall of fear-conditioned behavior. This suggests that a synchronized circadian system may be broadly important for normal cognition and that the consolidation of memories may be particularly sensitive to disruptions of circadian timing.

  5. Formation and Change of Chloroplast-Located Plant Metabolites in Response to Light Conditions

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    Yiyong Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is the central energy conversion process for plant metabolism and occurs within mature chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are also the site of various metabolic reactions involving amino acids, lipids, starch, and sulfur, as well as where the production of some hormones takes place. Light is one of the most important environmental factors, acting as an essential energy source for plants, but also as an external signal influencing their growth and development. Plants experience large fluctuations in the intensity and spectral quality of light, and many attempts have been made to improve or modify plant metabolites by treating them with different light qualities (artificial lighting or intensities. In this review, we discuss how changes in light intensity and wavelength affect the formation of chloroplast-located metabolites in plants.

  6. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light......, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances...... be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or temperature dependencies for individual compounds across species. Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic...

  7. Cylindrospermopsin induced changes in growth, toxin production and antioxidant response of Acutodesmus acuminatus and Microcystis aeruginosa under differing light and nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Lorenzi, Adriana Sturion; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that some bioactive metabolites (e.g. cyanotoxins) produced by cyanobacteria have allelopathic potential, due to their inhibitory or stimulatory effects on competing species. Although a number of studies have shown that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has variable effects on phytoplankton species, the impact of changing physicochemical conditions on its allelopathic potential is yet to be investigated. We investigated the physiological response of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) and Acutodesmus acuminatus (Chlorophyta) to CYN under varying nitrogen and light conditions. At 24h, higher microcystins content of M. aeruginosa was recorded under limited light in the presence of CYN, while at 120h the lower levels of the toxins were observed in the presence of CYN under optimum light. Total MCs concentration was significantly (pnitrogen conditions. On the other hand, there were no significant (p>0.05) changes in total MCs concentrations after exposure to CYN under high nitrogen conditions. As expected, limited light and limited nitrogen conditions resulted in lower cell density of both species, while CYN only significantly (pnitrogen condition, the presence of CYN increased internal H 2 O 2 content of both species, which resulted in significant (pnitrogen. These results showed that M. aeruginosa and A. acuminatus have variable response to CYN under changing light and nitrogen conditions, and demonstrate that need to consider changes in physicochemical conditions during ecotoxicological and ecophysiological investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera (Asteraceae) changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rossatto,Davi Rodrigo; Kolb,Rosana Marta

    2010-01-01

    Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna) and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plas...

  9. Predicting plant performance under simultaneously changing environmental conditions – the interplay between temperature, light and internode growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eKahlen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant performance is significantly influenced by prevailing light and temperature conditions during plant growth and development. For plants exposed to natural fluctuations in abiotic environmental conditions it is however laborious and cumbersome to experimentally assign any contribution of individual environmental factors to plant responses. This study aimed at analyzing the interplay between light, temperature and internode growth based on model approaches. We extended the light-sensitive virtual plant model L-Cucumber by implementing a common Arrhenius function for appearance rates, growth rates and growth durations. For two greenhouse experiments, the temperature-sensitive model approach resulted in a precise prediction of cucumber mean internode lengths and number of internodes, as well as in accurately predicted patterns of individual internode lengths along the main stem. In addition, a system’s analysis revealed that environmental data averaged over the experimental period were not necessarily related to internode performance. Finally, the need for a species-specific parameterization of the temperature response function and related aspects in modelling temperature effects on plant development and growth is discussed.

  10. Changes in flavonoids of sliced and fried yellow onions (allium cepa L. var. zittauer) during storage at different atmospheric, temperature and light conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islek, Merve; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Knuthsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid changes in sliced and fried onions which were packed and stored at different atmospheric conditions (air, nitrogen and vacuum), temperatures (ambient, +5 and -18C) and light (dark or light) were investigated. Flavonoids were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed us......, or -18C, vacuum or nitrogen atmosphere, under dark, preserved flavonoids for 21 days, whereas for fried onions, 7 days of storage at +5C, vacuum atmosphere under dark resulted in highest flavonoid content. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......Flavonoid changes in sliced and fried onions which were packed and stored at different atmospheric conditions (air, nitrogen and vacuum), temperatures (ambient, +5 and -18C) and light (dark or light) were investigated. Flavonoids were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed...... using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector. Total flavonoid content, quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside contents in sliced reference onion samples were found as 1,570±176, 926±105 and 564±64μg q.e./g d.w., respectively. Frying did...

  11. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    Using 14 CO 2 gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO 2 uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to -2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO 2 exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO 2 uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO 2 . This CO 2 -recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO 2 recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations

  12. Light energy dissipation under water stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhlfauth, T.; Scheuermann, R.; Fock, H.P. (Universitaet Kaiserslautern (West Germany))

    1990-04-01

    Using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas exchange and metabolite analyses, stomatal as well as total internal CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were estimated. Pulse modulated fluorescence was measured during induction and steady state of photosynthesis. Leaf water potential of Digitalis lanata EHRH. plants decreased to {minus}2.5 megapascals after withholding irrigation. By osmotic adjustment, leaves remained turgid and fully exposed to irradiance even at severe water stress. Due to the stress-induced reduction of stomatal conductance, the stomatal CO{sub 2} exchange was drastically reduced, whereas the total CO{sub 2} uptake and evolution were less affected. Stomatal closure induced an increase in the reassimilation of internally evolved CO{sub 2}. This CO{sub 2}-recycling consumes a significant amount of light energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents. As a consequence, the metabolic demand for light energy is only reduced by about 40%, whereas net photosynthesis is diminished by about 70% under severe stress conditions. By CO{sub 2} recycling, carbon flux, enzymatic substrate turnover and consumption of light energy were maintained at high levels, which enabled the plant to recover rapidly after rewatering. In stressed D. lanata plants a variable fluorescence quenching mechanism, termed coefficient of actinic light quenching, was observed. Besides water conservation, light energy dissipation is essential and involves regulated metabolic variations.

  13. Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Sjöbergh, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012-31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.-04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.-10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark-daylight, dark-twilight, and twilight-daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their

  14. CONDITIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES

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    Renata Winkler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes are one of the most typical phenomena experienced by contemporary organizations and are an inherent element of their functioning. The change introduction process is complex and it is often accompanied by a phenomenon of resistance to change on the part of the employees in an organization, which is considered as the main cause of failure in the change implementation process. The purpose of the article is to discuss the basic conditions for implementing changes related both to their adequate defining and overcoming resistance to change.

  15. Lighting Efficiency Changes On Horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2017-04-03

    This article answers four questions posed by Facility Executive Magazine regarding the new 2016 edition of ASHRAE Standard 90.1. The discussion centers on new lighting power limits, lighting controls, and the new simulation based performance path in the standard.

  16. Morphological changes in the tracheal epithelium of guinea pigs in conditions of "marginal" vitamin A deficiency. A light, scanning- and transmission-electron microscopic study under special breeding conditions appropriate to early vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofft, E; Biesalski, H K; Zschaebitz, A; Weiser, H

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out the influence of marginal vitamin A deficiency on morphological structures in the tracheobronchial epithelium in guinea pigs. The tracheobronchial epithelium of animals with vitamin A deficiency (n = 15) and control animals (n = 7), kept under optimal laboratory conditions, was evaluated by light and electron microscopy. The cellular ultrastructure was morphometrically analyzed. The height of the respiratory epithelium was slightly increased. The basal cells were arranged in a loose cell band of three to four layers. The quantity of cytofilaments in their cytoplasm was enhanced. Goblet cells were significantly reduced in vitamin A deficiency. There was also a significant decrease in their secretory granules. The number of ciliated cells was almost unchanged. They showed a significant reduction in mitochondria. The kinocilia often contained an atypical structure of the microtubules. Our findings confirm multiple ultrastructural dysplasias in early vitamin A deficiency which may lead to a disturbance of mucociliary clearance.

  17. Adaptations in phytoplankton to changing conditions in tropical estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.

    adaptation in the algae is to counteract the changing light conditions with depth to which they are exposed during their floatation. The green alga Tetraselmis gracilis was found to have a high requirement for phosphorus and this organism occurs...

  18. Spatial light modulation for mode conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    We demonstrate patented techniques for generating tuneable complex field distributions for controllable coupling to high-order guided modes of micro-structured fibres. The optical Fourier transform of binary phase-only patterns which are encoded on a computer-controlled spatial light modulator......, generates complex field distributions for selective launching of a desired mode. Both the amplitude and the phase of the programmable fields are modulated by straightforward and fast adjustments of simple pre-defined binary phase-only diffractive patterns. Experiments demonstrate tuneable coupling...

  19. Artificial changes of weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, I.D.; Vasil'ev, I.V.; Fedulina, I.N.; Zakizhan, Z.Z.; Khalimov, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Unfavorable weather conditions have undesirable ecological consequences, causes remarkable economical damage. In the paper authors consider physical factors and technical methods of influence on cloud formation. (author)

  20. Is countershading camouflage robust to lighting change due to weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penacchio, Olivier; Lovell, P George; Harris, Julie M

    2018-02-01

    Countershading is a pattern of coloration thought to have evolved in order to implement camouflage. By adopting a pattern of coloration that makes the surface facing towards the sun darker and the surface facing away from the sun lighter, the overall amount of light reflected off an animal can be made more uniformly bright. Countershading could hence contribute to visual camouflage by increasing background matching or reducing cues to shape. However, the usefulness of countershading is constrained by a particular pattern delivering 'optimal' camouflage only for very specific lighting conditions. In this study, we test the robustness of countershading camouflage to lighting change due to weather, using human participants as a 'generic' predator. In a simulated three-dimensional environment, we constructed an array of simple leaf-shaped items and a single ellipsoidal target 'prey'. We set these items in two light environments: strongly directional 'sunny' and more diffuse 'cloudy'. The target object was given the optimal pattern of countershading for one of these two environment types or displayed a uniform pattern. By measuring detection time and accuracy, we explored whether and how target detection depended on the match between the pattern of coloration on the target object and scene lighting. Detection times were longest when the countershading was appropriate to the illumination; incorrectly camouflaged targets were detected with a similar pattern of speed and accuracy to uniformly coloured targets. We conclude that structural changes in light environment, such as caused by differences in weather, do change the effectiveness of countershading camouflage.

  1. Tocopherols in Sunflower Seedlings under Light and Dark Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, Lidia; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of tocopherols in cotyledons and radicles from sunflower seeds with high and low total tocopherol content, mainly in the α-tocopherol form, and from seeds with increased proportions of β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, both under dark and light conditions. Tocopherol content was measured every 24 h from 1 to 12 days after sowing. In all cases, the content of individual tocopherol forms in the cotyledons and radicles was reduced along the sampling period, which was more pronounced under light conditions. The presence of light had a slightly greater effect on α- and γ-tocopherol than on β- and δ-tocopherol. A marked light effect was also observed on total tocopherol content, with light promoting the reduction of tocopherol content in cotyledons and radicles. The study revealed only slight differences in the patterns of tocopherol losses in lines with different tocopherol profiles, both under dark and light conditions, which suggested that the partial replacement of α-tocopherol by other tocopherol forms had no great impact on the protection against oxidative damage in seedlings.

  2. Light induces petal color change in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Petal color change, a common phenomenon in angiosperms, is induced by various environmental and endogenous factors. Interestingly, this phenomenon is important for attracting pollinators and further reproductive success. Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae is a tropical Asian climber that undergoes sequential petal color change from white to pink to red. This color changing process is thought to be a good strategy to attract more pollinators. However, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms driving this petal color change phenomenon is still underexplored. In this context, we investigated whether changes in pH, pollination, light, temperature or ethylene mediate petal color change. We found that the detected changes in petal pH were not significant enough to induce color alterations. Additionally, pollination and temperatures of 20–30 °C did not alter the rate of petal color change; however, flowers did not open when exposed to constant temperatures at 15 °C or 35 °C. Moreover, the application of ethylene inhibitor, i.e., silver thiosulphate, did not prevent color change. It is worth mentioning here that in our study we found light as a strong factor influencing the whole process of petal color change, as petals remained white under dark conditions. Altogether, the present study suggests that petal color change in Q. indica is induced by light and not by changes in petal pH, pollination, ethylene, or temperature, while extremely low or high temperatures affect flower anthesis. In summary, our findings represent the probable mechanism underlying the phenomenon of petal color change, which is important for understanding flower color evolution.

  3. Detailed simulations of lighting conditions in office rooms lit by daylight and artificial light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne

    In this thesis the effect on the annual artificial lighting demand is investigated by employing detailed simulations of lighting conditions in office rooms lit by daylight and artificial. The simulations of the artificial lighting demand is accomplished through daylight simulations in Radiance....... The detailed simulations includes studies of the resolution of different weather data sets in climate-based daylight modeling. Furthermore, influence of the electrical lighting demand by simulating with dynamic occupancy patterns is studied. Finally the thesis explores the influence of obstructions in an urban...... canyon on the daylight availability within the buildings, and hence on the energy consumption for artificial lights. The results from the thesis demonstrates that the effect on the outcome of the daylight simulations when simulating with typical weather data files for the location of Copenhagen...

  4. Age- and Wavelength-Dependency of Drosophila Larval Phototaxis and Behavioral Responses to Natural Lighting Conditions

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    Simon G. Sprecher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals use various environmental cues as key determinant for their behavioral decisions. Visual systems are hereby responsible to translate light-dependent stimuli into neuronal encoded information. Even though the larval eyes of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are comparably simple, they comprise two types of photoreceptor neurons (PRs, defined by different Rhodopsin genes expressed. Recent findings support that for light avoidance Rhodopsin5 (Rh5 expressing photoreceptors are crucial, while Rhodopsin6 (Rh6 expressing photoreceptors are dispensable under laboratory conditions. However, it remains debated how animals change light preference during larval live. We show that larval negative phototaxis is age-independent as it persists in larvae from foraging to wandering developmental stages. Moreover, if spectrally different Rhodopsins are employed for the detection of different wavelength of light remains unexplored. We found that negative phototaxis can be elicit by light with wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV to green. This behavior is uniquely mediated by Rh5 expressing photoreceptors, and therefore suggest that this photoreceptor-type is able to perceive UV up to green light. In contrast to laboratory our field experiments revealed that Drosophila larvae uses both types of photoreceptors under natural lighting conditions. All our results, demonstrate that Drosophila larval eyes mediate avoidance of light stimuli with a wide, ecological relevant range of quantity (intensities and quality (wavelengths. Thus, the two photoreceptor-types appear more likely to play a role in different aspects of phototaxis under natural lighting conditions, rather than color discrimination.

  5. Chlorophyll b degradation by chlorophyll b reductase under high-light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Rei; Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2015-12-01

    The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is the main antenna complex of photosystem II (PSII). Plants change their LHCII content depending on the light environment. Under high-light conditions, the content of LHCII should decrease because over-excitation damages the photosystem. Chlorophyll b is indispensable for accumulating LHCII, and chlorophyll b degradation induces LHCII degradation. Chlorophyll b degradation is initiated by chlorophyll b reductase (CBR). In land plants, NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1) and NYC1-Like (NOL) are isozymes of CBR. We analyzed these mutants to determine their functions under high-light conditions. During high-light treatment, the chlorophyll a/b ratio was stable in the wild-type (WT) and nol plants, and the LHCII content decreased in WT plants. The chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased in the nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants, and a substantial degree of LHCII was retained in nyc1/nol plants after the high-light treatment. These results demonstrate that NYC1 degrades the chlorophyll b on LHCII under high-light conditions, thus decreasing the LHCII content. After the high-light treatment, the maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII photochemistry was lower in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants than in WT and nol plants. A larger light-harvesting system would damage PSII in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants. The fluorescence spectroscopy of the leaves indicated that photosystem I was also damaged by the excess LHCII in nyc1/nol plants. These observations suggest that chlorophyll b degradation by NYC1 is the initial reaction for the optimization of the light-harvesting capacity under high-light conditions.

  6. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The aim of the paper is to illustrate the influence of environmental change on living conditions and life style and some of the mechanisms through which such changes affect physical and mental health. The interrelationship between environmental and societal change is illustrated by an example from a small......Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environment...... community in Greenland, where changing environmental conditions have influenced fishing and employment opportunities to the extent that the size of the population has changed dramatically. The link between social change and health is shown with reference to studies on education, housing and occupation...

  7. Do nest light conditions affect rejection of parasitic eggs? A test of the light environment hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Morongová, Klára; Čapek, Miroslav; Jelínek, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2011), s. 539-546 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * nest light conditions * egg recognition * Great reed warbler * cuckoo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  8. Blue Light Protects Against Temporal Frequency Sensitive Refractive Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Frances; Britton, Stephanie; Spatcher, Molly; Hanowsky, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. The outdoors allows exposure to short-wavelength (blue light) rich sunlight, while indoor illuminants can be deficient at short-wavelengths. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of blue light, and temporal sensitivity, in the emmetropization response. Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal luminance modulation of white light (with blue; N = 82) or yellow light (without blue; N = 83) at 80% contrast, at one of six temporal frequencies: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10 Hz daily for 3 days. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components and corneal curvature were measured. Refraction, eye length, and choroidal changes were dependent on the presence of blue light (P light, refraction did not change across frequencies (mean change -0.24 [diopters] D), while in the absence of blue light, we observed a hyperopic shift (>1 D) at high frequencies, and a myopic shift (>-0.6 D) at low frequencies. With blue light there was little difference in eye growth across frequencies (77 μm), while in the absence of blue light, eyes grew more at low temporal frequencies and less at high temporal frequencies (10 vs. 0.2 Hz: 145 μm; P light. Illuminants rich in blue light can protect against myopic eye growth when the eye is exposed to slow changes in luminance contrast as might occur with near work.

  9. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  10. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  11. Xenon changes under power-burst conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Under ordinary operating conditions the xenon concentration in a reactor core can change significantly in times on the order of hours. Core transients of safety significance are much more rapid and hence calculations are done with xenon concentration held constant. However, in certain transients (such as reactivity initiated accidents) there is a very large power surge and the question arises as to whether under these circumstances the xenon concentration could change. This would be particularly important if the xenon were reduced thereby tending to make the accident autocatalytic. The objective of the present study is to quantify this effect to see if it could be important

  12. Comparison of light and x-ray sensitometric responses of double-emulsion films for different processing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendl, Christian; Buhr, Egbert

    2001-01-01

    The effects of different film processing conditions on light and x-ray sensitometric responses were compared for a variety of double-emulsion x-ray films. The processing conditions were altered by changes of the developer temperature. Three different exposure variants were applied: x-ray sensitometry using two stepped neutral density attenuators between film and screens, simultaneous double-sided light sensitometry, and single-sided light sensitometry. 13 different types of double-emulsion x-ray films were investigated, among them three asymmetric films. In the special case of exposing the asymmetric films with the single-sided light sensitometer, a method was investigated where each side of the film is exposed at different locations and the sum effect is analyzed. From each sensitometric curve shape two parameters, the logarithmic speed (log S) and the average gradient (G), were evaluated. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Single-sided and double-sided light sensitometers revealed almost equal changes of log S when the processing conditions are altered. Thus, single-sided light sensitometers can serve as a substitute for double-sided light sensitometers provided that suited exposure methods are used and appropriate sensitometric parameters are evaluated. (2) Light sensitometry quantitatively indicated changes of the film processing that affect the x-ray speed. Hence, light sensitometry is a useful method to monitor changes in film processing

  13. Landcover change and light pollution in Kota Bandarlampung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Akmal F.; Hafidz, Muhammad; Hazairin, Azra Q.; Riadini, Fitri

    2016-10-01

    Excessive emission of light or light pollution at night is one of the elements of environmental pollution. Indirectly light pollution causes increase of fossil fuel use, greenhouse gasses and pollution in the atmosphere. Direct effects of light pollution including: disturbance of animals life, human's psychology and environmental degradation. Light pollution in an area is related with the existence of built-up area and the lack of vegetation as a manifestation of economic and population growth. This research aims to know the relation of land cover changes with light pollution in Bandar Lampung and surrounding with 40 km radius over the last ten years. This research used satellite imagery to obtained data and later does the verification and accuracy tests on the field. The variables used in this research include light pollution radiance value, percentages in the built-up area and vegetation density. Light pollution radiance value is obtained from DMSP-OLS Version 4 satellite images, while the changes of built up and vegetation density data obtained from NDBI dan NDVI from Landsat 8 satellite images. The research area is divided into a grid with a size of 30"×30" which is the same as spatial resolution of DMSP. From sample grids, regression analysis between the percentage of light pollution radiance value with the percentage of NDVI and NDBI index on each grids. The percentages of built up areas and vegetation has 58 % of fair correlation with light emission.

  14. Changing Light Bulbs: Practice, Motivation, and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The comment on the Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, and Deci (2011) article on motivation and autonomy in psychotherapy considers motivation and its role as prerequisite, process variable, or appropriate outcome, speculating that all are appropriate ways to conceptualize motivation in the behavior change process. Autonomy, as a useful addition, refers…

  15. Satisfying light conditions: a field study on perception of consensus light in Dutch open office environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chraibi, S.; Lashina, T.A.; Shrubsole, P.; Aries, M.B.C.; van Loenen, E.J.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace innovation has been changing the European office landscape into mostly open spaces, where enhanced interaction between people is combined by efficient use of space. However, challenges are found in offering individual preferred conditions in these multi-user spaces, especially when dealing

  16. The study of LED light source illumination conditions for ideal algae cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chen, Cin-Fu; Yue, Cheng-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Utilizing LED light source modules with 3 different RGB colors, the illumination effect of different wavelengths had been investigated on the growth curve of the same kind of micro algae. It was found that the best micro algae culturing status came out with long wavelength light such as red light (650 670 nm). Based on the same condition for a period of 3 weeks , the grown micro algae population density ratio represented by Optical Density (O.D.) ratio is 1?0.4?0.7 corresponding to growth with Red, Green, Blue light sources, respectively. Mixing 3 types and 2 types of LEDs with different parameters, the grown micro algae population densities were compared in terms of O.D. Interestingly enough, different light sources resulted in significant discoloration on micro algae growth, appearing yellow, brown, green, etc. Our experiments results showed such discoloration effect is reversible. Based on the same lighting condition, micro algae growth can be also affected by incubator size, nutrition supply, and temperature variation. In recent years, micro algae related technologies have been international wise a hot topic of energy and environmental protection for research and development institutes, and big energy companies among those developed countries. There will be an economically prosperous future. From this study of LED lighting to ideal algae cultivation, it was found that such built system would be capable of optimizing artificial cultivation system, leading to economic benefits for its continuous development. Since global warming causing weather change, accompanying with reducing energy sources and agriculture growth shortage are all threatening human being survival.

  17. Subjective quality of video sequences rendered on LCD with local backlight dimming at different lighting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper M.; Bech, Søren; Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of ambient light on the perceived quality of videos displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) with local backlight dimming. A subjective test assessing the quality of videos with two backlight dimming methods and three lighting conditions, i.e. no light, low light level (5 lux) and higher light level (60 lux) was organized to collect subjective data. Results show that participants prefer the method exploiting local dimming possibilities to the conventional full backlight but that this preference varies depending on the ambient light level. The clear preference for one method at the low light conditions decreases at the high ambient light, confirming that the ambient light significantly attenuates the perception of the leakage defect (light leaking through dark pixels). Results are also highly dependent on the content of the sequence, which can modulate the effect of the ambient light from having an important influence on the quality grades to no influence at all.

  18. Changes in membrane lipids and carotenoids during light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... increased their content, the changes of PG(18:3/16:0) and MGDG(18:3/16:0) being primarily significant. Major lipid changes were also ... reported to increase with exposure to high light in Cyano- bacteria (Masamoto and .... Absorption spectrum of the other carotenoid (unkn1) has absorption maxima at 448/.

  19. Functioning of Philippine seagrass species under deteriorating light conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uy, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Industrialization, urbanization and agricultural intensification result in increased sediment loading and eutrophication of S.E.Asian coastal waters and associated deterioration of light availability to seagrasses inhabiting coastal waters. In the present study, different (internal and external)

  20. Subjective quality of video sequences rendered on LCD with local backlight dimming at different lighting conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper Mørkhøj

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of ambient light on the perceived quality of videos displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) with local backlight dimming. A subjective test assessing the quality of videos with two backlight dimming methods and three lighting conditions, i.e. no light, low...... light level (5 lux) and higher light level (60 lux) was organized to collect subjective data. Results show that participants prefer the method exploiting local dimming possibilities to the conventional full backlight but that this preference varies depending on the ambient light level. The clear...... preference for one method at the low light conditions decreases at the high ambient light, confirming that the ambient light significantly attenuates the perception of the leakage defect (light leaking through dark pixels). Results are also highly dependent on the content of the sequence, which can modulate...

  1. Modeling correlated information change: from conditional beliefs to quantum conditionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    In this paper, we propose a unified logical framework for representing and analyzing various forms of correlated information change. Our main thesis is that “logical dynamics,” in the sense of van Benthem (Exploring logical dynamics. CSLI Publications, Stanford, 1996; Logical dynamics of information

  2. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    The FDA hydrolysis capacities and bacterial biomass concentrations (estimated by determination of ATP content) of growth cultures prepared from activated sludge and wastewater, were measured to find out whether the FDA activity would reflect bacterial biomass under different physiological states...... of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...... revealed differences up to two orders of magnitude of the ratio. Based on these results it was concluded that the FDA activity should not be applied for measurements of viable biomass in environments in which different physiological conditions occur....

  3. Analyzing Traffic Crash Severity in Work Zones under Different Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated various factors that contribute to the severity of work zone crashes. However, little has been done on the specific effects of light conditions. Using the data from the Enhanced Tennessee Roadway Information Management System (E-TRIMS, crashes that occurred in the Tennessee work zones during 2003–2015 are categorized into three light conditions: daylight, dark-lighted, and dark-not-lighted. One commonly used decision tree method—Classification and Regression Trees (CART—is adopted to investigate the factors contributing to crash severity in highway work zones under these light conditions. The outcomes from the three decision trees with differing light conditions show significant differences in the ranking and importance of the factors considered in the study, thereby indicating the necessity of examining traffic crashes according to light conditions. By separately considering the crash characteristics under different light conditions, some new findings are obtained from this study. The study shows that an increase in the number of lanes increases the crash severity level in work zones during the day while decreasing the severity at night. Similarly, drugs and alcohol are found to increase the severity level significantly under the dark-not-lighted condition, while they have a limited influence under daylight and dark-lighted conditions.

  4. A dynamic switching strategy for air-conditioning systems operated in light-thermal-load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jin-Long; Yeh, T.-J.; Hwang, Wei-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Recently, modern air-conditioners have begun to incorporate variable-speed compressors and variable-opening expansion valves, together with feedback control to improve the performance and energy efficiency. However, for the compressor there usually exists a low-speed limit below which its speed can not be continuously modulated unless it is completely turned off. When the air-conditioning system is operated in light-thermal-load conditions, the low-speed limit causes the compressor to run in an on-off manner which can significantly degrade the performance and efficiency. In this paper, a dynamic switching strategy is proposed for such scenarios. The strategy is basically an integration of a cascading control structure, an intuitive switching strategy, and a dynamic compensator. While the control structure provides the nominal performance, the intuitive switching strategy and the dynamic compensator together can account for the compressor's low-speed limitation. Theoretical analysis reveals that when the output matrix of the dynamic compensator is chosen properly, the proposed strategy can effectively reduce the output error caused by the on-off operation of the compressor. Experiments also demonstrate that the proposed strategy can simultaneously provide better regulation for the indoor temperature and improve the energy efficiency at steady state.

  5. Functioning of Philippine seagrass species under deteriorating light conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uy, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Enhanced eutrophication as well as siltation are important environmental issues in Southeast Asian coastal waters. Both lead to increased turbidity and hence to lower light availability for the originally extensive seagrass beds that fringe most of the Philippine coastlines. Consequent large-scale

  6. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  7. Normalization of informatisation parameter on airfield light-signal bar at flights in complex meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П.В. Попов

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  The technique of maintenance of the set level of flights safetivness is developed by normalization of informatisation parameters functional groups of light-signal lightings at technological stages of interaction of crew of the airplane with the airfield light-signals bar at flights in a complex weathercast conditions.

  8. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M; Brown, Barbara B; Tribby, Calvin P; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J; Smith, Ken R; Jensen, Wyatt

    2016-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the "displacement" measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant ( p rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services.

  9. Perceived color shift of ceramics according to the change of illuminating light with spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Perceived color of ceramics changes by the spectral power distribution of ambient light. This study aimed to quantify the amount of shifts in color and color coordinates of clinically simulated seven all-ceramics due to the switch of three ambient light sources using a human vision simulating spectroradiometer. MATERIALS AND METHODS CIE color coordinates, such as L*, a* and b*,of ceramic specimens were measured under three light sources, which simulate the CIE standard illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp). Shifts in color and color coordinate by the switch of lights were determined. Influence of the switched light (D65 to A, or D65 to F9), shade of veneer ceramics (A2 or A3), and brand of ceramics on the shifts was analyzed by a three-way ANOVA. RESULTS Shifts in color and color coordinates were influenced by three factors (P 5.5). When switched to A, CIE a* increased (Δa*: 5.6 to 7.6), however, CIE b* increased (Δb*: 4.9 to 7.8) when switched to F9. CONCLUSION Clinically simulated ceramics demonstrated clinically unacceptable color shifts according to the switches in ambient lights based on spectroradiometric readings. Therefore, shade matching and compatibility evaluation should be performed considering ambient lighting conditions and should be done under most relevant lighting condition. PMID:24049567

  10. Investigation of gender- and age-related preferences of men and women regarding lighting conditions for activation and relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, S.; Schinagl, C.; Djuras, G.; Frühwirth, M.; Hoschopf, H.; Wagner, F.; Schulz, B.; Nemitz, W.; Grote, V.; Reidl, S.; Pritz, P.; Moser, M.; Wenzl, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, LED lighting became an indispensable alternative to conventional lighting systems. Sophisticated solutions offer not only comfortable white light with a good color rendering. They also provide the possibility of changing illuminance and color temperature. Some systems even simulate daylight over the entire day, some including natural variations as due to clouds. Such systems are supposed to support the chronobiological needs of human and to have a positive effect on well-being, performance, sleep-quality and health. Lighting can also be used to support specific aims in a situation, like to improve productivity in activation or to support recreation in relaxation. Research regarding suitable light-settings for such situations and superordinate questions like their influence on well-being and health is still incomplete. We investigated the subjective preferences of men and women regarding light-settings for activation and relaxation. We supplied two rooms and four cubes with light sources that provide the possibility of tuning illuminance, color temperature and deviation from Plackian locus. More than 80 individuals - belonging to four groups differing in gender and age - were asked to imagine activating and recovering situations for which they should adjust suitable and pleasant lighting by tuning the above mentioned light properties. It was shown that there are clear differences in the lighting conditions preferred for these two situations. Also some combined gender- and age-specific differences became apparent.

  11. Dental Usage Under Changing Economic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard J.; Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan; Schimmel, Jody; St Clair, Patricia A.; Pepper, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between changes in household finances (wealth and income) and changes in dental utilization at the onset of the recent recession in a population of older Americans. Methods Data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were analyzed for U.S. individuals aged 51 years and older during the 2006 and 2008 waves of the HRS. We estimated logistic models of (1) starting and (2) stopping dental use between 2006 and 2008 survey periods as a function of changes in household wealth and income, controlling for other potentially confounding covariates. Results We found that only when household wealth falls by 50 percent or more were older adults less likely to seek dental care. Changes in household income and other changes in household wealth were not associated with changes in dental utilization among this population. Conclusions Older Americans’ dental care utilization appeared to be fairly resilient to changes in household finances; only when wealth fell by 50 percent or more did individuals decrease dental use. This finding might extend to other health care services that are preventive, routine, and relatively inexpensive. PMID:22994647

  12. A comparison of color fidelity metrics for light sources using simulation of color samples under lighting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Yoojin; Jang, Junwoo

    2017-09-01

    Color fidelity has been used as one of indices to evaluate the performance of light sources. Since the Color Rendering Index (CRI) was proposed at CIE, many color fidelity metrics have been proposed to increase the accuracy of the metric. This paper focuses on a comparison of the color fidelity metrics in an aspect of accuracy with human visual assessments. To visually evaluate the color fidelity of light sources, we made a simulator that reproduces the color samples under lighting conditions. In this paper, eighteen color samples of the Macbeth color checker under test light sources and reference illuminant for each of them are simulated and displayed on a well-characterized monitor. With only a spectrum set of the test light source and reference illuminant, color samples under any lighting condition can be reproduced. In this paper, the spectrums of the two LED and two OLED light sources that have similar values of CRI are used for the visual assessment. In addition, the results of the visual assessment are compared with the two color fidelity metrics that include CRI and IES TM-30-15 (Rf), proposed by Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) in 2015. Experimental results indicate that Rf outperforms CRI in terms of the correlation with visual assessment.

  13. HSE under ever-changing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiborg, R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper relates to the health, safety and environment (HSE) area on the Ekofisk field on the Norwegian continental shelf. Experience from the first twenty years operation indicated that rapid forced change to introduce new technology and work methods had a tendency to increase the number of negative events in HSE. In 1991/92 significant changes had to be initiated in order to continue safe operations, reduce downtime, deliver the service expected by third parties and secure economically viable operations into the next century. The last 4-5 years prove that a motivated work force, with solid well planned programs and the right tools, can achieve both improved HSE performance and reduce shut-downs in the middle of accelerated change programs. 14 figs

  14. A study on the boundary condition for analysis of bio-heat equation according to light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Dong Guk; Bae, Sung Woo; Im, Ik Tae [Chunbuk Natinal University, Junju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, the temperature change in an imitational biological tissue, when its surface is irradiated with bio-light, was measured by experiments. Using the experimental data, an equation for temperature as a function of time was developed in order to use it as a boundary condition in numerical studies for the model. The temperature profile was measured along the depth for several wavelengths and distances of the light source from the tissue. It was found that the temperature of the tissue increased with increasing wavelength and irradiation time; however, the difference in the temperatures with red light and near infrared light was not large. The numerical analysis results obtained by using the developed equation as boundary condition show good agreement with the measured temperatures.

  15. Changing living conditions, life style and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Kvernmo, Siv; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Human health is the result of the interaction of genetic, nutritional, socio-cultural, economic, physical infrastructure and ecosystem factors. All of the individual, social, cultural and socioeconomic factors are influenced by the environment they are embedded in and by changes in this environme...

  16. Georgian climate change under global warming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Elizbarashvili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Georgian Climate change has been considered comprehensively, taking into account World Meteorological Organization recommendations and recent observation data. On the basis of mean temperature and precipitation decadal trend geo-information maps for 1936–2012 years period, Georgian territory zoning has been carried out and for each areas climate indices main trends have been studied, that best characterize climate change - cold and hot days, tropical nights, vegetation period duration, diurnal maximum precipitation, maximum five-day total precipitation, precipitation intensity simple index, precipitation days number of at least 10 mm, 20 mm and 50 mm, rainy and rainless periods duration. Trends of temperature indices are statistically significant. On the Black Sea coastline and Colchis lowland at high confidence level cold and hot days and tropical nights number changes are statistically significant. On eastern Georgia plains at high level of statistical significance, the change of all considered temperature indices has been fixed except for the number of hot days. In mountainous areas only hot day number increasing is significant. Trends of most moisture indices are statistically insignificant. While keeping Georgian climate change current trends, precipitation amount on the Black Sea coastline and Colchis lowland, as well as in some parts of Western Caucasus to the end of the century will increase by 50% and amounts to 3000 and 6000 mm, respectively this will strengthen humidity of those areas. Besides increasing of rainy period duration may constitute the risk for flooding and high waters. On eastern Georgia plains, in particular Kvemo Kartli, annual precipitation amount will decrease by 50% or more, and will be only 150–200 mm and the precipitation daily maximum will decrease by about 20 mm and be only 10–15 mm, which of course will increase the intensity of desertification of steppe and semi-desert landscapes.

  17. Mechanisms of light transmittance changes in rat spinal cord slices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Lýdia; Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2002), s. S36 ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glia l Cell Function in Health and Disease /5./. Rome - Italy, 21.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111100004; CEZ:MSM 5011112 Keywords : light transmittance changes Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.600, year: 2002

  18. Agroclimatic conditions in Europe under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Miroslav; Olesen, J. E.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Skjelvag, A. O.; Eitzinger, J.; Seguin, B.; Peltonen-Sainio, P.; Rotter, R.; Iglesias, A.; Orlandini, S.; Dubrovský, Martin; Hlavinka, P.; Balek, J.; Eckersten, H.; Cloppet, E.; Calanca, P.; Vucetic, V.; Nejedlík, P.; Kumar, S.; Lalic, B.; Mestre, A.; Rossi, F.; Kozyra, J.; Alexandrov, V.; Semerádová, D.; Žalud, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2011), s. 2298-2318 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : agroclimatic extremes * agroclimatic index * climate- change impacts * crop production * environmental zones Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.862, year: 2011

  19. Differential responses of invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) and native C. scandens to changes in light quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Stacey A; Silander, John A

    2006-07-01

    When plants are subjected to leaf canopy shade in forest understories or from neighboring plants, they not only experience reduced light quantity, but light quality in lowered red : far red light (R : FR). Growth and other developmental responses of plants in reduced R : FR can vary and are not consistent across species. We compared how an invasive liana, Celastrus orbiculatus, and its closely related native congener, C. scandens, responded to changes in the R : FR under controlled, simulated understory conditions. We measured a suite of morphological and growth attributes under control, neutral shading, and low R : FR light treatments. Celastrus orbiculatus showed an increase in height, aboveground biomass, and total leaf mass in reduced R : FR treatments as compared to the neutral shade, while C. scandens had increased stem diameter, single leaf area, and leaf mass to stem mass ratio. These differences provide a mechanistic understanding of the ability of C. orbiculatus to increase height and actively forage for light resources in forest understories, while C. scandens appears unable to forage for light and instead depends upon a light gap forming. The plastic growth response of C. orbiculatus in shaded conditions points to its success in forested habitats where C. scandens is largely absent.

  20. Ultrastructural changes in osteocytes in microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. V.; Oganov, V. S.; Zolotova, N. V.

    We examined the histology and morphometry of biosamples (biopsies) of the iliac crest of monkeys, flown 14 days aboard the "Bion-11", using electron microscopy. We found, that some young osteocytes take part in the activization of collagen protein biosynthesis in the adaptive remodeling process of the bone tissue to microgravity conditions. Osteocyte lacunae filled with collagen fibrils; this correlates with fibrotic osteoblast reorganization in such zones. The osteolytic activity in mature osteocytes is intensified. As a result of osteocyte destruction, the quantity of empty osteocytic lacunae in the bone tissue increases.

  1. Modelling cladding response to changing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulkki, Ville; Ikonen, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland ltd (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    The cladding of the nuclear fuel is subjected to varying conditions during fuel reactor life. Load drops and reversals can be modelled by taking cladding viscoelastic behaviour into account. Viscoelastic contribution to the deformation of metals is usually considered small enough to be ignored, and in many applications it merely contributes to the primary part of the creep curve. With nuclear fuel cladding the high temperature and irradiation as well as the need to analyse the variable load all emphasise the need to also inspect the viscoelasticity of the cladding.

  2. Light modulated toxicity of isoproturon toward natural stream periphyton photosynthesis: a comparison between constant and dynamic light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviale, Martin; Prygiel, Jean; Créach, Anne

    2010-05-10

    This study tested if a variation in light intensity, in comparison to constant light required in well-designed toxicity test, could have measurable consequences on the sensitivity of phototrophic biofilms (periphyton) to isoproturon. Two independent experiments were carried out to investigate the combined effects of light and isoproturon on the photochemical behavior of intact natural biofilms by measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment composition. Experiment 1 consisted of exposing biofilms to series of isoproturon concentrations (0-2 mg L(-1)) for 7 h under constant light at different irradiance levels (25-300 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). In experiment 2, biofilms were exposed using more environmentally realistic conditions to three selected concentrations of isoproturon (2, 6 and 20 microg L(-1)) during a 7-h-simulated daily light cycle. Our results demonstrated that light, considered here as a direct physical stressor, slightly modulated the acute toxicity of isoproturon on these diatom dominated communities. This was attributed to the fact that these two factors act specifically on the photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, it was shown that a dynamic light regime increased periphyton sensitivity to isoproturon by challenging its photoprotective mechanisms such as the xanthophyll cycle, therefore implying that traditional ecotoxicological bioassays lead to underestimate the effect of isoproturon. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Visibility of changes in light intensity caused by voltage leaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljeseth, Helge; Mogstad, Olve

    2006-05-01

    Sintef Energy Research was engaged by NVE to evaluate the official requirements on voltage leaps in regulations concerning quality of delivery, and simultaneously conduct tests with a panel of test persons in order to get more detailed evaluations and recommendations to the existing requirements on voltage leaps. Tests and laboratory experiments have been performed on a total of 96 test persons, and the results reveal that voltage leaps even smaller than the 3 percent limit set by Norwegian regulations are visible to most people. The majority of the test persons consider the light conditions as unacceptably bad when light conditions are near the limit of voltage leap. Moreover, 25 percent of the test persons considered the light quality unacceptable when the voltage leap was well under half of the official limit.The results of the experiments indicates a need for narrowing the restrictions on voltage leaps in the Norwegian power network in order to limit the size and frequency of this kind of disturbance in the voltage. Recommendations for regulations are elaborated in chapter 3 (ml)

  4. Changes of retinal light sensitivity after YAG-laser capsulotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahor, D.; Gracner, B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the changes of retinal light sensitivity of central visual field in patients with posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after YAG-laser capsulotomy. Our study includes 18 eyes ( 18 patients) with PCO after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. In all patients YAG-laser capsulotomy was performed. In all patients, a threshold visual field analysis was carried out with the C 30-2 program of the automated Humphrey Field Analyzer before and one month after the procedure. In all patients a significant improvement of visual acuity was observed one month after capsulotomy (p 0.00004). One month after YAG-laser treatment, a significant improvement of retinal light sensitivity in the central visual field was also observed. The average MD (mean deviation) before the procedure was -6.88 db (±3.9, max. -11.7, min. 2.17) and after the procedure --4.58 db (±4.37, max. -10.87, min. +0.51). The improvement in MD was statistically significant (p = 0.00475). No correlation was established between the improvement of retinal light sensitivity and patient age or the size of capsulotomy. Our study shows that the improvement of retinal light sensitivity is significant after YAG-laser capsulotomy and does not depend on patient age or capsulotomy size. (author)

  5. 23 CFR 635.109 - Standardized changed condition clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.109 Standardized changed condition clauses. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the following changed conditions contract... contract or if unknown physical conditions of an unusual nature, differing materially from those ordinarily...

  6. Light scattering under conditions of nonstationary electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, N V; Sokolov, I M

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of probe radiation pulses in ultracold atomic ensembles is studied theoretically under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. The pulse 'stopping' process is considered which takes place upon nonadiabatic switching off and subsequent switching on the control field. We analysed the formation of an inverted recovered probe radiation pulse, i.e. the pulse propagating in the direction opposite to the propagation direction before the pulse stopping. Based on this analysis, a scheme is proposed for lidar probing atomic or molecular clouds in which the probe pulse penetrates into a cloud over the specified depth, while information on the cloud state is obtained from the parameters of the inverted pulse. Calculations are performed for an ensemble of 87 Rb atoms. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  7. Lead induced changes in phosphorylation of PSII proteins in low light grown pea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wioleta, Wasilewska; Anna, Drożak; Ilona, Bacławska; Kamila, Kąkol; Elżbieta, Romanowska

    2015-02-01

    Light-intensity and redox-state induced thylakoid proteins phosphorylation involved in structural changes and in regulation of protein turnover. The presence of heavy metal ions triggers a wide range of cellular responses including changes in plant growth and photosynthesis. Plants have evolved a number of mechanisms to protect photosynthetic apparatus. We have characterized the effect of lead on PSII protein phosphorylation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown in low light conditions. Pb ions affected only slightly photochemical efficiency of PSII and had no effect on organization of thylakoid complexes. Lead activated strongly phosphorylation of PSII core D1 protein and dephosphorylation of this protein did not proceed in far red light. D1 protein was also not degraded in this conditions. However, phosphorylation of LHCII proteins was not affected by lead. These results indicate that Pb(2+) stimulate the phosphorylation of PSII core proteins and by disturbing the disassembly of supercomplexes play a role in PSII repair mechanism. LHCII phosphorylation could control the distribution of energy between the photosystems in low light conditions. This demonstrates that plants may respond to heavy metals by induction different pathways responsible for protein protection under stress conditions.

  8. The role of light for fish-zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions during winter in shallow lakes - a climate change perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramm, Mette Elisabeth; Lassen, Majbritt Kjeldahl; Liboriussen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    in the life history of copepods. The strength of the fish effect on zooplankton biomass diminished with declining light and the effect of light was strongest in the presence of fish. 4. When fish were present, reduced light led to a shift from rotifers to calanoid copepods in the clear lake and from rotifers...... in winter light conditions are needed in order to have a significant effect on the plankton community. The change in light occurring when such plankton communities move northwards in response to global warming will mostly be of modest importance for this lake type, at least for the rest of this century...

  9. How to change environmental conditions for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commers, Matthew J; Gottlieb, Nell; Kok, Gerjo

    2007-03-01

    Since the Lalonde report, contemporary public-health theory has given steadily more attention to the role of environments in influencing health status. Environments, both social and physical, influence health directly or through complex interactions with behavior, genetics and health-care systems. They are also important for public-health because environments are the complex systems through which people are both empowered and exercise their empowerment. If public-health professionals are to play a significant role in influencing environments for health, they need analytical instruments that enable them to link specific environmental conditions with the actions necessary to improve them. These instruments must also enable public-health professionals to identify points of leverage for stimulating key actors to take the actions necessary to make environments more promoting of health. This article first presents one such analytical instrument. Then, building on examples relating to socio-economic health inequities, the analytical instrument is applied to reveal how it can add value to health professionals' effectiveness in planning interventions for more health-promoting environments.

  10. Changing Energy Requirements in the Mediterranean Under Changing Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Demosthenous

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of climate change on energy requirements in the Mediterranean. Energy requirements, especially for space heating and cooling, are closely linked to several weather variables, mainly air temperature. The analysis is based on daily temperature outputs from several regional climate models run at a resolution of 25 km × 25 km in the framework of EU project ENSEMBLES using the A1B emissions scenario. The impacts of changes in temperature on energy requirements are investigated using the concept of degree days, defined as the difference of mean air temperature from a base temperature. Base temperature should be chosen to coincide with the minimum energy consumption. In this way, changes in heating and cooling requirements between the reference and the future period are calculated and areas about to undergo large changes identified. These changes are calculated between a 30-year reference period 1961–1990 and a near future period 2021–2050 taking the ensemble mean of all regional climate models. The near-term future has been chosen instead of the frequently used end-of-the-century period to assist policy makers in their planning. In general, a decrease in energy requirements is projected under future milder winters and an increase under hotter summers.

  11. Proteins involved in biophoton emission and flooding-stress responses in soybean under light and dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-02-01

    To know the molecular systems basically flooding conditions in soybean, biophoton emission measurements and proteomic analyses were carried out for flooding-stressed roots under light and dark conditions. Photon emission was analyzed using a photon counter. Gel-free quantitative proteomics were performed to identify significant changes proteins using the nano LC-MS along with SIEVE software. Biophoton emissions were significantly increased in both light and dark conditions after flooding stress, but gradually decreased with continued flooding exposure compared to the control plants. Among the 120 significantly identified proteins in the roots of soybean plants, 73 and 19 proteins were decreased and increased in the light condition, respectively, and 4 and 24 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, in the dark condition. The proteins were mainly functionally grouped into cell organization, protein degradation/synthesis, and glycolysis. The highly abundant lactate/malate dehydrogenase proteins were decreased in flooding-stressed roots exposed to light, whereas the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme was increased in both light and dark conditions. Notably, however, specific enzyme assays revealed that the activities of these enzymes and biophoton emission were sharply increased after 3 days of flooding stress. This finding suggests that the source of biophoton emission in roots might involve the chemical excitation of electron or proton through enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation and reduction reactions. Moreover, the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme may play important roles in responses in flooding stress of soybean under the light condition and as a contributing factor to biophoton emission.

  12. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  13. Physiological responses to variations in grazing and light conditions in native and invasive fucoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Celia; Arenas, Francisco; Fernández, Ángela; Troncoso, Jesús S; Martínez, Brezo

    2018-08-01

    Poor physiological acclimatization to climate change has led to shifts in the distributional ranges of various species and to biodiversity loss. However, evidence also suggests the relevance of non-climatic physical factors, such as light, and biotic factors, which may act in interactive or additive way. We used a mechanistic approach to evaluate the ecophysiological responses of four seaweed species (three dominant intertidal fucoids, Fucus serratus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the invasive Sargassum muticum) to different conditions of grazing, light irradiance and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We performed a large-scale mesocosm experiment with a total of 800 individual thalli of macroalgae. The factorial experimental design included major algal traits, photoacclimation, nutrient stoichiometry and chemical defence as response variables. Few significant effects of the factors acting alone or in combination were observed, suggesting a good capacity for acclimatization in all four species. The significant effects were generally additive and there were no potentially deleterious synergistic effects between factors. Fucus serratus, a species currently undergoing a drastic contraction of its southern distribution limit in Europe, was the most strongly affected species, showing overall lower photosynthetic efficiency than the other species. The growth rate of F. serratus decreased when UV radiation was filtered out, but only in the presence of grazers. Moreover, more individuals of this species tended to reach maturity in the absence of grazers, and the nitrogen content of tissues decreased under full-spectrum light. Only the phlorotannin content of tissues of B. bifurcata and of exudates of A. nodosum, both slow-growing species, were positively affected by respectively removal of UVB radiation and the presence of grazers. The findings for S. muticum, a well-established invasive seaweed across European coasts, suggested similar physiological response of

  14. Do changes in the azimuthal distribution of maize leaves over time affect canopy light absorption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.L.; Moulia, B.; Bonhomme, R.

    1999-01-01

    In maize canopies, when modelling the architecture and light regime one usually assumes leaf azimuths are distributed uniformly. Once we had demonstrated azimuthal re-orientation of maize leaves during the vegetative phase, we tested the weight of this hypothesis on the light absorbed daily by the canopy. We thus modelled the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of maize canopies with various plant densities and at different developmental stages using plant digitizing under field conditions. We simulated radiative transfer using a volume-based approach within actual and hypothetical canopies, obtained by simply rearranging leaf azimuths. Simulations indicated that changes to horizontal heterogeneity have little effect on daily light absorption efficiency. It is concluded that changes in leaf azimuths do not have to be taken into account in crop-functioning models. (author) [fr

  15. Distant Measurement of Plethysmographic Signal in Various Lighting Conditions Using Configurable Frame-Rate Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybyło Jaromir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Videoplethysmography is currently recognized as a promising noninvasive heart rate measurement method advantageous for ubiquitous monitoring of humans in natural living conditions. Although the method is considered for application in several areas including telemedicine, sports and assisted living, its dependence on lighting conditions and camera performance is still not investigated enough. In this paper we report on research of various image acquisition aspects including the lighting spectrum, frame rate and compression. In the experimental part, we recorded five video sequences in various lighting conditions (fluorescent artificial light, dim daylight, infrared light, incandescent light bulb using a programmable frame rate camera and a pulse oximeter as the reference. For a video sequence-based heart rate measurement we implemented a pulse detection algorithm based on the power spectral density, estimated using Welch’s technique. The results showed that lighting conditions and selected video camera settings including compression and the sampling frequency influence the heart rate detection accuracy. The average heart rate error also varies from 0.35 beats per minute (bpm for fluorescent light to 6.6 bpm for dim daylight.

  16. Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos; Seymour, Justin R; Luhar, Mitul; Durham, William M; Mitchell, James G; Macke, Andreas; Stocker, Roman

    2011-03-08

    The growth of microbial cultures in the laboratory often is assessed informally with a quick flick of the wrist: dense suspensions of microorganisms produce translucent "swirls" when agitated. Here, we rationalize the mechanism behind this phenomenon and show that the same process may affect the propagation of light through the upper ocean. Analogous to the shaken test tubes, the ocean can be characterized by intense fluid motion and abundant microorganisms. We demonstrate that the swirl patterns arise when elongated microorganisms align preferentially in the direction of fluid flow and alter light scattering. Using a combination of experiments and mathematical modeling, we find that this phenomenon can be recurrent under typical marine conditions. Moderate shear rates (0.1 s(-1)) can increase optical backscattering of natural microbial assemblages by more than 20%, and even small shear rates (0.001 s(-1)) can increase backscattering from blooms of large phytoplankton by more than 30%. These results imply that fluid flow, currently neglected in models of marine optics, may exert an important control on light propagation, influencing rates of global carbon fixation and how we estimate these rates via remote sensing.

  17. Light-induced metastable structural changes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Light-induced defects (LID) in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and its alloys limit the ultimate efficiency of solar panels made with these materials. This paper reviews a variety of attempts to find the origin of and to eliminate the processes that give rise to LIDs. These attempts include novel deposition processes and the reduction of impurities. Material improvements achieved over the past decade are associated more with the material`s microstructure than with eliminating LIDs. We conclude that metastable LIDs are a natural by-product of structural changes which are generally associated with non-radiative electron-hole recombination in amorphous semiconductors.

  18. Regularization of the light-cone gauge gluon propagator singularities using sub-gauge conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University,191 W Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Perturbative QCD calculations in the light-cone gauge have long suffered from the ambiguity associated with the regularization of the poles in the gluon propagator. In this work we study sub-gauge conditions within the light-cone gauge corresponding to several known ways of regulating the gluon propagator. Using the functional integral calculation of the gluon propagator, we rederive the known sub-gauge conditions for the θ-function gauges and identify the sub-gauge condition for the principal value (PV) regularization of the gluon propagator’s light-cone poles. The obtained sub-gauge condition for the PV case is further verified by a sample calculation of the classical Yang-Mills field of two collinear ultrarelativistic point color charges. Our method does not allow one to construct a sub-gauge condition corresponding to the well-known Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription for regulating the gluon propagator poles.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF COHERENT LIGHT ON RESISTANCE OF PLANTS GROWING IN UNFAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śliwka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experiments on the effect of the coherent light emitted by lasers on plant material show that properly selected laser stimulation parameters, such as: wavelength, power, time and type of exposure, allow to obtain a greater growth of plant biomass, changes in the content of elements in the biomass and increasing plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of laser stimulation on selected plant species (Iris pseudoacorus L., Lemna minor L. to increase their resistance to low temperatures and the ability to adapt to an environment polluted by mining activities (Phelum pratense L.. Plants from experimental groups (Iris pseudoacorus L., Phelum pratense L., Lemna minor L. were stimulated with coherent light with specific characteristics. To irradiate plants from experimental groups different algorithms of stimulation parameters, differentiating the method and time of exposure were used. Plants group without the stimulation, were the reference group. The article discusses the results of preliminary experiments carried out on a laboratory scale and pot experiments.

  20. Dependence of reconstructed image characteristics on the observation condition in light-in-flight recording by holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Aya; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Toshihiro

    2005-08-01

    We analyze the dependence of the reconstructed image characteristic on the observation condition in the light-in-flight recording by holography both theoretically and experimentally. This holography makes it possible to record a propagating light pulse. We have found that the shape of the reconstructed image is changed when the observation position is vertically moved along the hologram plane. The reconstructed image is numerically simulated on the basis of the theory and is experimentally obtained by using a 373 fs pulsed laser. The numerical results agree with the experimental result, and the validity of the theory is verified. Also, experimental results are analyzed and the restoration of the reconstructed image is discussed.

  1. Setting the light conditions for measuring root transparency for age-at-death estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adserias-Garriga, Joe; Nogué-Navarro, Laia; Zapico, Sara C; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2018-03-01

    Age-at-death estimation is one of the main goals in forensic identification, being an essential parameter to determine the biological profile, narrowing the possibility of identification in cases involving missing persons and unidentified bodies. The study of dental tissues has been long considered as a proper tool for age estimation with several age estimation methods based on them. Dental age estimation methods can be divided into three categories: tooth formation and development, post-formation changes, and histological changes. While tooth formation and growth changes are important for fetal and infant consideration, when the end of dental and skeletal growth is achieved, post-formation or biochemical changes can be applied. Lamendin et al. in J Forensic Sci 37:1373-1379, (1992) developed an adult age estimation method based on root transparency and periodontal recession. The regression formula demonstrated its accuracy of use for 40 to 70-year-old individuals. Later on, Prince and Ubelaker in J Forensic Sci 47(1):107-116, (2002) evaluated the effects of ancestry and sex and incorporated root height into the equation, developing four new regression formulas for males and females of African and European ancestry. Even though root transparency is a key element in the method, the conditions for measuring this element have not been established. The aim of the present study is to set the light conditions measured in lumens that offer greater accuracy when applying the Lamendin et al. method modified by Prince and Ubelaker. The results must be also taken into account in the application of other age estimation methodologies using root transparency to estimate age-at-death.

  2. Evaluation of anterior chamber angle under dark and light conditions in angle closure glaucoma: An anterior segment OCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Habibeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Esmaeili, Alireza; Abolbashari, Fereshteh; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate changes of nasal and temporal anterior chamber angle (ACA) in subjects with angle closure glaucoma using Spectralis AS-OCT (SAS-OCT) under dark and light conditions. Based on dark-room gonioscopy, 24 subjects with open angles and 86 with narrow angles participated in this study. The nasal and temporal angle opening distance at 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), nasal and temporal ACA were measured using SAS-OCT in light and dark conditions. In 2 groups, ACA and AOD500 in nasal and temporal quadrants were significantly greater in light compared to dark (all with p=0.000). The AOD500 and ACA were significantly higher in nasal than temporal in measured conditions for 2 groups except the ACA and AOD500 of normal group measured in light. The difference between nasal and temporal in dark (29.07 ± 65.71 μm for AOD500 and 5.7 ± 4.07° for ACA) was greater than light (24.86 ± 79.85 μm for AOD500 and 2.09 ± 7.21° for ACA) condition. But the difference was only significant for ACA (p=0.000). The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between AOD500 and pupil diameter in temporal and nasal quadrants (both with p=0.000). While temporal AOD500 difference correlated with spherical equivalent, temporal and asal gonioscopy, nasal AOD correlated with IOP, temporal and nasal gonioscopy. Clinically important changes in ACA structure could be detected with SAS-OCT in nasal and temporal quadrants under different illumination intensity. The results could help in improvement of examination condition for better and more accurate assessment of individuals with angle closure glaucoma. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  4. Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N

  5. Light transmission through intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore (blue light filter) and its potential influence on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Grzegorz; Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Skuza, Natalia; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In this research the factors used to evaluate the light transmission through two types of acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lenses, one that contained yellow chromophore that blocks blue light transmission and the other which did not contain that filter, were defined according to various light condition, e.g., daylight and at night. The potential influence of light transmission trough intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions was analysed.

  6. Electric signalling in fruit trees in response to water applications and light-darkness conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, Luis A; Hermosilla, Paulo

    2009-02-15

    A fundamental property of all living organisms is the generation and conduction of electrochemical impulses throughout their different tissues and organs, resulting from abiotic and biotic changes in environmental conditions. In plants and animals, signal transmission can occur over long and short distances, and it can correspond to intra- and inter-cellular communication mechanisms that determine the physiological behaviour of the organism. Rapid plant and animal responses to environmental changes are associated with electrical excitability and signalling. The same molecules and pathways are used to drive physiological responses, which are characterized by movement (physical displacement) in animals and by continuous growth in plants. In the field of environmental plant electrophysiology, automatic and continuous measurements of electrical potential differences (DeltaEP) between plant tissues can be effectively used to study information transport mechanisms and physiological responses that result from external stimuli on plants. A critical mass of data on electrical behaviour in higher plants has accumulated in the last 5 years, establishing plant neurobiology as the most recent discipline of plant science. In this work, electrical potential differences were monitored continuously using Ag/AgCl microelectrodes, which were inserted 15mm deep into sapwood at various positions in the trunks of several fruit-bearing trees. Electrodes were referenced to an unpolarisable Ag/AgCl microelectrode, which was installed 5cm deep in the soil. Systematic patterns of DeltaEP during day-night cycles and at different conditions of soil water availability are discussed as alternative tools to assess early plant stress conditions. This research relates to the adaptive response of trees to soil water availability and light-darkness cycles.

  7. Pigment variations in Emiliania huxleyi (CCMP370) as a response to changes in light intensity or quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, José L; Brunet, Christophe; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Many studies on photoacclimation examine the pigment responses to changes in light intensity, but variations in light climate in the aquatic environment are also related to changes in spectral composition. We have employed a high-performance liquid chromatography method with improved resolution towards chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin-related xanthophylls to examine the pigment composition of Emiliania huxleyi CCMP 370 under different light intensities and spectral qualities. To maintain its photosynthetic performance, E. huxleyi CCMP370 promotes drastic pigment changes that can be either the interconversion of pigments in pools with the same basic chromophoric structure (Fucoxanthin type or chlorophyll c type), or the ex novo synthesis (Diatoxanthin). These changes are linked either to variations in light quality (Fucoxanthin related xanthophylls) or in light intensity (chlorophyll c 3 /Monovinyl chlorophyll c 3 , Diadinoxanthin/Diatoxanthin, β,ɛ-carotene/ β,β-carotene). Fucoxanthin and 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin proportions were highly dependent on spectral conditions. Whereas Fucoxanthin dominated in green and red light, 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin prevailed under blue spectral conditions. Our results suggest that the huge pigment diversity enhanced the photoacclimative capacities of E. huxleyi to efficiently perform under changing light environments. The ubiquity and success in the global ocean as well as the capacity of E. huxleyi to form large surface blooms might be associated to the plasticity described here. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bright ambient light conditions reduce the effect of tryptophan depletion in healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrancesco, Michaela; Niederstätter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Kemmler, Georg; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Marksteiner, Josef; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A

    2013-11-30

    Tryptophan depletion (TD) is an established method to influence the serotonergic system and mood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TD under different ambient light conditions, measured through serotonin-associated plasma levels and a visual analog scale (VAS), on healthy females. Thirty-eight healthy female s-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) were administered a TD under dim light conditions (75 lx). A sub-group of 8 participants repeated the procedure randomized in two additional light conditions (585 lx and 1530 lx respectively). Prior to, and 5h following administration of TD, various variables (serotonin-associated plasma levels, VAS) were measured. Due to not normal distributed data, non-parametric statistical tests were used. Overall analysis showed a significant mood lowering effect of TD. Moreover, TD decreased all measured serotonin-associated plasma levels significantly. Significant differences in varying light conditions were found for the VAS and plasma tryptophan, with the greatest effect of TD in the 75 lx condition. Results of our study showed an influence of even slight differences in ambient light intensity on the effect of TD concerning mood as well as on the serotonergic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conditions for Change Related to Groupware in a Distributed Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Pors, Jens Kaaber

    2003-01-01

    general types of settings where the groupware has been used: Newly established organizational units, special interest groups, short term projects, and teams handling recurrent tasks. We characterize these settings and present the overall conditions that have proven to be critical to the deployment...... of groupware in the case. Challenges and expectations are discussed and ideas concerning strategies for change are suggested. It is concluded that change related to groupware faces conditions that challenge ambitious goals in three of the settings, while conditions in general favour successful change related...

  10. Climate conditions, and changes, affect microalgae communities… should we worry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Papiol, Gemma

    2018-03-01

    Microalgae play a pivotal role in the regulation of Earth's climate and its cycles, but are also affected by climate change, mainly by changes in temperature, light, ocean acidification, water stratification, and precipitation-induced nutrient inputs. The changes and impacts on microalgae communities are difficult to study, predict, and manage, but there is no doubt that there will be changes. These changes will have impacts beyond microalgae communities, and many of them will be negative. Some actions are currently ongoing for the mitigation of some of the negative impacts, such as harmful algal blooms and water quality, but global efforts for reducing CO 2 emissions, temperature rises, and ocean acidification are paramount for reducing the impact of climate change on microalgae communities, and eventually, on human well-being. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:181-184. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  11. Unsupervised Condition Change Detection In Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for unsupervised change detection which combines independent component modeling and probabilistic outlier etection. The method further provides a compact data representation, which is amenable to interpretation, i.e., the detected condition changes can be investig...... be investigated further. The method is successfully applied to unsupervised condition change detection in large diesel engines from acoustical emission sensor signal and compared to more classical techniques based on principal component analysis and Gaussian mixture models.......This paper presents a new method for unsupervised change detection which combines independent component modeling and probabilistic outlier etection. The method further provides a compact data representation, which is amenable to interpretation, i.e., the detected condition changes can...

  12. Conditions of lighting in reading-rooms located in public and school libraries in Silesian Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sitek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reading-room is a place where special lighting conditions are required to make the reader feel comfortable and satisfied.. Lighting requirements are enclosed in the Polish Standard PN-EN 12464-1:2004. Accordingly, illuminance in the reading-rooms should be 500 lx. The aim of the study was to measure illuminance in reading-rooms in various libraries and make relative comparisons to standard values. Material and methods: Measurements of illuminance were performed in 22 reading-rooms in Silesia Voivodeship. Half of them were made in public libraries and half in reading-rooms at junior lower high schools. Illuminance was measured in 5 measurement points in reading-rooms by digital lux meter Lx-105 manufactured by Lutron. Furthermore , 100 readers of school libraries and 89 readers of public libraries completed a questionnaire on lighting conditions in these places. Results: Only 5 out of 22 reading-rooms meet the requirements of the Polish Standard concerning illuminance. Only in one reading room at junior lower high school illuminance exceeded 500 lx. In two other reading places the requirements were met due to additional desk lamps. Despite the results, 76.4% of approached readers of public libraries and 60% of pupils think that lighting in readingrooms is satisfactory and almost 63% of the readers and 53% of the pupils don’t demand additional lighting. Conclusions: Most of the scrutinized reading rooms do not meet lighting requirements according to the Polish Standard. Lighting conditions in school libraries are worse than in public libraries. According to the respondents lighting in public libraries is adequate.

  13. Selection of full-sib families of Panicum maximum Jacq under low light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mochi Victor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silvopastoral system is a viable technological alternative to extensive cattle grazing, however, for it to be successful, forage grass genotypes adapted to reduced light need to be identified. The objective of this study was to select progenies of Panicum maximum tolerant to low light conditions for use in breeding programs and to study the genetic control and performance of some traits associated with shade tolerance. Six full-sib progenies were evaluated in full sun, 50% and 70% of light reduction in pots and subjected to cuttings. Progeny genotypic values ​​(GV increased with light reduction in relation to plant height (H and specific leaf area (SLA. The traits total dry mass accumulation (DM and leaf dry mass accumulation (LDM had GV higher in 50% shade and intermediate in 70% shade. The GV of tiller number (TIL and root dry mass accumulation (RDM decreased with light reduction. The highest positive correlations were obtained for the traits H and RDM with SLA and DM; the highest negative correlations were between TIL and SLA and RDM, and H and LDM. The progenies showed higher tolerance to 50% light reduction and, among them, two stood out and will be used in breeding programs. It was also found that it is not necessary to evaluate some traits under all light conditions. All traits had high broad sense heritability and high genotypic correlation between progenies in all light intensities. There is genetic difference among the progenies regarding the response to different light intensities, which will allow selection for shade tolerance

  14. The transient behavior of whole-canopy fluxes during dynamic light conditions for midlatitude and tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Kivalov, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud shadows lead to alternating light and dark periods at the surface. Understanding how clouds affect whole-canopy fluxes suffer from two knowledge gaps that limit scaling from leaf to canopy scales, an effort currently done by assertion alone. First, there is a lack a clear quantitative definition of the incident light time series that occur on specific types of cloudy days. Second, the characteristic time scales for leaves to respond to for stomatal opening and closing is 1-10 minutes, a period too short to allow accurate eddy fluxes. We help to close the first gap by linking the durations of alternating light and dark periods statistically to conventional meteorological sky types at a midlatitude mixed deciduous forest (Harvard Forest, MA, USA: 42.53N, 72.17W) and in a tropical rain forest (Tapajós National Forest, Brazil; 2.86S, 54.96W). The second gap is narrowed by measuring the dynamic response whole canopy exchanges in the flux footprint at intervals of only a few seconds using the classical ensemble average method, keying on step changes in light intensity. Combining light and shadow periods of different lengths we estimate ensemble fluxes sensible heat (H), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and latent heat (LE) fluxes initiated by abrupt radiation changes at intervals of 30 s over 20 minutes. We present composite results of the transient behavior of whole-canopy fluxes at each forest, showing distinct features of each forest type. Observed time constants and transient flux parameterizations are then used to force a simple model to yield NEE, LE, WUE, and Bowen ratio extrema under periodic shadow-light conditions and given cloud amount. We offer the hypothesis that, at least on certain types of cloudy days, the well-known correlation between diffuse light and WUE does not represent a causal connection at the canopy scale.

  15. Influence of evaporation conditions of Alq3 on the performance of organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fujun; Xu Zheng; Zhao Dewei; Zhao Suling; Jiang Weiwei; Yuan Guangcai; Song Dandan; Wang Yongsheng; Xu Xurong

    2007-01-01

    The influence of evaporation conditions of organic semiconductor material tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq 3 ) on the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is reported. In the process of organic material thermal evaporation, the chamber was dark or had white light from a 100 W filament lamp. The devices prepared in the dark show higher emission intensity and efficiency compared with the ones prepared in white light under the same driving voltage. Atomic force microscopy measurements show that surface morphology and phase of Alq 3 thin films are quite different for the previous cases. The different evaporation conditions are found to have direct effects on the electrical and luminance performance. The Alq 3 thin films prepared in the dark as active emission layers of OLEDs show higher intensity and efficiency

  16. Effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on carotenoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on pumpkin calluses carotenoid. Plant elicitors used to create abiotic stress in this study were Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for drought stress, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid for hormones stress and Murashige and Skoog Salt for ...

  17. Changing lamp type and position to improve lighting quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anizar; Syahputri, K.; Sari, RM; Rizkya, I.; Hardianti, DA

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the lighting quality on the production floor in a cigarette paper industry by measuring illumination level and luminance. Cigarette paper inspection is performed manually by operators, and the criteria of defects are the cigarette paper has a hole, is rough and dirty. Operators complain that the room is pretty dark, which makes them unable to see clearly the cigarette paper defect. The government of Indonesia Health Ministerial Decree No 1405 The Year 2002 states that illumination level for continuous manual labor is 200 lux. Illumination level is measured for four days at 08.00, 10.00, 12.30, and 14.00 o’clock with 4 in 1 environmental meter. From the measurement result, it is found that using 7 LED lamps of 60 Watts can produce average illumination level of 70 lux. Low illuminance is caused by illumination level that does not meet the need 0f 569.759 lumen. Alternatives that can be used to increase lumen number are changing lamp type and position. One of the possibilities is using 24 LED of 138 Watts set 5.7 meters apart from one another can meet this demand. Another is using 5 LED of 150 Watts installed above the field of work.

  18. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  19. Hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under light driven sulfur deprived condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Karthik, Rajendran [Biotechnology Research Division, Department of Biotechnology, Prathyusha Institute of Technology and Management, Aranvoyalkuppam, Thiruvallur District 602025, Tamil Nadu (India); Kamala Nalini, S.P. [Department of Biotechnology, Vel Group of Educational Institutions, Avadi, Alamadhi Road, Chennai 600062, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-10-15

    This article explores the possibility of demonstrating sustainable photohydrogen production using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii when grown in sulfur deprived photoautotrophic condition. The hydrogen evolving capability of the algal species was monitored based on alternating light and dark period. Investigation was carried out during the day time in order to exploit the solar energy for meeting the demand of the light period. The results showed that when the reactor was operated at varying photoperiod namely 2, 3 and 4 h of alternating light and dark period, the gas generation was found to be 32 {+-} 4, 63 {+-} 7 and 52 {+-} 5 mL/h, while the corresponding hydrogen content was 47, 86 and 87% respectively. Functional components of hydrogen generation reaction centers were also analyzed, which showed that the PS(I) reaction centers were involved in hydrogen production pathway, as the light absorption by PS(I) was prerequisite for hydrogen generation under sulfur deprived photoautotrophic condition. The findings showed a higher gas yield and hydrogen content under dark period, whereas under light period the gas content was below detectable level for hydrogen due to the reversible hydrogenase reaction. (author)

  20. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  1. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vandimilli A; Pacheco, Fernanda V; Avelar, Rafaella P; Alvarenga, Ivan C A; Pinto, José Eduardo B P; Alvarenga, Amauri A DE

    2017-01-01

    Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN) and blue (BN) both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade). The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDIMILLI A. LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN and blue (BN both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade. The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Technology Change And Working Conditions – A Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2004-01-01

    When technology change improves working conditions, the success is often attributed to skilful change agents. When it is not, the blame is on “resistance to change” and “resilient cultures”. How can these failures be understood differently? A cultural perspective on technology change might be a way...... to facilitate technology change processes that lead to improved working conditions. The research based project described here has developed a special homepage that explains how this might be achieved. The homepage is targeted at working life professionals. The homepage presents theoretical explanations...... of the concept of organizational culture, a model for analysis and several practical case stories. This paper explains how the project tries to reach a broad spectrum of professionals in order to facilitate their use of a cultural perspective. It also discusses the ethical consequences of the cultural...

  4. Generation of Light Scattering States in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals by Optically Controlled Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Bunning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized light was previously employed to stimulate the reversible and reconfigurable writing of scattering states in cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC cells constructed with a photosensitive layer. Such dynamic photodriven responses have utility in remotely triggering changes in optical constructs responsive to optical stimulus and applications where complex spatial patterning is required. Writing of scattering regions required the handedness of incoming radiation to match the handedness of the CLC and the reflection bandwidth of the CLC to envelop the wavelength of the incoming radiation. In this paper, the mechanism of transforming the CLC into a light scattering state via the influence of light on the photosensitive alignment layer is detailed. Specifically, the effects of: (i the polarization state of light on the photosensitive alignment layer; (ii the exposure time; and (iii the incidence angle of radiation on domain formation are reported. The photogenerated light-scattering domains are shown to be similar in appearance between crossed polarizers to a defect structure that occurs at a CLC/air interface (i.e., a free CLC surface. This observation provides strong indication that exposure of the photosensitive alignment layer to the circularly polarized light of appropriate wavelength and handedness generates an out-of-plane orientation leading to a periodic distortion of the original planar structure.

  5. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  6. Trade-off between light availability and soil fertility determine refugial conditions for the relict light-demanding species in lowland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Kurowski, Józef Krzysztof; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    Identifying potential refugial habitats in the face of rapid environmental change is a challenge faced by scientists and nature conservation managers. Relict populations and refugial habitats are the model objects in those studies. Based on the example of Actaea europaea from Central Poland, we analyse the habitat factors influencing relict populations of continental, light-demanding species in lowland forests and examine which habitats of studied species corresponding most closely to ancient vegetation. Our results indicate that the current refugial habitats of Actaea europaea include not only communities which are very similar to ancient open forest but also forests with a closed canopy. Although the populations are influenced by nitrogen and light availability, the co-occurrence of these two factors in forest communities is limited by dense canopy formation by hornbeam and beech trees on fertile soils and in more humid conditions. Our findings indicate that the future survival of relict, light-demanding communities in lowland forests requires low-intensity disturbances to be performed in tree-stands, according to techniques, which imitate traditional forests management.

  7. Can sleep quality and wellbeing be improved by changing the indoor lighting in the homes of healthy, elderly citizens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Birgit; Markvart, Jakob; Kessel, Line; Argyraki, Aikaterini; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of bright blue-enriched versus blue-suppressed indoor light on sleep and wellbeing of healthy participants over 65 years. Twenty-nine participants in 20 private houses in a uniform settlement in Copenhagen were exposed to two light epochs of 3 weeks with blue-enriched (280 lux) and 3 weeks blue-suppressed (240 lux) indoor light or vice versa from 8 to 13 pm in a randomized cross-over design. The first light epoch was in October, the second in November and the two light epochs were separated by one week. Participants were examined at baseline and at the end of each light epoch. The experimental indoor light was well tolerated by the majority of the participants. Sleep duration was 7.44 (95% CI 7.14–7.74) hours during blue-enriched conditions and 7.31 (95% CI 7.01–7.62) hours during blue-suppressed conditions (p = 0.289). Neither rest hours, chromatic pupillometry, nor saliva melatonin profile showed significant changes between blue-enriched and blue-suppressed epochs. Baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was significantly worse in females; 7.62 (95% CI 5.13–10.0) versus 4.06 (95% CI 2.64–5.49) in males, p = 0.009. For females, PSQI improved significantly during blue-enriched light exposure (p = 0.007); no significant changes were found for males. The subjective grading of indoor light quality doubled from participants habitual indoor light to the bright experimental light, while it was stable between light epochs, although there were clear differences between blue-enriched and blue-suppressed electrical light conditions imposed. Even though the study was carried out in the late autumn at northern latitude, the only significant difference in Actiwatch-measured total blue light exposure was from 8 to 9 am, because contributions from blue-enriched, bright indoor light were superseded by contributions from daylight. PMID:26181467

  8. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  9. Airborne laser scanner (LiDAR) proxies for understory light conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Cici; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2013-01-01

    to community structure. Angular canopy closure is more closely related to the direct and indirect light experienced by a plant or an animal than vertical canopy cover, but more challenging to estimate. We used airborne laser scanner (ALS) data to estimate canopy cover for 210 5-m radius vegetation plots......Canopy cover and canopy closure are two closely related measures of vegetation structure. They are used for estimating understory light conditions and their influence on a broad range of biological components in forest ecosystems, from the demography and population dynamics of individual species...... of azimuth and zenith angle intervals which contained points. We compared these estimates with field-based estimates using densiometer for 60 vegetation plots in forest. Finally, we compared ALS-based estimates of canopy cover and canopy closure to field-based estimates of understory light, based...

  10. Change of Measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cosmological distances is approached using a method based on the propagation of light in an expanding Universe. From the chan ge of measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances, a formula is deri ved to compute distances as a function of redshift. This formula is identical to Matti g’s formula (with q 0 = 1 / 2 which is based on Friedmann’s equations of general relativi ty.

  11. Thermodynamic Modelling of Fe-Cr-Ni-Spinel Formation at the Light-Water Reactor Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurepin, V. A.; Kulik, D. A.; Hitpold, A.; Nicolet, M.

    2002-03-01

    In the light water reactors (LWR), the neutron activation and transport of corrosion products is of concern in the context of minimizing the radiation doses received by the personnel during maintenance works. A practically useful model for transport and deposition of the stainless steel corrosion products in LWR can only be based on an improved understanding of chemical processes, in particular, on the attainment of equilibrium in this hydrothermal system, which can be described by means of a thermodynamic solid-solution -aqueous-solution (SSAS) model. In this contribution, a new thermodynamic model for a Fe-Cr-Ni multi-component spinel solid solutions was developed that considers thermodynamic consequences of cation interactions in both spinel sub-Iattices. The obtained standard thermodynamic properties of two ferrite and two chromite end-members and their mixing parameters at 90 bar pressure and 290 *c temperature predict a large miscibility gap between (Fe,Ni) chromite and (Fe,Ni) ferrite phases. Together with the SUPCRT92-98 thermo- dynamic database for aqueous species, the 'spinel' thermodynamic dataset was applied to modeling oxidation of austenitic stainless steel in hydrothermal water at 290*C and 90 bar using the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) algorithm, implemented in the GEMS-PSI code. Firstly, the equilibrium compositions of steel oxidation products were modelIed as function of oxygen fugacity .fO 2 by incremental additions of O 2 in H 2 O-free system Cr-Fe- Ni-O. Secondly, oxidation of corrosion products in the Fe-Cr-Ni-O-H aquatic system was modelIed at different initial solid/water ratios. It is demonstrated that in the transition region from hydrogen regime to oxygen regime, the most significant changes in composition of two spinel-oxide phases (chromite and ferrite) and hematite must take place. Under more reduced conditions, the Fe-rich ferrite (magnetite) and Ni-poor chromite phases co-exist at equilibrium with a metal Ni phase, maintaining

  12. Investigation of thermomechanical effects of lighting conditions on canvas paintings by laser shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybodi, M. K.; Dobrev, I.; Klausmeyer, P.; Harrington, E. J.; Furlong, C.

    Quantitative techniques to characterize thermomechanical effects of light on canvas paintings are necessary in order to better understand the deleterious effects that light has on precious art collections in museum exhibitions. In this paper, we present advances in the development of a customized laser shearography system for temporal characterization of inplane displacements of canvas paintings when subjected to specific lighting conditions. The shearography system is synchronized with a thermal IR camera and concomitant measurements of derivatives of displacements along two orthogonal shearing directions as well as thermal fields are performed. Due to the nature of the measurements, we have developed real-time temporal phase unwrapping algorithms and high-resolution Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) methods to calibrate applied shearing levels. In addition, we are developing methods to isolate thermally-induced components from randomly-induced mechanical vibrations that occur in museum environments by application of IR imaging data. Representative examples are shown, which illustrate capabilities to measure, detect, and map crack propagation as a function of lighting conditions and time.

  13. Efficiency simulations of thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic cells for different indoor lighting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaert, B.; Veelaert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is an efficient natural energy source for outdoor applications. However, for indoor applications, the efficiency of PV cells is much lower. Typically, the light intensity under artificial lighting conditions is less than 10 W/m 2 as compared to 100-1000 W/m 2 under outdoor conditions. Moreover, the spectrum is different from the outdoor solar spectrum. In this context, the question arises whether thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic cells are suitable for indoor use. This paper contributes to answering that question by comparing the power output of different thin film chalcogenide solar cells with the classical crystalline silicon cell as reference. The comparisons are done by efficiency simulation based on the quantum efficiencies of the solar cells and the light spectra of typical artificial light sources i.e. an LED lamp, a 'warm' and a 'cool' fluorescent tube and a common incandescent and halogen lamp, which are compared to the outdoor AM 1.5 spectrum as reference.

  14. Influence of Light Conditions and Light Sources on Clinical Measurement of Natural Teeth Color using VITA Easyshade Advance 4,0® Spectrophotometer. Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Ivona; Prpić, Vladimir; Zlatarić, Dubravka Knezović

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare lightness (L), chroma (C) and hue (h), green-red (a) and blue-yellow (b) character of the color of maxillary right central incisors in different light conditions and light sources. Two examiners who were well trained in digital color evaluation participated in the research. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze intra- and interobserver reliability. The LCh and L*a*b* values were determined at 08.15 and at 10.00 in the morning under three different light conditions. Tooth color was assessed in 10 subjects using intraoral spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 ® set at the central region of the vestibular surface of the measured tooth. Intra- and interobserver ICC values were high for both examiners and ranged from 0.57 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured in different time of the day and certain light condition were not found (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured under three different light conditions were not found, too (p>0.05). VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 ® is reliable enough for daily clinical work in order to assess tooth color during the fabrication of esthtic appliances because it is not dependent on light conditions and light sources.

  15. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  16. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of a blue light-filtering intraocular lens on driving safety in glare conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob; Hill, Warren; Neuman, Brooke; Houtman, Diane; Potvin, Richard

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether the previously established benefit of blue light-filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) when driving in glare conditions is maintained in patients previously implanted with a blue light-filtering toric IOL. Department of Applied Psychology, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona, USA. Comparative case series. The study comprised patients with a blue light-filtering toric IOL (test IOL) or an ultraviolet (UV)-only filtering nontoric IOL (control IOL). All patients had good visual acuity and a valid driver's license. While wearing best spherocylindrical correction, patients performed left-turn maneuvers in front of oncoming traffic in a driving simulator. The safety margin was defined as the time to collision less the time taken to turn at an intersection with oncoming traffic. Measures were repeated with a glare source simulating low-angle sun conditions (daytime driving). Of the 33 evaluable patients, 18 had a test IOL and 15 had a control IOL. In the presence of glare, patients with test IOLs had significantly greater safety margins (mean 2.676 seconds ± 0.438 [SD]) than patients with control IOLs (mean 2.179 ± 0.343 seconds) and significantly lower glare susceptibility (P<.05). In no-glare and glare conditions, patients with test IOLs had significantly lower glare susceptibility than patients with control IOLs. The blue light-filtering toric IOL produced a significantly greater reduction in glare disability than the UV-only filtering nontoric IOL and increased the ability of drivers to safely execute left turns in low-sun conditions. Dr. Houtman is an employee of Alcon Laboratories, Inc. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-range transport of air pollution under light gradient wind conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, H.; Sasaki, K.; Muroga, H.; Ueda, H.; Wakamatsu, S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-range transport of air pollution on clear days under light gradient wind conditions is investigated from an analysis of all days with high oxidant concentrations in 1979 at locations in central Japan that are far from pollutant sources. Surface-level wind and pressure distributions over a 300 x 300 km area were analyzed, together with concentration isopleths of oxidants and suspended particles produced by photochemical reactions

  19. Increased antioxidant activity and changes in phenolic profile of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) specimens grown under supplemental blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Luana B S; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Coutinho, Marcela A S; Moreira, Nattacha dos S; Lage, Celso L S; Barbi, Nancy dos S; Costa, Sônia S; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds protect plants against oxidative stress caused by environmental conditions. Different light qualities, such as UV-A radiation and blue light, have shown positive effects on the production of phenols in plants. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) is used for treating wounds and inflammations. Some of these beneficial effects are attributed to the antioxidant activity of plant components. We investigated the effects of blue light and UV-A radiation supplementation on the total phenol content, antioxidant activity and chromatographic profile of aqueous extracts from leaves of K. pinnata. Monoclonal plants were grown under white light, white plus blue light and white plus UV-A radiation. Supplemental blue light improved the antioxidant activity and changed the phenolic profile of the extracts. Analysis by HPLC of supplemental blue-light plant extracts revealed a higher proportion of the major flavonoid quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, as well as the presence of a wide variety of other phenolic substances. These findings may explain the higher antioxidant activity observed for this extract. Blue light is proposed as a supplemental light source in the cultivation of K. pinnata, to improve its antioxidant activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. Future aridity under conditions of global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Malekinezhad, Hossein; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Global climate change is anticipated to cause some major changes in hydroclimatic conditions around the world. As aridity is a reliable indicator of potential available water, assessment of its changes under future climatic conditions is important for proper management of water. This study employs the UNESCO aridity/humidity index, which is a derivative of precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET), for assessment of aridity. Historical (1901-2005) simulations and future (2006-2100) projections of 22 global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are studied. The Nested Bias Correction (NBC) approach is used to correct possible biases of precipitation (simulated directly by the GCMs) and PET (estimated by applying FAO56-Penman-Monteith model on simulated parameters of the GCMs). To detect future aridity changes, the areal extents of the aridity zones in the past and future periods as well as through four sub-periods (2006-2025, 2026-2050, 2051-2075, and 2076-2100) of the future are compared. The results indicate that changes in climate will alter the areal extents of aridity zones in the future. In general, from the first sub-period towards the last one, the area covered by hyper-arid, arid, semi-arid, and sub-humid zones will increase (by 7.46%, 7.01%, 5.80%, and 2.78%, respectively), while the area of the humid regions will decrease (by 4.76%), suggesting that there will be less water over the global land area in the future. To understand the cause of these changes, precipitation and PET are also separately assumed to be stationary throughout the four future sub-periods and the resulting aridity changes are then analyzed. The results reveal that the aridity changes are mostly caused by the positive PET trends, even though the slight precipitation increase lessens the magnitude of the changes.

  1. Far-ultraviolet spectral changes of titanium dioxide with gold nanoparticles by ultraviolet and visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Ichiro; Kurawaki, Yuji

    2018-05-01

    Attenuated total reflectance spectra including the far-ultraviolet (FUV, ≤ 200 nm) region of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with and without gold (Au) nanoparticles were measured. A newly developed external light-irradiation system enabled to observe spectral changes of TiO2 with Au nanoparticles upon light irradiations. Absorption in the FUV region decreased and increased by the irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light, respectively. These spectral changes may reflect photo-induced electron transfer from TiO2 to Au nanoparticles under ultraviolet light and from Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under visible light, respectively.

  2. Multiregion, multigroup collision probability method with white boundary condition for light water reactor thermalization calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, B.; Ozgener, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    A multiregion, multigroup collision probability method with white boundary condition is developed for thermalization calculations of light water moderated reactors. Hydrogen scatterings are treated by Nelkin's kernel while scatterings from other nuclei are assumed to obey the free-gas scattering kernel. The isotropic return (white) boundary condition is applied directly by using the appropriate collision probabilities. Comparisons with alternate numerical methods show the validity of the present formulation. Comparisons with some experimental results indicate that the present formulation is capable of calculating disadvantage factors which are closer to the experimental results than alternative methods

  3. Circadian variation of corticosterone in adrenal vein blood in rats exposed to different light conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Buntner, B.; Kos-Kudla, B.

    1993-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the regulatory influence of a different light-dark cycle on 24-h rhythm of corticosterone in adrenal vein blood. The present findings suggest that exposure to 'short day' conditions has a suppressive effect on circadian secretion of corticosterone. In rats kept in 'long day' conditions the increase of the mean 24-h corticosterone levels in adrenal vein blood and the acrophase rhythm shift were observed. In rats kept in an inverted illumination cycle the phase reversal in the periodicity of corticosterone was found. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Changes in the chemical composition of the light crude by short-term weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.; Ma, Q.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the event of an oil spill, it is important to unambiguously identify the oil and link it to the known source in order to determine environmental impact and legal liability. The fate and behaviour of spilled oil depends on several physical, chemical and biological factors such as evaporation, dissolution, microbial degradation and photooxidation. The chemical composition of the spilled oil changes with weathering. The changes can have a significant effect on the oil's toxicity and can add to the difficulty of identifying spilled oil. This paper presents the results of changes in chemical composition of light crude oil by weathering under natural environmental conditions. Oil samples were analyzed on a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Light crude oil was obtained from the oil cabin of a tanker which spilled oil near the Dalian Sea near China in April 2005. It was shown that the saturated hydrocarbons of light crude oil distribute between n-C 8 and n-C 23 . The most abundant n-alkanes are found in the n-C 10 to n-C 16 . The main chemical compositions of the light crude oil are the n-alkanes and the isoprenoids. The aromatic compounds are subordinate chemical compositions of the light crude oil. A simulated weathering experiment showed that less than n-C 12 of the n-alkanes, toluene, 1,3-dimethyl benzene is lost after 1 day of weathering. The n-C 13 , n-C 14 , naphthalene and 2-methyl-naphthalene are lost on the fifth day of weathering. N-C 15 alkane composition indicates some weatherproof capability. The ratios of n-C 17 /pristine and n-C 18 /phytane were unchanged and useful in identifying the source of the light crude oil during the first 8-day weathering period. By the twenty-first day of weathering, the chemical composition underwent extreme alteration, and the source of the pollution could not be determined by the ratios of pristine/phytane. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Morning sleep inertia in alertness and performance: effect of cognitive domain and white light conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayantara Santhi

    Full Text Available The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT, n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01. However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01, where response times (RT at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it's spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations.

  6. Forecasting conditional climate-change using a hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Akbar Akbari; Friedel, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed to forecast the likelihood of climate-change across spatial landscape gradients. This hybrid approach involves reconstructing past precipitation and temperature using the self-organizing map technique; determining quantile trends in the climate-change variables by quantile regression modeling; and computing conditional forecasts of climate-change variables based on self-similarity in quantile trends using the fractionally differenced auto-regressive integrated moving average technique. The proposed modeling approach is applied to states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah) in the southwestern U.S., where conditional forecasts of climate-change variables are evaluated against recent (2012) observations, evaluated at a future time period (2030), and evaluated as future trends (2009–2059). These results have broad economic, political, and social implications because they quantify uncertainty in climate-change forecasts affecting various sectors of society. Another benefit of the proposed hybrid approach is that it can be extended to any spatiotemporal scale providing self-similarity exists.

  7. Photosynthesis-related infrared light transmission changes in spinach leaf segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, T.

    1985-01-01

    The time courses of infrared light transmission changes and fluorescence induced by light in spinach leaf segments were measured. The illumination by red light exhibited a complex wave pattern. The transmission approached the baseline after repeating decreases and increases. Illumination by far-red light decreased the transmission. One of the differences between the two responses was the difference between the two amplitudes of the first increasing component. The component in the red light response was larger than the component in the far-red light response. The transmission decrease by far-red light is supposed to correspond to ''red drop.'' The transmission decrease by far-red light was suppressed by red light. This is due to an activation of a transmission-increasing component. This probably corresponds to ''enhancement.'' A proportional correlation existed between the intensity of far-red light and the minimum intensity of red light that suppressed the transmission decrease induced by far-red light. The component which made Peak D in the time course of fluorescence yield and the first increasing component in the transmission changes were suppressed by intense light

  8. Long-term changes in the surface conditions of PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Dylla, H.F.; Rossnagel, S.M.; Picraux, S.T.; Borders, J.A.; Magee, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Long-term changes in the surface conditions of the PLT vacuum vessel wall have been monitored by the periodic analysis of a variety of sample substrates (stainless steel, alumina, silicon), exposed to PLT discharges for periods of up to several months and subsequently removed for analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), photoelectron spectroscopy, ion backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy

  9. Fish with red fluorescent eyes forage more efficiently under dim, blue-green light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harant, Ulrike Katharina; Michiels, Nicolaas Karel

    2017-04-20

    Natural red fluorescence is particularly conspicuous in the eyes of some small, benthic, predatory fishes. Fluorescence also increases in relative efficiency with increasing depth, which has generated speculation about its possible function as a "light organ" to detect cryptic organisms under bluish light. Here we investigate whether foraging success is improved under ambient conditions that make red fluorescence stand out more, using the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi as a model system. We repeatedly presented 10 copepods to individual fish (n = 40) kept under a narrow blue-green spectrum and compared their performance with that under a broad spectrum with the same overall brightness. The experiment was repeated for two levels of brightness, a shaded one representing 0.4% of the light present at the surface and a heavily shaded one with about 0.01% of the surface brightness. Fish were 7% more successful at catching copepods under the narrow, fluorescence-friendly spectrum than under the broad spectrum. However, this effect was significant under the heavily shaded light treatment only. This outcome corroborates previous predictions that fluorescence may be an adaptation to blue-green, heavily shaded environments, which coincides with the opportunistic biology of this species that lives in the transition zone between exposed and heavily shaded microhabitats.

  10. Changes in Greenland ice bed conditions inferred from seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Takagi, Ryota; Kanao, Masaki; Tsuboi, Seiji; Tono, Yoko; Childs, Dean; Zhao, Dapeng

    2018-04-01

    Basal conditions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are a key research topic in climate change studies. The recent construction of a seismic network has provided a new opportunity for direct, real-time, and continuous monitoring of the GrIS. Here we use ambient noise surface wave data from seismic stations all over Greenland for a 4.5-year period to detect changes in Rayleigh-wave phase velocity between seismic station pairs. We observe clear seasonal and long-term velocity changes for many pairs, and propose a plausible mechanism for these changes. Dominant factors driving the velocity changes might be seasonal and long-term pressurization/depressurization of the GrIS and shallow bedrock by air and ice mass loading/unloading. However, heterogeneity of the GrIS basal conditions might impose strong regionalities on the results. An interesting feature is that, even at adjacent two station pairs in the inland GrIS, one pair shows velocity decrease while another shows velocity increase as a response to the high air and snow pressure. The former pair might be located on a thawed bed that decreases velocity by increased meltwater due to pressure melting, whereas the latter pair might be located on a frozen bed that increases velocity by compaction of ice and shallow bedrock. The results suggest that surface waves are very sensitive to the GrIS basal conditions, and further observations will contribute to a more direct and quantitative estimation of water balance in the Arctic region.

  11. Distribution of light in the human retina under natural viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Jorge C.

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness inAmerica. The fact that AMD wreaks most of the damage in the center of the retina raises the question of whether light, integrated over long periods, is more concentrated in the macula. A method, based on eye-tracking, was developed to measure the distribution of light in the retina under natural viewing conditions. The hypothesis was that integrated over time, retinal illumination peaked in the macula. Additionally a possible relationship between age and retinal illumination was investigated. The eye tracker superimposed the subject's gaze position on a video recorded by a scene camera. Five informed subjects were employed in feasibility tests, and 58 naive subjects participated in 5 phases. In phase 1 the subjects viewed a gray-scale image. In phase 2, they observed a sequence of photographic images. In phase 3 they viewed a video. In phase 4, they worked on a computer; in phase 5, the subjects walked around freely. The informed subjects were instructed to gaze at bright objects in the field of view and then at dark objects. Naive subjects were allowed to gaze freely for all phases. Using the subject's gaze coordinates, and the video provided by the scene camera, the cumulative light distribution on the retina was calculated for ˜15° around the fovea. As expected for control subjects, cumulative retinal light distributions peaked and dipped in the fovea when they gazed at bright or dark objects respectively. The light distribution maps obtained from the naive subjects presented a tendency to peak in the macula for phases 1, 2, and 3, a consistent tendency in phase 4 and a variable tendency in phase 5. The feasibility of using an eye-tracker system to measure the distribution of light in the retina was demonstrated, thus helping to understand the role played by light exposure in the etiology of AMD. Results showed that a tendency for light to peak in the macula is a characteristic of some

  12. Initial growth of Costus longebracteolatus and Costus spiralis ‘French Kiss’ under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian native Costus longebracteolatus and Costus spiralis ‘French Kiss’, in the family Costaceae, have been used as both cut flowers and cut foliage. It is known that Costus species grow better under partial shade, but studies on the influence of shading or light on plant growth, development, and flower production are still incipient. As this kind of information is essential on planning of planting, production, and agribusiness activities, the objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of different colored shade nets and light conditions on the initial growth of both C. longebracteolatus and C. spiralis ‘French Kiss’. Plants, obtained from cuttings of pseudostems, were cultivated under six light conditions, which comprised six treatments, along 270 days: red net with 50% shading, blue net with 50% shading, black net with 70% shading, black net with 50% shading, black net with 30% shading, and full sun. The initial growth of C. longebracteolatus (up to 270 days is more successful under the blue net with 50% shading, which promoted highest values of pseudostem length and dry matter of aerial part. For C. spiralis ‘French Kiss’ plants, both the red and blue nets with 50% shading implied best results and differed for the other treatments with greater pseudostem length. Plant exposure to full sun inhibited growth and development, and favored early leaf necrosis.

  13. Study on Suitable Light Conditions and Efficient Lipid Extraction Technologies for Biodiesel Production Based on Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhang, Qingtao; Sun, Yuan; Yang, Chengjia

    2018-01-01

    As a new generation biodiesel feedstock, microalgae have most potential to replace fossil fuel. However, the limited scale and high cost are two bottleneck problems. Efficient microwave-assisted lipid extraction technologies and suitable light conditions for Chlorella Sorokiniana need further study for lowering the cost. In this study, three photoperiod groups(24L:0D, 12L:12D, 0L:24D), three illumination intensity groups (1800 lux, 3600 lux, 5400 lux)and four light spectrum groups (Red, green, blue, and white) were used to culture Chlorella Sorokiniana to investigate those effects on algae growth rate and biomass accumulation. The suitable microwave treatment was also studied to achieve an optimizing quantum fracturing technology. 400 w, 750 w and 1000 w microwave power were set and 60 °C, 75 °C, 90 °C microwave conditions were investigated. The results showed that Chlorella Sorokiniana under 24L:0D photoperiod with 5400 lux white light can achieve better growth rate. The 90 °C / 1000w microwave treatment was identified as the most simple, easy, and effective way for lipid extraction from Chlorella Sorokiniana. As the raw material of biodiesel production, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 have accounted for important components of fatty acid in Chlorella Sorokiniana. Therefore, Chlorella Sorokiniana is a good raw material for the production of good quality biodiesel under suitable and efficient technologies.

  14. Developmental changes in emotion recognition from full-light and point-light displays of body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Patrick D; Polson, Louise; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    To date, research on the development of emotion recognition has been dominated by studies on facial expression interpretation; very little is known about children's ability to recognize affective meaning from body movements. In the present study, we acquired simultaneous video and motion capture recordings of two actors portraying four basic emotions (Happiness Sadness, Fear and Anger). One hundred and seven primary and secondary school children (aged 4-17) and 14 adult volunteers participated in the study. Each participant viewed the full-light and point-light video clips and was asked to make a forced-choice as to which emotion was being portrayed. As a group, children performed worse than adults for both point-light and full-light conditions. Linear regression showed that both age and lighting condition were significant predictors of performance in children. Using piecewise regression, we found that a bilinear model with a steep improvement in performance until 8.5 years of age, followed by a much slower improvement rate through late childhood and adolescence best explained the data. These findings confirm that, like for facial expression, adolescents' recognition of basic emotions from body language is not fully mature and seems to follow a non-linear development. This is in line with observations of non-linear developmental trajectories for different aspects of human stimuli processing (voices and faces), perhaps suggesting a shift from one perceptual or cognitive strategy to another during adolescence. These results have important implications to understanding the maturation of social cognition.

  15. The CFE Treaty and changed conditions in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed in November 1990 by sixteen nations, members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and six nations, members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO). It was resigned to prevent a major surprise attack in Europe by the conventional forces of one Treaty Organization against those of the other and was the first major arms control treaty to address conventional weapons. This paper focuses on how CFE adapted to changes in the military-political situation in Europe which occurred after 1990 and failed to adapt to others. Suggestions are offered on how it might be changed to make it more relevant under these changed conditions.

  16. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  17. Altered Light Conditions Contribute to Abnormalities in Emotion and Cognition Through HINT1 Dysfunction in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the environmental impact of artificial light at night has been a rapidly growing global problem, affecting 99% of the population in the US and Europe, and 62% of the world population. The present study utilized a mouse model exposed to long-term artificial light and light deprivation to explore the impact of these conditions on emotion and cognition. Based on the potential links between histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1 and mood disorders, we also examined the expression of HINT1 and related apoptosis factors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, prefrontal cortex (PFC, nucleus accumbens (NAc and hippocampus (Hip. Mice exposed to constant light (CL exhibited depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as impaired spatial memory, as demonstrated by an increased immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, less entries and time spent in the open arms of elevated plus-maze, and less platform site crossings and time spent in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze (MWM. The effects of constant darkness (CD partially coincided with long-term illumination, except that mice in the CD group failed to show anxiety-like behaviors. Furthermore, HINT1 was upregulated in four encephalic regions, indicating that HINT1 may be involved in mood disorders and cognitive impairments due to altered light exposure. The apoptosis-related proteins, BAX and BCL-2, showed the opposite expression pattern, reflecting an activated apoptotic pathway. These findings suggest that exposure to CL and/or darkness can induce significant changes in affective and cognitive responses, possibly through HINT1-induced activation of apoptotic pathways.

  18. Hydrological Responses to Land-Use Change Scenarios under Constant and Changed Climatic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Yu, Wenjun; Ge, Yingchun

    2016-02-01

    This study quantified the hydrological responses to land-use change scenarios in the upper and middle Heihe River basin (HRB), northwest China, under constant and changed climatic conditions by combining a land-use/cover change model (dynamic conversion of land use and its effects, Dyna-CLUE) and a hydrological model (soil and water assessment tool, SWAT). Five land-use change scenarios, i.e., historical trend (HT), ecological protection (EP), strict ecological protection (SEP), economic development (ED), and rapid economic development (RED) scenarios, were established. Under constant climatic condition, hydrological variations are only induced by land-use changes in different scenarios. The changes in mean streamflow at the outlets of the upper and the middle HRB are not pronounced, although the different scenarios produce different outcomes. However, more pronounced changes are observed on a subbasin level. The frequency of extreme flood is projected to decrease under the SEP scenario, while under the other scenarios, no changes can be found. Two emission scenarios (A1B and B1) of three general circulation models (HadCM3, CGCM3, and CCSM3) were employed to generate future possible climatic conditions. Under changed climatic condition, hydrological variations are induced by the combination of land-use and climatic changes. The results indicate that the impacts of land-use changes become secondary when the changed climatic conditions have been considered. The frequencies of extreme flood and drought are projected to decrease and increase, respectively, under all climate scenarios. Although some agreements can be reached, pronounced difference of hydrological responses can be observed for different climate scenarios of different GCMs.

  19. Relationship between the change of ethological status and concentration of certain cytokines in blood in experimental desynchronosis under led lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikov, M V; Ogneva, O I

    2016-01-01

    Changing the natural rhythm of day and night leads to the development of DS, disruption of coordinated muscular activity, adequate behavioral activity, a decrease of attention in the performance of night work by experts in various fields. Changes ethological status may potentiate or weaken the changes in the indices of immune status, contribute to the formation of allostatic load at desynchronosis. To investigate the relationship between changes ethological status and concentration of certain cytokines in peripheral blood in experimental desynchronosis under LED lighting. The study was performed on 158 adult guinea pigs, which were randomly assigned into 2 groups: 1 group- animals in the conditions of standard fixed (12 h light / 12 h dark) LED lighting (SFSDO); 2 group- animals with jet lag in terms of LED lighting (DESSDO). Light desynchronosis created by keeping animals at clock coverage for 30 days. Behavioral activity was studied in the test «open field» cognitive function was assessed using aqueous «labyrinth» Morris. By ELISA was determined on the apparatus in the peripheral blood concentration of interleukin - 4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma (IFN-g), melatonin, cortisol via specific for guinea pig test systems. It was found that in animals of DS in terms of LED lighting in the dynamics of 10-30 days of observation show signs of anxiety, depression orienting-exploratory behavior, reduce the long-term memory and learning ability, spatial orientation disorders. It found that when a jet lag LED lighting conditions for 10 days, 20 days and 30 days in peripheral blood melatonin concentration decreases, the concentration of cortisol rises. In peripheral blood decreased IL-4 concentrations of 20 and 30 days, reducing the concentration of IFN-g at 30 days. Based on the results of correlation analysis, ethological change status and progress of cognitive function with a decrease in the blood concentration of IL-4 and IFN-g, the concentration of melatonin increase

  20. Initial growth of Bauhinia variegata trees under different colored shade nets and light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bachin Mazzini-Guedes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata and B. variegata var. candida, commonly known as orchid trees, are small sized trees widely used for urban forestry and landscaping. Adult plants grow under full sun; in Brazil, however, seedlings are generally cultivated in commercial nurseries under natural half-shading. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different colored shade nets and light conditions on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida. The influence of six light conditions (red net with 50% shading; blue net with 50% shading; black net with 70% shading; black net with 50% shading; black net with 30% shading; and full sun on the initial growth of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida were evaluated along 160 days, and growth relationships were calculated. Seedlings showed more efficiency on the use of photoassimilated compounds when grown under full sun. Such condition is the most appropriate for seedling production of B. variegata and B. variegata var. candida, contradicting what has been performed in practice.

  1. Reassessing Rogers' necessary and sufficient conditions of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and, second, by providing guidelines for therapeutic practice. The role of the necessary and sufficient conditions in process-experiential therapy, an emotion-focused therapy for individuals, and their limitations in terms of research and practice are discussed. It is proposed that although the conditions are necessary and important in promoting clients' affect regulation, they do not take sufficient account of other moderating variables that affect clients' response to treatment and may need to be balanced with more structured interventions. Notwithstanding, Rogers highlighted a way of interacting with clients that is generally acknowledged as essential to effective psychotherapy practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Estimation of the light field inside photosynthetic microorganism cultures through Mittag-Leffler functions at depleted light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, David; Lizama, Carlos; Urchueguía, Javier F.; Conejero, J. Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Light attenuation within suspensions of photosynthetic microorganisms has been widely described by the Lambert-Beer equation. However, at depths where most of the light has been absorbed by the cells, light decay deviates from the exponential behaviour and shows a lower attenuation than the corresponding from the purely exponential fall. This discrepancy can be modelled through the Mittag-Leffler function, extending Lambert-Beer law via a tuning parameter α that takes into account the attenuation process. In this work, we describe a fractional Lambert-Beer law to estimate light attenuation within cultures of model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Indeed, we benchmark the measured light field inside cultures of two different Synechocystis strains, namely the wild-type and the antenna mutant strain called Olive at five different cell densities, with our in silico results. The Mittag-Leffler hyper-parameter α that best fits the data is 0.995, close to the exponential case. One of the most striking results to emerge from this work is that unlike prior literature on the subject, this one provides experimental evidence on the validity of fractional calculus for determining the light field. We show that by applying the fractional Lambert-Beer law for describing light attenuation, we are able to properly model light decay in photosynthetic microorganisms suspensions.

  3. Thermodynamic Modelling of Fe-Cr-Ni-Spinel Formation at the Light-Water Reactor Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurepin, V.A.; Kulik, D.A.; Hitpold, A.; Nicolet, M

    2002-03-01

    In the light water reactors (LWR), the neutron activation and transport of corrosion products is of concern in the context of minimizing the radiation doses received by the personnel during maintenance works. A practically useful model for transport and deposition of the stainless steel corrosion products in LWR can only be based on an improved understanding of chemical processes, in particular, on the attainment of equilibrium in this hydrothermal system, which can be described by means of a thermodynamic solid-solution -aqueous-solution (SSAS) model. In this contribution, a new thermodynamic model for a Fe-Cr-Ni multi-component spinel solid solutions was developed that considers thermodynamic consequences of cation interactions in both spinel sub-Iattices. The obtained standard thermodynamic properties of two ferrite and two chromite end-members and their mixing parameters at 90 bar pressure and 290 *c temperature predict a large miscibility gap between (Fe,Ni) chromite and (Fe,Ni) ferrite phases. Together with the SUPCRT92-98 thermo- dynamic database for aqueous species, the 'spinel' thermodynamic dataset was applied to modeling oxidation of austenitic stainless steel in hydrothermal water at 290*C and 90 bar using the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) algorithm, implemented in the GEMS-PSI code. Firstly, the equilibrium compositions of steel oxidation products were modelIed as function of oxygen fugacity .fO{sub 2} by incremental additions of O{sub 2} in H{sub 2}O-free system Cr-Fe- Ni-O. Secondly, oxidation of corrosion products in the Fe-Cr-Ni-O-H aquatic system was modelIed at different initial solid/water ratios. It is demonstrated that in the transition region from hydrogen regime to oxygen regime, the most significant changes in composition of two spinel-oxide phases (chromite and ferrite) and hematite must take place. Under more reduced conditions, the Fe-rich ferrite (magnetite) and Ni-poor chromite phases co-exist at equilibrium with a metal Ni

  4. Marine Vessel Models in Changing Operational Conditions - A Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Sørensen, Asgeir; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    conditions (VOC). However, since marine systems operate in changing VOCs, there is a need to adapt the models. To date, there is no theory available to describe a general model valid across different VOCs due to the complexity of the hydrodynamic involved. It is believed that system identification could......This tutorial paper provides an introduction, from a systems perspective, to the topic of ship motion dynamics of surface ships. It presents a classification of parametric models currently used for monitoring and control of marine vessels. These models are valid for certain vessel operational...

  5. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  6. A one-loop study of matching conditions for static-light flavor currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Dirk [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Parma Univ. (Italy); Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2012-11-15

    Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) computations of semi-leptonic decays, e.g. B{yields}{pi}l{nu}, require the knowledge of the parameters in the effective theory for all components of the heavy-light flavor currents. So far non-perturbative matching conditions have been employed only for the time component of the axial current. Here we perform a check of matching conditions for the time component of the vector current and the spatial component of the axial vector current up to one-loop order of perturbation theory and to lowest order of the 1/m-expansion. We find that the proposed observables have small higher order terms in the 1/m-series and are thus excellent candidates for a non-perturbative matching procedure.

  7. Change in microbial communities in acetate- and glucose-fed microbial fuel cells in the presence of light

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Defeng

    2009-09-01

    Power densities produced by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in natural systems are changed by exposure to light through the enrichment of photosynthetic microorganisms. When MFCs with brush anodes were exposed to light (4000 lx), power densities increased by 8-10% for glucose-fed reactors, and 34% for acetate-fed reactors. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that exposure to high light levels changed the microbial communities on the anodes. Based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of light-exposed systems the anode communities using glucose were also significantly different than those fed acetate. Dominant bacteria that are known exoelectrogens were identified in the anode biofilm, including a purple nonsulfur (PNS) photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens. Pure culture tests confirmed that PNS photosynthetic bacteria increased power production when exposed to high light intensities (4000 lx). These results demonstrate that power production and community composition are affected by light conditions as well as electron donors in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Change in microbial communities in acetate- and glucose-fed microbial fuel cells in the presence of light

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Defeng; Cheng, Shaoan; Regan, John M.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    Power densities produced by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in natural systems are changed by exposure to light through the enrichment of photosynthetic microorganisms. When MFCs with brush anodes were exposed to light (4000 lx), power densities increased by 8-10% for glucose-fed reactors, and 34% for acetate-fed reactors. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that exposure to high light levels changed the microbial communities on the anodes. Based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of light-exposed systems the anode communities using glucose were also significantly different than those fed acetate. Dominant bacteria that are known exoelectrogens were identified in the anode biofilm, including a purple nonsulfur (PNS) photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens. Pure culture tests confirmed that PNS photosynthetic bacteria increased power production when exposed to high light intensities (4000 lx). These results demonstrate that power production and community composition are affected by light conditions as well as electron donors in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reading performance of monofocal pseudophakic patients with and without glasses under normal and dim light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, Wolfgang; Radner, Stephan; Raunig, Valerian; Diendorfer, Gabriela

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate reading performance of patients with monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) (Acrysof SN60WF) with or without reading glasses under bright and dim light conditions. Austrian Academy of Ophthalmology, Vienna, Austria. Evaluation of a diagnostic test or technology. In pseudophakic patients, the spherical refractive error was limited to between +0.50 diopter (D) and -0.75 D with astigmatism of 0.75 D (mean spherical equivalent: right eye, -0.08 ± 0.43 [SD]; left eye, -0.15 ± 0.35). Near addition was +2.75 D. Reading performance was assessed binocularly with or without reading glasses at an illumination of 100 candelas (cd)/m(2) and 4 cd/m(2) using the Radner Reading Charts. In the 25 patients evaluated, binocularly, the mean corrected distance visual acuity was -0.07 ± 0.06 logMAR and the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.01 ± 0.11 logMAR. The mean reading acuity with reading glasses was 0.02 ± 0.10 logRAD at 100 cd/m(2) and 0.12 ± 0.14 logRAD at 4 cd/m(2). Without reading glasses, it was 0.44 ± 0.13 logRAD and 0.56 ± 0.16 logRAD, respectively (P light conditions. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High efficiency light harvesting by carotenoids in the LH2 complex from photosynthetic bacteria: unique adaptation to growth under low-light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaong, Nikki M; LaFountain, Amy M; Greco, Jordan A; Gardiner, Alastair T; Carey, Anne-Marie; Cogdell, Richard J; Gibson, George N; Birge, Robert R; Frank, Harry A

    2014-09-25

    Rhodopin, rhodopinal, and their glucoside derivatives are carotenoids that accumulate in different amounts in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodoblastus (Rbl.) acidophilus strain 7050, depending on the intensity of the light under which the organism is grown. The different growth conditions also have a profound effect on the spectra of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) pigments that assemble in the major LH2 light-harvesting pigment-protein complex. Under high-light conditions the well-characterized B800-850 LH2 complex is formed and accumulates rhodopin and rhodopin glucoside as the primary carotenoids. Under low-light conditions, a variant LH2, denoted B800-820, is formed, and rhodopinal and rhodopinal glucoside are the most abundant carotenoids. The present investigation compares and contrasts the spectral properties and dynamics of the excited states of rhodopin and rhodopinal in solution. In addition, the systematic differences in pigment composition and structure of the chromophores in the LH2 complexes provide an opportunity to explore the effect of these factors on the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer. It is found that the enzymatic conversion of rhodopin to rhodopinal by Rbl. acidophilus 7050 grown under low-light conditions results in nearly 100% carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer efficiency in the LH2 complex. This comparative analysis provides insight into how photosynthetic systems are able to adapt and survive under challenging environmental conditions.

  11. Analysis of the injury severity of crashes by considering different lighting conditions on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Anarkooli, A; Hadji Hosseinlou, M

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have examined different factors contributing to the injury severity of crashes; however, relatively few studies have focused on the crashes by considering the specific effects of lighting conditions. This research investigates lighting condition differences in the injury severity of crashes using 3-year (2009-2011) crash data of two-lane rural roads of the state of Washington. Separate ordered-probit models were developed to predict the effects of a set of factors expected to influence injury severity in three lighting conditions; daylight, dark, and dark with street lights. A series of likelihood ratio tests were conducted to determine if these lighting condition models were justified. The modeling results suggest that injury severity in specific lighting conditions are associated with contributing factors in different ways, and that such differences cannot be uncovered by focusing merely on one aggregate model. Key differences include crash location, speed limit, shoulder width, driver action, and three collision types (head-on, rear-end, and right-side impact collisions). This paper highlights the importance of deploying street lights at and near intersections (or access points) on two-lane rural roads because injury severity highly increases when crashes occur at these points in dark conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental changes in emotion recognition from full-light and point-light displays of body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Ross

    Full Text Available To date, research on the development of emotion recognition has been dominated by studies on facial expression interpretation; very little is known about children's ability to recognize affective meaning from body movements. In the present study, we acquired simultaneous video and motion capture recordings of two actors portraying four basic emotions (Happiness Sadness, Fear and Anger. One hundred and seven primary and secondary school children (aged 4-17 and 14 adult volunteers participated in the study. Each participant viewed the full-light and point-light video clips and was asked to make a forced-choice as to which emotion was being portrayed. As a group, children performed worse than adults for both point-light and full-light conditions. Linear regression showed that both age and lighting condition were significant predictors of performance in children. Using piecewise regression, we found that a bilinear model with a steep improvement in performance until 8.5 years of age, followed by a much slower improvement rate through late childhood and adolescence best explained the data. These findings confirm that, like for facial expression, adolescents' recognition of basic emotions from body language is not fully mature and seems to follow a non-linear development. This is in line with observations of non-linear developmental trajectories for different aspects of human stimuli processing (voices and faces, perhaps suggesting a shift from one perceptual or cognitive strategy to another during adolescence. These results have important implications to understanding the maturation of social cognition.

  13. Biocrust spectral response as affected by changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Guirado, Emilio; Escribano, Paula; Reyes, Andres; Weber, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are characterized by scarce vegetation coverage and low rates of biological activity, both constrained by water scarcity. Under these conditions, biocrusts form key players of ecosystem functioning. They comprise complex poikilohydric communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, archaea and fungi, which cover the uppermost soil layer. Biocrusts can cope with prolonged phases of drought, being rapidly re-activated when water becomes available again. Upon reactivation, biocrusts almost immediately turn green, fixing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen and increasing ecosystem productivity. However, due to their inconspicuous growth they have only rarely been analysed and spatially and temporally continuous information on their response to water pulses is missing. These data are particularly important under changing climatic conditions predicting an increase in aridity and variations in precipitation patterns within most of the dryland regions. In the present study, we used multi-temporal series of NDVI obtained from LANDSAT images to analyze biocrust and vegetation response to water pulses within the South African Succulent Karoo and we predicted their future response under different climate change scenarios. The results showed that biocrust and vegetation greenness are controlled by aridity, solar radiation and soil water content, showing similar annual patterns, with minimum values during dry periods that increased within the rainy season and decreased again after the onset of drought. However, biocrusts responded faster to water availability and turned green almost immediately after small rains, producing a small NDVI peak only few days after rainfall, whereas more time was needed for vegetation to grow new green tissue. However, once the photosynthetic tissue of vegetation was restored, it caused the highest increase of NDVI values after the rain. Predicted changes in precipitation patterns and aridity

  14. Propaganda, News, or Education: Reporting Changing Arctic Sea Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

    2010-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center provides information on Arctic sea ice conditions via the Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis (ASINA) website. As a result of this effort to explain climatic data to the general public, we have attracted a huge amount of attention from our readers. Sometimes, people write to thank us for the information and the explanation. But people also write to accuse us of bias, slant, or outright lies in our posts. The topic of climate change is a minefield full of political animosity, and even the most carefully written verbiage can appear incomplete or biased to some audiences. Our strategy has been to report the data and stick to the areas in which our scientists are experts. The ASINA team carefully edits our posts to make sure that all statements are based on the science and not on opinion. Often this means using some technical language that may be difficult for a layperson to understand. However, we provide concise definitions for technical terms where appropriate. The hope is that by communicating the data clearly, without an agenda, we can let the science speak for itself. Is this an effective strategy to communicate clearly about the changing climate? Or does it downplay the seriousness of climate change? By writing at a more advanced level and avoiding oversimplification, we require our readers to work harder. But we may also maintain the attention of skeptics, convincing them to read further and become more knowledgeable about the topic.

  15. Spirometry Changes in Cold Climatic Conditions of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya, Iyamanda B; Laxmi, Chettangada C; Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Raju, Trichur R; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary function is one of the important physiological measures that is known to be affected during the changes in the altitude. There is dearth of literature on changes in the pulmonary function variables in the cold climate conditions of Antarctica. We carried out spirometry before, during and after one year stay at Antarctica in members of the Indian expedition. Spirometry was carried out on 23 members of the XXVI Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica at baseline, after six months of expedition and at the end of one year, using standard guidelines. The tests were carried out indoor in temperature controlled laboratory. The pulmonary function test parameters did not vary across the period. Although, both forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) showed a decreasing trend but did not attain any statistical significance. However, peak expiratory flow (PEFR) rate was reduced significantly. Our study did not show consistently significant change in the pulmonary function parameters in the members of the Indian Antarctic expedition.

  16. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera (Asteraceae changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera modifica sua estrutura foliar devido a diferenças na luminosidade e condições edáficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rodrigo Rossatto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plasticity is an adaptive advantage that allows this species to occur in diverse cerrado conditions.Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. Cabrera é uma espécie de Asteraceae com ampla distribuição no bioma cerrado, sendo encontrada em diversas fisionomias florestais da região sudeste do Brasil. O presente estudo descreve alguns caracteres anatômicos foliares dessa espécie e os analisa quantitativamente em função de sua ocorrência nas formações florestais e também das diferenças de luminosidade. Foram encontradas diferenças quantitativas em todos os parâmetros anatômicos analisados. Os resultados demonstram que a alta plasticidade anatômica foliar nesta espécie pode ser considerada como uma vantagem adaptativa que a permite ocorrer em diversos ambientes do cerrado.

  17. Photocatalytic Properties of g-C₃N₄-TiO₂ Heterojunctions under UV and Visible Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Rachel; McCormack, Declan E; Hinder, Steven J; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-04-14

    Graphitic carbon nitride ( g -C₃N₄) and titanium dioxide (TiO₂) were chosen as a model system to investigate photocatalytic abilities of heterojunction system under UV and visible light conditions. The use of g -C₃N₄ has been shown to be effective in the reduction in recombination through the interaction between the two interfaces of TiO₂ and g -C₃N₄. A simple method of preparing g -C₃N₄ through the pyrolysis of melamine was employed, which was then added to undoped TiO₂ material to form the g -C₃N₄-TiO₂ system. These materials were then fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), and various spectroscopic techniques including Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffuse absorbance, and photoluminescence analysis. Photocatalysis studies were conducted using the model dye, rhodamine 6G utilizing visible and UV light irradiation. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that a composite of the materials was formed as opposed to a mixture of the two. Using XPS analysis, a shift in the nitrogen peak to that indicative of substitutional nitrogen was detected for all doped samples. This is then mirrored in the diffuse absorbance results, which show a clear decrease in band gap values for these samples, showing the effective band gap alteration achieved through this preparation process. When g -C₃N₄-TiO₂ samples were analyzed under visible light irradiation, no significant improvement was observed compared that of pure TiO₂. However, under UV light irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic ability of the doped samples exhibited an increased reactivity when compared to the undoped TiO₂ (0.130 min -1 ), with 4% g -C₃N₄-TiO₂ (0.187 min -1 ), showing a 43.9% increase in reactivity. Further doping to 8% g -C₃N₄-TiO₂ lead to a decrease in reactivity against rhodamine 6G. BET analysis determined that the surface area of the 4% and 8% g -C

  18. Short-term Responses of Posidonia australis to Changes in Light Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Strydom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows are highly productive ecosystems that provide ecosystem services to the coastal zone but are declining globally, particularly due to anthropogenic activities that reduce the quantity of light reaching seagrasses, such as dredging, river discharge and eutrophication. Light quality (the spectral composition of the light is also altered by these anthropogenic stressors as the differential attenuation of wavelengths of light is caused by materials within the water column. This study addressed the effect of altered light quality on different life-history stages of the seagrass Posidonia australis, a persistent, habitat-forming species in Australia. Aquarium-based experiments were conducted to determine how adult shoots and seedlings respond to blue (peak λ = 451 nm; green (peak λ = 522 nm; yellow (peak λ = 596 nm and red (peak λ = 673 nm wavelengths with a control of full-spectrum light (λ = 400 – 700 nm, at 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Posidonia australis adults did not respond to changes in light quality relative to full-spectrum light, demonstrating a capacity to obtain enough photons from a range of wavelengths across the visible spectrum to maintain short-term growth at high irradiances. Posidonia australis seedlings (<4 months old grown in blue light showed a significant increase in xanthophyll concentrations when compared to plants grown in full-spectrum, demonstrating a pigment acclimation response to blue light. These results differed significantly from negative responses to changes in light quality recently described for Halophila ovalis, a colonizing seagrass species. Persistent seagrasses such as P. australis, appear to be better at tolerating short-term changes in light quality compared to colonizing species when sufficient PPFD is present.

  19. CONTEMPORARY CHANGES OF THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE CASPIAN SEMI-DESERT LANDSCAPES OF THE EASTERN CISCAUCASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Ataev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the changes in the hydrothermal conditions within the pricaspian littoral plains accumulation and denudation-accumulative in places aeolian landscapes saltwort, saltwort-sagebrush deserts and semi-deserts in light chestnut soils based on data from weather stations "Makhachkala" for years 1945-2005.Tendencies of changes in temperature, precipitation, and hydrothermal coefficient and coefficient of moisture are shown. Tendency of modern fluctuations suggests that the climatic conditions of the last period contribute to the development of dry steppes and significant deviations from the conditions of the previous period do not occur.

  20. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  1. On the assessment of the productivity of suspension cultures of unicellular green algae at defined light conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiss, U; Borns, E; Boehm, H

    1985-01-01

    A description is given of the possibility of a comparison of the production between different suspension cultures of microalgae at equal and defined light conditions. For this, a variant of the turbidostat technique is used by which with the acid of a phototransistor and the filter combination of red filter/opal glass filter a chlorophyll-equivalent signal is applied for control. The equal light conditions are compared and set by the preparation of the respective absorption profiles. From this one can derive the mean level of irradiation within the suspension cultures and use it as the reference value for the light conditions. By this technique it is possible to set equal light conditions in suspension cultures independent of the given cell sizes, cell shapes and dry matter contents.

  2. Sustainable resilience in property maintenance: encountering changing weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Rimante Andrasiunaite; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to develop a methodological approach for project management to integrate sustainability and resilience planning in property maintenance as an incremental strategy for upgrading existing properties to meet new standards for sustainable and climate resilient...... buildings. Background: Current maintenance practice is focused on the technical standard of buildings, with little consideration of sustainability and resilience. There is a need to develop tools for incorporating sustainable resilience into maintenance planning. Approach: The study is primarily theoretical......, developing the concept of sustainable resilience for changing weather conditions Results: The paper suggests a decision support methodology that quantifies sustainable resilience for the analytical stages of property maintenance planning. Practical Implications: The methodology is generic and expected users...

  3. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically...... separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases....

  4. Modelling climate change impacts on stream habitat conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, Eva; Conallin, John; Karthikeyan, Matheswaran

    Impact from groundwater abstraction on freshwater resources and ecosystems is an issue of sincere concern in Denmark and many other countries worldwide. In addition, climate change projections add complexity to the existing conflict between water demands to satisfy human needs and water demands...... required to conserve streams as biologically diverse and healthy ecosystems. Solutions to this intensifying conflict require a holistic approach whereby stream biota is related to their physical environment at catchment scale, as also demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive. In the present study......, climate impacts on stream ecological conditions were quantified by combining a heat and mass stream flow with a habitat suitability modelling approach. Habitat suitability indices were developed for stream velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrate. Generally, water depth was found...

  5. Retirement in the Context of the Changes of Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noêmia Lazzareschi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims: (i to present work relations that emerged from the process of flexibility labour markets in the 90 and the distinction between the processes of  flexibility, deregulation and news precarious labor relations, understood by most authors as part of the neoliberal reforms of the last decades of the twentieth century. This distinction  is necessary because, in Brazil, labor relations are rigidly regulated since the promulgation of the Consolidation of Labor Laws in 1943 and have always been precarious; (ii to present social security reforms undertaken by governments Fernando Henrique Cardoso and  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the new reform bill and its impact on the calculation of the value of retirement in the context of the changes of working conditions that made new labor relations.  

  6. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Light Conditions Affect the Measurement of Oceanic Bacterial Production via Leucine Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Massana, Ramon; Gasol, Josep M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of irradiance in the range of 400 to 700 nm or photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on bacterial heterotrophic production estimated by the incorporation of 3H-leucine (referred to herein as Leu) was investigated in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and in a coastal North Atlantic site, with Leu uptake rates ranging over 3 orders of magnitude. We performed in situ incubations under natural irradiance levels of Mediterranean samples taken from five depths around solar noon and compared them to incubations in the dark. In two of the three stations large differences were found between light and dark uptake rates for the surfacemost samples, with dark values being on average 133 and 109% higher than in situ ones. Data obtained in coastal North Atlantic waters confirmed that dark enclosure may increase Leu uptake rates more than threefold. To explain these differences, on-board experiments of Leu uptake versus irradiance were performed with Mediterranean samples from depths of 5 and 40 m. Incubations under a gradient of 12 to 1,731 μmol of photons m−2 s−1 evidenced a significant increase in incorporation rates with increasing PAR in most of the experiments, with dark-incubated samples departing from this pattern. These results were not attributed to inhibition of Leu uptake in the light but to enhanced bacterial response when transferred to dark conditions. The ratio of dark to light uptake rates increased as dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased, suggesting that bacterial nutrient deficiency was overcome by some process occurring only in the dark bottles. PMID:11525969

  8. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreetama Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron–hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  9. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sreetama; Bülz, Daniel; Reuter, Danny; Hiller, Karla; Zahn, Dietrich R T; Salvan, Georgeta

    2017-01-01

    We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE) having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET) substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron-hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  10. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO 2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  11. Effects of freezing conditions on quality changes in blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuehui; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Dongyu; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jianrong

    2018-03-12

    Freezing preservation is one of the most effective methods used to maintain the flavour and nutritional value of fruit. This research studied the effects of different freezing conditions, -20 °C, -40 °C, -80 °C, and immersion in liquid nitrogen, on quality changes of freeze-thawed blueberries. The water distribution estimates of blueberries were measured based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis. The pectin content, drip loss, and fruit texture were also detected to evaluate quality changes in samples. The freezing curves of blueberry showed super-cooling points at -20 °C and - 40 °C, whereas super-cooling points were not observed at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen. After freeze-thaw treatment, the relaxation time of the cell wall water (T 21 ), cytoplasm water and extracellular space (T 22 ), and vacuole water (T 23 ) were significantly shortened compared to fresh samples, which suggested a lower liquidity. Although the freezing speed for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen was faster than other treatments, samples treated at -80 °C showed better quality regarding vacuole water holding, drip loss, and original pectin content retention. This study contributed to understanding how freezing temperature affects the qualities of blueberries. The super-fast freezing rate might injure fruit, and an appropriate freezing rate could better preserve blueberries. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Adsorption and Photocatalytic Kinetics of Visible-Light Response N-Doped TiO2 Nanocatalyst for Indoor Acetaldehyde Removal under Dark and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the removal nature of the indoor volatile organic compounds under realistic environment conditions would give clear guidance for the development of air purification devices. The study investigated the removal of indoor acetaldehyde using visible-light-responsive N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation (light and in the absence of light (dark. The adsorption kinetics of acetaldehyde onto N-TiO2 followed a pseudo-second-order model. The magnitude of acetaldehyde adsorption is proportional to temperature, and the results were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. Moreover, the effect of initial acetaldehyde concentration and visible-light intensity on the photooxidation of acetaldehyde was well described by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Results show that the mesoporous N-TiO2 catalyst had a high ability to absorb acetaldehyde in the dark condition, and then acetaldehyde was subsequently photooxidized under visible-light irradiation. The adsorption capacity was found to increase with decreasing temperature. The negative value of ΔG° and the positive value of ΔS° indicate that the adsorption of acetaldehyde onto N-TiO2 was a spontaneous process. Finally, a reaction scheme for removal process of indoor acetaldehyde by N-TiO2 was proposed.

  13. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  14. HOUSEHOLD HEATING IN THE LIGHT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNIKA PALÁDI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from anthropogenic activities play a significant role in climate change. The residential heating should be mentioned one of the main polluting source of greenhouse gases.This paper aims to give a comprehensive view about the amount of CO2 emission as well as objectives and strategies for reduction the GHG emission. In addition, we illustrate the example of an average Hungarian family house (100 m2 , that biomass-based energy production what extent can reduce the current very high degree carbon dioxide emissions. We prepared investment analysis, as to what kind of ecological and economic benefits may result in heating modernization projects of a four-member family home. Additionally, a calculation method of CO2 emission from heating is demonstrated on the basis of IPPC report (2006; the role of biomass is explained in heating; furthermore I give an overview analysis about the significance of forests for reduction of CO2 concentration.

  15. Radiative Transfer Modeling to Estimate the Impact of CDOM on Light Absorption within Changing Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carns, R.; Light, B.; Frey, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    First-year sea ice differs from multi-year sea ice in several ways that can influence its optical properties. It is thinner than multi-year ice, which tends to increase light transmission. Also, first-year ice retains higher brine volumes in comparison to more heavily drained multi-year ice, in isolated pockets and channels. During melt season, patterns of pond formation on first-year sea ice differ from those on multi-year ice. As first-year sea ice comprises an increasingly large fraction of Arctic sea ice, it becomes more important to understand how much sunlight reaches the ecosystems within the ice, and how those changing ecosystems can feed back into the transmission of light. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and chlorophyll within the ice can absorb light, heating the ice and reducing transmission to the ocean below. Light also encourages algal growth within the ice while degrading CDOM, creating complex feedbacks. We use radiative transfer models to determine the overall effect of colored dissolved organic matter on the light regime within sea ice, both on the overall amount of energy transmitted and on the spectral distribution of energy. Using models allows us to estimate the impact of varying CDOM levels on a wide range of sea ice types, improving our ability to respond to conditions in a rapidly changing Arctic and predict important phenomena such as algal blooms.

  16. Photosynthetic acclimation of WS and WS-gpt2 in Arabidopsis thaliana under fluctuating natural light condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa'ee, Furzani; Johnson, Giles

    2017-10-01

    Photoacclimation is a process by which photosynthetic capacity is regulated in response to environmental adjustments in terms of light regime. Photoacclimation is essential in determining the photosynthetic capacity to optimize light use and to avoid potentially damaging effects. Previous work in our laboratory has identified a gene, gpt2 (At1g61800) that is essential for plants to acclimate to an increase and decrease of growth irradiance, separately. To investigate the photoacclimation ability towards fluctuating natural light condition in Arabidopsis thaliana, photosynthetic capacity was measured in plants of the accession Wassileskija (WS) and in plants lacking expression of the gene At1g61800 (WS-gpt2). The experiment was carried out over a time span from early Autumn to early Spring season in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The seedlings were grown in an unheated greenhouse in Manchester, UK without supplementary lighting. Gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll content estimation were performed on WS and WS-gpt2 and it showed that both sets of plants were able to acclimate to fluctuating natural light condition. Therefore, it is suggested that the mechanisms of acclimation in a separate growth light condition is mechanistically distinct than the mechanism under fluctuating natural light condition.

  17. Evaluation of Physical Semen Characteristics of Male Rabbits Exposed to Different Climatic Conditions and Lighting Regimes Using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Teama, F.E.I.; Nesseim, M.Z.; Elwan, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of 20 mature males New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, in the first production year was used in the present research. The study included two periods; each was of 2 months. The first period was under mild conditions (18.0 degree C) while the second one was during hot conditions (35.0 degree C). In each period, 10 males with the same age and average live body weight were used. Animals within each period were divided randomly into two equal groups, with nearly equal body weights. One of the two groups exposed to natural day light (NDL) which was 10:50 L: 13:10 D in winter and 13:40 L: 10:20 D in summer and was considered as photo period control and the other group was exposed to photo period treatment (Artificial photo period, AP). The treatment group was exposed to artificial long photo period (13:40 L: 10:20 D) during winter and artificial short photo period (10:50 L: 13:10 D) during hot conditions. In seminal plasma, T4, T3 and testosterone hormonal levels were significantly lower in heat stressed rabbits than those reared under mild conditions. In contrast, the hot condition was accompanied by significant increases in cortisol level. T3 and cortisol affected significantly while T4 and testosterone levels were not affected significantly due to change in period of lighting. Concerning physical semen characteristics i.e. ejaculate volume, sperm motility, sperm cell concentration, total sperm output and number of motile sperms per ejaculate were significantly lower under heat stress than under mild conditions. In contrast, hot conditions were accompanied by a significant increase in each of reaction time, dead sperm %, sperm abnormalities % and acrosomal abnormalities %. Exposure of male rabbits during winter to long lighting as compared to NDL caused significant increase in T3 (1.4 vs. 1.3 ng/ml), testosterone (3.2 vs. 2.8 ng/ml) and cortisol (1.8 vs. 1.5 ng/ml) levels as well as significant decline in semen quality, i.e., ejaculate volume (70 vs. 60 x 10 -2

  18. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  19. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  20. Changing climatic conditions in the Upper Thames River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Many climate change impact studies have been conducted using a top-down approach. First, outputs from Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are considered which are downscaled in a second step to the river basin scale using either a statistical/empirical or a dynamic approach. The local climatic signal that is obtained is then used as input into a hydrological model to assess the direct consequences in the basin. Problems related to this approach include: a high degree of uncertainty associated with GCM outputs; and an increase in uncertainty due to the downscaling approach. An original inverse approach is developed in this work in order to improve the understanding of the processes leading to hydrological hazards, including both flood and drought events. The developed approach starts with the analysis of existing guidelines and management practices in a river basin with respect to critical hydrological exposures that may lead to failure of the water resources system or parts thereof. This implies that vulnerable components of the river basin have to be identified together with the risk exposure. In the next step the critical hydrologic exposures (flood levels for example) are transformed into corresponding critical meteorological conditions (extreme precipitation events for example). These local weather scenarios are then be statistically linked to possible large-scale climate conditions that are available from the GCMs. The developed procedure allows for the assessment of the vulnerability of river basins with respect to climate forcing. It also provides a tool for identifying the spatial distribution of the vulnerability and risk. Vulnerability is here characterized by the incremental losses, expressed either quantitatively or qualitatively, due to a change in the probability and magnitude of hazard events driven by climatic forcing. Vulnerability is seen as the basis for risk mitigation measures for hydrologic extremes at the basin level. The

  1. Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance

  2. Icing conditions over Northern Eurasia in changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulygina, Olga N; Arzhanova, Natalia M; Groisman, Pavel Ya

    2015-01-01

    Icing conditions, particularly in combination with wind, affect greatly the operation of overhead communication and transmission lines causing serious failures, which result in tremendous economic damage. Icing formation is dangerous to agriculture, forestry, high seas fishery, for land and off coast man-made infrastructure. Quantitative icing characteristics such as weight, thickness, and duration are very important for the economy and human wellbeing when their maximum values exceed certain thresholds. Russian meteorological stations perform both visual and instrumental monitoring of icing deposits. Visual monitoring is ocular estimation of the type and intensity of icing and the date of ice appearance and disappearance. Instrumental monitoring is performed by ice accretion indicator that in addition to the type, intensity and duration of ice deposits reports also their weight and size. We used observations at 958 Russian stations for the period 1977–2013 to analyze changes in the ice formation frequency at individual meteorological stations and on the territory of quasi-homogeneous climatic regions in Russia. It was found that hoar frosts are observed in most parts of Russia, but icing only occurs in European Russia and the Far East. On the Arctic coast of Russia, this phenomenon can even be observed in summer months. Statistically significant decreasing trends in occurrence of icing and hoar frost events are found over most of Russia. An increasing trend in icing weights (IWs) was found in the Atlantic Arctic region in autumn. Statistically significant large negative trends in IWs were found in the Pacific Arctic in winter and spring. (letter)

  3. The study of initial conditions in collisions of light, intermediate and heavy nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loctionov A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The system size dependence for multiparticle processes has been recognized in both cosmic ray (“Stratosphere” collaboration and at accelerator (“EMU” collaboration experiments. The strong enhancement in multiplicity fluctuations for the most central light-light – (C, O, Ne + (C/N/O – collisions has been revealed at JINR-AGS-SPS energies. The sharp difference of light nuclear interactions are interpreted as the sign of intrinsic alpha-clustering in light nuclei.

  4. A Conditional Fourier-Feynman Transform and Conditional Convolution Product with Change of Scales on a Function Space II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple formula for conditional expectations over continuous paths, we will evaluate conditional expectations which are types of analytic conditional Fourier-Feynman transforms and conditional convolution products of generalized cylinder functions and the functions in a Banach algebra which is the space of generalized Fourier transforms of the measures on the Borel class of L2[0,T]. We will then investigate their relationships. Particularly, we prove that the conditional transform of the conditional convolution product can be expressed by the product of the conditional transforms of each function. Finally we will establish change of scale formulas for the conditional transforms and the conditional convolution products. In these evaluation formulas and change of scale formulas, we use multivariate normal distributions so that the conditioning function does not contain present positions of the paths.

  5. Acclimation of seedlings of Gnetum leyboldii Tul. Gnetaceae to light changes in a tropical rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Celis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neotropical liana Gnetum leyboldii Gnetaceae is a gymnosperm that resembles angiosperms in wood anatomy, overall morphology, and seed dispersal mechanism. Like other woody lianas, seedlings germinate in the shaded forest understory and start climbing towards the canopy, being eposed to sites with etreme differences in light conditions. However, the etent of physiological and structural adjustment to contrasting light conditions in the early regeneration stages of Gnetum is unknown. To answer this question, we analyzed seedling growth and photosynthetic responses using a common garden eperiment with two light regimes: full sun and low light 20 of full sun at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We also characterized the germination pattern of this species. We monitored one and half-month old seedlings for four months. Leaf structure finely adapted to light treatments, but gas echange properties were buffered by large seed reserves, which dominated biomass distribution about 50 of the total biomass, followed by stem 27, leaf 16 and root biomass 6 across light conditions. The presence of large seeds and the low photosynthetic rates of seedlings in both environments show that G. leyboldii is specialized to eploit deep shade. More research is needed to determine if the patterns found in G. leyboldii are typical of similar lianas that initially eploit deep-shaded understories in their ascension to the canopy.

  6. Compression ignition of light naphtha and its multicomponent surrogate under partially premixed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; An, Y.; Dawood, A.; Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, B.; Chang, J.; Sarathy, M.; Johansson, B.

    2017-01-01

    Light naphtha is the light distillate from crude oil and can be used in compression ignition (CI) engines; its low boiling point and octane rating (RON = 64.5) enable adequate premixing. This study investigates the combustion characteristics of light naphtha (LN) and its multicomponent surrogate

  7. Twisted molecular excitons as mediators for changing the angular momentum of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.

    2017-07-01

    Molecules with CN or CN h symmetry can absorb quanta of optical angular momentum to generate twisted excitons with well-defined quasiangular momenta of their own. Angular momentum is conserved in such interactions at the level of a paraxial approximation for the light beam. A sequence of absorption events can thus be used to create a range of excitonic angular momenta. Subsequent decay can produce radiation with a single angular momentum equal to that accumulated. Such molecules can thus be viewed as mediators for changing the angular momentum of light. This sidesteps the need to exploit nonlinear light-matter interactions based on higher-order susceptibilities. A tight-binding paradigm is used to verify angular momentum conservation and demonstrate how it can be exploited to change the angular momentum of light. The approach is then extended to a time-dependent density functional theory setting where the key results are shown to hold in a many-body, multilevel setting.

  8. Teaching Primary School Music: Coping with Changing Work Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Peter Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The changing roles of two primary (elementary) school music teachers are explored in this article, and how these changed roles have impacted on music programmes in their respective schools. Change readiness provides the theoretical framework for investigating the way both teachers responded to their changing roles. The first teacher's role changed…

  9. Smart city planning under the climate change condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dexiang; Zhao, Yue; Zhou, Xi

    2017-08-01

    With the aggravation of climate change, extreme weather events occur continuously, cities are not resilient to climate change, and we need to change the concept of urban planning, centering on climate research and its research achievements, combining with the modern intelligent technology and formulating a smart city that resilience to the climate change, realizing the sustainable development of human, city, environment and society.

  10. Effect of light irradiation on tooth whitening: enamel microhardness and color change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Francci, Carlos; Medeiros, Igor Studart; De Godoy Froes Salgado, Nívea Regina; Riehl, Heraldo; Marasca, José Milton; Muench, Antônio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light exposure associated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI, Melbourne, Vic., Australia) or 15% hydrogen peroxide (BriteSmile, Discus, Culver City, CA, USA) on the microhardness and color changes of bovine enamel. Experimental groups were Britesmile + Light (BL) (15% hydrogen peroxide + plasm arc; 4 x 20 minutes), Britesmile + No Light (BN) (BL, no light), Pola office + Light (PL) (35% hydrogen peroxide + LED; 4 x 8 minutes), and Pola office + No light (PN) (PL, no light). Color changes (DeltaE) and the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage, L* a* b* color system) parameters (L*, a*, and b*) were assessed with a spectrophotometer before (B), immediately (A), 1 day and 7 days after bleaching. The microhardness was measured before (B) and after (A), the obtained data were submitted to a two-way analysis of variance, and DeltaE were submitted to t-test for each period. Only Pola Office, in which the peroxide is associated with the light, improved DeltaE when evaluated immediately after bleaching (p enamel microhardness was not altered after bleaching for BriteSmile. However, enamel microhardness was reduced after bleaching for Pola Office, 283 MPa (+/-21) and 265 MPa (+/-27), respectively. It was concluded that these two bleaching systems were efficient regardless of the light systems used. However, the 35% hydrogen peroxide altered the enamel microhardness. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Enamel microhardness was affected by a 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching therapy. Moreover, the in-office bleaching outcome was not improved by using the light associated with systems tested in this study. (J Esthet Restor Dent 21:387-396, 2009).

  11. Icing Conditions Over Northern Eurasia in Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Arzhanova, N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Climate of the Russian Federation for the national territory. This Reference Book addresses the current state of these weather phenomena. However, the ongoing and projected humidity changes in the high latitudes will strongly affect the circum-polar area (land and ocean) and impact the frequency and intensity of these potentially dangerous weather phenomena across the entire extratropical land area. Therefore the goal of the present study is to quantify icing conditions over the northern Eurasia. Our analysis includes data of 958 Russian stations from 1977 to 2012. Regional analysis of gololed characteristics was carried out using quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Maps (climatology, trends) are presented mostly for visualization purposes. The area-averaging technique using station values converted to anomalies with respect to a common reference period (in this study, from 1977 to 2012). Anomalies were arithmetically averaged first within 1N x 2E grid cells and thereafter by a weighted average value derived over the quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. This approach provides a more uniform spatial field for averaging.

  12. Investigation of light-induced conformation changes in spiropyran-modified succinylated poly(L-lysine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, T M; Stone, M O; Natarajan, L V; Crane, R L

    1995-08-01

    To determine the maximum range of coupling between side-chain photochromism and polypeptide conformation change, we modified the carboxylate side chains of succinylated poly(L-lysine) with a spiropyran to form polypeptide I. The extent of modification was determined to be 35.5%. The spacer group length between the polypeptide alpha-carbon and the dye was 12 atoms, providing minimum polypeptide-dye interaction. Conformation changes were monitored by circular dichroism as a function of light adaptation and solvent composition (hexafluoroisopropanol [HFIP] vs trifluoroethanol [TFE]). Under all solvent compositions, the dark-adapted dye was in the merocyanine form. Light adaptation by visible light converted the dye to the spiropyran form. When dissolved in TFE, I adopted a helical conformation insensitive to light adaptation. With increasing percentage HFIP, a solvent-induced helix-to-coil transition was observed around 80% (vol/vol) HFIP. At 100% HFIP, both light- and dark-adapted forms of I were in the coil state. Near the midpoint of the solvent-induced helix-to-coil transition, light adaptation caused conformation changes. Applying helix-to-coil transition theory, we measured a statistically significant difference in coil segment-HFIP binding constant for light- vs dark-adapted solutions (6.38 +/- 0.03 M-1 vs 6.56 +/- 0.03 M-1), but not for the nucleation parameter sigma (1.2 +/- 0.4 10(-3) vs 1.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(-3). The small binding constant difference translated to a light-induced binding energy difference of 17 cal/mol/monomer. Near the midpoint of the helix-to-coil transition, collective interactions between monomer units made possible the translation of a small energy difference (less than RT) into large macromolecular conformation changes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Changes in Arctic sea ice result in increasing light transmittance and absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Katlein, Christian; Maslanik, J.; Hendricks, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arctic sea ice has declined and become thinner and younger (more seasonal) during the last decade. One consequence of this is that the surface energy budget of the Arctic Ocean is changing. While the role of surface albedo has been studied intensively, it is still widely unknown how much light penetrates through sea ice into the upper ocean, affecting seaice mass balance, ecosystems, and geochemical processes. Here we present the first large-scale under-ice light measurem...

  14. Evolution of quality characteristics of minimally processed asparagus during storage in different lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, S; Olarte, C; Ayala, F; Echávarri, J F

    2009-08-01

    The effect of different types of lighting (white, green, red, and blue light) on minimally processed asparagus during storage at 4 degrees C was studied. The gas concentrations in the packages, pH, mesophilic counts, and weight loss were also determined. Lighting caused an increase in physiological activity. Asparagus stored under lighting achieved atmospheres with higher CO(2) and lower O(2) content than samples kept in the dark. This activity increase explains the greater deterioration experienced by samples stored under lighting, which clearly affected texture and especially color, accelerating the appearance of greenish hues in the tips and reddish-brown hues in the spears. Exposure to light had a negative effect on the quality parameters of the asparagus and it caused a significant reduction in shelf life. Hence, the 11 d shelf life of samples kept in the dark was reduced to only 3 d in samples kept under red and green light, and to 7 d in those kept under white and blue light. However, quality indicators such as the color of the tips and texture showed significantly better behavior under blue light than with white light, which allows us to state that it is better to use this type of light or blue-tinted packaging film for the display of minimally processed asparagus to consumers.

  15. Light induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca i Cabarrocas P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on light-induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H PIN solar cells. To explain the particular light-soaking behavior of such cells – namely an increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc and a rapid drop of the short circuit current density (Jsc – we correlate these effects to changes in hydrogen incorporation and structural properties in the layers of the cells. Numerous techniques such as current-voltage characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen exodiffusion, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to study the light-induced changes from microscopic to macroscopic scales (up to tens of microns. Such comprehensive use of complementary techniques lead us to suggest that light-soaking produces the diffusion of molecular hydrogen, hydrogen accumulation at p-layer/substrate interface and localized delamination of the interface. Based on these results we propose that light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells has to be addressed from not only as a material issue, but also a device point of view. In particular we bring experimental evidence that localized delamination at the interface between the p-layer and SnO2 substrate by light-induced hydrogen motion causes the rapid drop of Jsc.

  16. Interactive effects of temperature and light during deep convection: a case study on growth and condition of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, B.; Peters, J.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.

    2015-01-01

    pulses of a higher light intensity (120 mmol m22 s21, 2/22 hlight/dark). Both experimental light conditions offered the same daily light dose. No growth was observed at temperatures below 88C. Above 88C, growth rates were significantly higher under low light conditions compared with those of short pulsed...... light exposures, indicating a higher efficiency of light utilization. This could be related to (i) a higher content of Chl a per cell in the lowlight trial and/or (ii) a more efficient transfer of light energy into growth as indicated by constantly low carbohydrate levels.In contrast, pulsed intense...... did not provide sufficient light to reach full light saturation. In general, photosynthesis was more strongly affected by temperature under pulsed light than under low light conditions. Our results indicate that model estimates of primary production in relation to deep convection, which are based...

  17. Experimental performance evaluation for a carbon dioxide light commercial cooling application under transcritical and subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccardi, G.; Calabrese, N.; Celata, G.P.; Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A.W.; Perrone, A.; Trinchieri, R.

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the most interesting non toxic, nor flammable, low GWP natural fluid to be used in applications with a large direct contribution to global warming, such as vending machines. In this paper the results of an experimental investigation on a small capacity, air-forced refrigerating plant working with CO 2 are presented. The air inlet temperatures at gas cooler and evaporator were varied between 16 °C and 31 °C and between −25 °C and 25 °C, respectively, to cover the range of temperatures under conditions typical of commercial refrigeration, during quasi-steady operation. The thermodynamic analysis of the system performance was carried on varying independently the pressure at the gas cooler, by overfeeding the liquid receiver to point out the effect of refrigerant charge. The results allow to describe the performance of the system in a map varying the boundary conditions; at the same time the corresponding variations of the thermodynamic cycle, the COP and the mass flow rate are reported. -- Highlights: ► A light commercial refrigerating plant working with CO 2 was tested in order to evaluate its performance. ► 71 experimental points were collected varying the flow rates, the temperatures of air sources and the refrigerant charge. ► Mass flow rate, cooling capacity, electrical power and COP were evaluated as a function of pressures and superheating. ► The segregate influence of each operating parameter on each performance indicator was calculated. ► A map of plant performance as a function of air source temperatures is reported

  18. Light-matter interaction in the strong coupling regime: configurations, conditions, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovzhenko, D S; Ryabchuk, S V; Rakovich, Yu P; Nabiev, I R

    2018-02-22

    Resonance interaction between a molecular transition and a confined electromagnetic field can reach the coupling regime where coherent exchange of energy between light and matter becomes reversible. In this case, two new hybrid states separated in energy are formed instead of independent eigenstates, which is known as Rabi splitting. This modification of the energy spectra of the system offers new possibilities for controlled impact on various fundamental properties of coupled matter (such as the rate of chemical reactions and the conductivity of organic semiconductors). To date, the strong coupling regime has been demonstrated in many configurations under different ambient conditions. However, there is still no comprehensive approach to determining parameters for achieving the strong coupling regime for a wide range of practical applications. In this review, a detailed analysis of various systems and corresponding conditions for reaching strong coupling is carried out and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the prospects for application, are considered. The review also summarizes recent experiments in which the strong coupling regime has led to new interesting results, such as the possibility of collective strong coupling between X-rays and matter excitation in a periodic array of Fe isotopes, which extends the applications of quantum optics; a strong amplification of the Raman scattering signal from a coupled system, which can be used in surface-enhanced and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy; and more efficient second-harmonic generation from the low polaritonic state, which is promising for nonlinear optics. The results reviewed demonstrate great potential for further practical applications of strong coupling in the fields of photonics (low-threshold lasers), quantum communications (switches), and biophysics (molecular fingerprinting).

  19. Coupled effects of director orientations and boundary conditions on light induced bending of monodomain nematic liquid crystalline polymer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yue; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Xu, Changwei

    2012-01-01

    A photo-chromic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) is a smart material for large light-activated variation or bending to transfer luminous energy into mechanical energy. We study the light induced behavior by modeling planar and homeotropic nematic network polymer plates. We effectively illustrate some reported experimental outcomes and theoretically predict some possible bending patterns. This paper constructs an understanding between the bending behaviors and interactions among the alignments, aspect ratios and boundary conditions, etc. Our work provides information on optimizing light induced bending in the process of micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) design. (paper)

  20. Food for thought: Conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Piety R.; Oegema, Tammo

    2010-01-01

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses-frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world-act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in decision-making may be understood from this perspective. Environmental knowledge that is inconsistent with dominant discourses runs the risk of being ignored. Discourses on the value of EA as a tool for decision-making may have a similar effect. Stimulating decision-makers and stakeholders to critically reflect on and reconsider their discourses in the light of EAs-also known as frame reflection or policy learning-may enhance the probability that these assessments and the knowledge that they generate impact upon decision-making. Up to now little has been written about how discourse reflection in the context of EA can be promoted. Valuable inputs are fragmented over different bodies of literature. In this paper we draw from these bodies to identify favourable conditions for discourse reflection.

  1. Effect of light conditions and chemical characteristics of water on dissipation of glyphosate in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Veena; Kaur, Pervinder; Kaur, Paawan

    2017-11-06

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of light conditions and chemical properties of water on dissipation of glyphosate. The residues of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were quantified using fluorescence spectrophotometer after derivatization with 9-fluoroenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl) and orthopthaldehyde (OPA). Average percent recoveries of glyphosate and AMPA from distilled, tap, and ground water ranged from 87.5 to 94.9, 87.3 to 93.7, and 80.6 to 92.0, respectively, with relative standard deviation less than 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of glyphosate and AMPA from different water matrices ranged from 0.001 to 0.03 μg mL -1 and 0.003 to 0.01 μg mL -1 , respectively. The dissipation of glyphosate followed the first-order kinetics, and half-life varied from 1.56 to 14.47 and 13.14 to 42.38 days under UV and sunlight, respectively. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of water has differential influence on dissipation of glyphosate, and it increased with increase in pH and EC.

  2. Modeling of Microstructure Evolution in Austenitic Stainless Steels Irradiated Under Light Water Reactor Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, J.; Stoller, R.E.; Was, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    A model for the development of microstructure during irradiation in fast reactors has been adapted for light water reactor (LWR) irradiation conditions (275 approximately 325 C, up to approximately10 dpa). The original model was based on the rate-theory, and included descriptions of the evolution of both dislocation loops and cavities. The model was modified by introducing in-cascade interstitial clustering, a term to account for the dose dependence of this clustering, and mobility of interstitial clusters. The purpose of this work was to understand microstructural development under LWR irradiation with a focus on loop nucleation and saturation of loop density. It was demonstrated that in-cascade interstitial clustering dominates loop nucleation in neutron irradiation in LWRS. Furthermore it was shown that the dose dependence of in-cascade interstitial clustering is needed to account for saturation behavior as commonly observed. Both quasi-steady-state (QSS) and non-steady-state (NSS) solutions to the rate equations were obtained. The difference between QSS and NSS treatments in the calculation of defect concentration is reduced at LWR temperature when in-cascade interstitial clustering dominates loop nucleation. The mobility of interstitial clusters was also investigated and its impact on loop density is to reduce the nucleation term. The ultimate goal of this study is to combine the evolution of microstructure and microchemistry together to account for the radiation damage in austenitic stainless steels

  3. Optimization of operating conditions in oxidation of dibenzothiophene in the light hydrocarbon model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari Azam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of process variables on the efficiency and mechanism of dibenzothiophene oxidation in formicacid/H2O2 system for deep desulfurization of a light hydrocarbon model were systematically studied by statistical modelling and optimization using response surface methodology and implementing the central composite design. A quadratic regression model was developed to predict the yield of sulfur oxidation as the model response. The model indicated that temperature was the most significant effective factor and suggested an important interaction between temperature and H2O2/sulfur ratio; at temperatures above 56°C, more excess oxidant was necessary because of instability of active peroxo intermediates and loss of H2O2 due to thermal decomposition. In contrast, the water hindrance effect of H2O2 aqueous solution in desulfurization progress was more significant at temperatures bellow 56°C. In the optimization process, minimizing H2O2/sulfur ratio and catalyst consumption for maximum yield of desulfurization was economically considerable. The optimal condition was obtained at temperature of 57 °C, H2O2/sulfur ratio of 2.5 mol/mol and catalyst dosage of 0.82 mL in 50 mL solution of DBT in n-hexane leading to a maximum oxidation yield of 95% after 1 hour reaction. Good agreement between predicted and experimental results (less than 4% error was found.

  4. The effects of climatic conditions on attitudinal changes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changes associated with climate change and climatic events. The .... influence of rainfall on differences in perceptions towards building materials in poor ...... in the form of flash floods, cloud bursts, or sudden climatic events. Unusually high or ...

  5. Nanoparticle growth and surface chemistry changes in cell-conditioned culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michaela; Hodges, Nikolas J; Whitwell, Harry; Tyrrell, Jess; Cangul, Hakan

    2015-02-05

    When biomolecules attach to engineered nanoparticle (ENP) surfaces, they confer the particles with a new biological identity. Physical format may also radically alter, changing ENP stability and agglomeration state within seconds. In order to measure which biomolecules are associated with early ENP growth, we studied ENPs in conditioned medium from A549 cell culture, using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and linear trap quadrupole electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. Two types of 100 nm polystyrene particles (one uncoated and one with an amine functionalized surface) were used to measure the influence of surface type. In identically prepared conditioned medium, agglomeration was visible in all samples after 1 h, but was variable, indicating inter-sample variability in secretion rates and extracellular medium conditions. In samples conditioned for 1 h or more, ENP agglomeration rates varied significantly. Agglomerate size measured by DLS was well correlated with surface sequestered peptide number for uncoated but not for amine coated polystyrene ENPs. Amine-coated ENPs grew much faster and into larger agglomerates associated with fewer sequestered peptides, but including significant sequestered lactose dehydrogenase. We conclude that interference with extracellular peptide balance and oxidoreductase activity via sequestration is worthy of further study, as increased oxidative stress via this new mechanism may be important for cell toxicity. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Different Metabolomic Responses to Carbon Starvation between Light and Dark Conditions in the Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Nanako; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

    2018-03-29

    Purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize light energy for growth. We previously demonstrated that light energy contributed to prolonging the survival of multiple purple bacteria under carbon-starved conditions. In order to clarify the effects of illumination on metabolic states under carbon-starved, non-growing conditions, we herein compared the metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light and dark using the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light were markedly different from those in the dark. After starvation for 5 d in the light, cells showed increases in the amount of ATP and the NAD + /NADH ratio. Decreases in the amounts of most metabolites related to glycolysis and the TCA cycle in energy-rich starved cells suggest the active utilization of these metabolites for the modification of cellular components. Starvation in the dark induced the consumption of cellular compounds such as amino acids, indicating that the degradation of these cellular components produced ATP in order to maintain viability under energy-poor conditions. The present results suggest that intracellular energy levels alter survival strategies under carbon-starved conditions through metabolism.

  7. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  8. Non-disruptive regime changes-The case of competing energy efficient lighting trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, Simone; Alkemade, Floortje

    2016-01-01

    Technologies within the same industry are expected to follow similar patterns of innovation, and when the dominant patterns change, this is often expected to have disruptive effects on the industry. However, the three most recent lighting technologies (fluorescent, compact fluorescent, and LED......) show different patterns of innovative activities despite similarities in the determinants of innovation; and we observed multiple technological regimes within the lighting industry. Furthermore, we observed changes in these innovative patterns without widespread disruptive effects. While FL and LED...... for policymakers in stimulating new technologies in industries with undesirable Mark II pattern through the influence of all the dimensions of the technological regimes....

  9. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  10. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  11. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  12. Influence of Culture Medium Composition and Light Conditions on the Accumulation of Bioactive Compounds in Shoot Cultures of Scutellaria lateriflora L. (American Skullcap) Grown In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawka, Beata; Kwiecień, Inga; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-12-01

    Methanolic extracts from in vitro grown Scutellaria lateriflora shoots cultured on five Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium variants supplemented with different combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) under different light conditions (monochromatic light, white light and no light) were analysed by HPLC for three groups of metabolites: flavonoids (26 compounds), phenolic acids and their precursors (19+2) and phenylethanoid glycosides (2). The analyses revealed the presence of baicalein, baicalin, wogonin, wogonoside, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and verbascoside. There was clear evidence of the influence of plant growth regulators and light conditions on the accumulation of the analysed groups of secondary metabolites. The amounts of the compounds changed within a wide range-for the total flavonoid content, 30.2-fold (max. 1204.3 mg·100 g -1 dry weight (DW)); for 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 5.5-fold (max. 33.56 mg·100 g -1 DW); and for verbascoside, 1.5-fold (169.15 max. mg·100 g -1 DW). The best medium for the production of most of the compounds was the Murashige and Skoog variant with 1 mg l -1 BAP and 1 mg l -1 NAA. For verbascoside, the best 'productive' medium was the MS variant supplemented with 0.5 mg l -1 BAP and 2 mg l -1 NAA. The accumulation of the metabolites was stimulated to the greatest extent by blue light, under which the extracts were found to contain the highest total amount of flavonoids and the highest amounts of flavonoid glucuronides, baicalin and wogonoside, as well as of verbascoside. Their amounts were, respectively, 1.54-, 1.49-, 2.05- and 1.86-fold higher than under the control white light.

  13. Visible light irradiation-induced conductivity change for CVD-grown graphene on different substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangdi; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xianming; Cao, Xueying; Lei, Xiaohua; Chen, Weimin

    2017-08-01

    This research examines the influence of lighting on the electrical properties of graphene on different substrates, including PET, glass and SiO2, which are the most widely used substrate materials representing the flexible and rigid applications. The graphene sheets were prepared by CVD and subsequently transferred to three substrates. The resistances of graphene under periodic visible light irradiation were measured inside a vacuum chamber. Results show that the resistances for graphene samples on all substrates increased slowly under lighting, while decreased slowly as well after the light was switched off. The change degree and speed were different for graphene on different substrates, which were influenced as well by the illumination time, environment atmosphere and irradiation power. Graphene on flexible PET substrate is more stable than that on other substrates.

  14. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Field study of visual and biological light conditions of independently-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Westerlaken, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A field study was carried out to learn more about the influence of light on the lives of elderly people . The results should lead to the development and design of a light concept for elderly people that will improve their everyday health and well-being. Methods: Ninetyone independently-living

  16. Effects of evening light conditions on salivary melatonin of Japanese junior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Tetsuo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, when adult subjects were exposed to a level of 400 lux light for more than 30 min or a level of 300 lux light for more than 2 hours, salivary melatonin concentration during the night dropped lower than when the subjects were exposed to dim illumination. It was suggested that such light exposure in adolescents or children during the first half of subjective night in normal life might decrease the melatonin level and prevent the falling into sleep. However, there has been no actual study on the effects of light exposure in adolescents. Methods Effects of exposure to the bright light (2000 lux from fluorescent light bulbs during a period of three hours from 19:30 to 22:30 in one evening were examined on evening salivary melatonin concentrations from 19:45 to 23:40. The control group was exposed to dim light (60 lux during these three hours. Both the dim light control group [DLCG] and the bright light experimental group [BLEG] consisted of two female and three male adolescent participants aged 14–15 y. Results The salivary melatonin level increased rapidly from 3.00 pg/ml at 21:45 to 9.18 pg/ml at 23:40 in DLCG, whereas it remained at less than 1.3 pg/ml for the three hours in BLEG. Melatonin concentration by BLEG at 22:30 of the experimental day was lower than that at the same time on the day before the experimental day, whereas it was significantly higher in the experimental day than on the day before the experimental day in DLCG. Conclusions Bright lights of 2000 lux and even moderate lights of 200–300 lux from fluorescent light bulbs can inhibit nocturnal melatonin concentration in adolescents. Ancient Japanese lighting from a traditional Japanese hearth, oil lamp or candle (20–30 lux could be healthier for children and adolescents because rapid and clear increase in melatonin concentration in blood seems to occur at night under such dim light, thus facilitating a smooth falling into night sleep.

  17. Atmosphere self-cleaning under humidity conditions and influence of the snowflakes and artificial light interaction for water dissociation simulated by the means of COMSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocean, A.; Cocean, I.; Cazacu, M. M.; Bulai, G.; Iacomi, F.; Gurlui, S.

    2018-06-01

    The self-cleaning of the atmosphere under humidity conditions is observed due to the change in emission intensity when chemical traces are investigated with DARLIOES - the advanced LIDAR based on space- and time-resolved RAMAN and breakdown spectroscopy in conditions of consistent humidity of atmosphere. The determination was performed during the night, in the wintertime under conditions of high humidity and snowfall, in urban area of Iasi. The change in chemical composition of the atmosphere detected was assumed to different chemical reactions involving presence of the water. Water dissociation that was registered during spectral measurements is explained by a simulation of the interaction between artificial light and snowflakes - virtually designed in a spherical geometry - in a wet air environment, using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The aim of the study is to explain the decrease or elimination of some of the toxic trace chemical compounds in the process of self-cleaning in other conditions than the sun light interaction for further finding application for air cleaning under artificial conditions.

  18. Ecosystem changes and life conditions in Colombia: Empiric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, German

    2004-01-01

    We study the relationship among biophysical variables, focusing on land cover and, socioeconomic, demographic and violence variables. The method to do so is identifying significant correlations that show multiple interactions between ecosystems and society. Using these correlations several related hypotheses are tested. What is seen is that life conditions seem more favored in intermediate conditions of transformation of ecosystems; this is less due to poverty than to better economic conditions. Violence relates itself more whit the first than with the latter although evidence shows that little transformed places are violent. What is proposed here is that as the ecosystems are transformed the resources get scarce and people get poorer; with this the pressure over these few resources, the environmental damage and the migrations increases, sometimes stimulated by violence too. In sum, here we show the importance of incorporation, in a deeper way, of the ecological and environmental variables to the study and following of the general conditions of the nation

  19. Phoenix light - Heating and cooling with phase-change materials; Phoenix light: Heizen und Kuehlen mit PCM - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haechler, E. [Suiselectra Ingenieurunternehmung AG, Basel (Switzerland); Schneider, B. [Hochschule Esslingen, University of Applied Sciences, Esslingen (Germany)

    2002-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the use of phase-change materials (PCM) in buildings in order to help provide cooling in summer and heating in winter. General information on PCM and its use in the automotive industry, clothing, heating systems and office materials as well as in the electronics industry is provided. The physical and chemical basics are discussed and examples of PCM use in practice are provided. Also, work done in research institutes is mentioned. PCM systems from various manufacturers are noted. The 'phoenix light' system concept is discussed. The 'comfort cooler' concept is introduced and laboratory measurements made at the University of Applied Sciences in Esslingen, Germany, are discussed. Further, measurements made at an installation in an existing building are presented and discussed. Knowledge gained and the optimisation of the system are discussed. Finally, proposals for further work to be done are noted.

  20. Uncertainties in extreme precipitation under climate change conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia

    of adaptation strategies, but these changes are subject to uncertainties. The focus of this PhD thesis is the quantification of uncertainties in changes in extreme precipitation. It addresses two of the main sources of uncertainty in climate change impact studies: regional climate models (RCMs) and statistical...... downscaling methods (SDMs). RCMs provide information on climate change at the regional scale. SDMs are used to bias-correct and downscale the outputs of the RCMs to the local scale of interest in adaptation strategies. In the first part of the study, a multi-model ensemble of RCMs from the European ENSEMBLES...... project was used to quantify the uncertainty in RCM projections over Denmark. Three aspects of the RCMs relevant for the uncertainty quantification were first identified and investigated. These are: the interdependency of the RCMs; the performance in current climate; and the change in the performance...

  1. The effect of lighting conditions and use of headlights on drivers' perception and appraisal of approaching vehicles at junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Mun; Sheppard, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    Use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL) is mandatory in many countries for motorcycles, and in some for cars. However, in developing countries, DRLs may be optional or compliance low. The effect of car or motorcycle headlights and lighting conditions on Malaysian drivers' ability to perceive and judge the safety of pulling out was investigated. Stimuli were photographs depicting either daytime or nighttime taken at a T-junction with approaching vehicles with headlights on or off. Headlights improved drivers' ability to perceive cars and motorcycles in the nighttime photographs but not the daytime photographs, although this could be due to the bright weather in the photographs. Drivers judged it less safe to pull out when approaching motorcycles had headlights on than off, regardless of the lighting conditions, supporting the utility of DRL for motorcycles. Headlights did not affect judgements for cars, questioning the utility of DRL for cars. Practitioner Summary: The effect of headlights and lighting conditions on drivers' ability to perceive and make judgements about the safety of pulling out was investigated. Daytime Running Lights influenced drivers' decision-making about the safety of pulling out in front of motorcycles, illustrating the importance of having automatic headlights equipped.

  2. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant "Jingling Huangfeng" turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration.

  3. Changing hydrological conditions in the Po basin under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Erika; Verdecchia, Marco; Giorgi, Filippo; Colaiuda, Valentina; Tomassetti, Barbara; Lombardi, Annalina

    2014-09-15

    The Po River is a crucial resource for the Italian economy, since 40% of the gross domestic product comes from this area. It is thus crucial to quantify the impact of climate change on this water resource in order to plan for future water use. In this paper a mini ensemble of 8 hydrological simulations is completed from 1960 to 2050 under the A1B emission scenario, by using the output of two regional climate models as input (REMO and RegCM) at two different resolutions (25 km-10 km and 25 km-3 km). The river discharge at the outlet point of the basin shows a change in the spring peak of the annual cycle, with a one month shift from May to April. This shift is entirely due to the change in snowmelt timing which drives most of the discharge during this period. Two other important changes are an increase of discharge in the wintertime and a decrease in the fall from September to November. The uncertainty associated with the winter change is larger compared to that in the fall. The spring shift and the fall decrease of discharge imply an extension of the hydrological dry season and thus an increase in water stress over the basin. The spatial distributions of the discharge changes are in agreement with what is observed at the outlet point and the uncertainty associated with these changes is proportional to the amplitude of the signal. The analysis of the changes in the anomaly distribution of discharge shows that both the increases and decreases in seasonal discharge are tied to the changes in the tails of the distribution, i.e. to the increase or decrease of extreme events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the Impacts of Atmospheric Conditions under Climate Change on Air Quality Profile over Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei Tong, Cheuk

    2017-04-01

    Small particulates can cause long term impairment to human health as they can penetrate deep and deposit on the wall of the respiratory system. Under the projected climate change as reported by literature, atmospheric stability, which has strong effects on vertical mixing of air pollutants and thus air quality Hong Kong, is also varying from near to far future. In addition to domestic emission, Hong Kong receives also significant concentration of cross-boundary particulates that their natures and movements are correlated with atmospheric condition. This study aims to study the relation of atmospheric conditions with air quality over Hong Kong. Past meteorological data is based on Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. Radiosonde data provided from HKO are also adopted in testing and validating the data. Future meteorological data is simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), which dynamically downscaled the past and future climate under the A1B scenario simulated by ECHAM5/MPIOM. Air quality data is collected on one hand from the ground station data provided by Environment Protection Department, with selected stations revealing local emission and trans-boundary emission respectively. On the other hand, an Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), which operates using the radar principle to detect Rayleigh and Mie scattering from atmospheric gas and aerosols, has also been adopted to measure vertical aerosol profile, which has been observed tightly related to the high level meteorology. Data from scattered signals are collected, averaged or some episode selected for characteristic comparison with the atmospheric stability indices and other meteorological factors. The relation between atmospheric conditions and air quality is observed by statistical analysis, and statistical models are built based on the stability indices to project the changes in sulphur dioxide, ozone and particulate

  5. Cultivation period, lighting conditions and BAP concentrations on in vitro induction shoots of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of in vitro micropropagation allows the production of large amounts of plants. However, some aspects of the orchid’s in vitro micropropagation are still poorly studied. This study analyzed the lighting conditions, time of cultivation and BAP concentrations on in vitro budburst of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of biometric parameters of plants grown during 90 and 180 days on ½ MS medium under different lighting conditions (18.90 mol m-2 s-1, 14.85 mol m-2 s-1, 9.45 mol m-2 s-1 and concentrations of BAP (0; 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5 e 3 mg L-1. The best results of budburst were obtained during 180 days, under white fluorescent light (18.90 mol m-2 s-1 and using 1.5±0.1 mg L-1 of BAP.

  6. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak ( Quercus sessiflora and Quercus robur ) chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The effects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory) and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins) and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  7. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the eff ect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak (Quercus sessifl ora and Quercus robur chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The eff ects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  8. Effects of evening light conditions on salivary melatonin of Japanese junior high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Tetsuo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In a previous study, when adult subjects were exposed to a level of 400 lux light for more than 30 min or a level of 300 lux light for more than 2 hours, salivary melatonin concentration during the night dropped lower than when the subjects were exposed to dim illumination. It was suggested that such light exposure in adolescents or children during the first half of subjective night in normal life might decrease the melatonin level and prevent the falling into sleep. Howev...

  9. Hydrogen radiolytic production in light and heavy water mixtures under conditions similar to LOCA (loss of coolant accidents)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodenas, L.; Ali, S.P.; Liberman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    H 2 , HD and D 2 radiolytic yield in heavy and light water mixtures has been determined to supply the necessary data which will allow to make a realistic estimation of the solution of such gas under LOCA conditions as a function of time. (Author)

  10. THE APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO AUTOMATE FUZZY SYNTHESIS OF TRAFFIC LIGHT UAV IN ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lysenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the applicability of known application software systems for automated synthesis of fuzzy control traffic light UAV during its flight in adverse weather conditions. The solution is based on a previously formulated and put into consideration the principle of permissible limited a priori estimation of the uncertainty of aerodynamic characteristics of UAVs.

  11. Transcriptome comparisons shed light on the pre-condition and potential barrier for C4 photosynthesis evolution in eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yimin; Lyu, Ming-Ju Amy; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-05-01

    C4 photosynthesis evolved independently from C3 photosynthesis in more than 60 lineages. Most of the C4 lineages are clustered together in the order Poales and the order Caryophyllales while many other angiosperm orders do not have C4 species, suggesting the existence of biological pre-conditions in the ancestral C3 species that facilitate the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in these lineages. To explore pre-adaptations for C4 photosynthesis evolution, we classified C4 lineages into the C4-poor and the C4-rich groups based on the percentage of C4 species in different genera and conducted a comprehensive comparison on the transcriptomic changes between the non-C4 species from the C4-poor and the C4-rich groups. Results show that species in the C4-rich group showed higher expression of genes related to oxidoreductase activity, light reaction components, terpene synthesis, secondary cell synthesis, C4 cycle related genes and genes related to nucleotide metabolism and senescence. In contrast, C4-poor group showed up-regulation of a PEP/Pi translocator, genes related to signaling pathway, stress response, defense response and plant hormone metabolism (ethylene and brassinosteroid). The implications of these transcriptomic differences between the C4-rich and C4-poor groups to C4 evolution are discussed.

  12. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    the first minutes of the cycle, before the light-off of the Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Less ammonia has been emitted with ethanol fuel, in particular in low ambient condition (E75 versus E5). Ammonia is a harmful compound for human health and vegetation, and is a precursor of secondary aerosol. Even if agricultural activities are the main source of anthropogenic ammonia, the contribution from the transport sector increases significantly during the cold season. Consequently, using high concentrated ethanol as fuel may have a positive impact on ammonia emission in urban area. However, ethanol fuel had a negative impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The latter together with methane was notably emitted in low ambient temperature, in comparison with gasoline fuel (E5). Moreover, the OFP at -7°C was influenced by the amount of ethanol in gasoline, mainly because of the increase of ozone precursors linked to ethanol (ethylene, acetylene, and acetaldehyde). Even if ozone concentration levels are generally lower during the cold seasons these results show that the issue should be considered globally before promoting the use of high concentrated ethanol fuel in a large scale.

  13. The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents reprint of original work published in 1957 in "Journal of Consulting Psychology" in which Carl Rogers takes one small segment of theory of psychotherapy, of personality, and of interpersonal relationships; spells it out more completely; and explores its meaning and usefulness. Rogers examines psychological conditions necessary and…

  14. Concerted changes in gene expression and cell physiology of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 during transitions between nitrogen and light-limited growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aquirre von Wobeser, E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Bok, J.M.; Krasikov, V.; Huisman, J.; Matthijs, H.C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological adaptation and genome-wide expression profiles of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in response to gradual transitions between nitrogen-limited and light-limited growth conditions were measured in continuous cultures. Transitions induced changes in pigment

  15. Unlocking Lock-in Conditions for Social Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria J.

    stream of innovation in sharing space for bicycling of the four cities. The case of Copenhagen demonstrates effectively the unlocking force toward social change that can be in great part linked to the forceful narratives and claims presented by actors or generated in the actors’ interplay. It also...... to deepen the analysis taking departure from this empirical work contributing to the discussion of how these practices of social innovation to share space succeed (or failed) in introducing new societal values and norms and creating ‘new imaginaries’ for progressive social and environmental change; also how...... to analyze to what extent these social innovative practices could be seen as extending (or not) ‘coping mechanisms’ for socio-economic exclusion in times of austerity, demographic changes and environmental crisis of the late capitalistic societies....

  16. Investigating the combined effects of heat and lighting on students reaction time in laboratory condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Mohebian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In many workplaces there is exposure to heat and light simultaneously. This study investigated the combined effect of heat and lighting on some cognitive performance, i.e. reaction time. Methodology: the present semi-experimental study was conducted 2015 on 33 healthy students (16 girls and 17 boys with a mean age of 22.1 in the thermal stress chamber. The reaction time parameter by the reaction time measurement device, after exposure to different heat surfaces (dry temperatures 22 °C and 37 °C and lighting surfaces (200, 500 and 1500 lux. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test in SPSS-20. Results: The results showed that the average simple, diagnostic, two-color selective, two-sound selective reaction times and reaction time error increased after combined exposure to heat and lighting and showed a significant difference (P<0.05. The maximum score of reaction time belong to temperature of 37 c° and lighting of 1500 lux, the minimum score of reaction time belong to temperature of 22 °c and lighting of 1500 lux.

  17. Visible light induced changes in the immune response through an eye-brain mechanism (photoneuroimmunology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J E

    1995-07-01

    The immune system is susceptible to a variety of stresses. Recent work in neuroimmunology has begun to define how mood alteration, stress, the seasons, and daily rhythms can have a profound effect on immune response through hormonal modifications. Central to these factors may be light through an eye-brain hormonal modulation. In adult primates, only visible light (400-700 nm) is received by the retina. This photic energy is then transduced and delivered to the visual cortex and by an alternative pathway to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is a part of the hypothalamic region in the brain believed to direct circadian rhythm. Visible light exposure also modulates the pituitary and pineal gland which leads to neuroendocrine changes. Melatonin, norepinephrine and acetylcholine decrease with light activation, while cortisol, serotonin, gaba and dopamine levels increase. The synthesis of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in rat SCN has been shown to be modified by light. These induced neuroendocrine changes can lead to alterations in mood and circadian rhythm. All of these neuroendocrine changes can lead to immune modulation. An alternative pathway for immune modulation by light is through the skin. Visible light (400-700 nm) can penetrate epidermal and dermal layers of the skin and may directly interact with circulating lymphocytes to modulate immune function. However, even in the presence of phototoxic agents such as eosin and rose bengal, visible light did not produce suppression of contact hypersensitivity with suppresser cells. In contrast to visible light, in vivo exposure to UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation can only alter normal human immune function by a skin mediated response. Each UV subgroup (B, A) induces an immunosuppressive response but by differing mechanisms involving the regulation of differing interleukins and growth factors. Some effects observed in humans are

  18. Changes in olive oil volatile organic compounds induced by water status and light environment in canopies of Olea europaea L. trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caruso, Giovanni; Giunti, Giulia; Cuzzola, Angela; Saba, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Andrea; Gucci, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Light and water are major factors in fruit development and quality. In this study, the effect of water and light in Olea europaea trees on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil was studied over 2 years. Mature fruits were harvested from three zones of the canopy with different light exposure (64%, 42% and 30% of incident light) of trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. VOCs were determined by SPME GC-MS and analysed by principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to partition treatment effects. Fruit fresh weight and mesocarp oil content decreased in zones where intercepted light was less. Low light levels significantly slowed down fruit maturation, whereas conditions of water deficit accelerated the maturation process. The presence of cyclosativene and α-muurulene was associated with water deficit, nonanal, valencene with full irrigation; α-muurulene, (E)-2-hexanal were related to low light conditions, while trans-β-ocimene, α-copaene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, hexanal and nonanal to well exposed zones. The year strongly affected the VOC profile of olive oil. This is the first report on qualitative changes in VOCs induced by light environment and/or water status. This information is valuable to better understand the role of environmental factors on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Color change mechanism of niobium oxide thin film with incidental light angle and applied voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Isao [Course of Information Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University (Japan); Aoki, Hayata [Course of Electro Photo Optics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Ebisawa, Mizue [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute (Japan); Kuroda, Akihiro [Department of Optical and Imaging Science & Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Kuroda Consulting Incorporated (Japan); Kuroda, Koichi [Kuroda Consulting Incorporated (Japan); Maeda, Shuichi [Course of Information Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University (Japan); Course of Electro Photo Optics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan); Department of Optical and Imaging Science & Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokai University (Japan)

    2016-03-31

    Niobium oxide thin layers made by the anodization process showed coloration owing to thin film interference. The reflection spectra depended on both the applied voltage and incident light angle. Large color differences were observed at incident light angles between 5° and 70°, when the applied voltage was over 60 V. In this study, we explored the cause of these results using ellipsometry and goniophotometry to understand the transition of optical constants and the reflection spectra with applied voltage. Finally, we concluded that the coloration of the reflection spectra, which included only a first-order interference peak, exhibits a smaller change because the first order interference peak has a wider half value width than higher order interference peaks. - Highlights: • We investigated color change of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxide thin layers with incidental light angle. • The reflection spectra shift to lower wavelength region with increasing incident light angle. • The reflection spectra shift to higher wavelength region with increasing applied voltage. • First-order interference has wider half value width, and exhibits small color change.

  20. Monitoring temporal gravity changes in different geological conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    20 (124) (2002), s. 125-131 ISSN 1211-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012807; GA ČR GA205/00/1470 Grant - others:Copernicus(XE) Project ASPELEA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : gravity changes * geodynamics * Western Bohemia * Corinth rift * Aswan Lake Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  1. Seasonal variation of leaf ecophysiological traits of Iris variegata observed in two consecutive years in natural habitats with contrasting light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Uroš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount and pattern of individual phenotypic responses to seasonal changes in environmental conditions were determined in clones of Iris variegata growing in differing light habitats. For the purpose of the study, 97 clonal plants of the rhizomatous herb I. variegata that experienced different light conditions in their two native habitats were selected: one along the top and slope of sand dunes and one in woodland understories. Two fully expanded leaves that had developed during spring, summer and fall in two consecutive years were sampled from each of these clones. Six leaf traits affecting the photosynthetic rate of a plant − morphological (specific leaf area, anatomical (stomatal density and physiological (total chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio, carotenoid concentration, chlorophyll a/carotenoid ratio exhibited significant plastic responses in the two different light habitats. To test whether these traits differ between exposed and shaded habitats as well as during different vegetation periods, we used the repeated model analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results of the repeated ANOVA revealed statistically significant effects of year, habitat and period of vegetation season. Patterns of changes during growing seasons were year-specific for almost all analyzed traits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025: Evolution in heterogeneous environments: mechanisms of adaptation, biomonitoring and conservation of biodiversity

  2. A control room lighting study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, V.V.; Iwasa-Madge, K.M.; Howard, B.; Willson, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Operators at a Heavy Water Plant in Ontario, Canada complained about lighting-related difficulties in the control room. The Human Factors Engineering Unit was requested to perform a lighting survey and make recommendations to improve the control centre lighting conditions. This paper describes the control room, the operator tasks, the procedures used for the lighting survey, the findings, and the changes recommended

  3. Hot house global climate change and the human condition

    CERN Document Server

    Strom, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Global warming is addressed by almost all sciences including many aspects of geosciences, atmospheric, the biological sciences, and even astronomy. It has recently become the concern of other diverse disciplines such as economics, agriculture, demographics and population statistics, medicine, engineering, and political science. This book addresses these complex interactions, integrates them, and derives meaningful conclusions and possible solutions. The text provides an easy-to-read explanation of past and present global climate change, causes and possible solutions to the problem, including t

  4. Expected changes in agroclimatic conditions in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Eitzinger, J.; Semerádová, D.; Hlavinka, P.; Balek, J.; Dubrovský, Martin; Kubu, G.; Štěpánek, P.; Thaler, S.; Možný, M.; Žalud, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, 1-2 (2011), s. 261-289 ISSN 0165-0009 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : CLIMATE - CHANGE * SOIL WORKABILITY * GROWING-SEASON * VARIABILITY * MODEL * AGRICULTURE * MOISTURE * IMPACTS * DROUGHT * UNCERTAINTIES Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.385, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y3j081l87j258848/fulltext.pdf

  5. Characteristics of light and heat conditions of a chamber with prism light guides and electrodeless discharge lamps and its effect on growth of tomato and cucumber seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashide, T.; Shimaji, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Shimazu, T.; Takaichi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Light and heat conditions were measured in a growth chamber with prism light guides and electrolodeless discharge lamps (LP chamber) , a growth chamber with metal halide lamps (MH chamber) and a glasshouse. In the LP chamber, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was larger and heat radiation was smaller than in the others. Growth of tomato seedlings increased in high PPF condition. However, the growth with high PPF in the MH chamber was restricted. Leaf temperature with high PPF in the MH chamber was higher than that in the LP chamber. We thought that excessive heat had restricted the growth with high PPF in the MH chamber. There were no differences in nutrient or water absorption, except with conditions of the largest heat radiation and the lowest PPF. Cucumber seedlings were grown with high PPF in the LP chamber. The growth at high temperatures was smaller than that at the optimum temperature. However the leaf number at high temperatures was higher than that at the optimum temperature

  6. Global Changes in Drought Conditions Under Different Levels of Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Alfieri, L.; Wyser, K.; Mentaschi, L.; Betts, R. A.; Carrao, H.; Spinoni, J.; Vogt, J.; Feyen, L.

    2018-04-01

    Higher evaporative demands and more frequent and persistent dry spells associated with rising temperatures suggest that drought conditions could worsen in many regions of the world. In this study, we assess how drought conditions may develop across the globe for 1.5, 2, and 3°C warming compared to preindustrial temperatures. Results show that two thirds of global population will experience a progressive increase in drought conditions with warming. For drying areas, drought durations are projected to rise at rapidly increasing rates with warming, averaged globally from 2.0 month/°C below 1.5°C to 4.2 month/°C when approaching 3°C. Drought magnitudes could double for 30% of global landmass under stringent mitigation. If contemporary warming rates continue, water supply-demand deficits could become fivefold in size for most of Africa, Australia, southern Europe, southern and central states of the United States, Central America, the Caribbean, north-west China, and parts of Southern America. In approximately 20% of the global land surface, drought magnitude will halve with warming of 1.5°C and higher levels, mainly most land areas north of latitude 55°N, but also parts of South America and Eastern and South-eastern Asia. A progressive and significant increase in frequency of droughts is projected with warming in the Mediterranean basin, most of Africa, West and Southern Asia, Central America, and Oceania, where droughts are projected to happen 5 to 10 times more frequent even under ambitious mitigation targets and current 100-year events could occur every two to five years under 3°C of warming.

  7. Effect of morning bright light on body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility measured during 24 hour of constant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, J; Aguirre, A; Touitou, Y; Clodoré, M; Benoit, O

    1993-06-11

    Using 24 h constant conditions, time course of body temperature, plasma cortisol and wrist motility was measured in response to a 3 day morning 2 h bright light pulse. This protocol demonstrated that a 2000 lux illumination was sufficient to elicit a shift of about 2 h of temperature minimum and cortisol peak. In reference session, actimetric recordings showed a circadian time course, closely in relation with core temperature. Bright light pulse resulted in a decrease of amplitude and a disappearance of circadian pattern of actimetry.

  8. Using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived conditional medium to attenuate the light-induced photodamaged retina of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ming Chang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The conditional medium of iPSCs contains plenty of cytoprotective, immune-modulative and rescue chemicals, contributing to the maintenance of neuronal function and retinal layers in light-damaged retina compared with apoptotic iPSC-CM and PBS. The antiapoptotic effect of iPSC-CM also shows promise in restoring damaged neurons. This result demonstrates that iPSC-CM may serve as an alternative to cell therapy alone to treat retinal light damage and maintain functional and structural integrity of the retina.

  9. Temperature-mediated changes in seed dormancy and light requirement for Penstemon palmeri (Scrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S.G.; Meyer, S.E. (Dept of Agriculture, Provo, UT (United States))

    1992-03-01

    Penstemon palmeri is a short-lived perennial herb colonizing disturbed sites in semiarid habitats in the western US. In this study seed was harvested from six native and four seeded populations during two consecutive years. In laboratory germination trials at constant 15C, considerable between-lot variation in primary dormancy and light requirement was observed. Four weeks of moist chilling (1C) induced secondary dormancy at 15C. Cold-induced secondary dormancy was reversed by one week of dark incubation at 30C. This warm incubation treatment also reduced the light requirement of unchilled, after-ripened seed. Fluctuations in dormancy and light requirement of buried seeds have been linked to seasonal changes in soil temperature. Penstemon palmeri germination responses to temperature appear to be similar to those of facultative winter annuals.

  10. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular and Supramolecular Changes in Polybutylene Succinate (PBS and Polybutylene Succinate Adipate (PBSA Copolymer during Degradation in Various Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Puchalski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the various degradation conditions, on the molecular and supramolecular structure of polybutylene succinate (PBS and polybutylene succinate adipate (PBSA copolymer during degradation is described. The experiment was carried out by the use of injection molded samples and normalized conditions of biodegradation in soil, composting and artificial weathering. Materials were studied by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC coupled with multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS detection and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD. Additionally, the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were determined. The performed experiments clearly show difference impacts of the selected degradation conditions on the macroscopic, supramolecular and molecular parameters of the studied aliphatic polyesters. The structural changes in PBS and PBSA explain the observed changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained injection molded samples.

  12. Frame dependence of spin-one angular conditions in light front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, Bernard L. G.; Ji Chuengryong

    2002-01-01

    We elaborate the frame dependence of the angular conditions for spin-1 form factors. An extra angular condition is found in addition to the usual angular condition relating the four helicity amplitudes. Investigating the frame dependence of angular conditions, we find that the extra angular condition is in general as complicated as the usual one, although it becomes very simple in the q + =0 frame involving only two helicity amplitudes. It is confirmed that the angular conditions are identical in frames that are connected by kinematical transformations. The high-Q 2 behavior of the physical form factors and the limiting behavior in special reference frames are also discussed

  13. Agrarian land use decision making in the light of global change and climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available in Limpopo Province to help land beneficiaries to achieve integrated and coordinated agrarian land use decision making. The second project is ongoing and it seeks to build local resilience to climate change by providing people at local government...

  14. Examination of the interaction of different lighting conditions and chronic mild stress in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A; Gal, N; Betlehem, J; Fuller, N; Acs, P; Kovacs, G L; Fusz, K; Jozsa, R; Olah, A

    2015-09-01

    We examined the effects of different shift work schedules and chronic mild stress (CMS) on mood using animal model. The most common international shift work schedules in nursing were applied by three groups of Wistar-rats and a control group with normal light-dark cycle. One subgroup from each group was subjected to CMS. Levels of anxiety and emotional life were evaluated in light-dark box. Differences between the groups according to independent and dependent variables were examined with one- and two-way analysis of variance, with a significance level defined at p animals.

  15. Regional feedbacks under changing climate and land-use conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle Bayer, L.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Strengers, B. J.; van Minnen, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    Ecosystem responses to a changing climate and human-induced climate forcings (e.g. deforestation) might amplify (positive feedback) or dampen (negative feedback) the initial climate response. Feedbacks may include the biogeochemical (e.g. carbon cycle) and biogeophysical feedbacks (e.g. albedo and hydrological cycle). Here, we first review the most important feedbacks and put them into the context of a conceptual framework, including the major processes and interactions between terrestrial ecosystems and climate. We explore potential regional feedbacks in four hot spots with pronounced potential changes in land-use/management and local climate: sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Europe, the Amazon Basin and South and Southeast Asia. For each region, the relevant human-induced climate forcings and feedbacks were identified based on published literature. When evapotranspiration is limited by a soil water deficit, heat waves in Europe are amplified (positive soil moisture-temperature feedback). Drought events in the Amazon lead to further rainfall reduction when water recycling processes are affected (positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback). In SSA, the adoption of irrigation in the commonly rainfed systems can modulate the negative soil moisture-temperature feedback. In contrast, future water shortage in South and Southeast Asia can turn the negative soil moisture-temperature feedback into a positive one. Further research including advanced modeling strategies is needed to isolate the dominant processes affecting the strength and sign of the feedbacks. In addition, the socio-economic dimension needs to be considered in the ecosystems-climate system to include the essential role of human decisions on land-use and land-cover change (LULCC). In this context, enhanced integration between Earth System (ES) and Integrated Assessment (IA) modeling communities is strongly recommended.

  16. Changes in external conditions and activity in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Tax reductions in the petroleum industry are conductive to increased activity and makes the respective provinces more attractive for investments compared with other regions. Changes in taxation in Great Britain and the Gulf of Mexico, which has been analyzed by ECON, show that reducing taxes on gross income has rendered marginal investments more profitable and that reducing the tax on profits may have advanced investments and cut the costs. The examples also show that it is possible to protect the public tax revenue under taxation rearrangements by essentially limiting the tax reductions to new activities

  17. Changed market conditions for biogas production; Foeraendrade marknadsvillkor foer biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colnerud Granstroem, Sigrid; Gaaverud, Henrik; Glimhall, Alexandra

    2010-10-15

    The Swedish gas market consists mainly of the natural gas network that extends through the southwestern Sweden, and the local biogas markets. Biogas share of the Swedish gas market is growing steadily. The fact that the Swedish gas net is limited and fragmented forms an obstacle for biogas use to expand. That the gas market as a whole, natural gas included, must develop and expand is therefore a prerequisite for the large potential for Swedish Biogas to be realized. This in contrast with the ultimate objective to completely replace natural gas in the Swedish gas market. When policy changes are made in order to support biogas it is crucial for long-term competitiveness of biogas that these changes should not impact the natural gas market and hinder its development. Such a scenario would ultimately mean that also biogas development opportunities deteriorate. Biogas operations encounter three main problems that prevent or impede its expansion in the gas market. First, the potential for profitability in biogas production must be enhanced. Second, natural gas and biogas markets should be more integrated with each other. Thirdly, the biogas must be distributed in a cost-effective manner. The present investigation aims to supplement the Natural Gas Act with special provisions which takes into account the input and transmission of biogas. In addition to the production of biogas, it is now the producer's responsibility to clean the gas from water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide and to augment the calorific value of the gas to the standard of Danish natural gas quality by propane addition and to ensure that the physical connection to network is available. There are thus a number of options available for shifting demarcation between biogas production and network operations. Short-term competitiveness of biogas would be strengthened most if purification and spiking the gas with propane and the connection to the network was imposed on network owners. In the

  18. Changes in Service and Associated Ridership Impacts near a New Light Rail Transit Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Angeles (LA, for many years a city with limited rail transit, is substantially expanding its public transit system. This paradigm change in transportation policy and investment creates new requirements for monitoring. One area needing evaluation is whether new, high quality transit options, such as light rail, near existing transit services increase sustainable transportation mode shares and reduce car travel. Few studies have explored light rail’s role as a catalyst to increase overall transit use and achieve sustainability goals within an auto-oriented city like LA. Metro’s data show that trips taken on its bus and rail system dropped overall by 10.5% between 2009 and 2016, but its rail ridership grew 21% during the same period due to the debut of the Gold Line and Expo Line extensions. We analyze changes to bus service and associated ridership impacts that resulted from the opening of these two LRT lines in LA. The immediate effect of the city’s bus service changes along the Gold Line light rail extension appear to be associated with a net “bus plus rail” ridership decline in that corridor. In contrast, the Expo Line corridor experienced an initial increase in ridership during the two years immediately after its opening, possibly because the bus service was not reduced by the same magnitude as along the Gold Line extension. Our findings indicate that changes in bus service made to coincide with the introduction of new light rail transit (LRT can negatively affect the overall transit ridership in the corridor. Planners and policy makers should closely monitor changes in bus service and ridership associated with new rail transit to ensure investments results in an overall net increase in more sustainable travel.

  19. Conditional generation of arbitrary multimode entangled states of light with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, J.; Massar, S.; Cerf, N. J.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a universal scheme for the probabilistic generation of an arbitrary multimode entangled state of light with finite expansion in Fock basis. The suggested setup involves passive linear optics, single-photon sources, strong coherent laser beams, and photodetectors with single-photon resolution. The efficiency of this setup may be greatly enhanced if, in addition, a quantum memory is available

  20. Peculiarities of electrooptical characteristics of gallium phosphide light-emitting diodes in high injection level conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Hontaruk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroluminescence of green N-doped gallium phosphide light-emitting diodes was studied. The negative differential resistance region in the current-voltage characteristics was found at low temperature (Т ≤ 90 К. Possible reason of this phenomenon is the redistribution of recombinational flows between annihilation channels on isolated nitrogen atoms and annihilation channel on the NN1 pairs.

  1. Photosynthesis, light use efficiency, and yield of reduced-chlorophyll soybean mutants in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing chlorophyll (chl) content may improve the conversion efficiency of absorbed radiation into biomass (ec) and therefore yield in dense monoculture crops by improving light penetration and distribution within the canopy. Modeling suggests that reducing chl content may also reduce leaf temperat...

  2. Retinal properties of the mesopelagic fish Diaphus sp.: vision under dim light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rui Lima Paitio

    2014-06-01

    In this study, retinal wholemounting technique was applied to study characteristics and sensitivity of the myctophid Diaphus sp. retinae. This technique produces topographic maps of photoreceptor and retinal ganglionar cells, showing how these fishes are adapted to the specific light regime of mesopelagic zone.

  3. Using Modified Remote Sensing Imagery to Interpret Changes in Cultivated Land under Saline-Alkali Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rapidly changing saline-alkali land under cultivation in the coastal areas of China is important not only for mitigating the negative impacts of such land on the environment, but also for ensuring long-term sustainability of agriculture. In this light, setting up rapid monitoring systems to assist decision-making in developing sustainable management plans is therefore an absolute necessity. In this study, we developed a new interpretation system where symbols are used to grade and classify saline-alkali lands in space and time, based on the characteristics of plant cover and features of remote sensing images. The system was used in combination with the maximum likelihood supervised classification to analyze the changes in cultivated lands under saline-alkali conditions in Huanghua City. The analysis revealed changes in the area and spatial distribution of cultivated under saline-alkali conditions in the region. The total area of saline-alkali land was 139,588.8 ha in 1992 and 134,477.5 ha in 2011. Compared with 1992, severely and moderately saline-alkali land areas decreased in 2011. However, non/slightly saline land areas increased over that in 1992. The results showed that the salinization rate of arable lands in Huanghua City decreased from 1992 to 2011. The moderately saline-alkali land southeast of the city transformed into non/slightly saline-alkaline. Then, severely saline-alkali land far from the coastal zone west of the city became moderately saline-alkaline. Spatial changes in cultivated saline-alkali lands in Huanghua City were such that the centers of gravity (CG of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in cultivated lands in the saline-alkali ecosystem included climate, hydrology and human activity. Thus, studies are required to further explore these factors in

  4. Projected climatic changes on drought conditions over Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valdecasas Ojeda, Matilde; Quishpe-Vásquez, César; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    In a context of global warming, the evapotranspiration processes will have a strong influence on drought severity. For this reason, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was computed at different timescales in order to explore the projected drought changes for the main watersheds in Spain. For that, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been used in order to obtain current (1980-2010) and future (2021-2050 and 2071-2100) climate output fields. WRF model was used over a domain that spans the Iberian Peninsula with a spatial resolution of 0.088°, and nested in the coarser 0.44° EURO-CORDEX domain, and driving by the global bias-corrected climate model output data from version 1 of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM1), using two different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Besides, to examine the behavior of this drought index, a comparison with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which does not consider the evapotranspiration effects, was also performed. Additionally the relationship between the SPEI index and the soil moisture has also been analyzed. The results of this study suggest an increase in the severity and duration of drought, being larger when the SPEI index is used to define drought events. This fact confirms the relevance of taking into account the evapotranspiration processes to detect future drought events. The results also show a noticeable relationship between the SPEI and the simulated soil moisture content, which is more significant at higher timescales. Keywords: Drought, SPEI, SPI, Climatic change, Projections, WRF. Acknowledgements: This work has been financed by the projects P11-RNM-7941 (Junta de Andalucía-Spain) and CGL2013-48539-R (MINECO-Spain, FEDER).

  5. Changing Delay Discounting in the Light of the Competing Neurobehavioral Decision Systems Theory: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Mueller, E. Terry; Bickel, Warren K.

    2013-01-01

    Excessively devaluing delayed reinforcers co-occurs with a wide variety of clinical conditions such as drug dependence, obesity, and excessive gambling. If excessive delay discounting is a trans-disease process that underlies the choice behavior leading to these and other negative health conditions, efforts to change an individual's discount rate…

  6. On a Heat Exchange Problem under Sharply Changing External Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishchenko, K. V.; Charakhch'yan, A. A.; Shurshalov, L. V.

    2018-02-01

    The heat exchange problem between carbon particles and an external environment (water) is stated and investigated based on the equations of heat conducting compressible fluid. The environment parameters are supposed to undergo large and fast variations. In the time of about 100 μs, the temperature of the environment first increases from the normal one to 2400 K, is preserved at this level for about 60 μs, and then decreases to 300 K during approximately 50 μs. At the same periods of time, the pressure of the external environment increases from the normal one to 67 GPa, is preserved at this level, and then decreases to zero. Under such external conditions, the heating of graphite particles of various sizes, their phase transition to the diamond phase, and the subsequent unloading and cooling almost to the initial values of the pressure and temperature without the reverse transition from the diamond to the graphite phase are investigated. Conclusions about the maximal size of diamond particles that can be obtained in experiments on the shock compression of the mixture of graphite with water are drawn.

  7. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  8. Extra-high short-circuit current for bifacial solar cells in sunny and dark-light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Duan, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2017-09-05

    We present here a symmetrically structured bifacial solar cell tailored by two fluorescent photoanodes and a platinum/titanium/platinum counter electrode, yielding extra-high short-circuit current densities as high as 28.59 mA cm -2 and 119.9 μA cm -2 in simulated sunlight irradiation (100 mW cm -2 , AM1.5) and dark-light conditions, respectively.

  9. Intelligent Commercial Lighting: Demand-Responsive Conditioning and Increased User Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Agogino, Alice M.

    2005-01-01

    Energy efficiency has recently come to the forefront of energy debates, especially in the state of California. This focus on efficiency has been driven by the deregulation of electrical-energy distribution, the increasing price of electricity, and the implementation of rolling blackouts. Currently, buildings consume over 1/3 of primary energy, and 2/3 of all electricity produced in the U.S. Commercial buildings consume roughly half of this, and lighting is responsible for approximately 40% of...

  10. Comparing ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills for an asphaltenic, a waxy and a light crude oil as a function of weathering conditions under arctic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan; Villumsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    (asphalthenic), Kobbe (light oil) and Norne (waxy), for ignitability as a function of ice conditions and weathering degree. The crude oils (9 L) were weathered in a laboratory basin (4.8 m3) under simulated arctic conditions (0, 50 and 90% ice cover). The laboratory burning tests show that the ignitability...... is dependent on oil composition, ice conditions and weathering degree. In open water, oil spills rapidly become “not ignitable” due to the weathering e.g. high water content and low content of residual volatile components. The slower weathering of oil spills in ice (50 and 90% ice cover) results in longer time......-windows for the oil to be ignitable. The composition of the oils is important for the window of opportunity. The asphalthenic Grane crude oil had a limited timewindow for in situ burning (9 h or less), while the light Kobbe crude oil and the waxy Norne crude oil had the longest time-windows for in situ burning (from...

  11. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  12. Deciphering flux adjustments of engineered E. coli cells during fermentation with changing growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Lian; Xiu, Yu; Jones, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation conditions are dynamic, due to transcriptional induction, nutrient consumption, or changes to incubation conditions. In this study, 13C-metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize two violacein-producing E. coli strains with vastly different productivities...

  13. Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, Nayantara; Groeger, John A.; Archer, Simon N.; Gimenez, Marina; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (pinertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations. PMID:24260280

  14. a Study of the Bioluminescence of Larger Zooplankton and the Effects of Low-Level Light Changes on Their Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keuren, Jeffrey Robert

    A bio-optical study was undertaken to quantify the relationships which exist between counter-illuminating organisms and the downwelling spectral light field in which they exist. The basic hypothesis behind counter-illumination is that the animal emits light using ventrally-oriented photophores to disrupt or eliminate the shadowed area on ventral surfaces. An organism lacking photophores sharply silhouettes against the highly directional downwelling irradiance, whereas by distributing photophores over the ventral surface of the body and closely matching the spectral and intensity characteristics of the downwelling light, this silhouette is obscured. Analysis carried out on changes in vertical distribution patterns in response to low-level intensity changes in ambient surface light suggested that diel migrating organisms begin to shift vertically in the water column when surface scalar irradiance decreased below or increased above 1.0 times10^{-2} muEin m^{-2} sec^ {-1}. Maximum aggregations of organisms, as defined by MOCNESS net sampling or single-frequency acoustic backscatter, appeared to remain within definable in situ blue-green isolume ranges varying less than a factor of ten throughout each night. Comparisons made between organism counter-illumination capacity and modeled in situ downwelling irradiance levels suggested that euphausiids, decapods and myctophids use between 1-10 percent of their maximum counter-illumination capacity to match the ambient downwelling light conditions. Modeling also suggested that up to 40 percent of the maximum measured bioluminescence output is required to match ambient irradiance in the shallower surface zones where aggregations of copepods, potential food sources, were commonly found at night. An optical study to quantify the radiative transfer of bioluminescence from a point source revealed that non -isotropic point sources produce radiance patterns that cannot be simply explained by inverse square losses. Therefore simple

  15. Right-Wing Authoritarianism Predicts weakened Attitude Change in an Evaluative Counter-conditioning Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Beffara, Brice; Mermillod, Martial; Mierop, Adrien; Bret, Amélie; Corneille, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    RWA is associated with higher social prejudice. It is unclear, however, (i) whether RWA plays a role in attitude acquisition or attitude change (or both), and (ii) whether it influences attitudes unrelated to in/outgroup concerns. We relied on an evaluative conditioning-then-counter-conditioning paradigm simulating prejudice formation and change to examine this question. Neutral fictive group exemplars were first conditioned positively or negatively (attitude learning) and then counter-condit...

  16. Germination and vigor of linseed seeds under different conditions of light, temperature and water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., cultivated from seeds, is one of the oldest plants domesticated by humans and is popularly used as a medicine. It can be used as the raw material to produce oil and bran because it has high lipids content, fiber and proteins. Based on the economic potential of this species and the need for more information about its physiology, the goal of this study was to analyze the effects of light, temperature and water stress on the germination and vigor of linseed seeds. In experiment I the seeds were sown on paper at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC in the presence and absence of light. In experiment II, the seeds were placed on paper germitest soaked in solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 at osmotic potentials corresponding to zero, -0.10, -0.20, -0.30, -0.40, -0.50 and -0.60 MPa. To evaluate the physiological potential, the following tests were made: germination, first germination count, length and dry mass of seedlings, and water stress. It was found that the highest percentages of germination and vigor occurred at a constant temperature of 20 °C, both in the presence and absence of light. The reduction of the osmotic potential of the substrate promoted a significant decrease in the germination and vigor of the linseed seeds. Osmotic potentials equal or less than -0.30 MPa were harmful to germination and there was no normal seedling development starting at -0.50 MPa.

  17. Study on light water reactor fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident condition in TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Masaaki; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Uemura, Mutsumi

    1981-05-01

    This report reviews the results of the fuel failure experiments performed in TREAT in the U.S.A. simulating Reactivity Initiated Accidents. One of the main purposes of the TREAT experiments is the study of the fuel failure behavior, and the other is the study of the molten fuel-water coolant interaction and the consequent hydrogen behavior. This report mainly shows the results of the TREAT experiments studying the fuel failure behavior in Light Water Reactor, and then it describes the fuel failure threshold and the fuel failure mechanism, considering the results of the photographic experiments of the fuel failure behavior with transparent capsules. (author)

  18. Implications for photonic applications of diatom growth and frustule nanostructure changes in response to different light wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Yanyan; Lundholm, Nina; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    in nanotechnology is one of the technological challenges for these applications. Light is one of the most important abiotic factors for algal photosynthetic growth, and the frustule may play an important role in mediatin g light for these biological functions, as well as being central for its nano - technological...... significant change in nanostructure compared to white light. Green light at 100 μmol photon m - 2 s - 1 led to a significant dec rease in mean frustule diameter and mean foramen diameter. Numerical simulations confirmed that the morphological changes obtained were sufficient to induce clear differences...

  19. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2017-03-01

    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m -3 for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Ontogenic retinal changes in three ecologically distinct elopomorph fishes (Elopomorpha:Teleostei) correlate with light environment and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Scott M; Loew, Ellis R; Grace, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the mammalian retina, the teleost fish retina undergoes persistent neurogenesis from intrinsic stem cells. In marine teleosts, most cone photoreceptor genesis occurs early in the embryonic and larval stages, and rods are added primarily during and after metamorphosis. This study demonstrates a developmental paradigm in elopomorph fishes in which retinas are rod-dominated in larvae, but undergo periods of later cone genesis. Retinal characteristics were compared at different developmental stages among three ecologically distinct elopomorph fishes-ladyfish (Elops saurus), bonefish (Albula vulpes), and speckled worm eel (Myrophis punctatus). The objectives were to improve our understanding of (1) the developmental strategy in the elopomorph retina, (2) the functional architecture of the retina as it relates to ecology, and (3) how the light environment influences photoreceptor genesis. Photoreceptor morphologies, distributions, and spectral absorption were studied at larval, juvenile, and adult stages. Premetamorphic retinas in all three species are rod-dominated, but the retinas of these species undergo dramatic change over the course of development, resulting in juvenile and adult retinal characteristics that correlate closely with ecology. Adult E. saurus has high rod densities, grouped photoreceptors, a reflective tapetum, and longer-wavelength photopigments, supporting vision in turbid, low-light conditions. Adult A. vulpes has high cone densities, low rod densities, and shorter-wavelength photopigments, supporting diurnal vision in shallow, clear water. M. punctatus loses cones during metamorphosis, develops new cones after settlement, and maintains high rod but low cone densities, supporting primarily nocturnal vision. M. punctatus secondary cone genesis occurs rapidly throughout the retina, suggesting a novel mechanism of vertebrate photoreceptor genesis. Finally, in postsettlement M. punctatus, the continuous presence or absence of visible light

  1. Response of the photosynthetic system to altered protein composition and changes in environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic thylakoid membrane has a hierarchically ordered structure containing pigment-protein complexes that capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy. Its highly dynamic structure is capable to continuously respond to the altered environmental conditions, e.g., light

  2. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  3. Conditional repair by locally switching the thermal healing capability of dynamic covalent polymers with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Anne; Göstl, Robert; Wendt, Robert; Kötteritzsch, Julia; Hager, Martin D.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Brademann-Jock, Kerstin; Thünemann, Andreas F.; Nöchel, Ulrich; Behl, Marc; Hecht, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Healable materials could play an important role in reducing the environmental footprint of our modern technological society through extending the life cycles of consumer products and constructions. However, as most healing processes are carried out by heat alone, the ability to heal damage generally kills the parent material's thermal and mechanical properties. Here we present a dynamic covalent polymer network whose thermal healing ability can be switched `on' and `off' on demand by light, thereby providing local control over repair while retaining the advantageous macroscopic properties of static polymer networks. We employ a photoswitchable furan-based crosslinker, which reacts with short and mobile maleimide-substituted poly(lauryl methacrylate) chains forming strong covalent bonds while simultaneously allowing the reversible, spatiotemporally resolved control over thermally induced de- and re-crosslinking. We reason that our system can be adapted to more complex materials and has the potential to impact applications in responsive coatings, photolithography and microfabrication.

  4. Comparison of Color Model in Cotton Image Under Conditions of Natural Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. H.; Kong, F. T.; Wu, J. Z.; Wang, S. W.; Liu, J. J.; Zhao, P.

    Although the color images contain a large amount of information reflecting the species characteristics, different color models also get different information. The selection of color models is the key to separating crops from background effectively and rapidly. Taking the cotton images collected under natural light as the object, we convert the color components of RGB color model, HSL color model and YIQ color model respectively. Then, we use subjective evaluation and objective evaluation methods, evaluating the 9 color components of conversion. It is concluded that the Q component of the soil, straw and plastic film region gray values remain the same without larger fluctuation when using subjective evaluation method. In the objective evaluation, we use the variance method, average gradient method, gray prediction objective evaluation error statistics method and information entropy method respectively to find the minimum numerical of Q color component suitable for background segmentation.

  5. Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A V; Valov, P M; Sukhanov, V L; Tuchkevich, V V; Shmidt, N M [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1980-05-01

    Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO/sub 2/-laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO/sub 2/-laser irradiation.

  6. Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction under conditions of interband heating of carriers by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.V.; Valov, P.M.; Sukhanov, V.L.; Tuchkevich, V.V.; Shmidt, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    Photoeffect on the p-n silicon junction conditioned by interband heating of carriers by the CO 2 -laser light has been studied experimentally at room temperature and under nonstationary conditions. Photoelectromotive force (p.e.m.f.) with the sign opposite to the value p.e.m.f. appears in the case of direct displacement of p-n structures. The p.e.m.f. value increases with the increase of direct desplacement. Photoelectrons are shown to make the main contribution into the mechanism of p.e.m.f. formation. Lateral p.e.m.f. connected with spreading currents in the direction parallel to the surface of the p-n junction appears in the p-n structure base. It has been found out that structures with highly alloyed emitter at reverse displacement operates under standard photodiod conditions, that is due to the semiconductor lattice heating by CO 2 -laser irradiation

  7. Alcohol Intake Increases in Adolescent C57BL/6J Mice during Intermittent Cycles of Phase-Delayed, Long-Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Gamsby

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents naturally go to bed and awaken late, but are forced to awaken early for school and work. This leads to “social jetlag”, a state of circadian desynchrony (CD, in which internal biological rhythms are out of sync with behavioral rhythms. CD is associated with increased alcohol intake in adults, but has been less well-studied in adolescents. The goal of this study was to model adolescent alcohol intake during similar CD conditions in male C57BL/6J mice. Free access alcohol intake, water intake and wheel-running activity were measured during a normal 12HR photoperiod or during alternating photoperiod (Experiment 1: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 18 h light for 3 days, with dark (activity onset delayed 9 h during the 18HR photoperiod; Experiment 2: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 6 h light for 3 days, with dark onset delayed 3 h during the 6HR photoperiod. In Experiment 1, CD produced a small but significant increase in the total alcohol intake per day as well as in intake in bouts, with the greatest increase over controls in the hours following the 6HR dark period. Additionally, the pattern of alcohol intake in bouts shifted to increase alcohol intake during the shorter dark period. In Experiment 2, the opposite effect occurred—the longer dark cycle led to lower alcohol drinking in the second half of the dark period. However, in Experiment 2, CD produced no significant changes in either total alcohol intake or alcohol intake in bouts. Conclusion: shifts in the light cycle that disrupt the regular pattern of day and night, and increase the length of the night phase, are sufficient to increase both drinking in bouts and restricted drinking in adolescent mice, modeling increased alcohol intake in adolescents during CD.

  8. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Variables: Assessing Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Kaleris, Vassilios

    2014-05-01

    Due to its intermittent and highly variable character, and the modeling parameterizations used, precipitation is one of the least well reproduced hydrologic variables by both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs). This is especially the case at a regional level (where hydrologic risks are assessed) and at small temporal scales (e.g. daily) used to run hydrologic models. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings and assess the effect of climate change on rainfall statistics at hydrologically relevant scales, Langousis and Kaleris (2013) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables. The developed downscaling scheme was tested using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/do/get/index), and daily rainfall measurements from western Greece, and was proved capable of reproducing several statistical properties of actual rainfall records, at both annual and seasonal levels. This was done solely by conditioning rainfall simulation on a vector of atmospheric predictors, properly selected to reflect the relative influence of upper-air variables on ground-level rainfall statistics. In this study, we apply the developed framework for conditional rainfall simulation using atmospheric data from different GCM/RCM combinations. This is done using atmospheric data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembleseu.metoffice.com), and daily rainfall measurements for an intermediate-sized catchment in Italy; i.e. the Flumendosa catchment. Since GCM/RCM products are suited to reproduce the local climatology in a statistical sense (i.e. in terms of relative frequencies), rather than ensuring a one-to-one temporal correspondence between observed and simulated fields (i.e. as is the case for ERA-interim reanalysis data), we proceed in three steps: a) we use statistical tools to establish a linkage between ERA-Interim upper-air atmospheric forecasts and

  9. Fear conditioning-related changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell activities in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear conditioning-induced changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus have been reported in rabbits. It has been suggested that synaptic long-term potentiation and the resulting increases in firing rates of Purkinje cells are related to the acquisition of conditioned fear in mammals. However, Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of conditioned fear have not been analysed, and changes in Purkinje cell activities throughout the development of conditioned fear have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we tracked Purkinje cell activities throughout a fear conditioning procedure and aimed to elucidate further how cerebellar circuits function during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. Methods Activities of single Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebelli were tracked throughout a classical fear conditioning procedure in goldfish. A delayed conditioning paradigm was used with cardiac deceleration as the conditioned response. Conditioning-related changes of Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus were examined. Results The majority of Purkinje cells sampled responded to the conditioned stimulus by either increasing or decreasing their firing rates before training. Although there were various types of conditioning-related changes in Purkinje cells, more than half of the cells showed suppressed activities in response to the conditioned stimulus after acquisition of conditioned fear. Purkinje cells that showed unconditioned stimulus-coupled complex-spike firings also exhibited conditioning-related suppression of simple-spike responses to the conditioned stimulus. A small number of Purkinje cells showed increased excitatory responses in the acquisition sessions. We found that the magnitudes of changes in the firing frequencies of some Purkinje cells in response to the conditioned stimulus correlated with the magnitudes of the conditioned

  10. Seed mass, viability, and germination of Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) under variable light and moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2011-01-01

    The success of Japanese stiltgrass as an invader may be due to its ability to respond to stochastic events (e.g., by sexual reproduction via chasmogamous [CH] flowers) and to maintain a beneficial genetic make-up (e.g., by self-fertilizing via cleistogamous [CL] flowers) when conditions are stable. This paper evaluates the importance of Japanese stiltgrass seed type (...

  11. Accuracy of circadian entrainment under fluctuating light conditions : Contributions of phase and period responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, DGM; Daan, S; Hut, RA

    The accuracy with which a circadian pacemaker can entrain to an environmental 24-h zeitgeber signal depends on (a) characteristics of the entraining signal and (b) response characteristics and intrinsic stability of the pacemaker itself. Position of the sun, weather conditions, shades, and

  12. The influence of changing framework conditions on tourism: The case of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Kochurova, Elena; Keller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual bachelor thesis is an attempt to approach the important question of the impact of the framework conditions on the growth and the development of tourism of a given country. In a first step the relevant political and economic framework conditions for tourism are defined. In a second step, the main forms of systemic, cyclic, structural and stochastic of changes of these framework conditions are analyzed. In a third step, a model presenting the probable impacts of changes of ...

  13. Influence of high latitude light conditions on sensory quality and contents of health and sensory-related compounds in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølmann, Jørgen Ab; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2018-02-01

    Vegetable growers in Arctic areas must increasingly rely on market strategies based on regional origin and product quality. Swede roots (rutabaga) were grown in a phytotron to investigate the effect of high latitude light conditions on sensory quality and some health and sensory-related compounds. Experimental treatments included modifications of 24 h natural day length (69° 39' N) by moving plants at daily intervals to dark chambers with either no light, fluorescent growth light and/or low intensity photoperiod extension. Shortening the photosynthetic light period to 12 h produced smaller roots than 15.7 h and 18 h, with highest scores for bitter and sulfur taste, and lowest scores for sweetness, acidic taste and fibrousness. The photoperiod in combination with the photosynthetic light period also had an influence on glucosinolate (GLS) contents, with lowest concentrations in 24 h natural light and highest in 12 h natural light. Concentrations of vitamin C, glucose, fructose and sucrose were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments. High latitude light conditions, with long photosynthetic light periods and 24 h photoperiod, can enhance sweet/less bitter taste and reduce GLS contents in swede roots, compared to growth under short day conditions. This influence of light conditions on eating quality may benefit marketing of regional products from high latitudes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. History of Science and Conceptual Change: The Formation of Shadows by Extended Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, Christos; Ravanis, Konstantinos

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a teaching conflict procedure whose purpose was the transformation of the representations of 12-16-year-old pupils in Greece concerning light emission and shadow formation by extended light sources. The changes observed during the children’s effort to destabilize and reorganise their representations towards a model that was compatible with the respective scientific model were studied using three groups of pupils belonging to different age groups. The methodological plan implemented was based on input from the History of Science, while the parameters of the geometrical optics model were derived from Kepler’s relevant historic experiment. The effectiveness of the teaching procedure was evaluated 2 weeks after the intervention. The results showed that the majority of the subjects accepted the model of geometrical optics, i.e. the pupils were able to correctly predict and adequately justify the experimental results based on the principle of punctiform light emission. Educational and research implications are discussed.

  15. Impacts of Combustion Conditions and Photochemical Processing on the Light Absorption of Biomass Combustion Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, J; Eriksson, A C; Nielsen, I Elbæk; Malmborg, V Berg; Ahlberg, E; Andersen, C; Lindgren, R; Nyström, R; Nordin, E Z; Brune, W H; Svenningsson, B; Swietlicki, E; Boman, C; Pagels, J H

    2015-12-15

    The aim was to identify relationships between combustion conditions, particle characteristics, and optical properties of fresh and photochemically processed emissions from biomass combustion. The combustion conditions included nominal and high burn rate operation and individual combustion phases from a conventional wood stove. Low temperature pyrolysis upon fuel addition resulted in "tar-ball" type particles dominated by organic aerosol with an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 2.5-2.7 and estimated Brown Carbon contributions of 50-70% to absorption at the climate relevant aethalometer-wavelength (520 nm). High temperature combustion during the intermediate (flaming) phase was dominated by soot agglomerates with AAE 1.0-1.2 and 85-100% of absorption at 520 nm attributed to Black Carbon. Intense photochemical processing of high burn rate flaming combustion emissions in an oxidation flow reactor led to strong formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol, with no or weak absorption. PM1 mass emission factors (mg/kg) of fresh emissions were about an order of magnitude higher for low temperature pyrolysis compared to high temperature combustion. However, emission factors describing the absorption cross section emitted per kg of fuel consumed (m(2)/kg) were of similar magnitude at 520 nm for the diverse combustion conditions investigated in this study. These results provide a link between biomass combustion conditions, emitted particle types, and their optical properties in fresh and processed plumes which can be of value for source apportionment and balanced mitigation of biomass combustion emissions from a climate and health perspective.

  16. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  17. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part I: BWR/NWC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWR) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It was focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of EAC crack growth behaviour/mechanism of LAS in high-temperature water under steady-state power operation (constant load) and transient operating conditions (e.g., start-up/shut-down, transients in water chemistry and load). Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurised water reactor (VVER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (VVER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarises the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated BWR/NWC conditions. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  18. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-236, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, F. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Blain, A. W. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, S. L. [The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Wu, J. W., E-mail: roberto.assef@mail.udp.cl [UCLA Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  19. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M ⊙ yr −1 . Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis

  20. How light competition between plants affects their response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Schieving, Feike; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P R

    2014-09-01

    How plants respond to climate change is of major concern, as plants will strongly impact future ecosystem functioning, food production and climate. Here, we investigated how vegetation structure and functioning may be influenced by predicted increases in annual temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentration, and modeled the extent to which local plant-plant interactions may modify these effects. A canopy model was developed, which calculates photosynthesis as a function of light, nitrogen, temperature, CO2 and water availability, and considers different degrees of light competition between neighboring plants through canopy mixing; soybean (Glycine max) was used as a reference system. The model predicts increased net photosynthesis and reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration under atmospheric CO2 increase. When CO2 elevation is combined with warming, photosynthesis is increased more, but transpiration is reduced less. Intriguingly, when competition is considered, the optimal response shifts to producing larger leaf areas, but with lower stomatal conductance and associated vegetation transpiration than when competition is not considered. Furthermore, only when competition is considered are the predicted effects of elevated CO2 on leaf area index (LAI) well within the range of observed effects obtained by Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. Together, our results illustrate how competition between plants may modify vegetation responses to climate change. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Changes in melatonin secretion in tourists after rapid movement to another lighting zone without transition of time zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Joanna; Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Morita, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research in the field of Chronobiology is focused on the problem of the circadian rhythms (CR) desynchronization. In travelers, it results mostly from the changes of surrounding: photoperiod, local climate conditions (radiation and thermal load) and behavior (e.g. type and place of tourism and activity level). Until now, it was not documented whether the changes in melatonin (MLT) secretion occur in effect of mid-distance transparallel travels (TpT), without complications arising due to time-zone transitions (e.g. jet-lag syndrome). To cope with this problem, a special field experiment was carried out. In the experiment, MLT characteristics were examined twice a year in real conditions through a group of young tourists (23-26 years old) at their place of habitual residence (Warsaw, Poland), and at their tourist destination (Tromso, Norway). Transition to circumpolar zone in summer has resulted in insignificant reduction in melatonin peak value (MPV) compared to preflight control (2 days before travel) and the melatonin peak time (MPT) was delayed. However, after traveling southward on the returning flight, MPV was lower compared to control and MPT was advanced. In winter, MPV was insignificantly higher in comparison to preflight control and MPT was almost unchanged. While changes in MPV do not depend on season, flight direction and day of stay after flight than MPT was differentiated seasonally and due to direction of flight. MPV and MPT were significantly modified by characteristics of individual light exposure during daytime and evening. The experiment showed also that in real conditions activity level is an important factor affected melatonin peak in tourists. In winter, greater daytime activity significantly influenced earlier MPT occurrence, both after northward and southward flights.

  2. Growth responses and accumulation of soluble sugars in Inga marginata Wild. (Fabaceae) subjected to flooding under contrasting light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, B; Capellesso, E S; Lottici, M E; Sentkovski, J; Mielniczki-Pereira, A A; Rosa, L M G; Sausen, T L

    2017-01-01

    Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding for two periods; five or 15 days. After 5 days, the interaction between flooding and light did not affect growth, chlorophyll content and dry mass or the root-shoot ratio. After 15 days, flooded plants from the sunny treatment had a lower shoot dry mass compared to control sun plants and flooded plants from the shaded treatment. Moreover, the higher dry mass observed for shade plants compared to sun plants, following flooding, can also be directly associated with a higher content of soluble sugars. Shade plants of I. marginata showed a greater acclimation to soil waterlogging. This acclimation appears to be associated with a larger accumulation of soluble sugars compared to non-flooded plants. The responses observed on the shade plants appear to be decisive to indicate the use of I. marginata in degraded areas.

  3. Corrosion fatigue initiation and short crack growth behaviour of austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Leber, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion fatigue in austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions. ► Identification of major parameters of influence on initiation and short crack growth. ► Critical system conditions for environmental reduction of fatigue initiation life. ► Comparison with the environmental factor (F env ) approach. - Abstract: The corrosion fatigue initiation and short crack growth behaviour of different wrought low-carbon and stabilised austenitic stainless steels was characterised under simulated boiling water reactor and pressurised water reactor primary water conditions by cyclic fatigue tests with sharply notched fracture mechanics specimens. The special emphasis was placed to the behaviour at low corrosion potentials and, in particular, to hydrogen water chemistry conditions. The major parameter effects and critical conjoint threshold conditions, which result in relevant environmental reduction and acceleration of fatigue initiation life and subsequent short crack growth, respectively, are discussed and summarised. The observed corrosion fatigue behaviour is compared with the fatigue evaluation procedures in codes and regulatory guidelines.

  4. Nanoscale Electronic Conditioning for Improvement of Nanowire Light-Emitting-Diode Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Brelon J; Belz, Matthew R; Ahamed, Arshad; Sarwar, A T M G; Selcu, Camelia M; Myers, Roberto C

    2018-04-24

    Commercial III-Nitride LEDs and lasers spanning visible and ultraviolet wavelengths are based on epitaxial films. Alternatively, nanowire-based III-Nitride optoelectronics offer the advantage of strain compliance and high crystalline quality growth on a variety of inexpensive substrates. However, nanowire LEDs exhibit an inherent property distribution, resulting in uneven current spreading through macroscopic devices that consist of millions of individual nanowire diodes connected in parallel. Despite being electrically connected, only a small fraction of nanowires, sometimes current in the ensemble devices. Burn-in electronic conditioning is performed by applying a short-term overload voltage; the nanoshorts experience very high current density, sufficient to render them open circuits, thereby forcing a new current path through more nanowire LEDs in an ensemble device. Current-voltage measurements of individual nanowires are acquired using conductive atomic force microscopy to observe the removal of nanoshorts using burn-in. In macroscopic devices, this results in a 33× increase in peak EL and reduced leakage current. Burn-in conditioning of nanowire ensembles therefore provides a straightforward method to mitigate nonuniformities inherent to nanowire devices.

  5. Real-Time Eye Detection and Tracking under Various Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiao

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real-time online prototype automobile and truck driver-fatigue monitor. It uses remotely located charge-coupled-device cameras equipped with active infrared illuminators to acquire video images of the driver. Various visual cues that typically characterize the level of alertness of a person are extracted in real time and systematically combined to infer the fatigue level of the driver. The visual cues employed characterize eyelid movement, gaze movement, head movement, and facial expression. A probabilistic model is developed to model human fatigue and to predict fatigue based on the visual cues obtained. The simultaneous use of multiple visual cues and their systematic combination yields a much more robust and accurate fatigue characterization than using a single visual cue. This system was validated under real-life fatigue conditions with human subjects of different ethnic backgrounds, genders, and ages; with/without glasses; and under different illumination conditions. It was found to be reasonably robust, reliable, and accurate in fatigue characterization.

  6. Environmental-assisted fatigue in austenitic stainless steels under light water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Spaetig, P.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental-assisted fatigue (EAF) initiation and subsequent short crack growth behaviour of different austenitic stainless steels were characterised under simulated BWR/HWC and primary PWR conditions by cyclic fatigue tests with sharply notched fracture mechanics specimens. After a brief summary overview on the previous PSI observations, an update with new and preliminary results about the effect of pH, dissolved hydrogen, load ratio/mean stress, long static load hold times and load sequences is given in this paper. At low electrochemical corrosion potentials (ECP), the physical EAF initiation life moderately decreases with increasing dissolved hydrogen content and decreasing pH. Both parameters have little effect on the subsequent short EAF crack growth within the investigated range. Notch strain amplitude thresholds for environmental effects on physical EAF crack initiation decrease with increasing load ratio and mean stress. At small notch strain amplitudes, the effect of mean stress is more pronounced in BWR/HWC environment than in air and predicted by typical fatigue life mean stress corrections. Under certain loading conditions, long static load hold times result in an increase of the physical EAF initiation life, which saturates for very long hold times. On the other hand, little effect of hold times on subsequent stationary short EAF crack growth rates is observed. The physical EAF initiation life under load sequence loading in high-temperature water may be moderately shorter or significantly longer than predicted by a linear damage accumulation rule and corresponding constant load amplitude tests depending on the load history. (authors)

  7. An adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system controlled space cector pulse width modulation based HVDC light transmission system under AC fault conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay Kumar, M.; Srikanth, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    In HVDC Light transmission systems, converter control is one of the major fields of present day research works. In this paper, fuzzy logic controller is utilized for controlling both the converters of the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) based HVDC Light transmission systems. Due to its complexity in the rule base formation, an intelligent controller known as adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller is also introduced in this paper. The proposed ANFIS controller changes the PI gains automatically for different operating conditions. A hybrid learning method which combines and exploits the best features of both the back propagation algorithm and least square estimation method is used to train the 5-layer ANFIS controller. The performance of the proposed ANFIS controller is compared and validated with the fuzzy logic controller and also with the fixed gain conventional PI controller. The simulations are carried out in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The results reveal that the proposed ANFIS controller is reducing power fluctuations at both the converters. It also improves the dynamic performance of the test power system effectively when tested for various ac fault conditions.

  8. Temperature and light conditions at different latitudes affect sensory quality of broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Mølmann, Jørgen Ab; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Schreiner, Monica; Velasco, Pablo; Hykkerud, Anne L; Cartea, Elena; Lea, Per; Skaret, Josefine; Seljåsen, Randi

    2017-08-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009-2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42-70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture. Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes. Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Scattered-field FDTD and PSTD algorithms with CPML absorbing boundary conditions for light scattering by aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Fu, Qiang; Hu, Yongxiang

    2013-01-01

    As fundamental parameters for polarized-radiative-transfer calculations, the single-scattering phase matrix of irregularly shaped aerosol particles must be accurately modeled. In this study, a scattered-field finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model and a scattered-field pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) model are developed for light scattering by arbitrarily shaped dielectric aerosols. The convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary condition (ABC) is used to truncate the computational domain. It is found that the PSTD method is generally more accurate than the FDTD in calculation of the single-scattering properties given similar spatial cell sizes. Since the PSTD can use a coarser grid for large particles, it can lower the memory requirement in the calculation. However, the Fourier transformations in the PSTD need significantly more CPU time than simple subtractions in the FDTD, and the fast Fourier transform requires a power of 2 elements in calculations, thus using the PSTD could not significantly reduce the CPU time required in the numerical modeling. Furthermore, because the scattered-field FDTD/PSTD equations include incident-wave source terms, the FDTD/PSTD model allows for the inclusion of an arbitrarily incident wave source, including a plane parallel wave or a Gaussian beam like those emitted by lasers usually used in laboratory particle characterizations, etc. The scattered-field FDTD and PSTD light-scattering models can be used to calculate single-scattering properties of arbitrarily shaped aerosol particles over broad size and wavelength ranges. -- Highlights: • Scattered-field FDTD and PSTD models are developed for light scattering by aerosols. • Convolutional perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition is used. • PSTD is generally more accurate than FDTD in calculating single-scattering properties. • Using same spatial resolution, PSTD requires much larger CPU time than FDTD

  10. Experiment on Measurement of Interfacial Tension for Subsurface Conditions of Light Oil from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiravivitpanya Jiramet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of enhanced oil recovery techniques to increase oil production is surfactant flooding. Surfactants are considered as effective chemical agents used in oilfield in Thailand. It is used to reduce the interfacial tension (IFT of two fluids and to make them flow easier in the reservoir. In this study, Monoethanolamide (MEA commonly used for carbon dioxide capture, is applied as a surfactant to reduce IFT between oil and brine. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate and measure the IFT based on the conditions of subsurface at the oilfield in Thailand. These parameters such as temperature, pressure, salinity as well as the concentration of surfactant are adjusted to investigate the effects on IFT reduction. From the results, it is reported that pressure from 1000 to 2000 psi and temperature varied from 70°C to 90°C can reduce IFT insignificantly. However, salinity and surfactant concentration are the main parameters that impact on the IFT reduction. It can greatly decrease IFT up to 87.13% for surfactant concentration and up to 74.06% for salinity. Finally, the results can be applied to use in the real field for enhanced oil production in Thailand.

  11. Changing epistemologies under conditions of social change in two Arab communities in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The study of epistemic thinking focuses on how people understand and coordinate objective and subjective aspects of knowing and make sense of multiple and discrepant knowledge claims. Typically described in terms of normative development, cross-cultural studies show differences in epistemic development and characteristics of epistemic thinking. This study focuses on within-culture variations of epistemic thinking, with the assumption that social change will produce changes in development. Arab society in Israel has undergone notable change over the last half century. In this cross-sectional research design, cross-generational comparison and rural-urban comparison were used as proxies for longitudinal social change. Three generations of Muslim Arab women in a village in Israel (20 adolescents, 20 mothers and 20 grandmothers) and 20 Muslim Arab adolescents from a large, mixed city in the same region responded to six dilemmas invoking epistemic thinking. Village adolescents were more subjectivist than their mothers and grandmothers. Sociodemographic characteristics representing greater exposure to diverse people and ideas accounted for generational differences. Both urban and rural adolescents tended towards subjectivist perspectives, and they did not differ. Parents' education levels emerged as the sociodemographic variables most consistently related to epistemic thinking. Epistemic thinking mediated the relationship between generation and gender role/cross-sex relation values. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Developmental and reproductive performance of a specialist herbivore depend on seasonality of, and light conditions experienced by, the host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyi, Osariyekemwen O; Zachariades, Costas; Heshula, Lelethu U; Hill, Martin P

    2018-01-01

    Host plant phenology (as influenced by seasonality) and light-mediated changes in the phenotypic and phytochemical properties of leaves have been hypothesised to equivocally influence insect herbivore performance. Here, we examined the effects of seasonality, through host plant phenology (late growth-season = autumn vs flowering-season = winter) and light environment (shade vs full-sun habitat) on the leaf characteristics of the invasive alien plant, Chromolaena odorata. In addition, the performance of a specialist folivore, Pareuchaetes insulata, feeding on leaves obtained from both shaded and full-sun habitats during autumn and winter, was evaluated over two generations. Foliar nitrogen and magnesium contents were generally higher in shaded plants with much higher levels during winter. Leaf water content was higher in shaded and in autumn plants. Total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) and phosphorus contents did not differ as a function of season, but were higher in shaded foliage compared to full-sun leaves. Leaf toughness was noticeably higher on plants growing in full-sun during winter. With the exception of shaded leaves in autumn that supported the best performance [fastest development, heaviest pupal mass, and highest growth rate and Host Suitability Index (HSI) score], full-sun foliage in autumn surprisingly also supported an improved performance of the moth compared to shaded or full-sun leaves in winter. Our findings suggest that shaded and autumn foliage are nutritionally more suitable for the growth and reproduction of P. insulata. However, the heavier pupal mass, increased number of eggs and higher HSI score in individuals that fed on full-sun foliage in autumn compared to their counterparts that fed on shaded or full-sun foliage in winter suggest that full-sun foliage during autumn is also a suitable food source for larvae of the moth. In sum, our study demonstrates that seasonal and light-modulated changes in leaf characteristics can affect insect

  13. Developmental and reproductive performance of a specialist herbivore depend on seasonality of, and light conditions experienced by, the host plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osariyekemwen O Uyi

    Full Text Available Host plant phenology (as influenced by seasonality and light-mediated changes in the phenotypic and phytochemical properties of leaves have been hypothesised to equivocally influence insect herbivore performance. Here, we examined the effects of seasonality, through host plant phenology (late growth-season = autumn vs flowering-season = winter and light environment (shade vs full-sun habitat on the leaf characteristics of the invasive alien plant, Chromolaena odorata. In addition, the performance of a specialist folivore, Pareuchaetes insulata, feeding on leaves obtained from both shaded and full-sun habitats during autumn and winter, was evaluated over two generations. Foliar nitrogen and magnesium contents were generally higher in shaded plants with much higher levels during winter. Leaf water content was higher in shaded and in autumn plants. Total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC and phosphorus contents did not differ as a function of season, but were higher in shaded foliage compared to full-sun leaves. Leaf toughness was noticeably higher on plants growing in full-sun during winter. With the exception of shaded leaves in autumn that supported the best performance [fastest development, heaviest pupal mass, and highest growth rate and Host Suitability Index (HSI score], full-sun foliage in autumn surprisingly also supported an improved performance of the moth compared to shaded or full-sun leaves in winter. Our findings suggest that shaded and autumn foliage are nutritionally more suitable for the growth and reproduction of P. insulata. However, the heavier pupal mass, increased number of eggs and higher HSI score in individuals that fed on full-sun foliage in autumn compared to their counterparts that fed on shaded or full-sun foliage in winter suggest that full-sun foliage during autumn is also a suitable food source for larvae of the moth. In sum, our study demonstrates that seasonal and light-modulated changes in leaf characteristics can

  14. Microbial community changes in methanogenic granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is one of the most applied technologies for various high-strength wastewater treatments. The present study analysed the microbial community changes in UASB granules during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. Dynamicity...

  15. Comparison of Tooth Color Change After Bleaching With Conventional and Different Light-Activated Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Sima; Assadian, Hadi; Mahmoudi Nahavandi, Alireza; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The demand for esthetic dental treatments is increasing in recent years mainly due to improved oral hygiene and better maintenance of oral health and teeth in older individuals. Bleaching of discolored anterior teeth is the most popular among esthetic dental treatments. Even individuals with sound teeth and adequate esthetics seek to have whiter teeth in the anterior region. The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth color changes following conventional in-office bleaching techniques compared to light-activated methods using different light sources. Methods: Seventy sound anterior teeth (devoided of caries and/or fracture), extracted for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were selected and allocated to 7 groups: (A) control, (B) conventional bleaching (C) LED-activated bleaching, (D) KTP laser-activated bleaching, (E) diode laser-activated bleaching, (F) Nd:YAG laser-activated bleaching and (G) CO2 laser-activated bleaching. Colorimetric evaluation was carried out before and after treatment using a spectrophotoradiometer. Data were analyzed by one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as multiple comparison methods. Results: The results showed that all bleaching procedures were effective in reducing the yellowness index. However, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more effective than the other techniques in 95% confidence level. It was also seen that CO2 laser activated method has outperformed groups E, F and G and the conventional bleaching without light activation was not effective at all and represented similar results with the control group. Furthermore, the groups E and G had almost the same results in decreasing the yellowness index. Conclusion: The results showed that all bleaching techniques were effective however, the KTP laser-activated bleaching was significantly more efficient, closely followed by the CO2 laser-activated bleaching technique.

  16. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  17. Sustainable Change Sequence: a framework for developing behavior change interventions for patients with long-term conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn, Glyn; Marrin, Katy; Frosch, Dominick; White, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective\\ud \\ud Interactive interventions are increasingly advocated to support behavior change for patients who have long-term conditions. Such interventions are most likely to achieve behavior change when they are based on appropriate theoretical frameworks. Developers of interventions are faced with a diverse set of behavioral theories that do not specifically address intervention development. The aim of our work was to develop a framework to guide the developers of interactive healthcare...

  18. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M. [Nuclear Research Institute, NRI, Rez (Czech Republic); Devrient, B.; Roth, A. [Framatome ANP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Ehrnsten, U. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland); Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt, MPA, Stuttgart (Germany); Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  19. Crack growth behaviour of low-alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions - CASTOC, Part II: WWER conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Devrient, B.; Roth, A.; Ehrnsten, U.; Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ageing phenomena of pressure boundary components of light water reactors (LWRs) is environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC). The project CASTOC (5. Framework Programme of the EU) was launched September 2000 with six European partners and terminated August 2003. It focused in particular on the EAC behaviour of low-alloy steels (LAS) and to some extent to weld metal, heat affected zone and the influence of an austenitic cladding. The main objective was directed to the clarification of crack growth behavior of LAS in high-temperature water due to EAC under constant load (steady-state power operation), to study the effect of transient conditions (during operation or start-up/shut-down of a plant) using their impact on time-based and cycle-based crack growth rates and to a more detailed understanding of the acting mechanisms. Autoclave tests were performed with Western and Russian type reactor pressure vessel steels under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR)/normal water chemistry (NWC) and pressurized water reactor (WWER) conditions. The investigations were performed with fracture mechanics specimens of different sizes and geometries. The applied loading comprised cyclic loads, static loads and load spectra where the static load was periodically interrupted by partial unloading. With regard to water chemistry, the oxygen content (WWER) and impurities of sulphate and chlorides (BWR) were varied beyond allowable limits for continuous operation. The current paper summarizes the most important crack growth results obtained under simulated WWER conditions. The influence of oxygen content and the effect of specimen size (C(T)25 versus C(T)50 specimens) on the crack growth rates are shown. The results are discussed in the context of the current crack growth rate curves in the corresponding nuclear codes. (authors)

  20. Light scattering changes follow evoked potentials from hippocampal Schaeffer collateral stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rector, D M; Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    1997-01-01

    , concurrently with larger population postsynaptic potentials. Optical signals occurred over a time course similar to that for electrical signals and increased with larger stimulation amplitude to a maximum, then decreased with further increases in stimulation current. Camera images revealed a topographic......We assessed relationships of evoked electrical and light scattering changes from cat dorsal hippocampus following Schaeffer collateral stimulation. Under anesthesia, eight stimulating electrodes were placed in the left hippocampal CA field and an optic probe, coupled to a photodiode or a charge....... Electrode recordings and photodiode output were simultaneously acquired at 2.4 kHz during single biphasic pulse stimuli 0.5 ms in duration with 0.1-Hz intervals. Camera images were digitized at 100 Hz. An average of 150 responses was calculated for each of six stimulating current levels. Stimuli elicited...

  1. The stability of vacuum phototriodes to varying light pulse loads and long term changes in response.

    CERN Document Server

    Hobson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mesh anode Vacuum Phototriodes (VPTs) are radiation resistant, single gain-stage photomultipliers which are designed to operate in a strong quasi-axial magnetic field. These VPTs are used in the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC to detect scintillation light from lead tungstate crystals. Short term dynamic response changes occur because of pulse rate variations during normal LHC operation cycles. Over the longer term the effect of increasing integrated charge taken from the photocathode causes an overall degradation of response. We have investigated these effects over time periods exceeding two years of simulated operation and discuss the implications for the long term performance of the VPTs in CMS.

  2. Conformational changes in matrix-isolated 6-methoxyindole: Effects of the thermal and infrared light excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); CQC, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3004-295 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Araujo-Andrade, C. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); ICFO–The Institute of Photonic Sciences, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    Conformational changes induced thermally or upon infrared excitation of matrix-isolated 6-methoxyindole were investigated. Narrowband near-infrared excitation of the first overtone of the N–H stretching vibration of each one of the two identified conformers is found to induce a selective large-scale conversion of the pumped conformer into the other one. This easily controllable bidirectional process consists in the intramolecular reorientation of the methoxy group and allowed a full assignment of the infrared spectra of the two conformers. Matrices with different conformational compositions prepared by narrow-band irradiations were subsequently used to investigate the effects of both thermal and broadband infrared excitations on the conformational mixtures. Particular attention is given to the influence of the matrix medium (Ar vs. Xe) and conformational effects of exposition of the sample to the spectrometer light source during the measurements.

  3. Changes Germination, Growth and Anatomy Vicia ervilia in Response to Light Crude Oil Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thepetroleum concentrations are contaminant important sources in the environment. Hydrocarbon’s contaminants depend on their type and concentration can cause variable toxicity in soils, on the other hand, different kinds of plants also response concentration of contaminant differently, because of the diversity of physiological and morphological characteristics. In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil was investigated on stem length, germination and anatomical of Vicia ervilia. A factorial experiment was used with a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. The results showed that the germination and stem lengths decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05 with increasing concentrations of petroleum. Anatomical studies the changes of parenchyma, vascular bundles, epidermal and increase crack showed.

  4. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controlled [correction of controled] environment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A A; Ushakova, S A; Gribovskaya, I A; Tirranen, L S; Manukovsky, N S; Zolotukhin, I G; Karnachuk, R A; Gros, J B; Lasseur, Ch

    2003-01-01

    To increase the degree of closure of biological life support systems of a new generation, we used vermicomposting to involve inedible phytomass in the intra-system mass exchange. The resulting product was a soil-like substrate, which was quite suitable for growing plants (Manukovsky et al. 1996, 1997). However, the soil like substrate can be regarded as a candidate for inclusion in a system only after a comprehensive examination of its physical, chemical, and other characteristics. An important criterion is the ability of the soil-like substrate to supply the necessary mineral elements to the photosynthesizing component under the chosen cultivation conditions. Thus, the purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of enhancing the production activity of wheat and radish crops by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation, without decreasing the harvest index. The increase of light intensity from 920 to 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the intensity of apparent photosynthesis of the wheat crops and slightly increased the apparent photosynthesis of the radish crops The maximum total and grain productivity (kg/m2) of the wheat crops was attained at the irradiance of 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. Light intensity of 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 decreased the productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect on the productivity of the radish crops (kg/m2) as compared to 920 micromoles m-2 s-1. The qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and substrate was determined by the condition of plants, developmental phase and light intensity. By the end of wheat growth under 1150 micromoles m-2 s-1 the numbers of bacteria of the coliform family and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and substrate were an order of magnitude larger than under other illumination conditions. The obtained data suggest that the cultivation of plants in a life support system on soil-like substrate from composts has a number of

  5. Changing delay discounting in the light of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Jarmolowicz, David P; Mueller, E Terry; Bickel, Warren K

    2013-01-01

    Excessively devaluing delayed reinforcers co-occurs with a wide variety of clinical conditions such as drug dependence, obesity, and excessive gambling. If excessive delay discounting is a trans-disease process that underlies the choice behavior leading to these and other negative health conditions, efforts to change an individual's discount rate are arguably important. Although discount rate is often regarded as a relatively stable trait, descriptions of interventions and environmental manipulations that successfully alter discount rate have begun to appear in the literature. In this review, we compare published examples of procedures that change discount rate and classify them into categories of procedures, including therapeutic interventions, direct manipulation of the executive decision-making system, framing effects, physiological state effects, and acute drug effects. These changes in discount rate are interpreted from the perspective of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory, which describes a combination of neurological and behavioral processes that account for delay discounting. We also suggest future directions that researchers could take to identify the mechanistic processes that allow for changes in discount rate and to test whether the competing neurobehavioral decision systems view of delay discounting is correct. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannsether, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Background Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m 2 ) and BMI SDS are summarised by percentiles. Differences according to sex, age, height, weight, initial BMI and weight status on the BMI and BMI SDS increments were assessed with multiple linear regression. Conditional change in BMI SDS was based on the correlation between annual BMI measurements converted to SDS. Results BMI increments depended significantly on sex, height, weight and initial BMI. Changes in BMI SDS depended significantly only on the initial BMI SDS. The distribution of conditional change in BMI SDS using a two-correlation model was close to normal (mean = 0.11, SD = 1.02, n = 1167), with 3.2% (2.3-4.4%) of the observations below -2 SD and 2.8% (2.0-4.0%) above +2 SD. Conclusion Conditional change in BMI SDS can be used to detect unexpected large changes in BMI SDS. Although this method requires the use of a computer, it may be clinically useful to detect aberrant weight development.

  7. Surgical instrument biocontaminant fluorescence detection in ambient lighting conditions for hospital reprocessing and sterilization department (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeau, François; Bubel, Annie; Dumont, Guillaume; Vachon, Carl; Lépine, André; Rochefort, Stéphane; Massicotte, Martin; Buteau-Vaillancourt, Louis; Gallant, Pascal; Mermut, Ozzy

    2017-03-01

    Hospitals currently rely on simple human visual inspection for assessing cleanliness of surgical instruments. Studies showed that surgical site infections are in part attributed to inadequate cleaning of medical devices. Standards groups recognize the need to objectively quantify the amount of residues on surgical instruments and establish guidelines. We developed a portable technology for the detection of contaminants on surgical instruments through fluorescence following cleaning. Weak fluorescence signals are usually detected in the obscurity only with the lighting of the excitation source. The key element of this system is that it works in ambient lighting conditions, a requirement to not disturb the normal workflow of hospital reprocessing facilities. A biocompatible fluorescent dye is added to the detergent and labels the proteins of organic residues. It is resistant to the harsh environment in a washer-disinfector. Two inspection devices have been developed with a 488nm laser as the excitation source: a handheld scanner and a tabletop station using spectral-domain and time-domain ambient light cancellation schemes. The systems are eye safe and equipped with image processing and interfacing software to provide visual or audible warnings to the operator based on a set of adjustable signal thresholds. Micron-scale residues are detected by the system which can also evaluate soil size and mass. Unlike swabbing, it can inspect whole tools in real-time. The technology has been validated in an independent hospital decontamination research laboratory. It also has potential applications in the forensics, agro-food, and space fields. Technical aspects and results will be presented and discussed.

  8. Evaluation of Combination of Natural and Artificial Lighting Condition in Primary Schools (Case Study: Baneh City of Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed alireza Mousavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Promoting the health and safety is an important part of the fundamental mission of schools and one factor in designing and operating schools that always has been important is lighting. As students spend considerable hours in the classroom and school, lighting should be designed appropriately and in accordance with the standards, to protect them from injuries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the combination of natural and artificial lighting condition in primary schools of Baneh city, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It's population consisted of primary schools in the city of Baneh and 12 schools were randomly selected as samples. Measurement has been done, using observation method in those schools by completing the assessment form. Then collected data were analyzed by SPSS 19, using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis Test. Results: Results showed that the windows to the floor area in the most of schools classes were in standard range and just in 7 classes, the windows to the floor area ratio were less than standard. ANOVA showed the mean of luminance in those schools in p≤0.05 was significant and most of classes were in range of standard luminance. Comparison of luminance in schools corridors with standard showed that corridors luminance of 3schools were less than standard range. Conclusions: The amount of luminance in all schools was not appropriate especially in old schools. Therefore, to reduce the effect of inappropriate lightning on health in some classes, it is necessary to redesign the system. Furthermore, for parsimony, the lightning system modification is required to achieve standard luminance which is important.

  9. Rats Can Acquire Conditional Fear of Faint Light Leaking through the Acrylic Resin Used to Mount Fiber Optic Cannulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmier, Adam; de Marcillac, Willy Daney; Maître, Agnès; Jay, Thérèse M.; Sanders, Matthew J.; Godsil, Bill P.

    2016-01-01

    Rodents are exquisitely sensitive to light and optogenetic behavioral experiments routinely introduce light-delivery materials into experimental situations, which raises the possibility that light could leak and influence behavioral performance. We examined whether rats respond to a faint diffusion of light, termed caplight, which emanated through…

  10. The influence of canopy, sky condition, and solar angle on light quality in a longleaf pine woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Pecot; Stephen B. Horsley; Michael A. Battaglia; Robert J. Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Light transmittance estimates under open, heterogeneous woodland canopies such as those of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests report high spatial and temporal variation in the quantity of the light environment. In addition, light quality, that is, the ratio of red to far-red light (R:FR), regulates important aspects of plant...

  11. Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lundgren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change increases heat loads in urban areas causing health and productivity risks for millions of people. Inhabitants in tropical and subtropical urban areas are at especial risk due to high population density, already high temperatures, and temperature increases due to climate change. Air conditioning is growing rapidly, especially in South and South-East Asia due to income growth and the need to protect from high heat exposures. Studies have linked increased total hourly electricity use to outdoor temperatures and humidity; modeled future predictions when facing additional heat due to climate change, related air conditioning with increased street level heat and estimated future air conditioning use in major urban areas. However, global and localized studies linking climate variables with air conditioning alone are lacking. More research and detailed data is needed looking at the effects of increasing air conditioning use, electricity consumption, climate change and interactions with the urban heat island effect. Climate change mitigation, for example using renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic electricity generation, to power air conditioning, and other sustainable methods to reduce heat exposure are needed to make future urban areas more climate resilient.

  12. Changes in working conditions and physical health functioning among midlife and ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mänty, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-11-01

    The aim this study was to examine the effect of changes in physical and psychosocial working conditions on physical health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Follow-up survey data were collected from midlife employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, at three time points: wave 1 (2000-2002), wave 2 (2007), and wave 3 (2012). Changes in physical and psychosocial working conditions were assessed between waves 1 and 2. Physical health functioning was measured by the physical component summary (PCS) of the Short-Form 36 questionnaire at each of the three waves. In total, 2784 respondents (83% women) who remained employed over the follow-up were available for the analyses. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the associations and adjust for key covariates (age, gender, obesity, chronic diseases, and health behaviors). Repeated and increased exposure to adverse physical working conditions was associated with greater decline in physical health functioning over time. In contrast, decrease in exposures reduced the decline. Of the psychosocial working conditions, changes in job demands had no effects on physical health functioning. However, decreased job control was associated with greater decline and repeated high or increased job control reduced the decline in physical health functioning over time. Adverse changes in physical working conditions and job control were associated with greater decline in physical health functioning over time, whereas favorable changes in these exposures reduced the decline. Preventing deterioration and promoting improvement of working conditions are likely to help maintain better physical health functioning among ageing employees.

  13. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  14. Effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod on egg production and egg quality of a native chicken under free-range condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Wang, H H; Chu, Q; Liu, H G

    2018-04-14

    the requirement of the native chicken during the laying period; (4) no change in photoperiod from the rearing to the production phase (12 to 12 L) will have long-lasting effects on egg production or egg quality under the present condition.

  15. Transfer from blue light or green light to white light partially reverses changes in ocular refraction and anatomy of developing guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Feng; Liu, Rui; Dai, Jin-Hui; Chen, Min-Jie; Zhou, Xing-Tao; Chu, Ren-Yuan

    2013-09-26

    Relative to the broadband white light (BL), postnatal guinea pigs develop myopia in a monochromic middle-wavelength light (ML, 530 nm) environment and develop hyperopia in a monochromic short-wavelength light (SL, 430 nm) environment. We investigated whether transfer from SL or ML to BL leads to recuperation of ocular refraction and anatomy of developing guinea pigs. Two-week-old guinea pigs were given (a) SL for 20 weeks, (b) SL recuperation (SLR, SL for 10 weeks then BL for 10 weeks), (c) ML for 20 weeks, (d) ML recuperation (MLR, ML for 10 weeks then BL for 10 weeks), or (e) BL for 20 weeks. Two weeks after transfer from ML to BL (MLR group), ocular refraction increased from 1.95 ± 0.35 D to 2.58 ± 0.24 D, and vitreous length decreased from 3.48 ± 0.06 mm to 3.41 ± 0.06 mm. Two weeks after transfer from SL to BL (SLR group), ocular refraction decreased from 5.65 ± 0.61 D to 4.33 ± 0.49 D, and vitreous length increased from 3.18 ± 0.07 mm to 3.26 ± 0.11 mm. The MLR and SLR groups had final ocular refractions that were significantly different from those of the ML and SL groups at 20 weeks (ML vs. MLR: p < 0.0001; SL vs. SLR: p < 0.0001) but were still significantly different from the BL group (BL vs. MLR: p = 0.0120; BL vs. SLR: p = 0.0010). These results suggest that recuperation was not complete after return to BL for 10 weeks.

  16. Tracking Dynamic Changes and Monitoring Socioeconomic Parameters in Algeria Between 1993 and 2012, Using Nighttime Light Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faouzi, B.; Washaya, P.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is based on using DMSP-OLS data from satellites nighttime light observations to detect both sources of light emissions in Algeria from human settlement areas and gas flaring from oil-extraction and natural gas production. We used the time series of data from DMSP-OLS images to examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban development in 48 Algerian provinces from 1993 to 2012. A systematic nighttime light calibration method was used to improve the consistency and comparability of the DSMPOSL images and then a separation is made between light detected from human settlements and light detected from gas flaring in order to allow us to study human settlements without other light emissions and then assess the suitability of using DMSP data in southern Algeria and its ability to monitor gas flaring. Linear regression methods were developed to identify the dynamic change of nighttime light and estimated its growth directions at pixel level. This work is the first to use nighttime light observations to detect and monitor the growth of human settlements in North Africa. In this study, we made use of DMSP-OLS data as a return ticket to the years of crises and we found the most affected provinces during that period. The DMSP-OLS data proved to be an index of growth in the economy during the period of stability in Algeria expressed by positive dynamic changes in the lighted area in all Algerian provinces. We used NTL data as an alternative to annual growth indexes for each province, which are unavailable, and its help as a monitoring system for socioeconomic parameters to fill the gap of data availability. We also proposed nighttime light remote sensing data as a useful tool to control and reduce CO2 emissions in Algeria's petroleum sector.

  17. Prediction of Land Use Change in Long Island Sound Watersheds Using Nighttime Light Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiting Zhai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Long Island Sound Watersheds (LISW are experiencing significant land use/cover change (LUCC, which affects the environment and ecosystems in the watersheds through water pollution, carbon emissions, and loss of wildlife. LUCC modeling is an important approach to understanding what has happened in the landscape and what may change in the future. Moreover, prospective modeling can provide sustainable and efficient decision support for land planning and environmental management. This paper modeled the LUCCs between 1996, 2001 and 2006 in the LISW in the New England region, which experienced an increase in developed area and a decrease of forest. The low-density development pattern played an important role in the loss of forest and the expansion of urban areas. The key driving forces were distance to developed areas, distance to roads, and social-economic drivers, such as nighttime light intensity and population density. In addition, this paper compared and evaluated two integrated LUCC models—the logistic regression–Markov chain model and the multi-layer perception–Markov chain (MLP–MC model. Both models achieved high accuracy in prediction, but the MLP–MC model performed slightly better. Finally, a land use map for 2026 was predicted by using the MLP–MC model, and it indicates the continued loss of forest and increase of developed area.

  18. Effect of Light Intensities and Atmospheric Gas Conditions on Biohydrogen Production of Microalgae Isolated from Fisheries Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujalin Pholchan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the fishery farming industry has been developed rapidly due to increasing demand and consumption as well as the depletion of wild fish resources. Production processes in the industry usually generate large amounts of wastewater containing high nutrients, posing a threat to downstream water. However, phytoplankton removal techniques commonly used to counteract the threat, though appearing to have low efficiency, are timeconsuming and less sustainable. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that convert solar energy into hydrogen. Using the isolated algae from fish farms as a source of renewable energy production could be a promising choice for handling fisheries wastewater in a more efficient manner. However, hydrogen production processes from algae still need more studies as their efficiencies vary between algae species and growth factors. In this work, the efficiency of hydrogen production from Scenedesmus accuminatus and Arthrospira platensis harvested from fish farms under three different light intensity conditions and three atmospheric gas conditions was determined. The results showed that the best conditions for hydrogen production from both species included 24 h darkness and carbon dioxide addition. Under the atmospheric gas combination of 99% argon and 1% carbon dioxide, S. accuminatus could produce hydrogen gas as high as 0.572 mol H2/mgCh h within 12 h, while the highest hydrogen production (0.348 mol H2/mgCh h obtained from A. platensis was found under the atmospheric gas mixture of 98% argon and 2% carbon dioxide. Interestingly, S. accuminatus appeared to produce more hydrogen than A. platensis under the same conditions.

  19. Presentation and comparison of experimental critical heat flux data at conditions prototypical of light water small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, M.S., E-mail: 1greenwoodms@ornl.gov; Duarte, J.P.; Corradini, M.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Low mass flux and moderate to high pressure CHF experimental results are presented. • Facility uses chopped-cosine heater profile in a 2 × 2 square bundle geometry. • The EPRI, CISE-GE, and W-3 CHF correlations provide reasonable average CHF prediction. • Neural network analysis predicts experimental data and demonstrates utility of method. - Abstract: The critical heat flux (CHF) is a two-phase flow phenomenon which rapidly decreases the efficiency of the heat transfer performance at a heated surface. This phenomenon is one of the limiting criteria in the design and operation of light water reactors. Deviations of operating parameters greatly alters the CHF condition and must be experimentally determined for any new parameters such as those proposed in small modular reactors (SMR) (e.g. moderate to high pressure and low mass fluxes). Current open literature provides too little data for functional use at the proposed conditions of prototypical SMRs. This paper presents a brief summary of CHF data acquired from an experimental facility at the University of Wisconsin-Madison designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a 2 × 2 chopped cosine rod bundle prototypical of conceptual SMR designs. The experimental CHF test inlet conditions range from pressures of 8–16 MPa, mass fluxes of 500–1600 kg/m2 s, and inlet water subcooling from 250 to 650 kJ/kg. The experimental data is also compared against several accepted prediction methods whose application ranges are most similar to the test conditions.

  20. Fluorescent Protein Voltage Probes Derived from ArcLight that Respond to Membrane Voltage Changes with Fast Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhou; Jin, Lei; Platisa, Jelena; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Baker, Bradley J.; Pieribone, Vincent A.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the discovery of a fluorescent protein voltage probe, ArcLight, and its derivatives that exhibit large changes in fluorescence intensity in response to changes of plasma membrane voltage. ArcLight allows the reliable detection of single action potentials and sub-threshold activities in individual neurons and dendrites. The response kinetics of ArcLight (τ1-on ~10 ms, τ2-on ~ 50 ms) are comparable with most published genetically-encoded voltage probes. However, probes using voltage-sensing domains other than that from the Ciona intestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase exhibit faster kinetics. Here we report new versions of ArcLight, in which the Ciona voltage-sensing domain was replaced with those from chicken, zebrafish, frog, mouse or human. We found that the chicken and zebrafish-based ArcLight exhibit faster kinetics, with a time constant (τ) less than 6ms for a 100 mV depolarization. Although the response amplitude of these two probes (8-9%) is not as large as the Ciona-based ArcLight (~35%), they are better at reporting action potentials from cultured neurons at higher frequency. In contrast, probes based on frog, mouse and human voltage sensing domains were either slower than the Ciona-based ArcLight or had very small signals. PMID:24312287

  1. Fluorescent protein voltage probes derived from ArcLight that respond to membrane voltage changes with fast kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Han

    Full Text Available We previously reported the discovery of a fluorescent protein voltage probe, ArcLight, and its derivatives that exhibit large changes in fluorescence intensity in response to changes of plasma membrane voltage. ArcLight allows the reliable detection of single action potentials and sub-threshold activities in individual neurons and dendrites. The response kinetics of ArcLight (τ1-on ~10 ms, τ2-on ~ 50 ms are comparable with most published genetically-encoded voltage probes. However, probes using voltage-sensing domains other than that from the Ciona intestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase exhibit faster kinetics. Here we report new versions of ArcLight, in which the Ciona voltage-sensing domain was replaced with those from chicken, zebrafish, frog, mouse or human. We found that the chicken and zebrafish-based ArcLight exhibit faster kinetics, with a time constant (τ less than 6 ms for a 100 mV depolarization. Although the response amplitude of these two probes (8-9% is not as large as the Ciona-based ArcLight (~35%, they are better at reporting action potentials from cultured neurons at higher frequency. In contrast, probes based on frog, mouse and human voltage sensing domains were either slower than the Ciona-based ArcLight or had very small signals.

  2. Adaptive changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic features to low light in Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and Physocarpus opulifolius "Diabolo".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Zhong, Haixiu; Wang, Jifeng; Sui, Xin; Xu, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the differences in leaf pigment content and the photosynthetic characteristics under natural and low light intensities between the Chinese native Physocarpus amurensis Maxim and the imported Physocarpus opulifolius "Diabolo" from North America. We aim to discuss the responses and the adaptive mechanism of these two cultivars of Physocarpus to a low light environment. The results show that the specific leaf area (SLA) and the chlorophyll content were significantly increased in the leaves of both Physocarpus cultivars in response to a low light intensity, and the SLA and chlorophyll content were higher in the leaves of low light-treated P. opulifolius "Diabolo" compared with the leaves of low light-treated P. amurensis Maxim. Moreover, the content of anthocyanin was markedly reduced in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" under low light intensity, which allowed for a greater capacity of photon capture under the low light condition. Under natural light, the photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity was greater in the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim compared with the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" that were rich with anthocyanin. However, in response to low light, AQY, P max, LCP and LSP decreased to a lesser extent in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo" compared with the leaves of P. amurensis Maxim. These results suggest that P. opulifolius "Diabolo" exhibits a greater ability in adaption to low light, and it is probably related to the relatively higher chlorophyll content and the smaller SLA in the leaves of P. opulifolius "Diabolo." In addition, the low light intensity resulted in a reduced photochemical activity of photosystem (PS) II in the leaves of both Physocarpus, as evidenced by increased values of the relative variable fluorescence at point J and point I on the OJIP curve. This result suggests that the electron acceptor in PS II was the major responsive site to the low light stress in the leaves of both

  3. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  4. Personality Development at Work: Workplace Conditions, Personality Changes, and the Corresponsive Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kimdy; Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    Objective Investigations concerning adult personality development have increasingly focused on factors that are associated with apparent personality trait changes. The current study contributes to this literature by replicating and extending previous research concerning personality trait development in young adulthood and perceptions of workplace conditions. Method Analyses were based on up to 442 individuals who participated in the ongoing Family Transitions Project (e.g., Conger & Conger, 2002). The current analyses included personality trait data from 1994 and 2003, high-school grades and SES indicators from 1994, and reports about work conditions in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Results Personality attributes were prospectively associated with work conditions and income. Findings also support the corresponsive principle of personality development (e.g. Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2003): Traits that were prospectively associated with particular workplace conditions often seemed to be accentuated by those conditions. Conclusions Personality traits are prospectively associated with perceptions of the workplace. Workplace conditions are also associated with trait development. PMID:23336723

  5. Personality Development at Work: Workplace Conditions, Personality Changes, and the Corresponsive Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kimdy; Donnellan, M Brent; Conger, Rand

    2014-02-01

    Investigations concerning adult personality development have increasingly focused on factors that are associated with apparent personality trait changes. The current study contributes to this literature by replicating and extending previous research concerning personality trait development in young adulthood and perceptions of workplace conditions. Analyses were based on up to 442 individuals who participated in the ongoing Family Transitions Project (e.g., Conger & Conger, 2002). The current analyses included personality trait data from 1994 and 2003, high school grades and socioeconomic status indicators from 1994, and reports about work conditions in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Personality attributes were prospectively associated with work conditions and income. Findings also support the corresponsive principle of personality development (e.g., Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2003): Traits that were prospectively associated with particular workplace conditions often seemed to be accentuated by those conditions. Personality traits are prospectively associated with perceptions of the workplace. Workplace conditions are also associated with trait development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Impact of interlayer processing conditions on the performance of GaN light-emitting diode with specific NiOx/graphene electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, S; Kang, Ji Hye; Ryu, Beo Deul; Yang, Jong Han; Kim, Seongjun; Kim, Hynsoo; Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Taek Yong; Cho, Byung Jin; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of the impact of introducing interlayers and postmetallization annealing on the graphene/p-GaN ohmic contact formation and performance of associated devices. Current-voltage characteristics of the graphene/p-GaN contacts with ultrathin Au, Ni, and NiO(x) interlayers were studied using transmission line model with circular contact geometry. Direct graphene/p-GaN interface was identified to be highly rectifying and postmetallization annealing improved the contact characteristics as a result of improved adhesion between the graphene and the p-GaN. Ohmic contact formation was realized when interlayer is introduced between the graphene and p-GaN followed by postmetallization annealing. Temperature-dependent I-V measurements revealed that the current transport was modified from thermionic field emission for the direct graphene/p-GaN contact to tunneling for the graphene/metal/p-GaN contacts. The tunneling mechanism results from the interfacial reactions that occur between the metal and p-GaN during the postmetallization annealing. InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with NiO(x)/graphene current spreading electrode offered a forward voltage of 3.16 V comparable to that of its Ni/Au counterpart, but ended up with relatively low light output power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided evidence for the occurrence of phase transformation in the graphene-encased NiO(x) during the postmetallization annealing. The observed low light output is therefore correlated to the phase change induced transmittance loss in the NiO(x)/graphene electrode. These findings provide new insights into the behavior of different interlayers under processing conditions that will be useful for the future development of opto-electronic devices with graphene-based electrodes.

  7. Light intensity and production parameters of phytocenoses cultivated on soil-like substrate under controled environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A.; Ushakova, S.; Gribovskaya, I.; Tirranen, L.; Manukovsky, N.; Zolotukhin, I.

    To investigate feasibility of enhancing closedness in a new generation of biological life support systems (LSS) to involve the inedible phytomass into intrasystem mass exchange the vermicomposting method we have chosen made possible to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) suitable for growing plants. However, to use the SLS in life support systems call for investigation of its physical, chemical and other parameters. Of special importance among them is the capacity of SLS to provide the LSS photosynthesizing component with required mineral elements in selected cultivation conditions. In this connection the aim of this work was to study opportunities of enhancing pr4oduction activity of wheat and radish cenoses by varying the intensity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) without decreasing the harvest index. Increase of light intensity to 250 W/m 2 PAR decreased the intensity of visible photosynthesis of wheat cenosi and slightly increased visible photosynthesis of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. The maximum productivity of wheat cenosis both total and seeds corresponded to the irradiance of 200 W/m 2 PAR. The light intensity of 250 W/m2 PAR decreased productivity of wheat plants and had no significant effect of the productivity of radish cenosis as compared to 200 W/m 2 PAR. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora of the watering solution and SLS was determined by the condition of plants, development phase and PAR intensity. By the end of wheat vegetation under 250 W/m 2 there were an order more bacteria of the colon rod group and phytopathogenic bacteria in the watering solution and SLS than under other illumination conditions. Investigation of the mineral composition of SLS and the watering solution demonstrated that one of the reasons of inadequate response of the cenosis under study to elevated PAR intensity may be deficiency of accessible forms of some mineral elements, e.g. nitrogen. The above said materials evidence that

  8. Monitoring human neutrophil granule secretion by flow cytometry: secretion and membrane potential changes assessed by light scatter and a fluorescent probe of membrane potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, M.P.; Seligmann, B.E.

    1985-01-01

    Purified human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were incubated at 37 degrees C with the fluorescent membrane potential sensitive cyanine dye di-O-C(5)(3) and exposed to a number of stimulatory agents (N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), cytochalasin B (cyto B) + FMLP, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Flow cytometry was utilized to measure changes in forward light scatter (FS), orthogonal light scatter (90 degrees-SC), and fluorescence intensity of individual cells over time. A saturating (10(-6) M) dose of FMLP lead to a significant increase in the cells' FS without a change in 90 degrees-SC as well as a heterogeneous loss of di-O-C(5)(3) fluorescence. PMA (100 ng/ml) also caused an increase in FS but a uniform loss of dye fluorescence by all cells (apparent depolarization). Cyto B + FMLP produced an increase in FS, a marked loss of 90 degrees-SC, and a uniform loss of fluorescence. Secretion experiments under identical incubation conditions indicated a significantly positive relationship between loss of enzyme markers or cell granularity and orthogonal light scatter (r . 0.959, 0.998, and 0.989 for loss of 90 degrees-SC vs lysozyme, beta-glucuronidase, and granularity index, respectively). Flow cytometric light scatter measurements may yield important information on the extent of prior cell degranulation or activation

  9. Changes in salivary chromogranin A levels in adults with atopic dermatitis are correlated with changes in their condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liang; Kaneko, Sakae; Morita, Eishin

    2018-05-01

    Stress-induced scratching is an issue in patients with adult atopic dermatitis (AD). Symptoms of stress-induced AD are common in clinical practise. Salivary chromogranin A (CgA) level has research value as a possible index related to a patient's psychological stress. Using saliva, which is easily collectable, we compared two assessments of the severities of AD and stress with the levels of stress proteins in the saliva of 30 patients with AD in the Department of Dermatology of Shimane University between April 2015 and May 2017. The severities of AD and stress were assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score, respectively. Additionally, the assessments included those of personality using the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG)-II score and quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index score. Simultaneously, we measured their salivary CgA levels. The change in salivary CgA per protein in patients with AD was correlated with their changes in SCORAD score (correlation coefficient, r = 0.596, P = 0.001) and objective SCORAD (r = 0.608, P < 0.001). The changes in CgA per protein correlated with those in TEG-II A (r = 0.370, P = 0.022), while the changes in SCORAD score correlated with those in DLQI (r = 0.309, P = 0.048). Our results suggest that changes in a patient's condition are reflective of the changes in the patient's stress. The changes in salivary CgA level in patients with AD correlated with the changes in their condition. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Seeing the light : adapting to climate change with decentralized renewable energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, H.D.; Cisse, M.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents innovative and sustainable ways to respond to climate change with particular reference to decentralized renewable energy (DRE) projects. It presents the experience of developing DRE projects in five developing countries, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Senegal and Zimbabwe. The conditions under which these countries can support DRE through the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism were also examined. Some policy recommendations were proposed for more dynamic DRE support for the Kyoto era. The Clean Development Mechanism was examined as a key financial tool for supporting DRE. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that the least developed countries are the least equipped with adaptive capacity, and therefore most vulnerable to climate change. The IPCC claims that climate adaptation and sustainable development can be compatible if policies are made to lessen resource pressure, improve environmental risk management and improve the prosperity of the poorest members of society. This book presents a framework for introducing modern energy services through DRE that can stabilize the socio-economics of a developing country. The main implications of rural energy deprivation include deforestation and ecosystem degradation, chronic rural poverty and high vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Worsened physical condition due to climate change contributes to the increasing hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiabi; Shen, Jian; Park, Kyeong; Wang, Ya Ping; Yu, Xin

    2018-07-15

    There are increasing concerns about the impact of worsened physical condition on hypoxia in a variety of coastal systems, especially considering the influence of changing climate. In this study, an EOF analysis of the DO data for 1985-2012, a long-term numerical simulation of vertical exchange, and statistical analysis were applied to understand the underlying mechanisms for the variation of DO condition in Chesapeake Bay. Three types of analysis consistently demonstrated that both biological and physical conditions contribute equally to seasonal and interannual variations of the hypoxic condition in Chesapeake Bay. We found the physical condition (vertical exchange+temperature) determines the spatial and seasonal pattern of the hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay. The EOF analysis showed that the first mode, which was highly related to the physical forcings and correlated with the summer hypoxia volume, can be well explained by seasonal and interannual variations of physical variables and biological activities, while the second mode is significantly correlated with the estuarine circulation and river discharge. The weakened vertical exchange and increased water temperature since the 1980s demonstrated a worsened physical condition over the past few decades. Under changing climate (e.g., warming, accelerated sea-level rise, altered precipitation and wind patterns), Chesapeake Bay is likely to experience a worsened physical condition, which will amplify the negative impact of anthropogenic inputs on eutrophication and consequently require more efforts for nutrient reduction to improve the water quality condition in Chesapeake Bay. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contrast sensitivity to spatial gratings in moderate and dim light conditions in patients with diabetes in the absence of diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Sare; Rahimi, Anoushiravan; Raeesi, Afsaneh; Safi, Hamid; Aghazadeh Amiri, Mohammad; Malek, Mojtaba; Yaseri, Mehdi; Haeri, Mohammad; Middleton, Frank A; Solessio, Eduardo; Ahmadieh, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of contrast sensitivity (CS) to discriminate loss of visual function in diabetic subjects with no clinical signs of retinopathy relative to that of normal subjects. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we measured CS in 46 diabetic subjects with a mean age of 48±6 years, a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 and no signs of diabetic retinopathy. The CS in these subjects was compared with CS measurements in 46 normal control subjects at four spatial frequencies (3, 6, 12, 18 cycles per degree) under moderate (500 lux) and dim (less than 2 lux) background light conditions. CS was approximately 0.16 log units lower in patients with diabetes relative to controls both in moderate and in dim background light conditions. Logistic regression classification and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that CS analysis using two light conditions was more accurate (0.78) overall compared with CS analysis using only a single illumination condition (accuracy values were 0.67 and 0.70 in moderate and dim light conditions, respectively). Our results showed that patients with diabetes without clinical signs of retinopathy exhibit a uniform loss in CS at all spatial frequencies tested. Measuring the loss in CS at two spatial frequencies (3 and 6 cycles per degree) and two light conditions (moderate and dim) is sufficiently robust to classify diabetic subjects with no retinopathy versus control subjects.

  13. Effects of caffeine on alcohol-related changes in behavioural control and perceived intoxication in light caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S; Rogers, Peter J; Ataya, Alia F; Adams, Sally; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-06-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverages have been associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harms. However, few studies have examined these combined effects on behavioural control, which is believed to underlie many of the negative effects of alcohol consumption. In addition, studies have often omitted subjective measures, and none have directly assessed the role of caffeine consumer history. To examine the combined effects of alcohol and caffeine on measures of behavioural control and perceived intoxication in abstinent, light caffeine consumers. Participants (n = 28; 50% male) attended four sessions at which they consumed one of the following beverages in a randomised order: placebo, alcohol alone (0.6 g/kg), caffeine alone (2.0 mg/kg), and alcohol/caffeine. They completed measures of mood, intoxication, anxiety and alcohol craving before and after a task battery comprising measures of behavioural control and reaction time performance. Caffeine attenuated alcohol-related performance deficits on stop-signal accuracy, had no effect on go-no-go performance deficits, and worsened accuracy on the Stroop task. Caffeine did not influence absolute changes in perceived intoxication but there was suggestion that caffeine may have changed the nature of intoxication with increases in stimulation. Caffeine appears to have mixed effects on alcohol intoxication that are task-dependent. We found increased stimulation in the alcohol/caffeine condition, supporting the contention that caffeinated alcoholic beverages enable an individual to drink for longer. Future research should model real world drinking behaviour by examining how these effects change across multiple drink administrations.

  14. The condition and the dynamics of changes of regional energetic safety level

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy Myzin; Aleksey Kalina; Andrey Kozitsyn; Pavel Pykhov

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of indicative analysis method use, the dynamic processes of changes of energetic safety condition of federal districts and subjects of Russian Federation for last 5 years are investigated. The results of diagnosing safety levels for separate indicators, their blocks and the results of situation evaluation as a whole are discussed. The comparison of regions’ energetic safety condition is given, the causes of crisis situations appearance are discovered, and on this basis the sugg...

  15. Development of passive and active microprism arrays to change the radiation pattern of solid-state lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Ting, Yi-Shuo; Fang, Weileun

    2012-01-01

    This study implements a compact solid-state lighting chip with changeable illumination map as well as radiation pattern. The lighting chip consists of a microprism array, light-emitting diode (LED) chip and Si carrier. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) layers are respectively employed to implement the passive and active microprism arrays. The specific radiation pattern can be defined by the shape of the passive PDMS-microprism. Moreover, by using the scattering and transmitting modes of the PDLC layer, the PDLC-microprism enables the changing of light shaping by applying voltage. Thus, the radiation pattern can be changed by the driving voltage on the PDLC layer, and the deformable and movable micro optical components are not required. This study has established the low-temperature fabrication and packaging processes to realize the lighting chip, and the damage of the PDMS and PDLC material is prevented. Typical dimensions of the PDMS lighting chip are 5 mm wide, 6 mm long and 1 mm thick, and The PDLC lighting chip is 550 µm thick. The measurement results show that the PDMS-microprism array can change the radiation pattern from a 70° half-maximum viewing angle to 52° and 40° half-maximum viewing angles on two orthogonal axes. In addition, the PDLC-microprism array can change the radiation pattern from 51° and 43° half-maximum viewing angles at 0 V (i.e. scattering mode) to 48° and 33° half-maximum viewing angles at 100 V (i.e. transmitting mode). (paper)

  16. Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Karin; Kjellström, Tord

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change increases heat loads in urban areas causing health and productivity risks for millions of people. Inhabitants in tropical and subtropical urban areas are at especial risk due to high population density, already high temperatures, and temperature increases due to climate change. Air conditioning is growing rapidly, especially in South and South-East Asia due to income growth and the need to protect from high heat exposures. Studies have linked increased total hourly elect...

  17. The idiosyncrasies of streams: local variability mitigates vulnerability of trout to changing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Brooke Penaluna; Jason Dunham

    2016-01-01

    Land use and climate change are two key factors with the potential to affect stream conditions and fish habitat. Since the 1950s, Washington and Oregon have required forest practices designed to mitigate the effects of timber harvest on streams and fish. Yet questions remain about the extent to which these practices are effective. Add in the effects of climate change—...

  18. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  19. Influence of changes in initial conditions for the simulation of dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, Martin [Department of Informatics and Computers, University of Ostrava, 30 dubna 22, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    Chaos theory is a field of study in mathematics, with applications in several disciplines including meteorology, sociology, physics, engineering, economics, biology, and philosophy. Chaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions—a paradigm popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. Small differences in initial conditions field widely diverging outcomes for such dynamical systems, rendering long-term prediction impossible in general. This happens even though these systems are deterministic, meaning that their future behavior is fully determined by their initial conditions, with no random elements involved. In this paperinfluence of changes in initial conditions will be presented for the simulation of Lorenz system.

  20. Screening variability and change of soil moisture under wide-ranging climate conditions: Snow dynamics effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture influences and is influenced by water, climate, and ecosystem conditions, affecting associated ecosystem services in the landscape. This paper couples snow storage-melting dynamics with an analytical modeling approach to screening basin-scale, long-term soil moisture variability and change in a changing climate. This coupling enables assessment of both spatial differences and temporal changes across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. Model application is exemplified for two major Swedish hydrological basins, Norrström and Piteälven. These are located along a steep temperature gradient and have experienced different hydro-climatic changes over the time period of study, 1950-2009. Spatially, average intra-annual variability of soil moisture differs considerably between the basins due to their temperature-related differences in snow dynamics. With regard to temporal change, the long-term average state and intra-annual variability of soil moisture have not changed much, while inter-annual variability has changed considerably in response to hydro-climatic changes experienced so far in each basin.

  1. Effects of lighting and air-conditioning systems on growth weight and functional composition of frill-lettuce produced in plant factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Atsumasa; Okamura, Nobuya; Furukawa, Hajime; Myojin, Chiho; Moriuchi, Koji; Kinoshita, Shinichi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop optimal air-conditioning systems for plant factories. To verify the effect of particular air-conditioning and lighting systems, cultivation experiments were performed with frill-lettuce for two weeks. In the present study, the relationship between the cultivation condition, the yield (i.e., increase in edible portion weight), and the functional components were discussed. Based on the measured data, increased photosynthetic photon flux density increased antioxidative activity and edible portion weight, possibly because high light intensities are stressful for frill lettuce. Antioxidative activity also increased under conditions of low CO2 concentration, weak and strong winds, and high air temperature because these conditions became stresses for the plants. However, a decrease in edible portion weight was observed under these conditions, implying there is a negative correlation between antioxidative activity and edible portion weight.

  2. Characterization of the photosynthetic induction response in a Populus species with stomata barely responding to light changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y; Liang, N

    2000-08-01

    The photosynthetic induction response is constrained by stomatal and biochemical limitations. However, leaves in some plants like Populus koreana x trichocarpa cv. Peace (a hybrid clone) may have little stomatal limitation because their stomata barely respond to changes in photon flux density (PFD). We examined the induction responses of leaves of well-watered and dehydrated P. koreana x trichocarpa plants grown in a high-light or a low-light regime. With an increase in PFD from 50 to 500 micromol m(-2) s(-1), steady-state stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased by only 0.25-8.2%, regardless of the initial g(s), but steady-state assimilation rate (A) increased by 550-1810%. Photosynthetic induction times required to reach 50% (IT50) and 90% (IT90) of A at high PFD were 60-90 s and 210-360 s, respectively. Examination of the dynamic relationships between A and g(s), and between A and intercellular CO2 concentration, indicated that the induction limitation was imposed completely by the biochemical components within 30-40 s after the PFD increase. Values of IT50 and IT90 were significantly higher in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves, whereas the induction state at 60 s and the induction efficiency at 60 and 120 s after the increase in PFD were lower in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves. Dehydration reduced leaf water potential (psi) significantly, resulting in a significantly decreased initial g(s). Leaf water potential had no significant effects on induction time in high-light leaves, but a low psi significantly reduced the induction time in low-light leaves. We conclude that the photosynthetic induction response was limited almost completely by biochemical components because the stomata barely responded to light changes. The biochemical limitation appeared to be higher in low-light leaves than in high-light leaves. Mild water stress may have reduced steady-state A and g(s), but it had little effect on the photosynthetic induction response in high-light

  3. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Juliusson, Petur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim: To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods: The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m2) and BMI SDS are summarised by...

  4. Conditions for Emergence, Stability and Change in New Organizations in the Field of Citizens Climate Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    Climate change represents a crisis of tangible measure and the emergence of a field of action within which acting today needs to be motivated for what can contribute to benefit climate and transform society into a low carbon tomorrow. With the breadth and scope of citizen action on climate change....... This contribution is concerned with the latter. It proposes that using field analysis it is possible to understand conditions of emergence, stability and change in citizen engagement in climate action. The present contribution offers only a preliminary exploration of possibilities for how using field theory can...

  5. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  6. Adapting to Mother Nature's changing climatic conditions: Flexible stocking for enhancing profitability of Wyoming ranchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranching is a dynamic business in which profitability is impacted by changing weather and climatic conditions. A ranch-level model using a representative ranch in southeastern Wyoming was used to compare economic outcomes from growing season precipitation scenarios of: 1) historical precipitation da...

  7. Cleanability Improvement of Cotton Fabrics Through Their Topographical Changes Due to the Conditioning with Cellulase Enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvimontes, A.; Lant, N.J.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this study, topographical changes of woven cotton fabrics conditioned with a cellulase enzyme during several wash–dry cycles are systematically studied. A recent study of cellulase enzyme effect on cellulose films has proven that this substance selectively attacks amorphous regions of cellulose,

  8. Harmonic analysis of dense time series of landsat imagery for modeling change in forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry Tyler. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of dense time series of Landsat imagery for small area estimation and mapping of change in forest conditions over time. The study area was a region in north central Wisconsin for which Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery and field measurements from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program are available for the decade of 2003 to 2012. For the periods...

  9. Effects of city expansion on heat stress under climate change conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Argüeso

    Full Text Available We examine the joint contribution of urban expansion and climate change on heat stress over the Sydney region. A Regional Climate Model was used to downscale present (1990-2009 and future (2040-2059 simulations from a Global Climate Model. The effects of urban surfaces on local temperature and vapor pressure were included. The role of urban expansion in modulating the climate change signal at local scales was investigated using a human heat-stress index combining temperature and vapor pressure. Urban expansion and climate change leads to increased risk of heat-stress conditions in the Sydney region, with substantially more frequent adverse conditions in urban areas. Impacts are particularly obvious in extreme values; daytime heat-stress impacts are more noticeable in the higher percentiles than in the mean values and the impact at night is more obvious in the lower percentiles than in the mean. Urban expansion enhances heat-stress increases due to climate change at night, but partly compensates its effects during the day. These differences are due to a stronger contribution from vapor pressure deficit during the day and from temperature increases during the night induced by urban surfaces. Our results highlight the inappropriateness of assessing human comfort determined using temperature changes alone and point to the likelihood that impacts of climate change assessed using models that lack urban surfaces probably underestimate future changes in terms of human comfort.

  10. Awareness of FDA-Mandated Cigarette Packaging Changes among Smokers of "Light" Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as "light", "ultra-light" and "low tar" with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and…

  11. Autism and classical eyeblink conditioning: Performance changes of the conditioned response related to autism spectrum disorder diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Welsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing performance of conditioned responses (CRs acquired during trace and delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC are presented for diagnostic subgroups of children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD aged 6-15 years. Children diagnosed with autistic disorder (AD were analyzed separately from children diagnosed with either Asperger’s syndrome or Pervasive-developmental disorder not-otherwise-specified (Asp/PDD and compared to an age- and IQ-matched group of children that were typically developing (TD. Within-subject and between-groups contrasts in CR performance on sequential exposure to trace and delay EBC were analyzed to determine whether any differences would expose underlying functional heterogeneities of the cerebral and cerebellar systems in ASD subgroups. The EBC parameters measured were percentage CRs, CR onset latency, and CR peak latency. Neither AD nor Asp/PDD groups were impaired in CR acquisition during trace or delay EBC. AD and Asp/PDD both altered CR timing, but not always in the same way. Although the AD group showed normal CR timing during trace EBC, the Asp/PDD group showed a significant 27 and 28 ms increase in CR onset and peak latency, respectively, during trace EBC. In contrast, the direction of the timing change was opposite during delay EBC, during which the Asp/PDD group showed a significant 29 ms decrease in CR onset latency and the AD group showed a larger 77 ms decrease in CR onset latency. Only the AD group showed a decrease in CR peak latency during delay EBC, demonstrating another difference between AD and Asp/PDD. The difference in CR onset latency during delay EBC for both AD and Asp/PDD was due to an abnormal prevalence of early onset CRs that were intermixed with CRs having normal timing, as observed both in CR onset histograms and mean CR waveforms. In conclusion, significant heterogeneity in EBC performance was apparent within diagnostic groups, and this may indicate that EBC performance can

  12. Late Holocene climate and environmental change from Asiul cave speleothems: interpretations in light of modern cave monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Wynn, Peter; Barker, Philip; Leng, Melanie; Noble, Steve; Tych, Wlodek

    2017-04-01

    Northern Iberia offers an excellent location to study fluctuations in North Atlantic Ocean (NA) conditions and the impact that changes in the NA have on atmospheric systems, which dominate Europe's climate. Two speleothems from Cueva de Asiul (Matienzo, N. Spain) have been used to reconstruct rainfall variability in N. Spain throughout the Holocene (Smith et al., 2016a). The carbonate δ18O records from these speleothems are interpreted in the light of a rigorous modern cave monitoring program undertaken at Cueva de Asiul (Smith et al., 2016b). Drip water δ18O reflects a modern rainfall amount effect whilst δ13C appears influenced by Prior Calcite Precipitation (PCP) in the short term and changes in vegetation at long timescales. The speleothem δ18O shows that long duration ( 1500 year) cycles in wetting and drying are prevalent in N. Spain during the Holocene and that dry climate phases are related to the timing of cold events (Bond et al., 2001) in the NA. Here we look in more detail at one of these speleothems, assessing both δ18O and δ13C during the last two thousand years. We show that Cueva de Asiul speleothems not only preserve long duration climate cycles in δ18O, but that they also appear influenced by shorter duration changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in-sync with other NAO archives (Olsen et al., 2012). However, the Cueva de Asiul record does not appear to preserve a predominately positive NAO signal during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) as is common within many European archives (Trouet et al., 2009), possibly due to the sites' close proximity to the NA and localised oceanic weather systems (Moreno et al., 2012). Alongside climatic changes, the speleothem δ13C shows a clear transition toward higher isotope values around 360 years BP (BP=1950), signalling a major environmental change in the region possibly due to anthropogenic removal of vast swathes of natural forest to support ship building and industry related to the Spanish

  13. Towards real-time non contact spatial resolved oxygenation monitoring using a multi spectral filter array camera in various light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jacob R.; van Beekum, Karlijn; Klaessens, John; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Boer, Christa; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2018-02-01

    Non contact spatial resolved oxygenation measurements remain an open challenge in the biomedical field and non contact patient monitoring. Although point measurements are the clinical standard till this day, regional differences in the oxygenation will improve the quality and safety of care. Recent developments in spectral imaging resulted in spectral filter array cameras (SFA). These provide the means to acquire spatial spectral videos in real-time and allow a spatial approach to spectroscopy. In this study, the performance of a 25 channel near infrared SFA camera was studied to obtain spatial oxygenation maps of hands during an occlusion of the left upper arm in 7 healthy volunteers. For comparison a clinical oxygenation monitoring system, INVOS, was used as a reference. In case of the NIRS SFA camera, oxygenation curves were derived from 2-3 wavelength bands with a custom made fast analysis software using a basic algorithm. Dynamic oxygenation changes were determined with the NIR SFA camera and INVOS system at different regional locations of the occluded versus non-occluded hands and showed to be in good agreement. To increase the signal to noise ratio, algorithm and image acquisition were optimised. The measurement were robust to different illumination conditions with NIR light sources. This study shows that imaging of relative oxygenation changes over larger body areas is potentially possible in real time.

  14. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah; Ragheb, Amr; Fathallah, Habib; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  15. Estimating Housing Vacancy Rate in Qingdao City with Npp-Viirs Nighttime Light and Geographical National Conditions Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, X.

    2018-04-01

    Accompanying China's rapid urbanization in recent decades, especially in the new millennium, the housing problem has become one of the most important issues. The estimation and analysis of housing vacancy rate (HVR) can assist decision-making in solving this puzzle. It is particularly significant to government departments. This paper proposed a practical model for estimating the HVR in Qingdao city using NPP-VIIRS nighttime light composed data, Geographic National Conditions Monitoring data (GNCMD) and resident population distribution data. The main steps are: Firstly, pre-process the data, and finally forming a series of data sets with 500*500 grid as the basic unit; Secondly, select 400 grids of different types within the city as sample grids for SVM training, and establish a reasonable HVR model; Thirdly, using the model to estimate HVR in Qingdao and employing spatial statistical analysis methods to reveal the spatial differentiation pattern of HVR in this city; Finally test the accuracy of the model with two different methods. The results conclude that HVR in the southeastern coastal area of Qingdao city is relatively low and the low-low clusters distributed in patches. Simultaneously, in other regions it shows the tendency of the low value accumulation in the downtown area and the increasing trend towards the outer suburbs. Meanwhile the suburban and scenery regions by the side of the sea and mountains are likely to be the most vacant part of the city.

  16. Investigation and Demonstration of High Speed Full-Optical Hybrid FSO/Fiber Communication System under Light Sand Storm Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-12-19

    In contrast to traditional free space optical (FSO) systems, the new generation is aimed to be transparent to optical fiber where protocols, high signal bandwidths, and high data rates over fiber are all maintained. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a high speed outdoor full-optical FSO communication system over 100 m link. We first describe the design of our transmitter, which consists of a comb generator and a flexible multiformat transmitter. Our measurements are performed in arid desert area under a light dust storm. In this environment, we use a 12 subcarrier comb generator, each of which is modulated by a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signal. We achieved a 1.08 Tbps error free data rate with 3.6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. We place long optical fiber rolls in the transmitter side and the receiver side to mimic real FSO deployments. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of receiver misalignment in outdoor conditions and the effect of background noise. We find that full-optical FSO system is sensitive to the misalignment effect. However, the background noise has negligible effect. Finally, we find that solar heating of the transceiver causes collimator deviation, which requires using a cooling unit or auto tracking system.

  17. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change: Reactions to Rogers' 1957 article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samstag, Lisa Wallner

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' article (see record 2007-14639-002) on the necessary and sufficient conditions for personality change has had a significant impact on the field of psychotherapy and psychotherapy research. He emphasized the client as arbiter of his or her own subjective experience and tested his hypothesized therapist-offered conditions of change using recorded sessions. This aided in demystifying the therapeutic process and led to a radical shift in the listening stance of the therapist. I briefly outline my views regarding the influence of the ideas presented in this work, describe the intellectual and cultural context of the times, and discuss a number of ways in which the therapist-offered conditions for psychological transformation are neither necessary nor sufficient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Assessing changes in a patient's condition - Perspectives of intensive care nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else

    2017-01-01

    Aim To explore the phenomenon of assessing changes in patients' conditions in intensive care units from the perspectives of experienced intensive care nurses. Background Providing safe care for patients in intensive care units requires an awareness and perception of the signs that indicate changes...... in a patient's condition. Nurses in intensive care units play an essential role in preventing the deterioration of a patient's condition and in improving patient outcomes. Design and methods This hermeneutic phenomenological study conducted close observations and in-depth interviews with 11 intensive care...... nurses. The nurses' experience ranged from 7 to 28 years in the intensive care unit. Data were collected at two intensive care units in two Norwegian university hospitals. The analysis was performed using the reflective methods of van Manen. Findings An overarching theme of ‘sensitive situational...

  19. Comparison between two methods to evaluate temperature changes produced by composite light curing units and polymerization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, F H F; Consani, S; Guiraldo, R D; Consani, R L X; Berger, S B; Carvalho, R V; Correr-Sobrinho, L; Sinhoreti, M A C

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the temperature change into the pulp chamber during the light curing of composite resin by direct (bovine tooth) and indirect (matrix) methods. Direct method: fifty standardized cavities (2x2x2 mm) were prepared in bovine incisors, which were randomly assigned to evaluation of the temperature changes in the pulp chamber. Indirect method: temperature changes were evaluated through a dentine slice of 1.0 mm thickness in a elastomer cubic mold (2x2x2 mm). Filtek Z250 composite resin (3M/ESPE) was photo-activated using three light curing units: quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) by continuous, soft-start or intermittent light modulations; light emitting diode (LED); and plasma arc-curing (PAC). Ten groups (N.=10) were established according to technique evaluation and photo-activation methods. All experiments were carried out in a controlled environment (37 °C and 50 ± 10% relative humidity). The temperature changes were recorded using a digital thermometer attached to a type-K thermocouple in contact with the dentin slice (indirect method) or in contact with the axial wall (dentin) of pulp chamber (direct method). The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Temperature changes were statistically higher for the matrix indirect method (2.56 ºC) than bovine teeth direct method (1.17ºC). The change temperature was statistically higher for the PAC (1.77 ºC) when compared to other photo-activation modes in bovine teeth direct method. The two methods of temperature evaluation were different, however indirect method detected the higher temperature increase. Higher energy density arising from the light curing units and polymerization techniques promoted higher temperature increase.

  20. Study on spatial-temporal change of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration based on DMSP / OLS night light data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Li, Lel-in

    2018-03-01

    For the sake of curbing the spreading of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration and spatial disorder in the process of urbanization development on the regional bearing capacity of land resources and ecological environment and assisting to plan the integration process of ChangZhuTan,this paper uses the DMSP/OLS night light data of Chang ZhuTan in 1992 to 2013 to invert the urbanization process index of ChangZhuTan urban agglomeration. Based on the two scales of time and space, this paper analyzes the average index of lights, the speed of urban expansion and urban compactness index et al and studies the temporal and spatial characteristics of ChangZhuTan urban agglomeration in this period.

  1. Induction of L-form-like cell shape change of Bacillus subtilis under microculture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Ryuji; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Iwano, Megumi; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Takatsuka, Tomomasa; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Fukui, Kazuhiro

    2003-09-01

    A remarkable cell shape change was observed in Bacillus subtilis strain 168 under microculture conditions on CI agar medium (Spizizen's minimal medium supplemented with a trace amount of yeast extract and Casamino acids). Cells cultured under a cover glass changed in form from rod-shaped to spherical, large and irregular shapes that closely resembled L-form cells. The cell shape change was observed only with CI medium, not with Spizizen's minimum medium alone or other rich media. The whole-cell protein profile of cells grown under cover glass and cells grown on CI agar plates differed in several respects. Tandem mass analysis of nine gel bands which differed in protein expression between the two conditions showed that proteins related to nitrate respiration and fermentation were expressed in the shape-changed cells grown under cover glass. The cell shape change of CI cultures was repressed when excess KNO3 was added to the medium. Whole-cell protein analysis of the normal rod-shaped cells grown with 0.1% KNO3 and the shape-changed cells grown without KNO3 revealed that the expression of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (coded by the bfmB gene locus) was elevated in the shape-changed cells. Inactivation of the bfmB locus resulted in the repression of cell shape change, and cells in which bfmB expression was induced by IPTG did show changes in shape. Transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections demonstrated that the shape-changed cells had thin walls, and plasmolysis of cells fixed with a solution including 0.1 M sucrose was observed. Clarifying the mechanism of thinning of the cell wall may lead to the development of a new type of cell wall biosynthetic inhibitor.

  2. Environmental risk of climate change and groundwater abstraction on stream ecological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige; Bøgh, Eva; Jensen, Niels H.

    with DAISY, a one dimensional crop model describing soil water dynamics in the root zone, and MIKE SHE, a distributed groundwater-surface water model. The relative and combined impacts on low flows, groundwater levels, and nitrate leaching are quantified and compared to assess the water resource sensitivity...... and risk to stream ecological conditions. We find low flow and annual discharge to be most impacted by scenarios of climate change, with high variation across climate models (+/- 40% change). Doubling of current groundwater abstraction rates reduces annual discharge by approximately 20%, with higher...... flows and groundwater levels are of interest, as they relate to aquatic habitat and nitrate leaching, respectively. This study evaluates the risk to stream ecological conditions for a lowland Danish catchment under multiple scenarios of climate change and groundwater abstraction. Projections of future...

  3. Investigation of the role of the calvin cycle and C1 metabolism during HCHO metabolism in gaseous HCHO-treated petunia under light and dark conditions using 13C-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huiqun; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that formaldehyde (HCHO) absorbed by plants can be assimilated through the Calvin cycle or C1 metabolism. Our previous study indicated that Petunia hybrida could effectively eliminate HCHO from HCHO-polluted air. To understand the roles of C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia plants treated with gaseous H(13)CHO under light and dark conditions. Aseptically grown petunia plants were treated with gaseous H(13)CHO under dark and light conditions. The metabolites generated from HCHO detoxification in petunia were investigated using (13)C-NMR. [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) was generated via C1 metabolism and [U-(13)C]glucose (Gluc) was produced through the Calvin cycle simultaneously in petunia treated with low-level gaseous H(13)CHO under light conditions. Generation of [2-(13)C]Gly decreased whereas [U-(13) C]Gluc and [U-(13)C]fructose (Fruc) production increased greatly under high-level gaseous H(13)CHO stress in the light. In contrast, [U-(13)C]Gluc and [U-(13)C] Fruc production decreased greatly and [2-(13)C]Gly generation increased significantly under low-level and high-level gaseous H(13)CHO stress in the dark. C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle contributed differently to HCHO metabolism and detoxification in gaseous H(13CHO-treated petunia plants. As the level of gaseous HCHO increased, the role of C1 metabolism decreased and the role of the Calvin cycle increased under light conditions. However, opposite changes were observed in petunia plants under dark conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Graphene/phase change material nanocomposites: light-driven, reversible electrical resistivity regulation via form-stable phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunming; Mi, Hongyi; Zheng, Qifeng; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-04

    Innovative photoresponsive materials are needed to address the complexity of optical control systems. Here, we report a new type of photoresponsive nanomaterial composed of graphene and a form-stable phase change material (PCM) that exhibited a 3 orders of magnitude change in electrical resistivity upon light illumination while retaining its overall original solid form at the macroscopic level. This dramatic change in electrical resistivity also occurred reversibly through the on/off control of light illumination. This was attributed to the reversible phase transition (i.e., melting/recrystallization) behavior of the microscopic crystalline domains present in the form-stable PCM. The reversible phase transition observed in the graphene/PCM nanocomposite was induced by a reversible temperature change through the on/off control of light illumination because graphene can effectively absorb light energy and convert it to thermal energy. In addition, this graphene/PCM nanocomposite also possessed excellent mechanical properties. Such photoresponsive materials have many potential applications, including flexible electronics.

  5. Boosting particle filter-based eye tracker performance through adapted likelihood function to reflexions and light changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammoud, Riad; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2005-01-01

    . The tracker overcomes the issues of prior selection of static thresholds during the detection of feature observations in the bright-dark difference images. The auto-initialization process is performed using cascaded classifier trained using adaboost and adapted to IR eye images. Experiments show good...... performance in challenging sequences with test subjects showing large head movements and under significant light changes....

  6. Photocatalytic dechlorination of PCB 138 using leuco-methylene blue and visible light; reaction conditions and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izadifard, Maryam; Langford, Cooper H.; Achari, Gopal

    2010-01-01

    A study of dechlorination of PCB 138, under visible light employing methylene blue (MB) and triethylamine (TEA) in acetonitrile/water has been conducted to investigate the details of the mechanism of dechlorination and to determine the efficiency of the process for this representative congener. Two other amines, N-methyldiethanolamine (MEDA) and (triethanolamine) TEOA also replaced TEA and two other solvents, methanol and ethanol replacing acetonitrile were examined for effects on reaction rates. The results show that PCB 138 can be dechlorinated efficiently in this photocatalytic reaction. Clarifying ambiguities in several previous reports, the reduced form of MB, leuco-methylene blue (LMB) was identified as responsible for the photoreaction with its excited state transferring an electron to PCBs; oxidized LMB (i.e. MB) is reduced back to LMB by the excess amine present. The reaction depends on a cycle driven by the amine as a sacrificial electron donor. MEDA proved to be the most efficient electron donor; apparently in consequence of the most favourable steady state concentration of LMB. Methanol and ethanol may be used to replace acetonitrile with little change in the efficiency of the reaction.

  7. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  8. Changes in Cell Viability of Wounded Fibroblasts following Laser Irradiation in Broad-Spectrum or Infrared Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.; Abrahamse, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to establish if broad-spectrum or infrared (IR) light in combination with laser therapy can assist phototherapy to improve the cell function of wounded cells. Background. The effect of laser light may be partly or completely reduced by broad-spectrum light. Methods. Wounded human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with 5 J/cm2 using a helium-neon laser, a diode laser, or an Nd:YAG laser in the dark, in the light, or in IR. Changes in cell viability were evaluated by cell morphology, ATP cell viability, LDH membrane integrity, and caspase 3/7 as an early marker of apoptosis. Results. Wounded cells exposed to 5 J/cm2 using 632.8 nm in the dark or 830 nm in the light or 1064 nm in the dark showed an increase in ATP viability, an increase in cytokine expression, and a decrease in LDH cytotoxicity indicating that the metabolic activity of the wounded cells was stimulated. Conclusion. Wounded cells irradiated in IR light showed an undesirable thermal effect that was proportional to the duration of exposure.

  9. The response of substance use disorder treatment providers to changes in macroeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Stoller, Kenneth B; Saloner, Brendan

    2017-10-01

    To study how substance use disorder (SUD) treatment providers respond to changes in economic conditions. 2000-2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) which contains detailed information on specialty SUD facilities in the United States. We use fixed-effects regression to study how changes in economic conditions, proxied by state unemployment rates, impact treatment setting, accepted payment forms, charity care, offered services, special programs, and use of pharmacotherapies by specialty SUD treatment providers. Secondary data analysis in the N-SSATS. Our findings suggest a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate is associated with a 2.5% reduction in outpatient clients by non-profit providers and a 1.8% increase in the acceptance of private insurance as a form of payment overall. We find no evidence that inpatient treatment, the provision of charity care, offered services, or special programs are impacted by changes in the state unemployment rate. However, a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate leads to a 2.5% increase in the probability that a provider uses pharmacotherapies to treat addiction. Deteriorating economic conditions may increase financial pressures on treatment providers, prompting them to seek new sources of revenue or to change their care delivery models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Weather conditions conducive to Beijing severe haze more frequent under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenju; Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Wu, Lixin

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of Beijing winter severe haze episodes has increased substantially over the past decades, and is commonly attributed to increased pollutant emissions from China’s rapid economic development. During such episodes, levels of fine particulate matter are harmful to human health and the environment, and cause massive disruption to economic activities, as occurred in January 2013. Conducive weather conditions are an important ingredient of severe haze episodes, and include reduced surface winter northerlies, weakened northwesterlies in the midtroposphere, and enhanced thermal stability of the lower atmosphere. How such weather conditions may respond to climate change is not clear. Here we project a 50% increase in the frequency and an 80% increase in the persistence of conducive weather conditions similar to those in January 2013, in response to climate change. The frequency and persistence between the historical (1950-1999) and future (2050-2099) climate were compared in 15 models under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). The increased frequency is consistent with large-scale circulation changes, including an Arctic Oscillation upward trend, weakening East Asian winter monsoon, and faster warming in the lower troposphere. Thus, circulation changes induced by global greenhouse gas emissions can contribute to the increased Beijing severe haze frequency.

  11. PSB27: A thylakoid protein enabling Arabidopsis to adapt to changing light intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept of Plant and Microbial Biology; Garcia, Veder J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept of Plant and Microbial Biology; Buchanan, Bob B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept of Plant and Microbial Biology; Luan, Sheng [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept of Plant and Microbial Biology

    2016-08-22

    complex that might be PSII supercomplex. Under objective 2, we have found that FKBP16-2 interacted with PSB27 that was further pursuited and published a research article in PNAS (attached). Under Objective 3, we have identified several mutants of other FKBPs in the thyalkoid lumen that should be further studied if future funding is available. Under Objective 4, we have started to build a network of lumenal proteins that play a number of roles in photosynthesis. For example, the CYP37 and CYP28 are linked to chloroplast signaling to nucleus, critical for controlling plant response to high light and adaptation to climate change. Unfortunately these studies have been terminated due to funding shortage.

  12. An evaluation of resistance to change with unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Kristina K; Ringdahl, Joel E

    2015-09-01

    Several reinforcer-related variables influence a response's resistance to change (Nevin, 1974). Reinforcer type (i.e., conditioned or unconditioned) is a reinforcer-related variable that has not been studied with humans but may have clinical implications. In Experiment 1, we identified unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers of equal preference. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we reinforced participants' behavior during a baseline phase using a multiple variable-interval (VI) 30-s VI 30-s schedule with either conditioned (i.e., token) or unconditioned (i.e., food; one type of reinforcement in each component) reinforcement. After equal reinforcement rates across components, we introduced a disruptor. Results of Experiments 2 and 3 showed that behaviors were more resistant to extinction and distraction, respectively, with conditioned than with unconditioned reinforcers. Results of Experiment 4, however, showed that when prefeeding disrupted responding, behaviors were more resistant to change with unconditioned reinforcers than with conditioned reinforcers. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. The impact of changing surface ocean conditions on the dissolution of aerosol iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, Matthew P.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Worsfold, Paul J.; Buck, Kristen N.; Church, Thomas M.; Ussher, Simon J.

    2014-11-01

    The proportion of aerosol iron (Fe) that dissolves in seawater varies greatly and is dependent on aerosol composition and the physicochemical conditions of seawater, which may change depending on location or be altered by global environmental change. Aerosol and surface seawater samples were collected in the Sargasso Sea and used to investigate the impact of these changing conditions on aerosol Fe dissolution in seawater. Our data show that seawater temperature, pH, and oxygen concentration, within the range of current and projected future values, had no significant effect on the dissolution of aerosol Fe. However, the source and composition of aerosols had the most significant effect on the aerosol Fe solubility, with the most anthropogenically influenced samples having the highest fractional solubility (up to 3.2%). The impact of ocean warming and acidification on aerosol Fe dissolution is therefore unlikely to be as important as changes in land usage and fossil fuel combustion. Our experimental results also reveal important changes in the size distribution of soluble aerosol Fe in solution, depending on the chemical conditions of seawater. Under typical conditions, the majority (77-100%) of Fe released from aerosols into ambient seawater existed in the colloidal (0.02-0.4 µm) size fraction. However, in the presence of a sufficient concentration of strong Fe-binding organic ligands (10 nM) most of the aerosol-derived colloidal Fe was converted to soluble Fe (<0.02 µm). This finding highlights the potential importance of organic ligands in retaining aerosol Fe in a biologically available form in the surface ocean.

  14. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  15. Impact of changes in Medicare payments on the financial condition of nonprofit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the implications of revenue changes on the financial condition of nonprofit hos pitals. I examine these implications empirically by studying the effect of changes in Medicare payments in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Using data from the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services between 1996 and 2004, I show that even though revenue fell significantly, resulting in a decline in profitability, hospitals did not significantly change their capital structure and use of capital. An important implication of this is a higher cost of borrowing for these hospitals, which can affect future capital accumulation and viability. Nonprofit hospitals are a very important part of the healthcare delivery system in the United States. Medicare patients constitute the single largest segment of their revenue sources. Understanding the consequences of the changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital finances is useful in framing future revisions of Medicare payments.

  16. Tolerance and potential for adaptation of a Baltic Sea rockweed under predicted climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Manninen, Iita; Rothäusler, Eva; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is threating species' persistence worldwide. To predict species responses to climate change we need information not just on their environmental tolerance but also on its adaptive potential. We tested how the foundation species of rocky littoral habitats, Fucus vesiculosus, responds to combined hyposalinity and warming projected to the Baltic Sea by 2070-2099. We quantified responses of replicated populations originating from the entrance, central, and marginal Baltic regions. Using replicated individuals, we tested for the presence of within-population tolerance variation. Future conditions hampered growth and survival of the central and marginal populations whereas the entrance populations fared well. Further, both the among- and within-population variation in responses to climate change indicated existence of genetic variation in tolerance. Such standing genetic variation provides the raw material necessary for adaptation to a changing environment, which may eventually ensure the persistence of the species in the inner Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trophic condition of the volcanic Lake Nemi (Central Italy: environmental factors and planktonic communities in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza G. MARGARITORA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Nemi is an interesting case of anthropogenic overexploitation which has caused its progressive environmental deterioration in the past decades. On this lake historical data about the trophic situation are available from 1975 to 1984. The research performed in 2002-03, about ten years after the diversion of urban waste waters, concerned a biological investigation on the phyto- and zooplanktonic communities, integrated with a physico-chemical analysis. The aims of our study are to evaluate the current water quality of the lake and compare it with the water quality observed in 1982-1983, when all biotic and abiotic components indicated a heavily compromised hypereutrophic condition. The water quality data and the comparison with a previous study point out that the biological aspects have partially changed (increased number of Cyanobacteria and phytoplanktonic taxa, particularly Clorophyta and Dinophyta; zooplankton composition changed at a species level, with the appearance of taxa associated to light trophic conditions, and the physico-chemical conditions significantly improved. The mean transparency, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentrations have all improved. Mean annual temperature at different depths increased, probably due to differences in climatic period and the lowering of the lake surface level (from 32.5 to 27.5 m in 1982 and 2002, respectively. Our results indicate a general improving trend in water quality is taking place since the diversion of waste water discharges. The present abiotic characteristics of the lake allow the phytoplankton to distribute itself in the whole epilimnion, and the zooplankton in the whole water column. A possible further improvement is hypothesized, and the constraints represented by excessive water level lowering and water temperature increasing are also discussed.

  18. THE CONDITION AND THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGES OF REGIONAL ENERGETIC SAFETY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Myzin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of indicative analysis method use, the dynamic processes of changes of energetic safety condition of federal districts and subjects of Russian Federation for last 5 years are investigated. The results of diagnosing safety levels for separate indicators, their blocks and the results of situation evaluation as a whole are discussed. The comparison of regions’ energetic safety condition is given, the causes of crisis situations appearance are discovered, and on this basis the suggestions for regions’ safety levels increasing are formulated.

  19. Polarized light scattering as a probe for changes in chromosome structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Daniel Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Measurements and calculations of polarized light scattering are applied to chromosomes. Calculations of the Mueller matrix, which completely describes how the polarization state of light is altered upon scattering, are developed for helical structures related to that of chromosomes. Measurements of the Mueller matrix are presented for octopus sperm heads, and dinoflagellates. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made. A working theory of polarized light scattering from helices is developed. The use of the first Born approximation vs the coupled dipole approximation are investigated. A comparison of continuous, calculated in this work, and discrete models is also discussed. By comparing light scattering measurements with theoretical predictions the average orientation of DNA in an octopus sperm head is determined. Calculations are made for the Mueller matrix of DNA plectonemic helices at UV, visible and X-ray wavelengths. Finally evidence is presented that the chromosomes of dinoflagellates are responsible for observed differential scattering of circularly-polarized light. This differential scattering is found to vary in a manner that is possibly correlated to the cell cycle of the dinoflagellates. It is concluded that by properly choosing the wavelength probe polarized light scattering can provide a useful tool to study chromosome structure.

  20. Performance Based Evaluation of Concrete Strength under Various Curing Conditions to Investigate Climate Change Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Kyun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the manifestation of global warming-induced climate change has been observed through super typhoons, heavy snowfalls, torrential rains, and extended heat waves. These climate changes have been occurring all over the world and natural disasters have caused severe damage and deterioration of concrete structures and infrastructure. In an effort to deal with these problems due to extreme and abnormal climate changes, studies have been conducted to develop construction technologies and design guidelines. Nevertheless, study results applicable to construction sites continue to be ineffective and insufficient. Therefore, this study proposes ways to cope with climate change by considering the effect of concrete curing condition variations on concrete material performance. More specifically, the 3-, 7- and 28-day compressive and split tensile strength properties of concrete mix cured under various climatic factors including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunlight exposure time were evaluated to determine whether the concrete meets the current design requirements. Thereafter, a performance based evaluation (PBE was performed using satisfaction probabilities based on the test values to understand the problems associated with the current mix proportion design practice and to identify countermeasures to deal with climate change-induced curing conditions.

  1. Impact of possible climate changes on river runoff under different natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Nasonova, Olga N.; Kovalev, Evgeny E.; Ayzel, Georgy V.

    2018-06-01

    The present study was carried out within the framework of the International Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) for 11 large river basins located in different continents of the globe under a wide variety of natural conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate possible changes in various characteristics of annual river runoff (mean values, standard deviations, frequency of extreme annual runoff) up to 2100 on the basis of application of the land surface model SWAP and meteorological projections simulated by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) according to four RCP scenarios. Analysis of the obtained results has shown that changes in climatic runoff are different (both in magnitude and sign) for the river basins located in different regions of the planet due to differences in natural (primarily climatic) conditions. The climatic elasticities of river runoff to changes in air temperature and precipitation were estimated that makes it possible, as the first approximation, to project changes in climatic values of annual runoff, using the projected changes in mean annual air temperature and annual precipitation for the river basins. It was found that for most rivers under study, the frequency of occurrence of extreme runoff values increases. This is true both for extremely high runoff (when the projected climatic runoff increases) and for extremely low values (when the projected climatic runoff decreases).

  2. Gastrointestinal symptoms of infantile colic and their change after light needling of acupuncture: a case series study of 913 infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullman Dacil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common painful clinical condition associated with signs of distended intestines and an increase in colon peristalsis. However, clinical documentation of observed gastrointestinal functions in the condition is still lacking. Even though the ailment is common, no clear treatment guidelines exist. While acupuncture with minimal stimulation has been shown to be effective in reducing crying behaviour of infants suffering from colic, the documented effect of acupuncture on gastrointestinal function in children with infantile colic is scarce. This case series study aims to document the symptoms of routinely rated gastrointestinal function and the changes in these symptoms after minimal acupuncture in a larger group of children with infantile colic. Methods This study included 913 infants with normal weights, and lengths at birth. The infants' mean age was 5.4 weeks when the observations started, and had colic symptoms since two weeks after birth. Light needling stimulation of the acupuncture point LI4 was performed for 10-20 seconds bilaterally on a daily basis for a mean of 6.2 consecutive days. A questionnaire with verbal rating scales for the parents' evaluation was used before and after the treatment period. Results Before treatment the infants were assessed by the parents in terms of 'often have inflated stomachs' (99% and 'seldom drool' (76%, 'regurgitate' (53% and 'belch' (62%. Moreover, the reported frequency of defecation was 5-8 times per day (64%, with a yellowish-green colour (61% and with a water-thin consistency (74%. After treatment, the variables of inflated stomachs, drooling and regurgitating were systematically changed, and rated by the parents as occurring 'sometimes' while belching was rated as occurring 'often' and the frequency of defecation was reduced to 1-4 times/day with a mustard yellow colour and a gruel-like consistency. The parents also rated their impression of the infants

  3. Survival, physical and physiological changes of Taenia hydatigena eggs under different conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Thevenet, Paula; Alvarez, Hector Manuel; Basualdo, Juan Angel

    2017-06-01

    Taenia hydatigena eggs were investigated for morphological and physiological changes under water stress conditions. Fresh eggs were exposed at 31%, 47% and 89% of relative humidity (RH), and survival, size and ultrastructural changes were accounted up to 365 days of exposition. The article shows how each RH environment affects the vitality of the eggs. Results of this study suggest that T. hydatigena eggs have mechanisms to withstand water stress, indicating that the eggs clustering improves protection against desiccation, and that endogenous metabolism using triacylglycerols play an important role in the maintenance of embryo vitality under low, medium and high relative humidity conditions. This contributes to understanding the water stress resistance mechanism in eggs belonging to Taeniidae family. The findings shown herein have provided a basis to better comprehend basic biology and epidemiology of the cysticercosis caused by T. hydatigena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change and its potential impact on mechanical, hydraulic and chemical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naslund, J.O.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy for managing climate related conditions in SKB ' s safety assessments are based on the notion that it is not possible to predict climate in a 100 000-year time perspective. Instead, the approach in the SR-Can safety assessment was to identify and analyse both moderate climate evolutions as well as extremes within which the climate in Scandinavia may vary. To this end, knowledge on general climate variations in Scandinavia was used to identify characteristic climate domains which in turn were used to build a number of selected climate scenarios. The relevant climate domains for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites in the 100 000-year time perspective are; 1) a temperate climate domain, 2) a peri-glacial climate domain, and 3) a glacial climate domain. Also submerged/non-submerged conditions at the sites are of importance. In the SR-Can safety assessment several climate scenarios were investigated, including a reference evolution based on a repetition of reconstructed conditions for last glacial cycle (the Weichselian glaciation and the Holocene interglacial). For this reconstruction, extensive numerical simulations of ice sheets, isostatic changes, and permafrost were conducted. The resulting scenario showed site-specific timing and duration of the three climate domains and submerged periods for the full glacial cycle. This scenario is not a prediction of a future climate evolution. Instead it is one example of a future evolution that in a realistic and consistent way covers all relevant climate related changes that can be expected in a 100 000-year time perspective. Subsequently, this scenario formed the basis for the construction of additional climate scenarios that were used to analyse the effects of more extreme climate evolutions than during the last glacial cycle. Examples of complementary scenarios are a warmer and wetter climate scenario caused by an increased greenhouse effect, and colder scenarios with deeper permafrost or thicker ice sheets than in

  5. Perception of change in living conditions and diet among rural Latino immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosa, Maroly; Tineo, María; Aranda, Yesid; Posada, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the total population of the United States (US) is composed of immigrants. Mexicans accounted for about three-quarters of the increase in the Hispanic population from 2000 to 2010. The social and economic problems facing this population in their countries of origin are fueling migration to the US, in search of new opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the changes in living conditions (housing, health, education) and the dietary intake (ex - an...

  6. Changes of fatty acid aerosol hygroscopicity induced by ozonolysis under humid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vesna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated fatty acids are important constituents of the organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols originating from biogenic or combustion sources. Oxidative processing of these may change their interaction with water and thus affect their effect on climate. The ozonolysis of oleic and arachidonic acid aerosol particles was studied under humid conditions in a flow reactor at ozone exposures close to atmospheric levels, at concentrations between 0.5 and 2 ppm. While oleic acid is a widely used proxy for such studies, arachidonic acid represents polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may decompose into hygroscopic products. The hygroscopic (diameter growth factor at 93% relative humidity (RH of the oxidized arachidonic particles increased up to 1.09 with increasing RH during the ozonolysis. In contrast, the growth factor of oleic acid was very low (1.03 at 93% RH and was almost invariant to the ozonolysis conditions, so that oleic acid is not a good model to observe oxidation induced changes of hygroscopicity under atmospheric conditions. We show for arachidonic acid particles that the hygroscopic changes induced by humidity during ozonolysis are accompanied by about a doubling of the ratio of carboxylic acid protons to aliphatic protons. We suggest that, under humid conditions, the reaction of water with the Criegee intermediates might open a pathway for the formation of smaller acids that lead to more significant changes in hygroscopicity. Thus the effect of water to provide a competing pathway during ozonolysis observed in this study should be motivation to include water, which is ubiquitously present in and around atmospheric particles, in future studies related to aerosol particle aging.

  7. Advancing medical-surgical nursing practice: improving management of the changing patient condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Heidi; Plylar, Peggy; Krugman, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Higher patient acuities and more novice nurses on medical-surgical units have Educators focused on achieving positive outcomes with changes in patient condition. An educational program was developed to enhance nurses' knowledge, skill, and confidence in assessing hemodynamics, recognizing early signs of instability, and administering vasoactive medications. The program was successful with significant knowledge improvement as well as an increased use of the Medical Emergency Team while maintaining a low number of code calls.

  8. Change in geometrical parameters of WWER high burnup fuel rods under operational conditions and transient testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashov, B.; Amosov, S.; Lyadov, G.; Markov, D.; Ovchinnikov, V; Polenok, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sukhikh, A.; Bek, E.; Yenin, A.; Novikov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses changes in fuel rods geometric parameters as result of operation conditions and burnups. The degree of geometry variability of fuel rods, cladding and column is one of the most important characteristics affecting fuel serviceability. On the other hand, changes in fuel rod geometric parameters influence fuel temperature, fission gas release, fuel-to-cladding stress strained state as well as the degree of interaction with FA skeleton elements and skeleton rigidity. Change in fuel-to-cladding gap is measured using compression technique. The axial distribution of fuel-to-cladding gap demonstrates the largest decrease of the gap in the region 500 to 2000 mm from the bottom of the fuel rod (WWER-440) and in the region of 500 to 3000 mm for WWER-1000. The cladding material creep in WWER fuel rods together with the radiation growth results in fuel rod cladding elongation. A set of transient tests for spent WWER-440 and WWER-1000 fuel rods carried out in SSC RIAR during a period 1995-1999, with the aim to estimate the changes in geometric parameters of FRs. The estimation of changes in outer diameter of cladding and fuel column and fuel-to-cladding gap are performed in transient conditions (changes in linear power range of 180 to 400 W/cm) for both WWER-440 and WWER-1000. WWER-440 fuel rods having the same burnup and close fuel-cladding contact before testing are subjected to considerable hoop cladding strain in testing up to 300 W/cm. But the hoop strain does not grow due to the structural changes in fuel column and decrease in central hole diameter occurred when the power is higher

  9. In-situ TEM study on structural change and light emission of a multiwall carbon nanotube during Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.; Asaka, K.; Nakahara, H.; Saito, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Structure changes of a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) during Joule heating were studied with simultaneous measurement of light emission spectra. The outer shells of the MWNT peeled off one by one because of excessive heating. All the peeled outer shells finally disappeared and inner shells whose tips were closed emerged, i.e., a new MWNT was formed. Each diameter of the shells comprising the MWNT decreased compared with those before the fracture. Light emission spectra during Joule heating of an MWNT were composed of both the blackbody radiation and characteristic peaks. The peaks in the light emission spectra shifted to higher energies in accordance with shrinkage of the inner shells. The energies of the peaks in the spectra corresponded to energy gaps between van Hove singularities calculated from the diameters of the shells, indicating that the peaks in the spectra are attributed to the interband electron transition in the MWNT.

  10. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl and a normally pigmented control (Z802 were subjected to high (HL and low light (LL. Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size.

  11. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Li, Zhikang; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl) and a normally pigmented control (Z802) were subjected to high (HL) and low light (LL). Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC) binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR), photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size. PMID:28676818

  12. The influence of climatic conditions changes on grain yield in Winter Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț RACZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is making out the influence of climatic changes on grain yield of winter triticale in relation with applied fertilizer. The influence of environmental conditions on growing and development of triticale plants depends of grow stages and their duration. During five experimental years (2010-2015 the climatic conditions were different year to year, with an accentuated heating trend, influencing plant phenology, accelerating or slowing down some important processes disturbing grain yield formation. The influence of drought is more accentuated by heating stress and prolonging of these conditions during the main phenological processes have a negative influence on plant growth or development with effect on the grain yield formation process.

  13. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  14. Thermogravimetric study of a Phase Change Slurry: Effect of variable conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giro-Paloma, J.; Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Fernández, A.I.; Chimenos, J.M.; Formosa, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry or wet PCS present differences in their thermal behavior. • The optimum conditions of dry PCS were determined by TGA. • Type of atmosphere and heating rate were the variables under consideration. • T peak can be accurately determined at 1 °C·min −1 in N 2. • Fusion/latent heat can be best determined at 10 °C·min −1 . - Abstract: Microcapsules containing Phase Change Materials (MPCM) are widely used for passive systems in energy storage. When MPCM are mixed with a carrier fluid, Phase Change Slurries (PCS) are used for heat transfer fluids in active systems or heat transport systems. The thermal behavior of PCS can be measured as dry or wet basis, resulting in important differences in weight losses. This study explores the optimum conditions for analyzing the thermal behavior of dried PCS by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) varying the parameter conditions for obtaining peak temperature and heat flow (latent heat). The factors that were taken into account were the atmosphere of study (air and nitrogen) and the heating rate (0.5, 1, 5, and 10 °C·min −1 ). The best conditions to determine peak temperature are at 1 °C·min −1 and in N 2 atmosphere, whereas the decomposition fusion/latent heat of the sample is improved at higher heating velocities towards 10 °C·min −1 .

  15. Extreme Changes in Stream Geomorphic Conditions induced by Fluvial Scour in Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, O.; Ozcan, O.

    2016-12-01

    The numerous complexities associated with bridge scour have caused scour to be one of the most active topics of stream geomorphic research. The assessment of local scouring mechanism around bridge piers provides information for decision-making regarding the pile footing design, predicting the safety of bridges under critical scoured conditions, and as a result, may help prevent unnecessary loses. In the study, bridge design plans and HEC-RAS modeling were used for the assessment of changes in stream geomorphic conditions. The derived fluvial scour depths were compared with the field measurements and the empirical formula which is based on stream flow discharge rate, streambed condition and shape of river. Preliminary results revealed that bridge damage resulting from the flood event in 2003 induced substantial scour around bridge piles. Afterwards, significant stream bed change was observed under the influence of fluvial scour in another flood occurred in 2009. Consequently, geomorphic conditions of the stream bed should be considered in the structural design of the bridges.

  16. DNA base sequence changes induced by ultraviolet light mutagenesis of a gene on a chromosome in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romac, S; Leong, P; Sockett, H; Hutchinson, F [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry

    1989-09-20

    The DNA base sequence changes induced by mutagenesis with ultraviolet light have been determined in a gene on a chromosome of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The gene was the Excherichia coli gpt gene, of which a single copy was stably incorporated and expressed in the CHO cell genome. The cells were irradiated with ultraviolet light and gpt{sup -} colonies were selected by resistance to 6-thioguanine. The gpt gene was amplified from chromosomal DNA by use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the amplified DNA sequenced directly by the dideoxy method. Of the 58 sequenced mutants of independent origin 53 were base change mutations. Forty-one base substitutions were single base changes, ten had two adjacent (or tandem) base changes, and one had two base changes separated by a single base-pair. Only one mutant had a multiple base change mutation with two or more well separated base changes. In contrast much higher levels of such mutations were reported in ultraviolet mutagenesis of genes on a shuttle vector in primate cells. Two deletions of a single base-pair were observed and three deletions ranging from 6 to 37 base-pairs. The mutation spectrum in the gpt gene had similarities to the ultraviolet mutation spectra for several genes in prokaryotes, which suggests similarities in mutational mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (author).

  17. Effect of Drying Conditions on the Catalytic Performance, Structure, and Reaction Rates over the Fe-Co-Mn/MgO Catalyst for Production of Light Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Abdouss

    2018-01-01

    How to Cite: Abdouss, M., Arsalanfar, M., Mirzaei, N., Zamani, Y. (2018. Effect of Drying Conditions on the Catalytic Performance, Structure, and Reaction Rates over the Fe-Co-Mn/MgO Catalyst for Production of Light Olefins. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 97-112 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1222.97-112

  18. Light channeling in medium with periodical change in a refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, O.V.; Shmulevich, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that light field localization in regions with an increased value of refractive index occurs during light propagation along layers of a volume phase lattice. The effect is analogous to fast electron channeling in monocrystals. The localization is investigated both numeri. cally and by means of an approximated analytical solution of the wave equation representing the generalization of the Raman-Nut known solution (there is no localization within the framework of the Raman-Nut approximation). The localization is effective only in case when light wave length lambda is considerably lesser than lattice spacing d, namely lambda 1 /2, where u 1 - the amplitude of sine modulation of the refractory index. Existence of strong focusing at a distance f=d/4√u 1 is predicted. Common channeling mode arises at distances exceeding f

  19. The effect of irradiance on long-term skeletal growth and net photosynthesis in Galaxea fascicularis under four light conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Velthoven, van B.; Janse, M.; Osinga, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between irradiance, skeletal growth and net photosynthesis was studied for the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis to provide experimental evidence for mediation of light-enhanced calcification through photosynthesis. The hypothesis was tested that skeletal growth and

  20. Creating Conditions for Policy Change in National Parks: Contrasting Cases in Yellowstone and Yosemite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochim, Michael J.; Lowry, William R.

    2016-05-01

    Public agencies face significant political obstacles when they try to change long-standing policies. This paper examines efforts by the U.S. National Park Service to change long-term policies in Yellowstone and Yosemite national parks. We argue that, to be successful, the agency and pro-change allies must expand the sphere of conflict to engage the support of the broader American public through positive framing, supportive science, compelling economic arguments, consistent goals, and the commitment of other institutional actors. We show that the agency is capable of creating these conditions, as in the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone, but we argue that this is not always the outcome, as in reducing automobile congestion in Yosemite Valley.

  1. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  2. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    : climate change, elasticity of substitution between renewable and fossil energy and three different sources of technological uncertainty (i.e. R&D returns, innovation propensity and technological transferability). The performance of eight different GCF and non-GCF based policy regimes is evaluated in light of various end-of-century climate policy targets. Then I combine traditional scenario discovery data mining methods (Bryant and Lempert, 2010) with high dimensional stacking methods (Suzuki, Stem and Manzocchi, 2015; Taylor et al., 2006; LeBlanc, Ward and Wittels, 1990) to quantitatively characterize the conditions under which it is possible to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions and keep temperature rise below 2°C before the end of the century. Finally, I describe a method by which it is possible to combine the results of scenario discovery with high-dimensional stacking to construct a dynamic architecture of low cost technological cooperation. This dynamic architecture consists of adaptive pathways (Kwakkel, Haasnoot and Walker, 2014; Haasnoot et al., 2013) which begin with carbon taxation across both regions as a critical near term action. Then in subsequent phases different forms of cooperation are triggered depending on the unfolding climate and technological conditions. I show that there is no single policy regime that dominates over the entire uncertainty space. Instead I find that it is possible to combine these different architectures into a dynamic framework for technological cooperation across regions that can be adapted to unfolding climate and technological conditions which can lead to a greater rate of success and to lower costs in meeting the end-of-century climate change objectives agreed at the 2015 Paris Conference of the Parties. Keywords: international technological change, emerging nations, climate change, technological uncertainties, Green Climate Fund.

  3. Long-term dim light during nighttime changes activity patterns and space use in experimental small mammal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Julia; Palme, Rupert; Eccard, Jana Anja

    2018-07-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN) is spreading worldwide and thereby is increasingly interfering with natural dark-light cycles. Meanwhile, effects of very low intensities of light pollution on animals have rarely been investigated. We explored the effects of low intensity ALAN over seven months in eight experimental bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations in large grassland enclosures over winter and early breeding season, using LED garden lamps. Initial populations consisted of eight individuals (32 animals per hectare) in enclosures with or without ALAN. We found that bank voles under ALAN experienced changes in daily activity patterns and space use behavior, measured by automated radiotelemetry. There were no differences in survival and body mass, measured with live trapping, and none in levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. Voles in the ALAN treatment showed higher activity at night during half moon, and had larger day ranges during new moon. Thus, even low levels of light pollution as experienced in remote areas or by sky glow can lead to changes in animal behavior and could have consequences for species interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  5. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beest, Floris M; Milner, Jos M

    2013-01-01

    Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection) to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces) are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer). We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat) at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter) during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in thermal tolerance are likely contributory factors. Climate-related effects on animal

  6. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  7. Subjective time runs faster under the influence of bright rather than dim light conditions during the forenoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi; Fukui, Tomoe; Morofushi, Masayo; Tokura, Hiromi

    2007-05-16

    The study investigated if 6 h morning bright light exposure, compared with dim light exposure, could influence time sense (range: 5-15 s). Eight women served as participants. The participant entered a bioclimatic chamber at 10:00 h on the day before the test day, where an ambient temperature and relative humidity were controlled at 25 degrees C and 60%RH. She sat quietly in a sofa in 50 lx until 22:00 h, retired at 22:00 h and then slept in total darkness. She rose at 07:00 h the following morning and again sat quietly in a sofa till 13:00 h, either in bright (2500 lx) or dim light (50 lx), the order of light intensities between the two occasions being randomized. The time-estimation test was performed from 13:00 to 13:10 h in 200 lx. The participant estimated the time that had elapsed between two buzzers, ranging over 5-15 s, and inputting the estimate into a computer. The test was carried out separately upon each individual. Results showed that the participants estimated higher durations of the given time intervals after previous exposure to 6 h of bright rather than dim light. The finding is discussed in terms of different load errors (difference between the actual core temperature and its thermoregulatory set-point) following 6-h exposure to bright or dim light in the morning.

  8. Climate change and future overwintering conditions of horticultural woody-plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laapas, M.; Jylhae, K.; Tuomenvirta, H. (Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland))

    2012-07-01

    Climate in Finland offers challenging conditions for commercial horticulture. The short and insufficient growing season together with risky overwintering strongly limits species suitable for cultivation. The aim of this study was to examine the climatic conditions around Finland in the aspect of horticulture, focusing on processes relevant to woody plants and species with photoperiod controlled growth cessation, and how these conditions may be expected to change due to the projected global warming. For this, a set of temperature-related indices and threshold events were used. These indices represent the severity of coldness during winter, wintertime thaws, and frost events close to the onset and ending of the growing season. The combined results of 19 GCMs (General Circulation Model) from the CMIP3 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3) multi-model data set under SRES-B1 and SRES-A2 (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) emission scenarios were used to produce the future projections. By mid-century our results suggest wintertime conditions with reduced cold stress, caused by less frequent and shorter periods of severe frost together with a rise in the extreme minimum temperature. Conversely, an increase in the number and intensity of wintertime thaw events leads to a higher risk in overwintering. Also the risk of spring frost damage is projected to decrease slightly, and the conditions for cold hardening process to improve, as the first autumnal frosts occur later. (orig.)

  9. Effects of baseline conditions on the simulated hydrologic response to projected climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in temperature and precipitation projected from five general circulation models, using one late-twentieth-century and three twenty-first-century emission scenarios, were downscaled to three different baseline conditions. Baseline conditions are periods of measured temperature and precipitation data selected to represent twentieth-century climate. The hydrologic effects of the climate projections are evaluated using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), which is a watershed hydrology simulation model. The Almanor Catchment in the North Fork of the Feather River basin, California, is used as a case study. Differences and similarities between PRMS simulations of hydrologic components (i.e., snowpack formation and melt, evapotranspiration, and streamflow) are examined, and results indicate that the selection of a specific time period used for baseline conditions has a substantial effect on some, but not all, hydrologic variables. This effect seems to be amplified in hydrologic variables, which accumulate over time, such as soil-moisture content. Results also indicate that uncertainty related to the selection of baseline conditions should be evaluated using a range of different baseline conditions. This is particularly important for studies in basins with highly variable climate, such as the Almanor Catchment.

  10. Changes in the performance characteristics of a GaAs near infrared light emitting diode when exposed to various current and thermal stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The changes that occurred in the optical and electrical characteristics of a near infrared, GaAs light emitting diode, when operated under various levels and combinations of current and thermal stresses are discussed. A total of forty parts were operated for two thousand hours under eight different sets of dc current and ambient temperature conditions. Degradation in the radiant optical power of these devices was thirty-four percent when operated at their rated current and an ambient temperature of 298K (25 C). Derating the current and/or the thermal stress reduced the degradation of this parameter in approximately a linear manner. All degraded devices behaved similarly, exhibiting rapid nonlinear degradation followed by a gradual linear degradation and finally a period of stable operation. An attempt was made to correlate initial device condition to degradation during stress testing, but met with little success.

  11. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  12. Investigations of charge-changing processes for light proton-rich nuclei on carbon and solid-hydrogen targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawahata, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ozawa, A., E-mail: ozawa@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Saito, Y.; Abe, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.; Inaba, N.; Ishibashi, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Matsunaga, S. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Moriguchi, T.; Nagae, D.; Okada, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Zenihiro, J. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We investigated charge-changing processes (total charge-changing cross sections and partial charge-changing cross sections) for light proton-rich nuclei ({sup 34–36}Ar, {sup 33}Cl, {sup 25–28}Si) at around 300A MeV on carbon and solid-hydrogen targets. We estimated the nuclear proton point radii of {sup 33}Cl and {sup 25,26,27}Si from the observed total charge-changing cross sections by using Glauber-model calculations with a phenomenological correction factor. Furthermore, we estimated the proton skin thickness for {sup 33}Cl coupled with its previously observed matter radius. From investigations of the partial charge-changing cross sections, clear zigzag pattern was observed for all isotopes. The present studies suggest that the pattern may be common in the proton-rich side, and depends on the odd–even nature of the fragment charge.

  13. How do Changes in Hydro-Climate Conditions Alter the Risk of Infection With Fasciolosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, L.; Dunne, T.; Rose, H.; Walker, J.; Morgan, E.; Vickerman, P.; Wagener, T.

    2017-12-01

    Fasciolosis is a widespread parasitic disease of livestock and is emerging as a major zoonosis. Since the parasite and its intermediate host live and develop in the environment, risk of infection is directly affected by climatic-environmental conditions. Changes in disease prevalence, seasonality and distribution have been reported in recent years and attributed to altered temperature and rainfall patterns, raising concerns about the effects of climate change in the future. Therefore, it is urgent to understand how changes in climate-environmental drivers may alter the dynamics of disease risk in a quantitative way, to guide parasite control strategies and interventions in the coming decades. In a previous work, we developed and tested a novel mechanistic hydro-epidemiological model for Fasciolosis, which explicitly represents the parasite life-cycle in connection with key environmental processes, allowing to capture the impact of previously unseen conditions. In this study, we use the new mechanistic model to assess the sensitivity of infection rates to changes in climate-environmental factors. This is challenging as processes underlying disease transmission are complex and interacting, and may have contrasting effects on the parasite life-cycle stages. To this end, we set up a sensitivity analysis framework to investigate in a structured way which factors play a key role in controlling the magnitude, timing and spread of infection, and how the sensitivity of disease risk varies in time and space. Moreover, we define synthetic scenarios to explore the space of possible variability of the hydro-climate drivers and investigate conditions that lead to critical levels of infection. The study shows how the new model combined with the sensitivity analysis framework can support decision-making, providing useful information for disease management.

  14. Climate change in Africa and the Middle East in light of health ubuntu and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Metz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article principally addresses the likely effects of global warming on health in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, northern Africa and the Middle East as well as how medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, bioethicists and public health researchers, should respond to them in light of ubuntu and Islam, values characteristically held in those regions.

  15. Climate change in Africa and the Middle East in light of health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article principally addresses the likely effects of global warming on health in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, northern Africa and the Middle East as well as how medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, bioethicists and public health researchers, should respond to them in light of ubuntu and Islam, ...

  16. Climate change in Africa and the Middle East in light of health, ubuntu and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Metz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article principally addresses the likely effects of global warming on health in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, northern Africa and the Middle East as well as how medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, bioethicists and public health researchers, should respond to them in light of ubuntu and Islam, values characteristically held in those regions.

  17. Changing basal conditions during the speed-up of Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habermann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice-sheet outlet glaciers can undergo dynamic changes such as the rapid speed-up of Jakobshavn Isbræ following the disintegration of its floating ice tongue. These changes are associated with stress changes on the boundary of the ice mass. We invert for basal conditions from surface velocity data throughout a well-observed period of rapid change and evaluate parameterizations currently used in ice-sheet models. A Tikhonov inverse method with a shallow-shelf approximation forward model is used for diagnostic inversions for the years 1985, 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2008. Our ice-softness, model norm, and regularization parameter choices are justified using the data-model misfit metric and the L curve method. The sensitivity of the inversion results to these parameter choices is explored. We find a lowering of effective basal yield stress in the first 7 km upstream from the 2008 grounding line and no significant changes higher upstream. The temporal evolution in the fast flow area is in broad agreement with a Mohr–Coulomb parameterization of basal shear stress, but with a till friction angle much lower than has been measured for till samples. The lowering of effective basal yield stress is significant within the uncertainties of the inversion, but it cannot be ruled out that there are other significant contributors to the acceleration of the glacier.

  18. Changing basal conditions during the speed-up of Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Truffer, M.; Maxwell, D.

    2013-11-01

    Ice-sheet outlet glaciers can undergo dynamic changes such as the rapid speed-up of Jakobshavn Isbræ following the disintegration of its floating ice tongue. These changes are associated with stress changes on the boundary of the ice mass. We invert for basal conditions from surface velocity data throughout a well-observed period of rapid change and evaluate parameterizations currently used in ice-sheet models. A Tikhonov inverse method with a shallow-shelf approximation forward model is used for diagnostic inversions for the years 1985, 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2008. Our ice-softness, model norm, and regularization parameter choices are justified using the data-model misfit metric and the L curve method. The sensitivity of the inversion results to these parameter choices is explored. We find a lowering of effective basal yield stress in the first 7 km upstream from the 2008 grounding line and no significant changes higher upstream. The temporal evolution in the fast flow area is in broad agreement with a Mohr-Coulomb parameterization of basal shear stress, but with a till friction angle much lower than has been measured for till samples. The lowering of effective basal yield stress is significant within the uncertainties of the inversion, but it cannot be ruled out that there are other significant contributors to the acceleration of the glacier.

  19. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  20. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryan, P; Kotousov, A; Ng, C T; Wildy, S

    2016-01-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection. (paper)

  1. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, P.; Kotousov, A.; Ng, C. T.; Wildy, S.

    2016-03-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection.

  2. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for estimating biochemical changes associated with different pathological conditions of cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Amuthachelvi; Prakasarao, Aruna; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2018-02-01

    The molecular level changes associated with oncogenesis precede the morphological changes in cells and tissues. Hence molecular level diagnosis would promote early diagnosis of the disease. Raman spectroscopy is capable of providing specific spectral signature of various biomolecules present in the cells and tissues under various pathological conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a non-linear multi-class statistical methodology for discrimination of normal, neoplastic and malignant cells/tissues. The tissues were classified as normal, pre-malignant and malignant by employing Principal Component Analysis followed by Artificial Neural Network (PC-ANN). The overall accuracy achieved was 99%. Further, to get an insight into the quantitative biochemical composition of the normal, neoplastic and malignant tissues, a linear combination of the major biochemicals by non-negative least squares technique was fit to the measured Raman spectra of the tissues. This technique confirms the changes in the major biomolecules such as lipids, nucleic acids, actin, glycogen and collagen associated with the different pathological conditions. To study the efficacy of this technique in comparison with histopathology, we have utilized Principal Component followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA) to discriminate the well differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with an accuracy of 94.0%. And the results demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to complement the good old technique of histopathology.

  3. Analyses of phase change materials’ efficiency in warm-summer humid continental climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnieks, J.; Gendelis, S.; Jakovics, A.; Bajare, D.

    2017-10-01

    The usage of phase change materials (PCMs) is a way to store excess energy produced during the hot time of the day and release it during the night thereby reducing the overheating problem. While, in Latvian climate conditions overheating is not a big issue in traditional buildings since it happens only a couple of weeks per year air conditioners must still be installed to maintain thermal comfort. The need for cooling in recently built office buildings with large window area can increase significantly. It is therefore of great interest if the thermal comfort conditions can be maintained by PCMs alone or with reduced maximum power of installed cooling systems. Our initial studies show that if the test building is well-insulated (necessary to reduce heat loss in winter), phase change material is not able to solidify fast enough during the relatively short night time. To further investigate the problem various experimental setups with two different phase change materials were installed in test buildings. Experimental results are compared with numerical modelling made in software COMSOL Multiphysics. The effectiveness of PCM using different situations is widely analysed.

  4. Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Photovoltaic Panel with Phase Change Materials under Different Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power generation efficiency of photovoltaic (PV panels depends on the solar irradiation flux and the operating temperature of the solar cell. To increase the power generation efficiency of a PV system, this study evaluated the feasibility of phase change materials (PCMs to reduce the temperature rise of solar cells operating under the climate in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, two PCMs with different phase change characteristics were prepared and the phase change temperatures and thermal conductivities were compared. The diurnal thermal behavior of PV panels with PCMs under the Seoul climate was evaluated using a 2-D transient thermal analysis program. This paper discusses the heat flow characteristics though the PV cell with PCMs and the effects of the PCM types and macro-packed PCM (MPPCM methods on the operating temperatures under different weather conditions. Selection of the PCM type was more important than the MMPCM methods when PCMs were used to enhance the performance of PV panels and the mean operating temperature of PV cell and total heat flux from the surface could be reduced by increasing the heat transfer rate through the honeycomb grid steel container for PCMs. Considering the mean operating temperature reduction of 4 °C by PCM in this study, an efficiency improvement of approximately 2% can be estimated under the weather conditions of Seoul.

  5. The future bioclimatic conditions in Austria under the aspect of climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, E.; Matzarakis, A.; Neumke, R.; Endler, Ch,; Koch, E.

    2009-09-01

    The IPCC quantifies Heat Stress as a combination of air temperature and air humidity. In order to describe the future bioclimatic conditions in a human-biometeorological manner the analysis a modern thermal index has been chosen. The PET (Physiologically Equivalent Temperature) allows the assessment of the effect of the thermal environment based on the energy balance of humans including thermo-physiological information. The data for the calculation of the PET came from climate models. The required data are for the climatic parameters air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and mean cloud cover as the necessary inputs for Physiologically Equivalents Temperature. Regarding future climatic changes PET calculations for the time slices 1961 and 1990 and also 2070 and 2100 have been run in 0.5 ° resolution. By the use of statistical regression for the 0.5 ° resolution the results have been downscaled to 1 km resolution in order to identify and quantify the areas in Austria, which will be more affected bioclimatologically. The constructed maps present current and future climatic conditions and also differences for the different time slices and SRES-scenarios of the IPCC. Maps of the difference between the Physiological Equivalent temperature and air temperature have been constructed to show that the used thermal indices, which have been applied by the IPCC underestimate the expected thermal bioclimate conditions for future climate. The results offer fundamental information for tourism and recreation authorities for present and expected climatic and bioclimatic conditions.

  6. Historical change in fish species distribution: shifting reference conditions and global warming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Didier; Logez, M; Carrel, G; Rogers, C; Haidvogl, G

    Species distributions models (SDM) that rely on estimated relationships between present environmental conditions and species presence-absence are widely used to forecast changes of species distributions caused by global warming but far less to reconstruct historical assemblages. By compiling historical fish data from the turn to the middle of the twentieth century in a similar way for several European catchments (Rhône, Danube), and using already published SDMs based on current observations, we: (1) tested the predictive accuracy of such models for past climatic conditions, (2) compared observed and expected cumulated historical species occurrences at sub-catchment level, and (3) compared the annual variability in the predictions within one sub-catchment (Salzach) under a future climate scenario to the long-term variability of occurrences reconstructed during an extended historical period (1800-2000). We finally discuss the potential of these SDMs to define a "reference condition", the possibility of a shift in baseline condition in relation with anthropogenic pressures, and past and future climate variability. The results of this study clearly highlight the potential of SDM to reconstruct the past composition of European fish assemblages and to analyze the historical ecological status of European rivers. Assessing the uncertainty associated with species distribution projections is of primary importance before evaluating and comparing the past and future distribution of species within a given catchment.

  7. Light interventions: a novel approach for sustaining sleep quality and quantity of elite swimmers under conditions of shifted circadian rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Andersen, Jakob Hildebrandt; Johansen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    , efficiency, latency, percentages of light, deep or REM sleep were the variables under investigation. The sleep output was modeled (ANOVA) with subject as a random effect and phase as fixed effect. It was observed that the light program during the intervention phase significantly enabled the conservation...... of sleep quantity and quality of the swimmers, despite the shifted circadian rhythm. The hypothesis of no effect of phase of experiment on sleep duration, efficiency, latency, percentage of light, deep and REM sleep were all accepted with p. values 0.17, 0.53, 0.90, 0.38, 0.57 and 0.52, respectively......For the 2016 Olympics at Rio De Janeiro the Danish swimmers was facing a very important problem, how to maintain a good sleep quality, quantity and high performance potential, while being subject to large shift in circadian rhythm. In the present study we suggest an alternative approach...

  8. Metabolite changes in nine different soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand L

    2016-11-15

    Global food security remains a worldwide concern due to changing climate, increasing population, and reduced agriculture acreages. Greenhouse cultivation increases productivity by extending growing seasons, reducing pest infestations and providing protection against short term drastic weather fluctuations like frost, heat, rain, and wind. In the present study, we examined and compared the metabolic responses of nine soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions. Extracts were assayed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and LC-MS for the identification of 10 primary (amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) and 10 secondary (isoflavones, fatty acid methyl esters) metabolites. Sugar molecules (glucose, sucrose, and pinitol) and isoflavone aglycons were increased but the isoflavones glucoside content decreased in the greenhouse cultivated soybeans. The amino acids and organic acids varied between the varieties. The results show that clustering (PCA and PLS-DA) patterns of soybean metabolites were significantly influenced by the genetic variation and growing conditions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-08-19

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  10. Light modulation in phase change disordered metamaterial - A smart cermet concept

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar , Sunil; Maury , Francis; Bahlawane , Naoufal

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Cermet coatings are popular solar selective absorbers as they allow capturing most of the solar energywhile minimising radiative losses. Embedded metallic nanoparticles in dielectric matrices promotemultiple internal reflection of light and provide an overall low emissivity. VO2 in the metamaterial stateis regarded in this study as a responsive mixed phase comprising metallic rutile VO2 inclusions insemiconducting monoclinic VO2 phase mimicking cermet. The smart cermet...

  11. Adaptation of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 7050 to growth at different light intensities: what are the benefits to changing the type of LH2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, A T; Niedzwiedzki, D M; Cogdell, R J

    2018-04-01

    Typical purple bacterial photosynthetic units consist of light harvesting one/reaction centre 'core' complexes surrounded by light harvesting two complexes. Factors such as the number and size of photosynthetic units per cell, as well as the type of light harvesting two complex that is produced, are controlled by environmental factors. In this paper, the change in the type of LH2 present in the Rhodopsuedomonas acidophila strain 7050 is described when cells are grown at a range of different light intensities. This species contains multiple pucBA genes that encode the apoproteins that form light-harvesting complex two, and a more complex mixture of spectroscopic forms of this complex has been found than was previously thought to be the case. Femto-second time resolved absorption has been used to investigate how the energy transfer properties in the membranes of high-light and low-light adapted cells change as the composition of the LH2 complexes varies.

  12. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Miller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC using the National Weather Service (NWS River Forecasting System (RFS hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8

  13. Competing for phosphors under changing redox conditions: biological versus geochemical sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Silver, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    Competing for phosphorus under changing redox conditions: biological versus geochemical sinksAvner Gross1, Jennifer Pett-Ridge2 and Whendee L Silver1 University of California Berkeley, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management, Berkeley, CA, USA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physical and Life Science Directorate, Livermore, CA, USA. The cycling of phosphorous (P) in highly weathered, humid tropical forest soils is tightly regulated by P sorption dynamics to the surfaces of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides and root and microbial demands for P. Periods of anoxic soil conditions, which are common in humid environments, induce the reduction of Fe (III) to Fe (II) and may release sorbed P into the soil solution. The microbial demand for P is influenced by the C and nutrient composition of their available substrates. Therefore, we hypothesize that soil redox conditions and substrate quality and availability will control the partitioning of P between microbial biomass and the soil mineral phase. The aim of this study was to examine how fluctuations in soil redox conditions and changes in microbial P demand affect the fate of new P that enters the soil solution. To achieve this aim we conducted a series of soil incubation experiments using a wet tropical soil from Puerto Rico (where redox conditions and P availability naturally oscillate) with a single pulse of phosphate (PO4), altering both the microbial activity and redox conditions. To follow the fate the added P, the added phosphate was labeled with 18O. As the exchange of oxygen between phosphate and water only occurs during biological processes, P-18O labeling can be used as an indicator of microbial use. To quantify sizes of the microbial and mineral P pools we used traditional chemical extractions in the bulk scale. We used NanoSIMS isotopic imaging to map the distribution of P-16O and P-18O and co-localization with Fe minerals at the nano scale. Our results show that the amount of the added P fixed

  14. A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing process: Technical, relational, and conditional process models of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly; Apodaca, Timothy R; Borsari, Brian; Gaume, Jacques; Hoadley, Ariel; Gordon, Rebecca E F; Tonigan, J Scott; Moyers, Theresa

    2018-02-01

    In the present meta-analysis, we test the technical and relational hypotheses of Motivational Interviewing (MI) efficacy. We also propose an a priori conditional process model where heterogeneity of technical path effect sizes should be explained by interpersonal/relational (i.e., empathy, MI Spirit) and intrapersonal (i.e., client treatment seeking status) moderators. A systematic review identified k = 58 reports, describing 36 primary studies and 40 effect sizes (N = 3,025 participants). Statistical methods calculated the inverse variance-weighted pooled correlation coefficient for the therapist to client and the client to outcome paths across multiple target behaviors (i.e., alcohol use, other drug use, other behavior change). Therapist MI-consistent skills were correlated with more client change talk (r = .55, p technical hypothesis was supported. Specifically, proportion MI consistency was related to higher proportion change talk (r = .11, p = .004) and higher proportion change talk was related to reductions in risk behavior at follow up (r = -.16, p technical hypothesis path effect sizes was partially explained by inter- and intrapersonal moderators. This meta-analysis provides additional support for the technical hypothesis of MI efficacy; future research on the relational hypothesis should occur in the field rather than in the context of clinical trials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. NMR and GC-MS based metabolic profiling and free-radical scavenging activities of Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under different media and light conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-Joo Oh

    Full Text Available Variation of metabolic profiles in Cordyceps pruinosa mycelia cultivated under various media and light conditions was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 71 metabolites were identified (5 alcohols, 21 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 4 purines, 3 pyrimidines, 7 sugars, 11 fatty acids, and 5 other metabolites by NMR and GC-MS analysis. The mycelia grown in nitrogen media and under dark conditions showed the lowest growth and ergosterol levels, essential to a functional fungal cell membrane; these mycelia, however, had the highest levels of putrescine, which is involved in abiotic stress tolerance. In contrast, mycelia cultivated in sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract (SDAY media and under light conditions contained relatively higher levels of fatty acids, including valeric acid, stearic acid, lignoceric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, hepadecenoic acid, and linoleic acid. These mycelia also had the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity, and did not exhibit growth retardation due to enhanced asexual development caused by higher levels of linoleic acid. Therefore, we suggested that a light-enriched environment with SDAY media was more optimal than dark condition for cultivation of C. pruinosa mycelia as biopharmaceutical or nutraceutical resources.

  16. In Vitro Callus Induction and Growth of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M. with Difference Concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ana Syabana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. is known as a natural non-caloric sweetener. This plants contain glycoside such steviosida type, mainly on the leave contain sweetness level between 200-300 cane sugar but the calorie is very low. This research was aimed to determine difference effects of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol concentrations and the light conditions on  Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. callus induction  in vitro. This research was conducted from April to June 2016 at Biotechnology Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University. This research used a completely randomized design (CRD, which consisted of two factors with three replications. Concentrations of PEG as first factor consisted of four levels (0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 25 mg/L. Light conditions as second factor consisted of two levels (Dark and Light. The results showed that the concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol did not significantly effect the time of callus appearance and diameter of callus on 4, 5 and 6 weeks after planting. Dark condition was the best conditions for callus induction of stevia. The texture of callus was compact on all treatments and the callus dominant color produced is golden brown

  17. In Vitro Callus Induction and Growth of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M. with Difference Concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ana Syabana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. is known as a natural non-caloric sweetener. This plants contain glycoside such steviosida type, mainly on the leave contain sweetness level between 200-300 cane sugar but the calorie is very low. This research was aimed to determine difference effects of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol concentrations and the light conditions on Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. callus induction in vitro. This research was conducted from April to June 2016 at Biotechnology Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University. This research used a completely randomized design (CRD, which consisted of two factors with three replications. Concentrations of PEG as first factor consisted of four levels (0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 25 mg/L. Light conditions as second factor consisted of two levels (Dark and Light. The results showed that the concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol did not significantly effect the time of callus appearance and diameter of callus on 4, 5 and 6 weeks after planting. Dark condition was the best conditions for callus induction of stevia. The texture of callus was compact on all treatments and the callus dominant color produced is golden brown.

  18. Investigation of Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 Cultivation under Light and Low Temperature Stressed Conditions for Lutein Production in Flasks and the Coiled Tree Photo-Bioreactor (CTPBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyue; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2017-10-01

    Lutein has an increasing share in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical market due to its benefits to eye health. Microalgae may be a potential source for lutein production while the expense limits the commercialization. In this study, a coiled tubular tree photobioreactor (CTPBR) design was investigated for cultivating the cold tolerant microalgae Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 under various conditions for lutein production. The influence and interaction of light irradiance strength, lighting cycle, and temperature on microalgae and lutein production efficiency at low temperature range were also studied in flasks via response surface method (RSM). The results demonstrated that 14 h day-light, 120 μmol photons m -2  s -1 , and 10 °C was the optimal condition for algae growth and lutein production at low temperature experimental ranges. C. vulgaris UTEX 265 showed good potential to produce lutein in cold weather, and the optimum lutein production was contrary to the specific lutein content but corresponds to the trend of optimum growth. Additionally, fast growth (μ = 1.50 day -1 ) and good lutein recovery (11.98 mg g -1  day -1 ) in CTPBR were also achieved at the low irradiance stress condition and the low temperature photo-inhibition conditions.

  19. Automatic Traffic Data Collection under Varying Lighting and Temperature Conditions in Multimodal Environments: Thermal versus Visible Spectrum Video-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based monitoring systems using visible spectrum (regular video cameras can complement or substitute conventional sensors and provide rich positional and classification data. Although new camera technologies, including thermal video sensors, may improve the performance of digital video-based sensors, their performance under various conditions has rarely been evaluated at multimodal facilities. The purpose of this research is to integrate existing computer vision methods for automated data collection and evaluate the detection, classification, and speed measurement performance of thermal video sensors under varying lighting and temperature conditions. Thermal and regular video data was collected simultaneously under different conditions across multiple sites. Although the regular video sensor narrowly outperformed the thermal sensor during daytime, the performance of the thermal sensor is significantly better for low visibility and shadow conditions, particularly for pedestrians and cyclists. Retraining the algorithm on thermal data yielded an improvement in the global accuracy of 48%. Thermal speed measurements were consistently more accurate than for the regular video at daytime and nighttime. Thermal video is insensitive to lighting interference and pavement temperature, solves issues associated with visible light cameras for traffic data collection, and offers other benefits such as privacy, insensitivity to glare, storage space, and lower processing requirements.

  20. Crack growth behaviour of low alloy steels for pressure boundary components under transient light water reactor operating conditions (CASTOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foehl, J.; Weissenberg, T.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Lapena, J.; Ernestova, M.; Zamboch, M.; Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Roth, A.; Devrient, B.; Ehrnsten, U.

    2004-01-01

    The CASTOC project addresses environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) phenomena in low alloy steels used for pressure boundary components in both Western type boiling water reactors (BWR) and Russian type pressurised water reactors (VVER). It comprises the four work packages (WP): inter-laboratory comparison test (WP1); EAC behaviour under static load (WP2), EAC behaviour under cyclic load and load transients (WP3); evaluation of the results with regard to their relevance for components in practice (WP4). The use of sophisticated test facilities and measurement techniques for the on-line detection of crack advances have provided a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of environmentally assisted cracking and provided quantitative data of crack growth rates as a function of loading events and time, respectively. The effect of several major parameters controlling EAC was investigated with particular emphasis on the transferability of the results to components in service. The obtained crack growth rate data were reflected on literature data and on commonly applied prediction curves as presented in the appropriate Code. At relevant stress intensity factors it could be shown that immediate cessation of growing cracks occurs after changing from cyclic to static load in high purity oxygenated BWR water and oxygen-free VVER water corresponding to steady state operation conditions. Susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking under static load was observed for a heat affected zone material in oxygenated high purity water and also in base materials during a chloride transient representing BWR water condition below Action Level 1 of the EPRI Water Chemistry Guidelines according to the lectrical conductivity of the water but in the range of Action Level 2 according to the content of chlorides. Time based crack growth was also observed in one Russian type base material in oxygenated VVER water and in one Western type base material in oxygenated high purity BWR

  1. Nocturnal feeding under artificial light conditions by Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in Puerto Madryn harbour (Chubut Province, Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Yorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes nocturnal, marine feeding behaviour in the Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in November 2009. The gulls assembled at night at the end of a long pier, running 800 m offshore into the Golfo Nuevo, at Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Argentina. Powerful lights predictably

  2. Motorway lighting under fog conditions : based on a paper presented at Japan Highway Corporation, Tokyo, 12 July 1990.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This study defines fog as an aerosol consisting primarily of water droplets. The main effect on road traffic is the contrast reduction as a result of the scatter of light in the aerosol. Absorption plays only a small role. The effect of the contrast reduction is that many objects in the field of

  3. Diamond functionalization with light-harvesting molecular wires: improved surface coverage by optimized Suzuki cross-coupling conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yeap, W. S.; Bevk, D.; Liu, X.; Krýsová, Hana; Pasquarelli, A.; Vanderzande, D.; Lutsen, L.; Kavan, Ladislav; Fahlman, M.; Maes, W.; Haenen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 42044-42053 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Functionalizations * Light-harvesting * Molecular wires Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  4. Nitric oxide is involved in light-specific responses of tomato during germination under normal and osmotic stress conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piterková, J.; Luhová, L.; Hofman, J.; Turečková, Veronika; Novák, Ondřej; Petřivalský, M.; Fellner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2012), s. 767-776 ISSN 0305-7364 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME08048 Program:ME Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : abscisic acid * blue light * germination Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2012

  5. Energy Performance and Optimal Control of Air-conditioned Buildings Integrated with Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na

    This thesis presents an overview of the previous research work on dynamic characteristics and energy performance of buildings due to the integration of PCMs. The research work on dynamic characteristics and energy performance of buildings using PCMs both with and without air-conditioning is reviewed. Since the particular interest in using PCMs for free cooling and peak load shifting, specific research efforts on both subjects are reviewed separately. A simplified physical dynamic model of building structures integrated with SSPCM (shaped-stabilized phase change material) is developed and validated in this study. The simplified physical model represents the wall by 3 resistances and 2 capacitances and the PCM layer by 4 resistances and 2 capacitances respectively while the key issue is the parameter identification of the model. This thesis also presents the studies on the thermodynamic characteristics of buildings enhanced by PCM and on the investigation of the impacts of PCM on the building cooling load and peak cooling demand at different climates and seasons as well as the optimal operation and control strategies to reduce the energy consumption and energy cost by reducing the air-conditioning energy consumption and peak load. An office building floor with typical variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is used and simulated as the reference building in the comparison study. The envelopes of the studied building are further enhanced by integrating the PCM layers. The building system is tested in two selected cities of typical climates in China including Hong Kong and Beijing. The cold charge and discharge processes, the operation and control strategies of night ventilation and the air temperature set-point reset strategy for minimizing the energy consumption and electricity cost are studied. This thesis presents the simulation test platform, the test results on the cold storage and discharge processes, the air-conditioning energy consumption and demand

  6. 任意光照下人脸图像的低维光照空间表示%A Low-dimensional Illumination Space Representation of Human Faces for Arbitrary Lighting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡元奎; 汪增福

    2007-01-01

    The proposed method for low-dimensional illumination space representation (LDISR) of human faces can not only synthesize a virtual face image when given lighting conditions but also estimate lighting conditions when given a face image. The LDISR is based on the observation that 9 basis point light sources can represent almost arbitrary lighting conditions for face recognition application and different human faces have a similar LDISR. The principal component analysis (PCA) and the nearest neighbor clustering method are adopted to obtain the 9 basis point light sources. The 9 basis images under the 9 basis point light sources are then used to construct an LDISR which can represent almost all face images under arbitrary lighting conditions.Illumination ratio image (IRI) is employed to generate virtual face images under different illuminations. The LDISR obtained from face images of one person can be used for other people. Experimental results on image reconstruction and face recognition indicate the efficiency of LDISR.

  7. The ratio of red light to far red light alters Arabidopsis axillary bud growth and abscisic acid signalling before stem auxin changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holalu, Srinidhi V; Finlayson, Scott A

    2017-02-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot branching is inhibited by a low red light to far red light ratio (R:FR, an indicator of competition), and by loss of phytochrome B function. Prior studies have shown that phytochrome B deficiency suppresses bud growth by elevating systemic auxin signalling, and that increasing the R:FR promotes the growth of buds suppressed by low R:FR by inhibiting bud abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation and signalling. Here, systemic auxin signalling and bud ABA signalling were examined in the context of rapid bud responses to an increased R:FR. Increasing the R:FR promoted the growth of buds inhibited by a low R:FR within 6 h. Relative to a low R:FR, bud ABA accumulation and signalling in plants given a high R:FR showed a sustained decline within 3 h, prior to increased growth. Main stem auxin levels and signalling showed a weak, transient response. Systemic effects and those localised to the bud were further examined by decapitating plants maintained either under a low R:FR or provided with a high R:FR. Increasing the R:FR promoted bud growth before decapitation, but decapitated plants eventually formed longer branches. The data suggest that rapid responses to an increased R:FR may be mediated by changes in bud ABA physiology, although systemic auxin signalling is necessary for sustained bud repression under a low R:FR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Simulating runoff under changing climatic conditions: Revisiting an apparent deficiency of conceptual rainfall-runoff models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Keirnan J. A.; Peel, Murray C.; Western, Andrew W.; Zhang, Lu; Peterson, Tim J.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrologic models have potential to be useful tools in planning for future climate variability. However, recent literature suggests that the current generation of conceptual rainfall runoff models tend to underestimate the sensitivity of runoff to a given change in rainfall, leading to poor performance when evaluated over multiyear droughts. This research revisited this conclusion, investigating whether the observed poor performance could be due to insufficient model calibration and evaluation techniques. We applied an approach based on Pareto optimality to explore trade-offs between model performance in different climatic conditions. Five conceptual rainfall runoff model structures were tested in 86 catchments in Australia, for a total of 430 Pareto analyses. The Pareto results were then compared with results from a commonly used model calibration and evaluation method, the Differential Split Sample Test. We found that the latter often missed potentially promising parameter sets within a given model structure, giving a false negative impression of the capabilities of the model. This suggests that models may be more capable under changing climatic conditions than previously thought. Of the 282[347] cases of apparent model failure under the split sample test using the lower [higher] of two model performance criteria trialed, 155[120] were false negatives. We discuss potential causes of remaining model failures, including the role of data errors. Although the Pareto approach proved useful, our aim was not to suggest an alternative calibration strategy, but to critically assess existing methods of model calibration and evaluation. We recommend caution when interpreting split sample results.

  9. Hemoglobin system of Sparus aurata: Changes in fishes farmed under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Salvatore; Nastasi, Giancarlo; D'Ascola, Angela; Campo, Giuseppe M.; Avenoso, Angela; Traina, Paola; Calatroni, Alberto; Burrascano, Emanuele; Ferlazzo, Alida; Lupidi, Giulio; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Falcioni, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain more knowledge on the stress responses of gilhead seabream (Sparus aurata) under extreme conditions, this study investigated the functional properties of the hemoglobin system and globin gene expression under hypoxia and low salinity. The oxygen affinity for the two hemoglobin components present inside the S. aurata erythrocyte was practically identical as was the influence of protons and organic phosphates (Root effect). The quantification of S. aurata hemoglobin fractions performed by HPLC and the data on gene expression of globin chains assayed by PCR indicate that under hypoxia and low salinity there is a change in the ratio between the two different hemoglobin components. The result indicating that the distinct hemoglobins present in S. aurata erythrocyte have almost identical functional properties, does not explain the adaptive response (expression change) following exposure of the animal to hypoxia or low salinity on the basis of their function as oxygen transporter. We hypothesize that other parallel biological functions that the hemoglobin molecule is known to display within the erythrocyte are involved in adaptive molecular mechanisms. The autoxidation-reduction cycle of hemoglobin could be involved in the response to particular living conditions

  10. Potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus Grown in Anaerobic-Light or Aerobic-Dark Conditions as Bioremediation Agent for Biological Wastewater Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Costa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms to clean up wastewater provides a cheaper alternative to the conventional treatment plant. The efficiency of this method can be improved by the choice of microorganism with the potential of removing contaminants. One such group is photosynthetic bacteria. Rhodobacter capsulatus is a purple non-sulfur bacterium (PNSB found to be capable of different metabolic activities depending on the environmental conditions. Cell growth in different media and conditions was tested, obtaining a concentration of about 108 CFU/mL under aerobic-dark and 109 CFU/mL under anaerobic-light conditions. The biomass was then used as a bioremediation agent for denitrification and nitrification of municipal wastewater to evaluate the potential to be employed as an additive in biological wastewater treatment. Inoculating a sample of mixed liquor withdrawn from the municipal wastewater treatment plant with R. capsulatus grown in aerobic-dark and anaerobic-light conditions caused a significant decrease of N-NO3 (>95%, N-NH3 (70% and SCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand (>69%, independent of the growth conditions. A preliminary evaluation of costs indicated that R. capsulatus grown in aerobic-dark conditions could be more convenient for industrial application.

  11. Utilization of lightflecks by seedlings of five dominant tree species of different subtropical forest successional stages under low-light growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Chen, Y J; Song, L Y; Liu, N; Sun, L L; Peng, C L

    2012-05-01

    We selected five typical tree species, including one early-successional species (ES) Pinus massoniana Lamb., two mid-successional species (MS) Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. and Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils. and two late-successional species (LS) Cryptocarya concinna Hance. and Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry., which represent the plants at three successional periods in Dinghushan subtropical forest succession of southern China. Potted seedlings of the five species were grown under 12% of full sunlight for 36 months. The ES and MS showed the slowest and fastest responses to lightflecks, respectively, which correlated with the rate of stomatal opening. In contrast to P. massoniana and C. concinna, the other three species exhibited a high induction loss. Early-successional species showed the lowest specific leaf area and chlorophyll content, the highest photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) and respiratory carbon losses (R(d)). Compared with ES and MS, LS showed lower A(max) and R(d). The five tree species showed a similar chlorophyll a/b ratio after long-term low-light adaptations. On the other hand, LS had a relatively higher de-epoxidation state to protect themselves from excess light during lightflecks. Our results indicated that (i) slower responses to lightflecks could partially explain why ES species could not achieve seedling regeneration in low-light conditions; (ii) fast responses to lightflecks could partially explain why MS species could achieve seedling regeneration in low-light conditions; and (iii) smaller respiratory carbon losses might confer on the LS species a competitive advantage in low-light conditions.

  12. Redox conditions and marine microbial community changes during the end-Ordovician mass extinction event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Justyna; Marynowski, Leszek; Trela, Wiesław; Kujawski, Piotr; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2017-02-01

    The end-Ordovician (Hirnantian) crisis is the first globally distinct extinction during the Phanerozoic, but its causes are still not fully known. Here, we present an integrated geochemical and petrographic analysis to understand the sedimentary conditions taking place before, during and after the Late Ordovician ice age. New data from the Zbrza (Holy Cross Mountains) and Gołdap (Baltic Depression) boreholes shows that, like in other worldwide sections, the total organic carbon (TOC) content is elevated in the upper Katian and uppermost Hirnantian to Rhudannian black shales, but depleted (below 1%) during most of the Hirnantian. Euxinic conditions occurred in the photic zone in both TOC-rich intervals. This is based on the maleimide distribution, occurrence of aryl isoprenoids and isorenieratane, as well as a dominance of tiny pyrite framboids. Euxinic conditions were interrupted by the Hirnantian regression caused by glaciation. Sedimentation on the deep shelf changed to aerobic probably due to intense thermohaline circulation. Euxinia in the water column occurred directly during the time associated with the second pulse of the mass extinction with a termination of the end-Ordovician glaciation and sea level rise just at the Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary. In contrast, we suggest based on inorganic proxies that bottom water conditions were generally oxic to dysoxic due to upwelling in the Rheic Ocean. The only episode of seafloor anoxia in the Zbrza basin was found at the O/S boundary, where all inorganic indicators showed elevated values typical for anoxia (U/Th > 1.25; V/Cr > 4.25; V/(V + Ni): 0.54-0.82 and Mo > 10-25 ppm). Significant differences in hopanes to steranes ratio and in C27-C29 sterane distribution between the Katian, Rhudannian and Hirnantian deposits indicate changes in marine microbial communities triggered by sharp climate change and Gondwana glaciation. The increase from biomarkers of cyanobacteria (2α-methylhopanes) after the O

  13. Attribution of soil moisture dynamics - Initial conditions vs. atmospheric forcing and the role of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-05-01

    The world's climate has started to change more quickly in recent decades and a stronger and faster shift is expected in the future. Even if the public perception is mostly limited to a widespread warming, climate change is a complex phenomenon impacting numerous variables of the climate system in different ways, also depending on time and location. Furthermore, extreme events may change more drastically than the mean climate. There is growing evidence that climate change is mostly man-made. However, it is still a matter of debate to which extent changes of the mean climate but also of particular (extreme) events are due to human impact. These questions are addressed by the growing science of climate attribution. Pointing out the anthropogenic influence on extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heatwave or the 2002 floods in Central Europe may help to support adaptation to climate change. This study investigates soil moisture in Europe in the context of climate change, because of its role as a key variable of the land-climate system and its practical importance for instance to agriculture. To derive soil moisture dynamics from 1984-2007 we use E-OBS forcing data together with SRB radiation data and employ an observation-based approach where soil moisture is computed from a water balance equation in which runoff (normalized with precipitation) and ET (normalized with net radiation) are simple functions of soil moisture. The constant runoff function is prescribed for the whole continent, and the ET function is calibrated using temperature data. After performing a validation of the inferred soil moisture data we use it in order to analyze changes in the likelihood of droughts. Our results show increased drought risk especially in north-eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, whereby the probability of extreme droughts increases stronger as for mild dryness episodes. To assess the potential for drought forecasting we furthermore study the importance of the initial

  14. Changes in plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression under osmotic stress and blue light in tomato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balarynová, Jana; Danihlík, J.; Fellner, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 27. ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : male-sterile mutant * arabidopsis-thaliana * seed-germination * abscisic-acid * solanum-lycopersicon * nitric-oxide * 7b-1 * protein * hypocotyl * responses * Tomato * Seed * Aquaporins * Blue light * 7B-1 mutant * Mannitol * PIPs Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2016

  15. The optical properties of greenlandic coastal waters: Modelling light penetration in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stedmon, Colin; Markager, S.S.; Pedersen, T.J.

    Greenlandic fjords are very productive and pristine ecosystems, which the local population is both intrinsically linked to and dependent on through heritage, industrial fisheries, and tourism. The availability and spectral quality of light are key parameters controlling the productivity of these ...... with a considerable amount of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the Arctic Ocean; and Godthåbsfjord a fjord in Southwest Greenland where strong tides ensure a regular supply of warm shelf water which melt glacial ice before it can leave the fjord...

  16. Influence of curing conditions on the sorptivity and weight change characteristics of self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out to investigate the influence of curing conditions on the capillary water absorption and weight change characteristics of self compacting concrete (SCC). Specimens were prepared using three types of concrete (SCC, Portland cement (PC), Fly ash (FA) concretes) and were cured under three different curing conditions (20C water and 20C and 40C air cure) for 28 days. Weight gain (water intake) in water curing and weight loss (water loss) in 20C and 40C air curing were recorded throughout the curing period. Compressive strength, water absorption and capillary water absorption tests were carried out at 28 days. The results indicated that FA concrete gained about 0.5% whilst PC and self-compacting concretes gained about 1.0% of the initial weight. This indicates that due to the slower reaction process more free water remains within FA concrete avoiding further water intake. In the weight loss study, FA concrete lost about 4.0% and 6.0% of the initial weight at 20C and 40C air curing, respectively; whereas SCC and PC concretes (both had almost identical values) lost about 3.2 and 5.2% at 20C and 40C, respectively. The absorption test results indicated that SCC gave the lowest captivity coefficient values followed by PC and FA concretes in all curing conditions. (author)

  17. Changes in Isotopic Composition of Bottled Natural Waters Due to Different Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferjan, T. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brencic, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, and Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vreca, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    To establish the influence of environmental conditions on processes affecting the stable isotopic composition of bottled water during storage, various brands of bottled water were exposed for 2 years in different conditions. Selected low mineralized natural mineral water of one particular brand stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was placed at three different locations with different physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, exposure to sunlight). For comparison, bottles of three other low mineralized natural mineral water brands, each from a different aquifer source, were placed in parallel at one of the locations. Each location was characterized by temperature, relative humidity and air pressure measurements. pH, conductivity and stable isotopic composition of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) were measured in regular intervals for nearly two years. Preliminary results from each location show noticeable changes in isotopic composition as well as the physical parameters of water with time of storage.

  18. CHANGES IN THE GLUTATHIONE SYSTEM IN P19 EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS UNDER HYPOXIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Orlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to modern perceptions, tumor growth, along with oxidative stress formation, is accompanied by hypoxia. Nowadays studying the regulation of cellular molecular system functioning by conformational changes in proteins appears to be a topical issue. Research goal was to evaluate the state of the glutathione system and the level of protein glutathionylation in P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC cells under hypoxic conditions.Material and methods. P19 EC cells (mouse embryonal carcinoma cultured under normoxic and hypox-ic conditions served the research material.The concentration of total, oxidized, reduced and protein-bound glutathione, the reduced to oxidized thiol ratio as well as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity were determined by spectropho-tometry.Results. Glutathione imbalance was accompanied by a decrease in P19 EC cell redox status under hypox-ic conditions against the backdrop of a rise in protein-bound glutathione.Conclusions. As a result of the conducted study oxidative stress formation was identified when modeling hypoxia in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. The rise in the concentration of protein-bound glutathione may indicate the role of protein glutathionylation in regulation of P19 cell metabolism and functions un-der hypoxia. 

  19. Diurnal changes of photosynthetic quantum yield in the intertidal macroalga Sargassum thunbergii under simulated tidal emersion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong Qiang; Zhang, Quan Sheng; Tang, Yong Zheng; Li, Xue Meng; Liu, Hong Liang; Li, Li Xia

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a three-way factorial experimental design was used to investigate the diurnal changes of photosynthetic activity of the intertidal macroalga Sargassum thunbergii in response to temperature, tidal pattern and desiccation during a simulated diurnal light cycle. The maximum (Fv/Fm) and effective (ΦPSII) quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) were estimated by chlorophyll fluorescence using a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer. Results showed that this species exhibited sun-adapted characteristics, as evidenced by the daily variation of Fv/Fm and ΦPSII. Both yield values decreased with increasing irradiance towards noon and recovered rapidly in the afternoon suggesting a dynamic photoinhibition. The photosynthetic quantum yield of S. thunbergii thalli varied significantly with temperature, tidal pattern and desiccation. Thalli were more susceptible to light-induced damage at high temperature of 25 °C and showed complete recovery of photosynthetic activity only when exposed to 8 °C. In contrast with the mid-morning low tide period, although there was an initial increase in photosynthetic yield during emersion, thalli showed a greater degree of decline at the end of emersion and remained less able to recover when low tide occurred at mid-afternoon. Short-term air exposure of 2 h did not significantly influence the photosynthesis. However, when exposed to moderate conditions (4 h desiccation at 15 °C or 6 h desiccation at 8 °C), a significant inhibition of photosynthesis was followed by partial or complete recovery upon re-immersion in late afternoon. Only extreme conditions (4 h desiccation at 25 °C or 6 h desiccation at 15 °C or 25 °C) resulted in the complete inhibition, with little indication of recovery until the following morning, implying the occurrence of chronic PSII damage. Based on the magnitude of effect, desiccation was the predominant negative factor affecting the photosynthesis under the simulated daytime irradiance period. These

  20. Assessing changes in a patient's condition - perspectives of intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2017-03-01

    To explore the phenomenon of assessing changes in patients' conditions in intensive care units from the perspectives of experienced intensive care nurses. Providing safe care for patients in intensive care units requires an awareness and perception of the signs that indicate changes in a patient's condition. Nurses in intensive care units play an essential role in preventing the deterioration of a patient's condition and in improving patient outcomes. This hermeneutic phenomenological study conducted close observations and in-depth interviews with 11 intensive care nurses. The nurses' experience ranged from 7 to 28 years in the intensive care unit. Data were collected at two intensive care units in two Norwegian university hospitals. The analysis was performed using the reflective methods of van Manen. An overarching theme of 'sensitive situational attention' was identified, in which the nurses were sensitive in relation to a patient and understood the significance of a given situation. This theme was further unfolded in four subthemes: (1) being sensitive and emotionally present, (2) being systematic and concentrating, (3) being physically close to the bedside and (4) being trained and familiar with the routines. Nurses understand each patient's situation and foresee clinical eventualities through a sensitive and attentive way of thinking and working. This requires nurses to be present at the bedside with both their senses (sight, hearing, smell and touch) and emotions and to work in a concentrated and systematic manner. Knowledge about the unique patient exists in interplay with past experiences and medical knowledge, which are essential for nurses to understand the situation. Clinical practice should develop routines that enable nurses to be present at the bedside and to work in a concentrated and systematic manner. Furthermore, providing safe care requires nurses to be sensitive and attentive to each patient's unique situation. © 2016 British Association of

  1. New insights into thermal growing conditions of Portuguese grapevine varieties under changing climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João A.; Costa, Ricardo; Fraga, Helder

    2018-03-01

    New decision support tools for Portuguese viticulture are urging under a climate change context. In the present study, heat and chilling accumulation conditions of a collection of 44 grapevine cultivars currently grown in Portugal are assessed at very high spatial resolution ( 1 km) and for 1981-2015. Two bioclimatic indices that incorporate non-linear plant-temperature relationships are selected for this purpose: growing degree hours—GDH (February-October) and chilling portions—CP (October-February). The current thermal growing conditions of each variety are examined and three clusters of grapevine cultivars are identified based on their GDH medians, thus assembling varieties with close heat accumulation requirements and providing more physiologically consistent information when compared to previous studies, as non-linear plant-temperature relationships are herein taken into account. These new clusters are also a complement to previous bioclimatic zoning. Ensemble mean projections under two anthropogenic-driven scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, 2041-2070), from four EURO-CORDEX simulations, reveal a widespread increase of GDH and decrease of CP, but with spatial heterogeneities. The spatial variability of these indices throughout Portugal is projected to decrease (strongest increases of GDH in the coolest regions of the northeast) and to increase (strongest decreases of CP in the warmest regions of the south and west), respectively. The typical heat accumulation conditions of each cluster are projected to gradually shift north-eastwards and to higher-elevation areas, whereas insufficient chilling may represent a new challenge in warmer future climates. An unprecedented level of detail for a large collection of grapevine varieties in Portugal is provided, thus promoting a better planning of climate change adaptation measures.

  2. Late Quaternary Palaeoceanographic Changes in Sea Surface Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, Andrea; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Nürnberg, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Palaeoceanographic changes and the variability in surface water mass hydrography are reconstructed in order to track tropical ocean and climate variability and inter-hemispheric heat exchange through the last 42,000 year BP. Our studies are based on the relative abundance of planktonic foraminifera combined with sea surface temperature approximation based Mg/Ca measurements, XRF scanning and stable oxygen isotope analyses in a 5 m long gravity core Ga307-Win-12GC (17°50.80N, 64°48.7290W), retrieved in the Virgin Island Basin in approx. 3,960 m water depth. The Virgin Island Basin is the deepest part of the Anegada-Jungfern Passage in the northeast Caribbean, one of the most important pathways for water mass exchange between the Central Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. Due to its bathymetry surface waters as well as deep water mass strata from the northern and southern hemisphere enter the basin, comprising Caribbean Surface Water (CSW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Atlantic Intermediate Water (AIW) and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The planktonic foraminiferal assemblage suggests rather stable sea-surface conditions during the Holocene in the NE Caribbean. However, major changes in the hydrographic setting could be identified within the glacial period. During the glacial period, clear millennial-scale variability in sea-surface temperature and productivity are present. Fluctuations in the relative abundance of Globigerinoides ruber in the sediment core may be correlated to Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the northern North Atlantic. Furthermore an increase in relative abundance of Globorotalia rubescens occurs synchronous with ice rafted debris layers described from the North Atlantic. The faunal changes in the tropical Atlantic may thus be correlated to major climate changes i