WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing industrial patterns

  1. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  2. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for open-quotes greenfieldsclose quotes in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed

  3. Trade pattern change impact on industrial CO2 emissions in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) is applied in this paper to analyze the sources of change in industrial CO2 emissions in Taiwan from 1989 to 2001. Owing to the fact that Taiwan is an export-oriented, trade-dependent economy, the focus is on trade transformation over the past decade and its effect over industrial CO2 emissions. Change in trade patterns has significantly impacted many aspects of the Taiwan economy, subsequently resulting in various influences on industrial CO2 emissions, as shown by empirical analysis results. Change in export level increased industrial CO2 emissions, above all other effects, by 72.1%. However, changes in export mix and import coefficients imposed effects of dragging down industrial CO2 emissions by 5.7% and 11.7%, respectively

  4. Trade pattern change impact on industrial CO2 emissions in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) is applied in this paper to analyze the sources of change in industrial CO2 emissions in Taiwan from 1989 to 2001. Owing to the fact that Taiwan is an export-oriented, trade-dependent economy, the focus is on trade transformation over the past decade and its effect over industrial CO2 emissions. Change in trade patterns has significantly impacted many aspects of the Taiwan economy, subsequently resulting in various influences on industrial CO2 emissions, as shown by empirical analysis results. Change in export level increased industrial CO2 emissions, above all other effects, by 72.1%. However, changes in export mix and import coefficients imposed effects of dragging down industrial CO2 emissions by 5.7% and 11.7%, respectively. (author)

  5. Patterns of Industrial Change in the USA since 1960: A Preliminary Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Doblin, C.P.

    1983-01-01

    This analysis of industrial changes in the USA is the first in a series of case studies on structural changes since 1960. Generally, this has been a period of economic growth in the USA, but no means all industries have shared in it to the same extent. Measured by means of index numbers, the growth of total national production represents the national average. Industries with slower growth than that for total industrial production may be viewed as underperformers, and those with faster growth ...

  6. Changing Employment Patterns of Scientists, Engineers, and Technicians in Manufacturing Industries: 1977-80. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report presents an analysis of science, engineering, and technician (SET) employment within manufacturing industries based on data from the 1977 and 1980 Occupational Employment Statistics survey. The purposes of the report are to: (1) summarize employment data for detailed SET occupations in manufacturing to describe demand patterns; (2)…

  7. Changing hotel location patterns in Ekurhuleni, South Africa’s industrial workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accommodation sector is of central importance to research on urban tourism. A number of studies seek to understand the location of hotels in urban areas. This article contributes to the limited scholarship on hotel location in African cities. Under investigation is hotel development in Ekurhuleni, one of South Africa’s newest metropolitan areas with a strong tradition of mining and industrial activities. This is a non-traditional tourism destination where until recently leisure tourism was not a component of the local economy. In terms of tourism development Ekurhuleni has expanded its share of business tourism as a result of its geographical location in South Africa’s economic heartland. Importantly, business tourism has been driven by the location in Ekurhuleni of OR Tambo Airport, South Africa’s major international gateway airport. Between 1990 and 2010 this investigation shows that the local hotel economy of Ekurhuleni has been transformed. One aspect of restructuring has been the collapse of the low quality liquor dominated hotel which was numerically the major accommodation type of the pre-1990 period. The booming business tourism economy caused new investments and hotel property developments in medium-size and high quality four and five star hotel establishments. Growth has clustered geographically in and around the international airport which is the key contemporary locational influence for hotel location in this investigation.

  8. Strategic alliances fit pattern of industry innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategic alliance, vitally important as an isolated practice in the oil and gas business, also fits a broad pattern of innovation by which the industry is redefining itself for prosperity in a new energy age. The industry is experiencing a renaissance in almost every aspect, from technological breakthroughs to innovative business practices to new products and markets. An inevitable outgrowth of such rapid and fundamental change is an evolution in business relationships. The strategic alliance is at the forefront of this trend. Development of new relationships capitalizes on, and partly results from, enormous advances in technology and finance. The paper discusses new relationships, the outsourcing rage, integrating work flows, and technological advances

  9. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis and Industry Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Kosfeld, Reinhold; Eckey, Hans-Friedrich; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Traditional measures of spatial industry concentration are restricted to given areal units. They do not make allowance for the fact that concentration may be differently pronounced at various geographical levels. Methods of spatial point pattern analysis allow to measure industry concentration at a continuum of spatial scales. While common distance based methods are well applicable for sub-national study areas, they become inefficient in measuring concentration at various levels within indust...

  10. CHANGE@CERN:Changes in Industrial Services

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The changes envisaged in the Management's draft plan will focus the resources of the Laboratory on the LHC project and its completion. One of CERN's largest areas of spending is in Industrial Service Contracts, which currently amount to nearly 15% of the CERN budget. At present more than 2000 people have access to CERN through such contracts, although the nature of the contracts means that expenditure is not only on labour but also on materials. The revised cost to completion of the LHC has caused understandable concern that savings in Industrial Services will give rise to job losses at CERN, and rumours of '500 lay-offs' appeared in some newspaper reports. These reports were based on misunderstanding and speculation rather than the actual plan being prepared at CERN. The current proposal regarding expenditure on Industrial Services - which is supported by the findings of Task Force 3 - is to redirect about CHF170 M to the LHC, spread over the period 2003-2009. Crucially, the Management's plan envisages a r...

  11. Changing Pattern of Saudi Arabia's Oil Exports and Broad Prospects for China and Saudi Arabia Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Changing pattern of Saudi Arabia's oil exports Saudi Arabia (hereinafter referred to as Saudi) long time ranks No. one of world oil production and lost the title only in 2009 and 2010 due to cutting output which is slightly lower than the Russian output. It is predicted that global annual oil output in the next 10 years will be more than 4 billion tons, during which Saudi annual oil output will be up to 540-550 million tons, accounting for about 14 percent of global annual oil output. Saudi's 2005 oil exports of about 360 million tons accounted for 17.78 percent of the global oil exports, and 42.66% of the Middle East. Over the next 10 years, it is expected Saudi oil exports will reach 380-400 tons. Saudi plenty of spare oil production capacity and enhanced oil recovery will increase its remaining recoverable oil reserve,

  12. Major Changes in Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In recent years, facing the unprecedented difficulties and challenges such as fuel price increase, supply tension of power coal and increasing pressure of environmental protection, the survival of power enterprises is subjected to certain squeeze. The impact of coal industry on the power industry is increasing.

  13. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  14. Child drownings: a changing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, D T; Ross, F I; Grattan-Smith, T M

    1991-02-01

    Paediatric drownings in New South Wales during the years 1987-1990 are reviewed to document the current pattern. Over these three years we have registered 250 paediatric deaths by physical injury. Sixty-one (24%) of these deaths were by drowning. Twenty-nine of the 61 drownings (47%) occurred in domestic pools; 25 of these were in unfenced or inadequately fenced pools. Of the remaining four cases, one was associated with a chair being used to gain access and the other three remain unexplained. Thirty-three of the 61 drownings occurred in country areas; of these 10 were in pools, eight in rivers or creeks, six in boating accidents, four in the surf and three in dams. A changing trend identified by this study is the increasing percentage of drownings (44%) occurring in nominally "fenced" pools in which the fencing was not functioning because the gate was open or the fencing was in disrepair. Legislation must be supported by public education and council inspection if the full benefit of isolation fencing is to be realised. With respect to all drownings there is a continuing need for education about the dangers that bodies of water, even in the bath or a bucket, pose to young children, and the need for parents to strive for optimal supervision. PMID:1988786

  15. DESIGNING TIMELESS PATTERNS FOR INTERIOR TEXTILE INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bashyal, Anita

    2012-01-01

    This project was conducted in collaboration with a Helsinki based design studio, Saara Renvall Design. The task was to design patterns for interior textiles. This thesis describes about the processes that took place during creating the ideas for three different textile patterns. The whole thesis can be divided into two parts. The thesis first describes about a material research which was conducted to gather the information about textile patterns from different periods and ethnic groups. The...

  16. The petroleum industry's approach to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Industry Table' is one of the 15 sectoral tables established to address the issue of climate change. The Industry Table is linked to Canadian industry program energy conservation. This paper listed the names of Industry Table members and their associations with either government or industry. The key messages from the Industry Table are to analyze competitiveness issues, to create synergies, generate awareness of Kyoto and to identify opportunities to reduce emissions beyond CO2. The members will submit a presentation to the First Ministers in early 2000. 1 fig

  17. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    , lone parents and cohabiting couples. Focusing on components of welfare services with noticeable differences in unit costs across age and household status, we find that changes in age structures have improved public finances by 1.6% of GDP whereas changing household structures have worsened public......This paper studies the effects on tax revenues and welfare expenditures in Denmark caused by changes in age and household structures over the years 1982-2007. During that period, there has been a minor fall in the old-age dependency ratio, and a major increase in the number of people living alone...... finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  18. Effects of changes in steel industry concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenič, T.; A. Bobenič Hintošová; Hliboká, L.; I. Vasková

    2015-01-01

    The paper on a basis of completed mergers and acquisitions within global steel industry presents changes in steel industry concentration and analyzes its effects on world trade with steel products and on prices of input materials as well as of output products. The analyses performed for the 1990 - 2012 period revealed that increased concentration in global steel industry did not lead to more intensive world trade with steel products; however it is connected with increase of finished products ...

  19. Technical innovation and industrial change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical development is leading by rationalization at economical stagnation to a decrease in the working volume. The economical difficulties are based on the discrepancy between the offer of goods and services as well as the actual demand. The demand of common goods is growing compared to the consumption goods, which will decrease. The therefore necessary structure change requires a high standard of governmental efforts and social consensus. (orig.)

  20. Structural change and industrial policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Atiyas, İzak; Atiyas, Izak; Bakış, Ozan; Bakis, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on structural change in Turkey and provides an overview of the evolution of industrial policy in the last three decades. We show that Turkey has experienced substantial growth in labor productivity in the last decade and that this has been associated with substantial change in the composition of value added and employment both in the overall economy and within the manufacturing industry. Using sectoral national accounts data we decompose aggregate productivity g...

  1. Industrialization and the Changes of Vietnamese Families

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2011-01-01

    Through out checking three aspects: number and rate of urban population in the country; the growth of GDP; and the shift of economic structure, the article affirms the industrialization process in Vietnam now. Besides it, Vietnamese families are changing, too. It is examined at living standard of family; the average age of first marriage and household size. From that, we could see the relationship between industrialization and the changes of Vietnamese families at present.

  2. Industrialization and the Changes of Vietnamese Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through out checking three aspects: number and rate of urban population in the country; the growth of GDP; and the shift of economic structure, the article affirms the industrialization process in Vietnam now. Besides it, Vietnamese families are changing, too. It is examined at living standard of family; the average age of first marriage and household size. From that, we could see the relationship between industrialization and the changes of Vietnamese families at present.

  3. Adaptation to climate change and industrial vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's societies, the production base made up by the industrial fabric acts as an important link between the climate and its variations and our lifestyle. However, several decades of experience have often enabled us to minimise the impact of the weather and its fluctuations on activities, making the industrial sector out to be purely artificial and protected from climate impacts. Yet climate change leads us to challenge this assumption: if the industrial base is supposed to be impervious to the current climate, is this still the case in a context of climate change? In an attempt to answer this question, the Invulnerable project was launched, led by the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI) and bringing together scientific and industrial partners (Meteo-France, IPSL, CERFACS). Observing the availability of scientific resources on climate change, partly resulting from the modeling research coordinated by the IPCC, the idea was to work with industries to identify their vulnerabilities and to use these to define indicators for climatologists. These indicators are not chosen by scientists without consulting industries, but are in fact defined by these industries to ensure they correspond to their needs as closely as possible. The challenge is therefore to bring together scientists and industries and to catalyse a mutual understanding to ensure this discussion results in one or several indicators that are relevant to the activity in question and on which climatologists can work

  4. Reiki and changes in pattern manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Marcia E

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this qualitative research study were to describe the changes in pattern manifestations that individuals experienced associated with receiving Reiki, and to present the theoretical understanding of these changes. The unitary field pattern portrait research method was utilized because it was ontologically, epistemologically, and methodologically consistent with the science of unitary human beings. Reiki was found to be associated with changes in awareness from dissonance and turbulence to harmony and well-being by helping individuals knowingly participate in actualizing their own capacities for healing. Reiki was found to be an appropriate voluntary mutual patterning nursing modality. PMID:19567731

  5. Structural Changes in Serbian Industry during Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikolić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition is a complex process whereby a country in transition is stimulating structural changes wishing to achieve economic growth and improved social wellbeing. In this paper the authors aim to show that during transition in Serbia there such changes in the structure of manufacturing industry occurred, which resulted with only modest ​​growth that in fact was slower than in other transitional countries. By the means of theoretical and empirical approach – deductive methods, statistical and mathematical evaluation the authors have come to conclusion that structural changes did not improve industry branches like the hi-tech industry that contribute the most to PPP generation. At the same time, some low productive industries have gained on importance, therefore keeping the standard on the low levels without possibility to rapidly converge towards EU average, which was set as an ultimate goal of transition in Serbia.

  6. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  7. Retail industry adopting change : adaptation: automation: benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains the research on the key change adoptive agents/forces and the solu-tions to the world‟s rapidly growing and one of the most consumer facing industry. The trillions worth retail industries are undergoing the period of important restructuring inter-nally and externally. The author highlights the key factors that force the retail industry to adopt modern technologies for their daily business processes in order to be more competi-tive. The factors have been viewed in two pers...

  8. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  9. Industry upheaval drives changes at EPRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes how the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is rethinking and modifying its program and business relationships with its members to reflect the significant changes occurring in the utility business. They are in the midst of changes as profound as any the (electric utility) industry has ever seen, according to Kurt Yeager, EPRI's new president and CEO. The renewed availability of natural gas for power generation, along with the development of more efficient gas turbines, have been important factors. The ability to better manage the delivery system has contributed to the arguments in favor of increased competition, although the application of the management tools, such as flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), is not coming as quickly as many had expected. And new digitally controlled electrotechnologies have made electricity a growth business again, creating a third wave of growth driven by technologies that allow more precise and efficient control of industrial processes

  10. STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE TOURIST INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Galdini, Rossana

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the role and the significance of tourism, as one particular set of industries that are of great significance in contemporary western societies, namely consumer services and especially tourist- related services. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of tourism on host communities, the changing role of tourism in the European economy, the relationship between tourism and environment, and its place in urban regeneration. Tourism is one of the most significant social force...

  11. Are Breastfeeding Patterns in Pakistan Changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Zubeda Khan

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding, apart from being beneficial to the child's health, helps in keeping the birth rate low. One of the effects of malnutrition in developing countries is the reduction in the period of lactation. In Pakistan, where the birth rate is already very high and the use of contraceptives limited, any reduction in the breastfeeding period may result in an increase of the birth rate. This study was undertaken to find out the recent changes in the breastfeeding pattern and their pot...

  12. [Changes in marriage patterns in Java].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarimbun, M

    1991-06-01

    "The paper reviews the changes that have taken place in the marriage pattern among rural Javanese. Low age at marriage and decision regarding marriage made by the parents were the norms in the past. Consummation of marriage was frequently delayed. Although marriage has been highly valued in the society, [the] divorce rate was high. With the advance of education and social progress in general, changes have taken place. Age at marriage has gone up, parental role in marital decision making has declined and the divorce rate has dropped significantly." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12317015

  13. Energy change in the industrial society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains the speeches and discussion reports of the 29th Trier colloquium on the environmental and techniques law, which was dedicated to the theme ''Energy change in the industrial society''. The goal a the colloquium consisted, to work out central questions of the energy change and also to look beyond the legal field. The documented speeches deal mainly with the promotional system of the renewal-energy law and its need for reform, whereby this topic is discussed from legal, economic, and business perspective. A further main topic form questions of planning. Hereby it deals both with the regulation of the increased use of renewable energies in zoning and land-use planning and with the network expansion including public participation. Object of the discussion are also the providing of the base load by conventional power plants as well as legal questions of the compensation and load balancing in the connection of off-shore facilities.

  14. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  15. Recent leaps towards free trade : the impact on Norwegian industry and trade patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fæhn, Taran; Leo A. Grünfeld

    1996-01-01

    In this study we model effects on Norwegian industry and trade patterns of the recently implemented trade reforms - the WTO-agreement, the EEA-treaty, the OECD ship building reform and the EFTA fishing agreement - through changes in tariffs, NTBs, government procurement and subsidy policy as well as shifts in foreign prices and demand. We employ a highly disaggregated CGE model to simulate the difference between an economy adapted to the mentioned reforms and an economy based on a multilatera...

  16. Quebec industry and climatic changes : Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climatic change is a phenomenon greatly influenced by greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activity and the natural greenhouse effect necessary to sustain life on the planet. Carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere now exceed the levels prior to the industrial revolution by 31 per cent. Half of this increase occurred during the past 30 years, while the average temperature increased by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C. By using climate change models, scientists have linked this increase to the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and predict that the average temperature will rise by 1 to 3.5 degrees C during the next century with increases of 5 to 10 degrees C being felt in certain parts of Canada. In an effort to curb the emissions of carbon dioxide, the Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Change was created to represent different sectors of the industry, including energy, metallurgy, aluminium, cement, environment, mines, plastics, petrochemicals, pulp and paper, and manufacturing. The group worked at meeting the following objectives: (1) to examine the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases emissions in the industrial sector, (2) to propose and evaluate measures and initiatives for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions including their cost, impact and potential timetable for implementation, (3) to identify new and promising technologies in the field of greenhouse gases reduction, (4) to identify business opportunities and risks for industry in Quebec, and (5) to recommend an implementation strategy for the Kyoto Protocol for each sector, in terms of reduction measures that would be economical and in agreement with the various plans in place at the federal, provincial and municipal levels. A total of 22 recommendations were proposed covering the entire spectrum of the mandate. 15 tabs, 2 appendices

  17. Alopecia areata - pattern in industrial city of Baroda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, S.S.G. Hospital, Baroda. The profile of Alopecia areata (AA was studied in 150 subjects in industrial city of Baroda, alopecia areata is the problem of young males as 52.1 %patients are in 2-39 years age group and male to female ratio being 1.7: 1. Most of alopecia areata presents within 6 month of onset. The problem of AA is of cosmetic significance. AA pattern is the commonest and only few have combined AA and ophiasis. The common site is scalp (parietal, occipital, frontal followed by beard and moustache. Associated atopic state is not common hence indicating good prognosis. Nail involvement though not common but is in form of pitting.

  18. Corporate structural change and social dialogue in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kamakura, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Examines corporate change and restructuring in the chemical industry and analyses how industrial relations in this sector can be improved in the interests of both decent work and greater productivity.

  19. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  20. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  1. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    OpenAIRE

    Land, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    1. The objective of this working paper is to analyse consumers' dietary patterns as reflected in shopping, meal patterns, eating habits, traditions, cooking and the content of the diet itself. These dietary patterns were analysed with regard to th connection to consumers' ways of life, family form and living conditions, in as much as cooking and eating food play an extremely important role in the structuring of everyday life. 2. The consumer analyses are based on 12 qualitative interviews con...

  2. The Changing Nature of Knowledge Workers in the New Industrial Country: an Industry - Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yao Tseng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Academia and industry agree on the importance of knowledge worker workers in emerging economy or new industrial country for economic growth. Understanding the changing nature of knowledge workers in an industry-level analysis is helpful to formulate industry policy. This study aims to investigate the changing of knowledge workers in Taiwan 20 manufacturing industries during 1988-2005. Empirical results are shown as follows. First, there is a trend shift from non- knowledge workers to knowledge workers in all manufacturing industry. Second, based on the shift-share analysis, the within-industry effect on increasing knowledge workers is more than the between-industry effect, especially in electric & electronic machinery industry. Finally, both technological progress and international trade factors positively affect increasing knowledge workers, and the effect of the former is more than that of the later, based on regression analysis of fixed effect model.

  3. The patterns of energy use in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was sculpted from a report commissioned by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of proposed energy taxes on energy use by the US chemical industry. The discussion of energy taxes is eliminated here, however the broader discussion of the impact of energy prices on energy use is retained. The US chemical industry is currently the world leader by many important measures, such as technology contributions and employment. This leadership traces to a slate of advantages: science base, low cost energy, large market and economic/political stability. The focus of this paper is on the patterns of energy use: (1) There is an optimum economic trade of capital against energy. Industry optimizes this trade to lower its costs. For the large volume chemicals which dominate energy use, this tradable capital cost exceeds energy cost by a factor of 1.5. (2) The capital/energy trade follows clearly defined rules. The basic rules are rooted in thermodynamics. (3) An increase in energy prices would result in a drop in process energy use: a doubling of process energy prices would cut process energy use by approximately 1/3 but the capital cost would be in excess of $100 billion if driven into a short time span, such as 5 years. This is because of the long useful lifetime of capital facilities. (4) Process energy is about half the total energy use, with feedstock being the balance. Feedstock use is much less sensitive to price. Restated, the doubling of energy price will result in roughly a 1/6 reduction in total energy use. (5) Technology progress will also reduce energy use. This reduction is distinct from the impact of energy price. Technological progress will be at least as important in reducing energy use as will energy pricing, for the foreseeable future. (6) Technology progress can be sorted into two themes: (a) Learning curve improvements, which are almost inherent in the production process and the nature of competition; and (b) Breakthroughs that happen in a

  4. Changing need for Education of Industrial Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1997-01-01

    Many changes have taken place in societies and enterprises during the last decades, but have we changed our university structure according to this? Have changes in educational structure only been made according to technologies? The paper propose a change to work flow education....

  5. Ontogenetic pattern change in amphibians: the case of Salamandra corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Beukema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic, post-metamorphic pattern development is a rarely studied topic in amphibian science. As there are indications that the pattern of Salamandra corsica might expand over time, digital image analyses were applied in order to measure several phenotypical variables which were related to the snout vent length. Results show a significant increase of patches which change to irregular shapes while SVL increases. Digital image analysis is identified as a suitable tool to explore pattern shape and change in general, while the documented pattern development in S. corsica might be one of the first quantified cases of post-metamorphic ontogenetic pattern change in amphibians.

  6. Technological and Structural Change in the European Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Panapoulou, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The world banking industry is undergoing a large-scale transformation. Banking systems and financial markets, both domestic and international, have been undergoing a series of profound changes. One of the main driving forces of these worldwide changes is the introduction of innovations in new information technologies. Against these trends, industrial structure in the banking industry and banking regulation have sometimes encouraged these trends and sometimes adapted to them. The aim of this p...

  7. Reinventing the skilled region: Human capital externalities and industrial change

    OpenAIRE

    Heuermann, Daniel F.

    2009-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the literatures on industrial change and human capital externalities we investigate the complementarity between aggregate regional education and job turnover. On the level of regional industries in Germany we find strong evidence for such complementarity. Thus, regional human capital turns out to be a crucial ingredient for productivity enhancing industrial change, while human capital externalities arise first and foremost in dynamic labor markets. On the firm level, ...

  8. The Changing Face of Labor in the Newspaper Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwis, Gail L.

    Noting that the employment practices of both large and small newspapers are changing as a result of automation, this paper deals with how automation is affecting the industry employment picture in general and the union employment picture in particular, how the changing employment picture is altering the industry's economic condition, and how…

  9. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith J.

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade -- ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals -- threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  10. Patterns of change in family-based aggression prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, L D; Tolan, P H

    2001-04-01

    Patterns of change on three intervention targets were examined in 151 families that participated in a family intervention designed to reduce and prevent children's aggressive behavior. Measures of parents' alliance and parenting skills and children's aggressive behavior were obtained at five times during the intervention. Three cluster analyses were conducted to identify patterns of change on each target. Linear and nonlinear patterns of improvement as well as two distinct patterns of no change were obtained. The patterns were differentiated by net improvement, overall level of skill, and trajectory of change. Family characteristics also differentiated the patterns and relations were found among patterns across intervention targets. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11314554

  11. A Strategic Study of Establishing the Industrial Needs in Pattern Design and Technology in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joe S. AU; Allan C. CHAN; ZHANG Lei

    2007-01-01

    Pattern design and, technology play a very important role in the garment industry. In order to improve the level of pattern making and design of the garment industry, a survey was conducted to investigate the industrial needs in pattern design and technology in mainland China. The data were collected from the employers and employees from the garment industry and students in the major of fashion and clothing studies. It indicated that there was a gap between the employer and employee, especially the requirements of the industrial needs and the course contents covered by the tertiary schools. The employers expected to recruit more experienced pattern designers, at the same time, they were not reluctant to hire fresh graduates and spent more resources on the training of employees. The students knew little about their employment situation of the garment industry, spent too little time on the course study and learned too little practical skills in pattern design. They could not make use of the knowledge which prevented them from being employed by the garment industry. Efforts should be taken by both the tertiary schools and the garment industry. The students should be aspirated towards the profession of pattern cutters and the syllabuses of pattern making should be more practical and industrial orientated. The solution might benefit the garment industry a lot in a long run.

  12. Industry Clustering: Branding Changes or Substantial Differences

    OpenAIRE

    John Hobbs; Michael Walsh; Richard Moloney

    2013-01-01

    In economic policy the term ?industry cluster? is often used to explain geographical concentrations of economic and innovation activities. The prominence of the cluster idea that was in particular triggered by Porter (1990) and Enright (1996) is not too surprising since ?both firms keen to improve their competitiveness, and governments keen to exploit new sources of economic growth, need to understand how innovation works in order to better stimulate it? (OECD, 1999). Many believe that cluste...

  13. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    of the results of a questionnaire survey (Jelsøe, Land & Lassen, 1994), so that their ways of life, age, number of children, distance to etc., were known in advance. Their dietary patterns, as revealed by the questionnaire survey, had no influence on the selection. 3. Not unexpectedly, the questionnaire survey...... * consumer consciousness * use of shopping possibilities * the influence of traditions * children's influence on food * inspiration for food * do people eat fish * ways of life and dietary patterns 6. One of the important results we found was the ambivalence in the information about food. There is a lot...... of ambivalence among consumers about the kind and quality of information they want about everyday food. On the one hand, in order to be able to choose between products, it is important for consumers to have information about product ingredients, while on the other hand, only the most interested consumer can...

  14. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  15. Diverse Pattern-making Approaches, Salary Differentials And Skills Gaps In Apparel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Japjee Kaur Kohli; Mankomal Kaur Thapar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Pattern-making is an important stage in apparel manufacture. Indian apparel industry employs both fashion designers and pattern makers (FD&PM) for developing patterns for apparel production. Employed FD&PM possess varied qualifications, work experience, back-grounds and come from different geographical regions. Migratory nature of workforce has also contributed in use of self developed pattern making approaches. Numerous pattern-making approaches have been evolved since beginning of ...

  16. Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

  17. Business Model Change in the Newspaper Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uliyanova, Anastasia; Holm, Anna B.; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    management literature on triggers of business model change reveals that the literature is sparse in describing the change in young consumers1’ requirements of value of news put in a broader context of postmodernity; neither does it put focus on understanding of young consumers’ alternating and fragmented...... identities as one of the main triggers of value proposition change in newspaper firms. The present paper seeks to fill in this research gap by focussing on young consumers’ understanding of news value in the age of postmodernity and assuming that the postmodern features of fragmentation, decentering of the...... present paper’s main contribution lies in shedding light on young consumers’ construction of news value in postmodern era and conceptualizing a strategy of value fragmentation in designing news products for newspaper companies....

  18. Structural and technological changes of greenhouse gas emissions during the transition period in Polish industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasierb, Slawomir; Niedziela, Karol; Wojtulewicz, Jerzy

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the patterns of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Polish industry arising during the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. A method of analyzing industry energy use and GHG emissions is discussed. Using this method, the impact of changes in industrial production value, the share of specific industry branches in the total industrial production, energy intensity, and the mix of the energy carriers in the 1989 1993 period has been analyzed. The last year of the analyzed period shows favorable trends in efficiency and signs of production structure shift to a less energy-intensive one. Economic reform implemented after 1989, which released energy carriers' prices from government control, had important effects on the industrial sector. Energy efficiency and emission intensity trends of 1992 1994 were favorable; if they continue, production will return to 1989 levels with much lower energy consumption and significantly decreased GHG emissions.

  19. Pattern and Determinants of Intra-Industry Trade in Australian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Kishor

    1999-01-01

    This paper the presents pattern and determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT) in Australian manufacturing since the late 1970s. The results point to a sharp rise in IIT from the mid 1980s which appears to be linked with an outward-oriented policy. Industry level analysis indicates that industries which experienced a sharp fall in protection are the industries with the higher levels of IIT. These include textile, garments, rubber products, and machinery and equipment. An increasing trend in I...

  20. CORDEL - Industry Views on Design Change Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CORDEL and Design Basis Knowledge Management - • Fleets of standardised designs offer: • broader basis for feedback of design, construction, operation, failure modes, failure rates and overall performance; • Operating experience and design improvements easily shared •Leverage of knowledge / human resources across fleets allows for shared engineering and design manpower; • Collection of good practices / Excellence in Operation / Life long support with Design improvements; • Leverage of resources across fleets in special tooling, share of spare parts, obsolescence issues; • Safety and Economic best practices more easily shared •Peer review and International cooperation can address issues and problematic areas with wider knowledge and resources (training, design changes, upgrades)

  1. Profitability and productivity changes in the Korean electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean electricity industry saw significant changes following the reform in April 2001. Until the last decade, the industry was monopolized by the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), a state-owned, vertically integrated company. The 2001 reform divided KEPCO's power generation division into six power generation companies (GENCOs), with the aim of improving efficiency and introducing competition in the electricity industry. In this study, we used capital total factor productivity (KTFP) to analyze profit changes from fixed input capital, and an index number profit decomposition (INPD) to examine the sources of the profit changes. We investigate the industry thoroughly from three points of view: the overall industry over time; the power generation sector by company; and the transmission and distribution sectors of the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). Next, we measured how the profits from productivity growth were distributed to consumers, fuel suppliers, employees, and company owners. The results suggest that a more reasonable price system for both wholesale and consumer prices needs to be implemented prior to the privatization and deregulation of the Korean electricity industry. - Highlights: ► We investigate the industry thoroughly from three points of view. ► Korean electricity industry made profits differently before and after the reform. ► A more reasonable price system should be employed in the electricity market.

  2. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    to facilitating competition. Notably, a taxation law reform enabled and accelerated the competition process already underway. Legal rules and market competition may thus be understood as not operating in isolation, but as forces that can be working in dialog. Secondly, the paper highlights the importance......German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...... to support this development and explores the consequences in governance and in law that have been taken or that need to be drawn from this finding. Consistent with market-based theoretical accounts on corporate law, it finds that the changes currently underway are mainly a response to global market pressure...

  3. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.;

    2008-01-01

    A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  4. Patterns-Based IS Change Management in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makna, Janis; Kirikova, Marite

    The majority of information systems change management guidelines and standards are either too abstract or too bureaucratic to be easily applicable in small enterprises. This chapter proposes the approach, the method, and the prototype that are designed especially for information systems change management in small and medium enterprises. The approach is based on proven patterns of changes in the set of information systems elements. The set of elements was obtained by theoretical analysis of information systems and business process definitions and enterprise architectures. The patterns were evolved from a number of information systems theories and tested in 48 information systems change management projects. The prototype presents and helps to handle three basic change patterns, which help to anticipate the overall scope of changes related to particular elementary changes in an enterprise information system. The use of prototype requires just basic knowledge in organizational business process and information management.

  5. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... amount of uncertainty, the prospect of such a dramatic weakening of public finances is likely to trigger demands for welfare reforms characterized by a more individualized system of public transfer and tax payments, in addition to the measures that have already been taken to address the fiscal effects of...

  6. Key Directions of Sectoral and Spatial Changes in the Russian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasovsky V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers major trends in the spatial and sectoral structure of national production and analyses the patterns of transformation of industrial systems into integrated industrial complexes, which show higher efficiency in transit condiétions. The author presents a new approach to studying the structural transformation of industrial systems during the transition of the national economy, which will make it possible to identify major trends in national production. The article seeks to draw attention to the methodology of developing and implementing industrial policy and devising an algorithm of effective transition of Russian industries in the modern conditions of international division of labor. The modernization and transnationalization of national production rests on a number of methods that make it possible for the corporate management to react rapidly to changes in the global market situation. These methods include strategic segmentation, analyzing the ability to adapt to the expected conditions, devising a company’s entrepreneurial strategy, and changes in the spatial and industrial structure of production. The transformation of national industry is associated with the introduction of mechanisms of industrial integration structures using single organizational production modules capable of rational combination and transformation of the elements of national production structure to create competitive transnational production associations, such as clusters and other production forms serving as ‘growth poles’ and becoming elements of the emerging framework for national production. This methodology makes it possible to develop new approaches, methods, and principles for analyzing the transformation of the national spatial and industrial system during economic transition. Current factors, features, patterns and trends in the transformation of national industrial systems are identified; a mechanism for devising and implementing a

  7. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  8. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  9. Characteristic occurrence patterns of micropollutants and their removal efficiencies in industrial wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seok; Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Chang-Won; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-02-01

    The concentrations and removal efficiencies of various kinds of micropollutants were investigated and the relationships between the input sources of industrial wastewater and occurrence patterns of each micropollutant were identified at nine on-site industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The distribution pattern of each compound varied according to the WWTP type and several micropollutants were significantly related with specific industries: chlorinated phenols (ClPhs) with paper and metal industries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with petrogenic- and pyrogenic-related industries, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) with the paper industry, and chlorinated benzenes (ClBzs) with dye-related industries. The activated sludge (AS) process was very efficient in the removal of ClPhs and PAHs, and the filtration process in the removal of PCDD/Fs and 1,4-dioxane. Generally, the removal efficiencies of each micropollutant varied according to the WWTP type. PMID:21140016

  10. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry. PMID:19283621

  11. Change and Its Repercussions for the Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adizes Ichak Kalderon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes have always existed but their speed and frequency have become rather apparent. Changes are present in all areas of life, but here we focus on those happening in the banking industry. Banks are undergoing revolutionary changes and they must change or perish in their present form. The article explains why banks must change and what are the threats to both asset and liability sides they would face otherwise. Changes result in modifications of strategies, organizations and management. The article concludes that banks that are the most flexible and able to adapt will win the day.

  12. Meat Consumption Patterns and Intentions for Change Among Finnish Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Latvala, Terhi; Niva, M.; Makela, Jarmo; Pouta, Eija; Heikkila, Jaakko; Koistinen, Laura; Forsman-Hugg, Sari; Kotro, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    During the past few decades, meat has increasingly become a subject of controversies relating to health and safety, environment, and animal welfare. Even though these changes in perceptions of meat are not yet visible in aggregate consumption figures, they can be observed in individual consumption patterns and as intentions to change the consumption. In this study, we examine changes in meat consumption among the Finnish consumers taking into account both stated changes in the past and intend...

  13. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has bee...

  14. Labor and Technology Change in the Nursery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera; Buccola, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. nursery industry is highly complex, and affected on their demand side by the construction industry and on their factor supply side by the market for low-skill labor, which in turn is influenced by gyrating construction activity as well as southern-border immigration. We examine an industry seeking to adapt to a changing demand and labor environment. Our emphasis is on the manner in which nurseries cope with increasing retailer power, increasingly quality- and variety-conscious consum...

  15. Structural change in European power and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After decades of stability the European power and gas industries are now undergoing fundamental changes. Made possible by policy reforms and technological developments, these changes are largely driven by commercial forces which have developed their own momentum and dynamics. New commercial risks are a key feature of the emerging market order and companies cannot protect themselves through a ''no move strategy''. This report explores the key changes and examines the emerging commercial strategies in response to the new environment. (author)

  16. Dual Structure-Economic Development Pattern of Chinese Mining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The theory and practice of the Chinese mining economy for the past twenty years show that the orientation of mining policy is almost contradictory to the theoretical views and policy-decisions of Chinese mining economy. Theoretical the shortage or potential crisis of resources has continuously reminded us of our focus on the guaranteeing of the mineral resources. The mining economists have drawn conclusion that China is in a primary industrial stage when a large number of raw and energy minerals are consumed to support the highspeed economic development. The researchers, managers and officials often appeal to the government to decrease social and debt burden of the mining enterprises.

  17. Mapping the interdisciplinary nature and co-evolutionary patterns in five nano-industrial sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lili; Notten, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth of nanoscience research and the wide application of nanotechnology into various industrial fields, the innovation patterns and co-evolutionary natures of multiple nano industrial sectors has drawn much attention from scholars. Based on a continuously updated nano-publication database, this paper explores the learning and integrative dynamics in nano industrial sectors through the means of co-word analysis, citation distribution across sectors and institutional coop...

  18. Trade overlap and trade pattern indices of intra-industry trade: Theoretical distinctions versus empirical similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Silber, Jacques; Broll, Udo F.

    1990-01-01

    In a recent survey of intra-industry trade indices Kol and Mennes (1986) suggested to make a basic distinction between the study of matching trade flows and that of the similiarity oftrade patterns. The present paper shows that in both cases measures of intra-industry trade may be expressed either as distances or as equality indices, and derives the corresponding families of intra-industry indices. An empirical section indicates however that despite these theoretical distinctions, most of the...

  19. Impact of Changing Facets of Inter-firm Interactions on Manufacturing Excellence: A Social Network Perspective of Indian Automotive Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mamata Parhi

    2008-01-01

    The inherent complexity of the innovation process puts interaction among firms and their specificities concerning the patterns of interaction at the center-stage. Hence, an uncovering of the interactive pattern among firms in the industry may reveal many hidden patterns, viz., the existing dependence and dominance structure of firms and the evolving dynamical changes based their on. Guided by these, this paper studies the vertical relational structure of automotive and auto component firms in...

  20. Global climate change. A petroleum industry perspective. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of a symposium organised by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) in 1992 are presented. The topics covered include: the science and environmental impacts of global climate change; future greenhouse gas emissions and reduction prospects; the role of energy in development; international and regional processes relating to climate change; the scale and timing of options in response to climate change; cutting carbon emissions; implementation strategies, mechanisms and institution; long and short term energy planning; North Sea oil and gas development; Indonesian oil and gas development; Italian experience of the role of natural gas in reducing greenhouse gas emissions; opportunities for improving energy efficiency and the environment in power generation; issues to consider in the economic analysis of global climate change policies; economic assessment of CO2 control policies; developing economic responses; the impact of response measures by industrialized countries on the world economy; reducing US CO2 emissions - the value of flexibility in timing; criteria for policy analysis. (UK)

  1. NEW DETERMINANT FACTORS OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia ALECU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The factors that we took into account the following important elements: for goods and capital (brand promotion, reliable predictions against risk factors, knowledge capital, intangible values for hotels, for health and safety (the easily with which diseases can cross oceans and borders and multiplying rows of old and new infections, some impossible to treat, strict control of food and non-food products entering in the hotel, for new management (planning education and training process in hospitality industry, demographic problem, New trends in the workplace. One of the most dramatic changes in this industry is the way to sold products and services for public hotels. New technology, development of hospitality industry and social problems are very important, also in this process of change management to hotels.

  2. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in...... women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women....... Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss...

  3. Changes in the Vector of Industrial Policy and Possibilities for Innovative Development of the Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, reasons for the increased interest in industrial policy, both in developed and developing countries are explained. The systematization of the development results of the Russian industry from 1989 to 2014 showed a lack of systematic selection of its priorities, preventing the formation of a strategic vector of industrial policy. The desired industrial policy diversity is established at the different economic development stages of the country. In the context of economic sanctions against Russia, it is shown that the emergence of a new industrial policy vector is connected to the need for import substitution and concomitant changes in the development model of the domestic economy. The dynamics and characteristics of the industrial development area are shown by the example of a highly developed region like the Central Urals. The total level of innovation activity of organizations continues to be low and composes only 12 %, although in the manufacturing sector this index is higher than the regional economy index by four absolute percentage points. The industrial policy of the Middle Urals is analyzed, and innovation drivers of the industrial sector of the regional economy are established. The possibilities of the defense, civil engineering, mining, chemical and pharmaceutical, and forest complexes of Sverdlovsk Region to implement the import substitution policy are revealed. The most significant investment projects that will reduce the import dependence of the regional economy are presented. The possibilities of the research sector and created innovation infrastructure of the region in solving this problem are shown. The necessity of the regional laws on industrial policy elaboration, developing the basic regulations of the Federal Law "On Industrial Policy in the Russian Federation" in proved

  4. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  5. Technological change and industry competitiveness through the evolution of localised comparative advantages - The case of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Daniela; Zini, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The influence of technological change on industry performances is nowadays being increasingly investigated under the broad category of "national systemic competitiveness". Moreover theoretical works have shown that the relationship between technology and economic performance not only takes different forms in different socio-economic contexts, but is also powerfully influenced by the way that innovation processes evolve over time along strongly localised patterns. The present study is focused ...

  6. Eco-innovation Dynamics and Green Economic Change: the role of sectoral-specific patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the features of Green Economic Change process at the meso-level, the greening of industries. We posit that, as for “traditional” innovations, it is possible to identify sectoral eco-innovation patterns and that these represent key but neglected factors in the dynamics of g...... identifies seven specific characteristics of eco-innovation which form the basis for identifying 4 core hypothesis which may explain sectoral heterogeneity and identify likely sectoral eco-innovation leaders....

  7. Industrial Development, Firm Dynamics and Patterns of Productivity Growth: The Case of the Cotton Spinning Industry in Prewar Japan, 1894-1924

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between patterns of productivity growth and the development stage of an industry, using firm-level data on the cotton spinning industry in Japan in the late nineteenth century. It is found that patterns of productivity growth depend on the development stage of the industry. In the earlier stage of industrial development, productivity growth of each firm, namely the within effect, was the sole major source of aggregate productivity growth. On the other hand...

  8. "Industrial Development, Firm Dynamics and Patterns of Productivity Growth: The Case of the Cotton Spinning Industry in Prewar Japan, 1894-1924"

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between patterns of productivity growth and the development stage of an industry, using firm-level data on the cotton-spinning industry in Japan in the late-nineteenth century. It is found that patterns of productivity growth depend on the development stage of the industry. In the earlier stage of industrial development, the productivity growth of each firm, namely the within effect, was the sole major source of aggregate productivity growth. On the other ...

  9. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-07-07

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.

  10. Changes in CO2 emission intensities in the Mexican industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CO2 emission intensity analysis in the Mexican industry from 1965 to 2010 is carried out by taking into consideration four stages: 1965–1982, 1982–1994, 1994–2003, and 2004–2010. Based on the LMDI decomposition methodology, three influencing factors are analyzed: energy intensity, CO2 coefficient, and structure in terms of their contributions of each individual attributes to the overall percent change of them as it was proposed in Choi and Ang (2011). The energy intensity effect was the driving factor behind the main decreases of CO2 intensity, the CO2 coefficient effect contributed to less extent to mitigate it, and the structure effect tended to increased it. It is observed that CO2 intensity declined by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003, but it increased by 10.1% from 2004 to 2010. In addition, the move of Mexico from an economic model based on import-substitution to an export-oriented economy brought more importance to the Mexican industry intended to export, thus maintaining high levels of activity of industries such as cement, iron and steel, chemical, and petrochemical, while industries such as automotive, and ‘other’ industries grown significantly not only as far their energy consumptions and related CO2 emissions but they also increased their contributions to the national economy. - Highlights: ► Industrial CO2 emission intensity was reduced by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003. ► Industrial CO2 emission intensity was increased by 10.1% from 2003 to 2010. ► 1965–2003: Intensity effect took down CO2 emission intensity. ► 2003–2010: Export-oriented industries raised CO2 emission intensity.

  11. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, B.; Keegan, P. [International Institute for Energy Conservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  12. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues

  13. Climate change and agriculture. The agricultural industry = offender and victim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, attention has been repeatedly drawn to the rapidly increasing effects of human influences and the changing climate. The industrial landscape is seen as an important cause, with industrialisation and increasing energy consumption as well as our consumer society and the volume of traffic. The actual extent and speed of climatic change can only be estimated. The process leading to the current extent of scientific knowledge of climatic change, its possible extent and its effects on the plant and wildlife eco-systems are described in detail. Finally, counter-measures and recommendations for action are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Energy conservation and technological change as factors in climate change - a pulp and paper industry example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleff, A.M. [Stone Container Corp., Tucker, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Pulp and Paper Industry in the United States is one of this country`s most energy intensive industries with energy generally being the second or third largest direct operating expense in mill budgets. As such, the industry has long had an effective energy conservation program and has recorded impressive reductions in energy use. It is also one of the two most capital intensive industries in the United States and has a long capital investment cycle, which can be estimated by various techniques at between 20 and 30 years. This paper discusses the estimated impact of the industry`s energy conservation achievements on long term emission reductions of greenhouse gases and will show how technological changes within the industry have impacted past emission reductions and the prospects for continued progress through emerging technologies. The importance to the global competitiveness of the industry of implementing technological change designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within the industry`s normal investment cycle will also be reviewed.

  15. NEW CONSUMPTION PATTERNS CAUSED BY CHANGES IN FAMILY COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Gílson de Lima Garófalo; Patrícia Emídio dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The idea of this contribution arose from observations in supermarkets, buildings with smaller apartments scattered throughout the large cities and the new family compositions. The work aims to verify the reasons for changes in consumption patterns, notoriously from the XXI century, the time of redistribution of income and consequently the reduction of inequality in Brazil. The access to goods and services by a middle class emerging from political and economic changes in the country showed the...

  16. Towards sustainable development: catalysts for change in industrial water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, R L

    2001-01-01

    "Business as usual is not an option." Water management practices are changing too slowly and the global "fresh water gap" continues to grow. Actions as must be taken by government and civic leaders. Industry also has a responsibility to act, but its inability to adequately meet the challenge to date points to the need for additional stimuli. The current water crisis can be mitigated by changes in behaviour and perceptions. This presentation will argue that specific catalysts are required to encourage and support a dramatic shift of behaviours and perceptions by industry leaders. The catalysts include: establish clear and objective rules; introduce water pricing; recognize "life cycle" costs; prioritize needs; reward small-scale solutions; nurture innovations; spread global best practices. With the help of the catalysts described herein, industry can take its place as a leader in effective water management in the 21st Century. In partnership with governments, international organizations and civic organizations, industry leaders can help meet the challenge of the water crisis while creating sustainable economic growth. PMID:11379207

  17. Climate change in the North and the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottem, Svein Vigeland; Moe, Arild

    2007-11-15

    How will climate change affect oil industry operations in the High North? The report analyses impacts in the North that are different from, or come in addition to, the impacts felt globally, from two angles: One outlining climate-related changes in nature and their impacts on oil industry operations, and the second discussing actual and possible policy responses and their impact. Forecasts and scenarios developed by climate scientists indicate that the situation is volatile. The climate and weather will be less predictable. Although the long term tendency is clear, there will be large variations in ice from year to year, with some seasons colder and with more ice than what has been 'normal' in recent years. The industry cannot count on areas remaining ice-free, and when it comes to fixed installations it will have to prepare for a situation in 2030 with maximum ice not much different than today. Climate policies are not likely to have a strong direct impact on the operations of oil companies in the north, but the climate development in the North is likely to impact other political processes, public opinion and consumers. In turn they may affect the conditions for oil industry operations. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs

  18. Insolation Forecasting Using Weather Forecast with Weather Change Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takae; Kurokawa, Kosuke

    This paper reports an insolation forecasting method for photovoltaic power predictions. The method of proposal forecasts the global irradiance every one hour by using weather forecast every three hours. The weather forecast is classified into 14 kinds of weather change categories by weather change patterns, and the insolation forecasting accuracy is improved. The forecasting accuracy was examined based on the measurement data and the weather forecast announced in Tokyo. In the result, using weather change patterns decrease mean absolute error ratio of hourly forecasting from 32.6 to 30.2% and the error ratio of daily forecasting from 24.7 to 23.5%. The result also shows the possibility that the error ratio of hourly forecasting is decreased to 24.5% and the error ratio of daily forecasting is decreased to 17.8% in Tokyo when the weather forecast accuracy is improved.

  19. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... overall assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of...... consumption seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  20. Strategies for Survival in Fast-Changing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton M. Christensen; Fernando F. Suárez; Utterback, James M., 1941-

    1998-01-01

    Technology strategy variables tend to predominate as predictors of survival in the fast-changing rigid disk drive industry. Building on these previous studies, we here test the hypothesis that the technological and market strategies of a new entrant are highly interrelated and that their joint effect plays an important role in a firm's probability of survival. In particular, we propose that firms that target new market segments with an architectural innovation will tend to be more successful ...

  1. Industrial change and social mobility: Black men in New York City & London 1970-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Ladipo, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper takes up a theme which has been a major area of sociological inquiry since the end of the last century: the impact of industrial change on patterns of social mobility. It looks at the inter- generational mobility of black men in New York City and London, cities which have undergone ‘massive and parallel changes in their economic base, spatial organization, and social structure' over the past twenty five years (Sassen 1991, p. 4). In terms of occupations, there is seen to be a strik...

  2. Land use changes in Europe: Processes of change, environmental transformations, and future patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the pressures to control costs and resources expended on cleaning up hazardous waste sites increase, there is a growing notion that consideration of ultimate land use or end states should aid in focusing remediation efforts, and thus, controlling costs. Resources would not be expended on all sites equally, rather knowledge that a particular site is most likely to be used for industrial rather than residential purposes, for example, would influence the type of clean-up invoked at a site and the clean-up goals themselves. Thus, land use has become a hot topic among environmental risk assessors and risk managers. This milieu makes the contents of Volume 18 in Kluwer's GeoJournal Library of particular interest. The book is a collection of papers, with contributors from across Europe. The paper generally fall into three categories: analyses of historical land use patterns in particular countries, forecasts of changing land use trends for the EC countries, and analyses of particular factors affecting land use decisions (atmospheric contamination, hydrologic regimes, land use decision methodologies). Although very little of the text deals explicitly with hazardous waste clean up, the perspective provided by a view of the European struggles with land use allocations provides helpful context to those in the historically unlimited spaces of the United States just beginning to come to terms with the concept

  3. Gaze patterns of gross anatomy students change with classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C; Iyer, Arjun; Ghebremichael, Abenet; Frustace, Bruno S; Flannery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that experts exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than those of less experienced individuals. In visual search tasks, experts use fewer, longer fixations to fixate for relatively longer on salient regions of the visual field while less experienced observers spend more time examining nonsalient regions. This study investigates whether changes in gaze patterns reflect learning by students in a medical gross anatomy course. Students were asked to examine photographs of dissections similar to those they experienced in class and to identify the tagged structure in each image. We postulated that, compared to naive behavior (behavior at baseline and when examining unfamiliar content) students would examine familiar content for longer and would direct proportionally more fixation time on cognitively salient regions of the images while using fewer, longer duration fixations. Our students examined familiar images for significantly longer than they did at baseline (P studies of expertise, which have primarily focused on the gaze patterns of true experts. PMID:25156955

  4. Change in the automotive industry; Fordonsindustrin i foeraendring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaellstroem, Mikael [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Pohl, Hans [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Liljemark, Stefan [SwedPower AB (Sweden); Leander, Aasa [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Maruo, Kanehira [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden); Waldenby, Torbjoern [JIC Consulting AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mellgren, Henry [Fordonskomponentgruppen, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The 'Change in the Automotive Industry' investigation was initiated by the Swedish Energy Agency in the autumn of 2000. The objective has been to illuminate and analyse technical developments in respect of the use of electricity in vehicles, not only for various ancillary systems but also for propulsion. A number of Swedish businesses that have, or could have, links with the automotive industry have been investigated. The main aim has been to attempt to identify the opportunities for the industry to meet and benefit from the changes. A total of 14 businesses have been visited, and a further 29 companies have replied to a survey questionnaire on the theme. Business intelligence shows that a great deal of work is being done on the use of electricity for automotive propulsion, in everything from battery vehicles, via electric hybrid vehicles to fuel cell vehicles. In terms of development, the Japanese manufacturers are in the lead, while the USA constitutes the largest single driving force behind development. The technical development requires a greater understanding within several new disciplines, and leads to major changes between different industry sectors. The results show that Sweden possesses world class expertise in several of the fields that can become very important for tomorrow's automotive industry. At the same time, the companies expect difficulties in recruiting personnel qualified in the appropriate disciplines, such as development and design. There is, therefore, a clear risk that the present-day expertise will progressively fade away if nothing is done.There is a wide range of awareness of the greater use of electricity in vehicles. However, in principle, all companies feel that development towards new drive trains will proceed rapidly. Most of the companies are also very interested in descriptions and analyses of the state of development. The general conclusion of the work is that there are excellent prospects for Swedish industry to

  5. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

  6. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  7. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, S. van den [MEDIAN, Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, M. [University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Bettignies, H.C. de [INSEAD, Fontainebleau (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  8. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  9. Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production. PMID:20359816

  10. Dietary Patterns Associated with Weight Change in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kelly Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dietary patterns that include recommended servings of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dietary fiber, and dairy, combined with regular physical activity and frequent breakfast consumption are optimal choices for weight loss or weight maintenance over time. College students are at an increased risk for weight gain due to environmental and behavioral changes that are associated with decreased dietary quality and physical inactivity. Preventing weight gain in college students may h...

  11. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency

  12. An industrial customer's view of changes in electricity purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purchasing agent for Canadian Occidental Chemicals described his experiences in the purchase of electricity under the new circumstances of competition. Electrical power costs for Canadian Occidental's manufacturing operation were described as a key consideration in expanding their chlorate production. The ideal purchasing scheme was described from the purchaser's standpoint. A list of what purchasers wish to gain from increased supplier choices was provided. The behaviour of the electricity suppliers that provide power to CanadianOccidental was described since changes in British Columbia's electric power regulations were enacted. Electric utility marketing practices in Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta were noted in comparison. It was prophesized that deeregulation will ultimately benefit consumers and provincial economies, by transforming the power industry into a customer driven industry

  13. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has been developed the lohn production system. The gross labour was among the most required in this area, the design and sales activities were often external customer's responsibility. The old factories were not able to adapt to the new conditions, so many of them reduced the activity. In the end it led to a major layoff of labour force both in light industry, as well as in associated areas. Only a part of it has managed to reintegrate in the new enterprises which were more adapted to current market conditions. Solving the problem of excess labour force, given its presence especially in rural areas and in mono-industrial towns, representative areas and the developing Region South-West Oltenia, also involves the relaunching of light industry. There is need to support the internal sources of supply of raw materials, as well as a new view related to the selling of products, based on creative activities and exploration of markets. These marks can lead to occupational integration of the excess labour force and to ensure the social balance in the areas affected by the restructuring of national economy.

  14. Political economy and price ratio changes: Electric industry under transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary E.

    This study began early in 2000, when the electric market was beginning to evolve from a vertical integrated industry to a market-driven, global industry where the generation portion of the industry was being sold to independent market-based companies. The beginnings of acquisitions, restructuring and re-alignments of the transmission and distribution systems were heightened during this period. In addition, as this study was underway, a tumultuous restructuring in California caused some proponents of deregulation to question the changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate price changes at the state level during the last 10 years (1990-2000). The conceptual framework is built on a study released in 1996. This study predicted lower prices as deregulation in the electric industry occurred and consumers had more choices in suppliers. In order to gain additional insight, the study is comprised of a quantitative analysis of price changes over time as well as a qualitative investigation of a certain geographic area. As a result of the quantitative analysis performed, the study has failed to reject the null hypothesis that deregulated states exhibited no difference in price ratios than those states that remain regulated. This was tested at the level of political influence (states with elected versus appointed) commissions. In fact, whether the population is segmented nationally, regionally, politically or by level of deregulation, price ratios have decreased from 1985-1996. National price ratios have been declining since the mid-1980s. A flattening of the trend for the last four years (1997-2000) may be due to the current retrenching as a result of the California deregulation experience. The qualitative section seeks to understand what influences electric prices have on regional economic development efforts. The interview results have determined that lower electric prices help to contribute to successful economic development activities, but they are not the

  15. Changes in external conditions and activity in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tax reductions in the petroleum industry are conductive to increased activity and makes the respective provinces more attractive for investments compared with other regions. Changes in taxation in Great Britain and the Gulf of Mexico, which has been analyzed by ECON, show that reducing taxes on gross income has rendered marginal investments more profitable and that reducing the tax on profits may have advanced investments and cut the costs. The examples also show that it is possible to protect the public tax revenue under taxation rearrangements by essentially limiting the tax reductions to new activities

  16. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time–space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

  17. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerl, Gabriele; Zwiers, Francis; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time-space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

  18. NEW CONSUMPTION PATTERNS CAUSED BY CHANGES IN FAMILY COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gílson de Lima Garófalo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this contribution arose from observations in supermarkets, buildings with smaller apartments scattered throughout the large cities and the new family compositions. The work aims to verify the reasons for changes in consumption patterns, notoriously from the XXI century, the time of redistribution of income and consequently the reduction of inequality in Brazil. The access to goods and services by a middle class emerging from political and economic changes in the country showed the formation of a new archetype of consumption that is not only from the demands of modern life, but also from historical facts that can lead to behavioral changes, including different types of family compositions. Thus, by using a qualitative and quantitative methodology, with a theoretical basis accompanied by a field research with application of a specific questionnaire consistent with the research of family budgets, this work aimed to map the metamorphoses and understand the consequences for the economy of this whole context.

  19. Natural gas industry and the challenge of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Governing the change is the challenge for the next future of gas industry. This change is due not only to the passage from the development phasis of '70s-'90s to the maturity, but to the passage from the public policies to the relationships between State and market, and to the creation of a unique European market as well. The evolutive dynamics which characterize the gas sector, shape a scenary where uncertainty is the most critical variable. As a consequence, the company tasks, the strategies and the organizational aspects will change as well. Gas companies growth will depend on their capability to understand the coming changes and to adapt them-selves. Production efficiency, quality and diversification of service will be the objectives to reach. The change is going on through the whole Europe and new principles are imposing: the removal of exclusive rights, the access to networks, the gradual opening of markets. The reference framework which will allow the companies to take the risks related to the realization of new infrastructure or to draw up new import contracts in order to ensure to Europe the energetic resources necessary to guarantee an adequate development, will derive from the right balance of liberalisation and market regulation

  20. Patterns of Structural Change in the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlik Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the extent and impact of structural changes on aggregate economic growth that occurred in European economies during the past two decades, focusing on the new EU Member States of Central and Eastern Europe. After presenting some stylised facts related to employment and output restructuring, we use a conventional shift and share analysis in order to evaluate the impact of broader sectoral shifts on GDP growth, focusing on the period 1995–2011. A decomposition of aggregate GDP/GVA growth using the shift and share analysis shows a distinct North-South pattern of growth and restructuring while the previous NMS-OMS divisions are becoming less relevant. In the North, manufacturing and trade have fuelled growth whereas in the South there has been much less structural change. Apart from these differences, our results partly differ from earlier findings of similar analyses for the NMS. Finally, we analyse differentiated impacts of the recent (2008–2011 crisis on structural changes in Europe and find interesting similarities between (groups of NMS and OMS in terms of both growth patterns and responses to the crisis.

  1. Changing patterns in global lead supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H.

    The past decade has seen some very significant changes in the supply and the demand for lead. One of the most obvious developments is the emergence of China—both as the world's largest producer of primary lead and as a very significant consumer. Perhaps less obvious have been the increasing role of secondary lead in meeting demand for refined metal and the rapid growth in demand for industrial batteries, which have helped to sustain an annual average growth rate in Western World consumption of 3.4% between 1993 and 2000. Patchy knowledge about the lead industry in China has made it difficult to anticipate developments there and has created uncertainty in the global market. This uncertainty, and lead's poor environmental image, largely undeserved as it may be today, has meant few companies outside the lead business want to be seen participating in it. This is just one factor accounting for the very limited increase in lead mine production for the foreseeable future. With around 75% of lead now being used in batteries and a very high global scrap recycling rate, it is probable that most, if not all, growth in lead demand can be met without an overall increase in mine production. The challenge for the lead industry will be to ensure that sufficient recycling capacity is in place in the right parts of the world to process an increasing quantity of battery and other lead-bearing scrap. Huge investment in the world's telecommunications infrastructure and IT networks in the second half of the 1990s created a major market for industrial lead-acid batteries. With the collapse of the market for telecommunications equipment in 2001, lead consumption has fallen sharply and has revealed the extent to which demand growth in recent years has been dependent on this sector.

  2. The ongoing changes in the base oil industry and their potential impact on the lubricant industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Holm, Valentina [Nynas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    During the last years the base oil industry has undergone significant changes, with the rapid growth of Group II and Group III paraffinic base oils and the corresponding decline of Group I supply. The announcements of future instalments show that the increase of Group II and III capacity is indeed a stable trend all over the world. Based on publicly available information, the Group II capacity is expected to grow by 8.6 million tpa, reaching over 22 million tpa, and Group III capacity is expected to double from current 4.1 million tpa up to 8.2 million tpa. As the demand is not expected to grow at the same pace as the increasing supply, it is likely that this new capacity will lead to an oversupply situation in the next five years. Because of their production disadvantages compared to Group II and III and a shrinking demand in automotive applications, it is likely that Group I plants will close down or will operate at reduced throughput to compensate for the new Group II and III capacity. A decline of Group I capacity in favour of Group II and III may pose problems in the formulation of those industrial lubricants where solvency and/or viscosity are needed, such as lubricating greases, metalworking fluids, and several process oils applications. Either alone or in combination with Group II or III oils, naphthenic oils can be used in the formulation of industrial lubricants, as solvency and viscosity poroviders. (orig.)

  3. A Research on the Trend Pattern Analysis of Industrial Water Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Nishida, Wataru; Kim, Dong Mun; Lim, Yong Min; Jun, Byungdug

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose the average trend pattern of the industrial water consumption. A real-time sensing technique was adopted for the consumption data acquisition. Data were transformed from the field equipments to the management server in every 5 minutes. The data acquired were substituted to a polynomial formula selected. As a result, a series of models were developed for each day. Each of these models is finalized to represent the average water consumption for the day. I...

  4. The Influence of Sales Strategies on Customer Purchase Pattern in the Telecommunication Industry in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Owusu Ansah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of sales strategies on customer purchase pattern in the Ghanaian Telecommunication industry. It was conducted to assess how customers are influenced by the various marketing strategies of Telecommunication companies before purchase decisions are taken. The study was an exploratory in nature. Convenient sampling technique was used in selecting 250 mobile phone users from the Business city of Kumasi. Data was collected from both primary and ...

  5. An exam of the spatial patterns of innovation in Brazilian industry: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Veneziano; Garcia, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to exam the spatial patterns of innovative performance in Brazilian industry, taking into account its regional interdependencies, and the impact of the main innovative inputs. There is a huge literature concerning regional innovation and the importance of local inputs in innovative performance. However, most of the studies use data from developed countries. This paper verifies if the role played by innovative inputs in developed countries remain important in developin...

  6. Design and Implementation of Integrated Solid Wastes Management Pattern in Industrial areas, Case Study of Shahroud, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Yaghmaeian

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Results showed that implementation of this pattern, i.e. running source separation, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

  7. Changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological response after partial deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiekenkamp, Inge; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Lin, Henry; Drüe, Clemens; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of land use change on hydrology can be extremely challenging. It requires looking beyond the current structure and functioning of hydrological systems to predict how the system is influenced in a changed setting. Although the hydrological effects of land use change have been studied extensively, only few high resolution datasets are available to accurately describe, model and predict detailed changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological fluxes and states due to land use change. The TERENO test site Wüstebach provides a unique monitoring setup to measure the major components of the water balance (evapotranspiration, discharge, precipitation) and the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture before and after a partial deforestation. Here, we present 5 years of measured hydrological data, including soil moisture and water budget component data 3 years before and 2 years after the partial deforestation. A data-driven investigation was used to understand changes and related feedback mechanisms in spatiotemporal hydrological response patterns. The effects of deforestation on soil moisture and evapotranspiration were analyzed by comparing states and fluxes for the control and the deforested area. The effects on discharge characteristics were analyzed using discharge metrics, including baseflow separation, peakflow rates and time to peak. Changes in preferential flow occurrence were identified using a sensor response time analysis of soil moisture measurements before and after the deforestation where preferential flow was identified as a non-sequential sequence of sensor response times within the soil. As expected from earlier studies, the partial deforestation caused a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in discharge. A closer look at the high resolution datasets however reveals new insights in the intra-annual variability of the water balance components. The overall decrease in evapotranspiration caused a large increase in soil

  8. IMPACTS OF JAPANESE INDUSTRIAL PARK ON LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE IN NIMRANA, ALWAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most developing countries like India across the world have recognized the importance of facilitating international trade for the sustained growth of the economy and increased contribution to the GDP of the nation. As a part of its continuing commitment to liberalization and to trigger larger flow of foreign and domestic investment for the generation of additional economic activity and creation of employment opportunities, government of India started promoting export oriented industrial parks. Land use and Land cover change is one of the main driving forces of global environmental changes and central to the sustainable development debate. Understanding landscape patterns, changes and interactions between human activities and natural phenomenon are essential for proper land management and decision improvement. Land use gives an over view of how different patches of lands are being utilized under various anthropogenic activities. Nimrana, in recent years has been witnessing significant land use changes. While there is a progressive decline in area under Aravali Hills and fallow land, built up areas are increasing. These all changes have come mainly as results of industrialization. The study is based on Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 imageries, owing to their good spectral and temporal resolution and moderate spatial resolution.

  9. Changing patterns in rainfall extremes in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Beecham, Simon; Metcalfe, Andrew V.

    2015-11-01

    Daily rainfall records from seven stations in South Australia, with record lengths from 50 to 137 years and a common period of 36 years, are investigated for evidence of changes in the statistical distribution of annual total and annual average of monthly daily maxima. In addition, the monthly time series of monthly totals and monthly daily maxima are analysed for three stations for which records exceed 100 years. The monthly series show seasonality and provide evidence of a reduction in rainfall when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is negative, which is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the monthly series do not provide any evidence of a consistent trend or of any changes in the seasonal pattern. Multivariate analyses, typically used in statistical quality control (SQC), are applied to time series of yearly totals and of averages of the 12 monthly daily maxima, during the common 36-year period. Although there are some outlying points in the charts, there is no evidence of any trend or step changes. However, some supplementary permutation tests do provide weak evidence of an increase of variability of rainfall measures. Furthermore, a factor analysis does provide some evidence of a change in the spatial structure of extremes. The variability of a factor which represents the difference between extremes in the Adelaide Hills and the plains increases in the second 18 years relative to the first 18 years. There is also some evidence that the mean of this factor has increased in absolute magnitude.

  10. Changing perception of value as a driver for industry transformation - case music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vainio, Velde

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to better understand the dynamics of how and why industries transform and the role that value perception, innovation and business models play in that transformation. More specifically, we aim to get a better understanding of where the music industry is currently standing and where it is headed in order to make more informed decisions about new business ventures in this industry. In the current debate over the future of music industry and whether the industry...

  11. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B and control experiment 20C3M are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. This reveals in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that have a high likelihood and are consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1 the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2 the quantification of notable consistent changes calculated relative to the GCM specific natural variability. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions the likelihood of hydrological change is large.

    Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases strongly for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube while discharge of monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  12. An Analysis on change of household electricity demand pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze the behavioral pattern change of household electricity demand. Through the cross section analysis using materials from the energy total research report, the change in income elasticity of household electricity demand was studied. In this study, two methodologies were used. Firstly, it was shown that the effect of an income variable was very significant with a positive value in simultaneous equations model using exponential equations of electrical appliances holding. Cross section income effect showed a various distribution according to the season or income level. Overall, it was calculated at 0.111 when the appliances are fixed and 0.432 when even appliances are changed. Secondly, using a choice convenient correction model, it is resulted that lambda, the choice convenient correction factor, has a positive value and is statistically significant. In 1996, income elasticity of electricity demand for households with air-conditioning was 0.305 and for households without air-conditioning was 0.172. Income elasticity of households with air-conditioning is increasing as time goes by while income elasticity of households without air-conditioning is decreasing. (author). 32 refs., 35 tabs.

  13. Energy change in the industrial society; Energiewende in der Industriegesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebeler, Timo; Hendler, Reinhard; Proelss, Alexander; Reiff, Peter (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The present volume contains the speeches and discussion reports of the 29th Trier colloquium on the environmental and techniques law, which was dedicated to the theme ''Energy change in the industrial society''. The goal a the colloquium consisted, to work out central questions of the energy change and also to look beyond the legal field. The documented speeches deal mainly with the promotional system of the renewal-energy law and its need for reform, whereby this topic is discussed from legal, economic, and business perspective. A further main topic form questions of planning. Hereby it deals both with the regulation of the increased use of renewable energies in zoning and land-use planning and with the network expansion including public participation. Object of the discussion are also the providing of the base load by conventional power plants as well as legal questions of the compensation and load balancing in the connection of off-shore facilities.

  14. Spot market natural gas strategies and reliability dealing with changing industry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many in the energy industry thought the natural gas buying game had finally settled down to a predictable pattern in the 90's. After a tumultuous decade in the 80's they are ready to turn their attention to new challenges such as electricity wheeling and cogeneration. They were wrong. There is plenty of change left in the natural gas industry for the rest of the century. This growth will dramatically increase the number of options available to Energy Buyers, giving them new flexibility to design programs that meet goals for cost reduction, supply reliability, and administrative effort. However, with new options also come the responsibility for choices. Energy Managers of well designed gas programs will make these choices after careful consideration of the pro's and con's of each option. In short, the effective Buyer will develop a natural gas strategy. This report will begin by reviewing the basic types of change occurring in the industry, and then discuss some of the varied strategy options available to the Energy Buyer

  15. Change of radiation pattern in a plasma monopole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpoush, V.; Shokri, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we have numerically solved the dispersion equation of the surface wave propagating on a uniform collisional plasma column. The electric field and surface current distributions have been computed in different situations. We have investigated the effect of plasma frequency variation on the spatial distribution of the surface current. Results show that varying the electron density of the plasma column enables the plasma column to work as a plasma monopole antenna with a fixed geometrical structure and excited frequency which is able to create different radiation patterns. Our numerical analysis also shows that a little change in the radius of the plasma column has a strong influence on the current distribution at the excited frequency in RF region. This effect can be ignored in the usual (metallic) antenna while it is very important in designing of the plasma monopole antenna.

  16. Finding occupational accident patterns in the extractive industry using a systematic data mining approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with occupational accident patterns of in the Portuguese Extractive Industry. It constitutes a significant advance with relation to a previous study made in 2008, both in terms of methodology and extended knowledge on the patterns’ details. This work uses more recent data (2005–2007) and this time the identification of the “typical accident” shifts from a bivariate, to a multivariate pattern, for characterising more accurately the accident mechanisms. Instead of crossing only two variables (Deviation x Contact), the new methodology developed here uses data mining techniques to associate nine variables, through their categories, and to quantify the statistical cohesion of each pattern. The results confirmed the “typical accident” of the 2008 study, but went much further: it reveals three statistically significant patterns (the top-3 categories in frequency); moreover, each pattern includes now more variables (4–5 categories) and indicates their statistical cohesion. This approach allowed a more accurate vision of the reality, which is fundamental for risk management. The methodology is best suited for large groups, such as national Authorities, Insurers or Corporate Groups, to assist them planning target-oriented safety strategies. Not least importantly, researchers can apply the same algorithm to other study areas, as it is not restricted to accidents, neither to safety.

  17. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Helen H. [Iowa State University, Department of Economics, 578 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail hhjensen@iastate.edu

    2006-07-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  18. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends

  19. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends. PMID:17049949

  20. Changes in sleep patterns during prolonged stays in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Moushum; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2008-11-01

    Various countries have permanent research bases in Antarctica that are manned year-round by a few members of an expedition team, facing extremes of temperature with the associated hardships. Acclimatisation to such an environment is associated with pyschophysiological changes along with alterations in sleep patterns. The present study was undertaken to explore the changes in sleep patterns of six members of the Indian expedition team during their winter stay at Maitri, the permanent research station of India in Antarctica. The mean (± SEM) age, height and weight of the subjects were 35.7 ± 2.32 years, 168.3 ± 2.37 cm and 71.0 ± 1.88 kg, respectively. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained as baseline data in November 2004 in Delhi (altitude 260 m, latitude 29° N, longitude 77° E); data on the same parameters were collected at Maitri, Antarctica (altitude 120 m, latitude 70° 45' 39″ S, longitude 11° 44' 49″ E) from January to December 2005. A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant variation with time (month effect) in most of the sleep parameters recorded. Total sleep time decreased from Delhi baseline values in all months, sleep efficiency decreased significantly during winter months, duration of waking period after sleep onset increased significantly in winter, sleep latency increased immediately after exposure in January, stages 3 and 4 (slow wave sleep) reduced during dark winter months, whereas stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep increased during dark winter months. This study observed a prevailing general trend of sleep disturbances amongst overwintering members in a modern Antarctic station.

  1. A fractured peace: a changing pattern of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, M H; Kneafsey, B; Gordon, D

    1997-09-01

    Since the paramilitary cease-fire in Northern Ireland in August 1994 we have seen a change in the pattern of so called 'punishment attacks'. Shootings with low velocity handguns have been replaced by severe beatings to the extremities from multiple assailants using iron bars or similar weapons. In the 18 months prior to the cease-fire there were 177 punishment shootings, which were usually relatively minor and did not require any plastic surgical expertise. Between August 1994 and November 1996, however, there were 461 punishment beatings. These beatings result in much greater morbidity and require considerable orthopaedic and plastic surgical input. In the Northern Ireland Plastic and Maxillofacial Unit we have treated 18 patients with a mean age of 22.9 years (range 16-32 years) who have been the victims of punishment beatings. These patients sustained multiple injuries, all with severe soft tissue involvement; 70% had compound fractures. The majority of patients had multiple wounds. Four patients with compartment syndrome as a result of their injuries required fasciotomies. Soft tissue reconstruction included split skin grafting (4 patients), fasciocutaneous flaps (4 patients), adipofascial flaps (2 patients), local muscle flaps (2 patients) and free muscle transfers (2 patients). Six patients required more than one procedure for soft tissue reconstruction because of multiple injuries. Each patient had a cumulative mean time in theatre of 6.7 hours. The mean hospital stay was 22.2 days (range 2-52 days). This change in the pattern of injury has led to an increased use of plastic surgical resources. Patient morbidity is significantly greater than when guns are used, and permanent disability is often the result. PMID:9326144

  2. Comments on "Child Survival and Changing Fertility Patterns in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, K A

    1992-01-01

    The distillation of Zeba Sathar's article on the determinants of fertility decline and child mortality decline is that marriage age and contraceptive surgery could be important factors in bringing about changes in both fertility and child mortality in Pakistan. The concern is that 80 out of 115 million Pakistanis live in rural areas where marriage age is very low and program efforts are limited or nonexistent. The question is raised about how to effectuate changes in attitudes in rural areas to increase marriage age. Another point is made about the simplicity of explanations for fertility and mortality change, when the reality is a complex host of interactive socioeconomic, cultural, social, and program factors that are responsible for fertility at present levels. The suggestion is for development of a more appropriate model of fertility at the micro level which illuminates the interaction of these factors in determining fertility. Sathar is reported to have concluded that the impact of infant and child mortality on fertility was inconclusive. The changing patterns of fertility are likely to bring about a change in the demand for children and a lesser preference for gender; this status change for women will further reduce child mortality and fertility. Large family sizes are postulated to be associated with close spacing and greater concentrations of children under 5 years of age competing for physical resources and having a high risk of infection with inadequate parental attention and care. These conditions occur in families with low income and little parental education. Institutional and community services also affect child mortality. There are also examples of educational opportunity and income equality as factors bringing about demographic change in Sri Lanka and Kerala, India. The author speculates that an outcome of development is increased educational attainment and more equitable distribution of income. Low levels of maternal education are associated with

  3. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  4. Real-time optical fiber digital speckle pattern interferometry for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Robert K.; Cheung, Y. M.; Lo, C. H.; Tam, T. K.

    1997-03-01

    There is current interest, especially in the industrial sector, to use the digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) technique to measure surface stress. Indeed, many publications in the subject are evident of the growing interests in the field. However, to bring the technology to industrial use requires the integration of several emerging technologies, viz. optics, feedback control, electronics, imaging processing and digital signal processing. Due to the highly interdisciplinary nature of the technique, successful implementation and development require expertise in all of the fields. At Baptist University, under the funding of a major industrial grant, we are developing the technology for the industrial sector. Our system fully exploits optical fibers and diode lasers in the design to enable practical and rugged systems suited for industrial applications. Besides the development in optics, we have broken away from the reliance of a microcomputer PC platform for both image capture and processing, and have developed a digital signal processing array system that can handle simultaneous and independent image capture/processing with feedback control. The system, named CASPA for 'cascadable architecture signal processing array,' is a third generation development system that utilizes up to 7 digital signal processors has proved to be a very powerful system. With our CASPA we are now in a better position to developing novel optical measurement systems for industrial application that may require different measurement systems to operate concurrently and requiring information exchange between the systems. Applications in mind such as simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane DSPI image capture/process, vibrational analysis with interactive DSPI and phase shifting control of optical systems are a few good examples of the potentials.

  5. Competitive Patterns in the Danish Organic Industry & its Usefulness in Predicting Development in other EU Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2003-01-01

    The organic market in Denmark is not a niche market any longer as it was in the late 1980s. The development has followed the typical pattern for diffusion of innovations and by 2002 the market supply seemed to have surpassed the equilibrium supply by around 30% and a potential adjustment is ahead...... organic development be expected in other countries? Will the supply in other EU markets also surpass market equilibrium? Are the Danish experiences with respect to policy choices and power-play of dominant players in processing and distribution industry of general relevance? Are the maturity gains...... observed in the Danish organic industry potential in other markets? Is increased international trade beneficial?...

  6. Can soil change be assessed for the Victorian dairy industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Sharon R.; Crawford, Douglas; Imhof, Mark; Gourley, Cameron

    2015-07-01

    Meeting the increased demand for dairy products will require careful management of soils to minimise land degradation and sustain increased production. Key to providing farmers with the tools to manage their soils sustainably, is firstly understanding the soil types currently managed by dairy farmers, and secondly quantifying changes in soil properties in response to management. The Victorian Land Use Information System was interrogated to identify dairy land parcels and these data overlaid on soil survey information to identify the dominant soil orders managed by dairy farmers in the three dairy regions of Victoria. Of the approximately 590,000 hectares of dairy land identified across the state, Sodosols (33%), Chromosols (20%), Dermosols (16%), and Vertosols (11%) are the major soil Orders represented, although the dominant soil Orders vary for each region. Legacy data from research and extension activities undertaken between 1995 and 2010 were collated to understand regional differences in dairy soil properties. All soil properties were significantly and positively skewed with higher median pH, EC and available K in northern Victorian soils. Further analysis compared the 1995 to 2010 data with data from samples analysed by the government analytical laboratory between 1973 and 1980 to assess any differences over 38 years. The older soil chemical data were also positively skewed but had lower median soil pH, Olsen P and available K, consistent with the greater use of inputs by the industry in more recent years.

  7. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Richard

    2007-05-01

    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  8. Leadership in the media industry : Changing contexts, emerging challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The topic of leadership in the media industry is a compelling one. While other industries have leaders or captains, the media sector has moguls, magnates and barons. Randolph Hearst, William Paley, Henry Luce and Robert Maxwell represent some of the most controversial and flamboyant business leaders of recent times. And the current crop of contemporary media industry leaders – Rupert Murdoch, Ted Turner and Steve Jobs – is no less charismatic. However leadership is also a sprawling area of ma...

  9. A Boolean Analysis Predicting Industry Change: Innovation, Imitation & Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    2008-01-01

    The deregulated scheduled passenger airline industry is in a constant state of motion as managers continually adapt their business models to meet the challenging market environment. Such adaptation has led to a variety of airlines populating the industry; from the birth of low-cost carriers to the transformation of state-owned behemoths to lean and successful carriers. These dynamics challenge airline managers to continuously acclimate their business models and to understand industry evolu...

  10. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  11. Managing Price Risk in a Changing Policy Environment: The Case of the EU Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Declan; Keane, Michael; Barnes, Edel

    2008-01-01

    The EU dairy industry faces an unprecedented level of change. The anticipated removal of milk quotas and the move to a less restricted global trade environment will provide the industry with both opportunities and challenges. The primary challenge will be the need for the industry to deal with more volatile prices. Active management of the risks associated with these more volatile prices will help to place the industry in a more competitive position. However this will require the industry and...

  12. Development of an expert system for tackling the public's perception to climate-change impacts on petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change could cause significant impacts on human activities, which is especially true for regions that are of high latitude such as Canada. Petroleum industry is a main economic sector in Canada's prairie, where a number of its production and processing practices are vulnerable to the fluctuations of climatic conditions. In this study, an expert system (ES) for integrated climate-change impact assessment within the prairie's petroleum sector was developed. Interactive relationships among climate change, natural-condition variations, industrial activities, environmental concerns and economic objectives, as well as the related policy implications, were comprehensively examined and incorporated within the ES. A series of questionnaire surveys were conducted for acquiring knowledge about the interrelationships between the climate change and the petroleum-related activities. Processes that were vulnerable to climate change were analyzed, followed by an integrated impact assessment. The results indicated that the impacts of increased temperature and natural hazards would be very significant on most of the petroleum-related processes. Also, the petroleum industry would be quite sensitive to changed precipitation patterns. The developed ES can be used for both acquiring knowledge of climate-change impacts on the petroleum industry and supporting formulation of the relevant adaptation policies. (author)

  13. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today's electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry's transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment

  14. The changing pattern of pathology due to Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the autopsy data on hepatosplenic schistosomiasis during periods, before and after the advent of new chemotherapeutic drugs, revealed that: a the pathological presentation was the same for the two periods; b the number of cases in the last five years is progressively decreasing; c hepatosplenic disease due to schistosomiasis is becoming rare in young people. These data represent a change in the pattern of pathology in schistosomiasis, probably related to new chemotherapy.Uma revisão dos dados de necrópsias realizadas em portadores da forma hépato-esplênica da esquistossomose, feita em dois períodos, antes e após a introdução das novas e efetivas drogas contra o S. mansoni, revelou que: a as lesões encontradas foram qualitativamente as mesmas nos dois períodos; b a percentagem dos casos hépato-esplênicos mostra decréscimo progressivo nos últimos cinco anos do estudo; c os casos de esquistossomose hépato-esplênica estão se tornando raros em jovens. Tais elementos constituem uma mudança no padrão de apresentação da doença, possivelmente relacionada com a introdução da nova quimioterapia curativa.

  15. Color pattern changes in Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidclay Calaça Dias

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 presents ontogenetic changes of its coloration pattern throughout its development. After emergence from the eggs, spiderlings are bluish, with metallic and/or iridescent nuances. The juveniles have a vertically directed black stripe in the central region of abdomen dorsum and three horizontally directed black stripes in the abdomen dorsum. Adults are completely black. These coloration differences between juveniles and adults of the same species appear to be a strategy to avoid the intraspecific competition.Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 apresenta mudanças ontogenéticas no seu padrão de coloração. Após emergirem dos ovos, as pequenas aranhas são azuladas, com nuances metálicas. Os juvenis possuem uma listra negra na região central do dorso do abdômen orientada no sentido vertical e três listras negras no dorso do abdômen orientadas horizontalmente. Os adultos são totalmente negros. Acredita-se que a diferença na coloração entre indivíduos de instares diferentes dentro de uma mesma espécie seja uma estratégia para se evitar a competição intraespecífica.

  16. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  17. The role of landscape pattern analysis in understanding concepts of land cover change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JerryAGRIFFITH

    2004-01-01

    Landscape ecology and landscape pattern analysis are important components of national-scale programs to identify trends in land cover change because: 1) Statistics on changes in land cover proportions are not spatial. A change matrix derived from GIS provides useful information, but it does not show the spatial form of change in the landscape. Landscape pattern metrics reveal spatial pattern. 2) A growing body of literature has shown that a change in landscape pattern might indicate important changes in ecological functions: forest connectivity and species movements, number and size of farm patches, effects on water quality. Spatial pattern is important in structuring ecological communities and in maintaining existence of competitors. Spatial pattern may be determined by disturbance and may in turn, determine how disturbances propagate through the system. 3) Sometimes landscape pattern may not significantly change, even though land cover proportions do change. Or, vice-versa, sometimes landscape pattern can significantly change, even though land cover proportions don't significantly change. 4) Landscape pattern is an inherent and important part of describing landscapes: based on the literature, one of the most important descriptive characteristics of a landscape is its texture. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) Explain the importance of the role of landscape ecology and landscape pattern analysis in land cover change studies; 2) Review the literature that specifically incorporates landscape ecology into land cover change studies; and 3) List the theoretical and technical issues involved and suggest solutions for them.

  18. The Changing Patterns of Advertising Strategy by Japanese Business Firms in the U.S. Market: Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiko Suzuki

    1980-01-01

    This article analyzes the changing pattern of advertisement strategy by Japanese business firms in the U.S. market. Taking the advertisement activities of four major industrial sectors that appeared in both Business Week and Newsweek during the 1965–1977 period as samples, this article has found that the Japanese advertisement strategy in the U.S. market has passed sequentially through the following four stages: (1) Nationality-Supportive, (2) Product-Attributes, (3) Challenge and Responses, ...

  19. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  20. Temporal and spatial patterns in [alpha]- and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations in industrially contaminated rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, A.A.; Wright, J.; Osborn, D. (Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon (United Kingdom)); Leeks, G.J.L.; Wass, P.D. (Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom))

    1999-06-15

    Fluxes of HCH isomers [alpha]- and [gamma]-HCH dynamics were determined in four industrial UK rivers feeding the North Sea. Sampling was conducted weekly basis over a 2-year period. This was complemented by discrete studies of events where two hourly sampling periods were used to investigate the fine time scale dynamics of fluxes. Two intensively industrialized rivers had average isomer concentrations of [approximately] 20 ng L[sup [minus]1] for both isomers, while average concentrations in the two less industrialized rivers ranged between 1.5 and 5.0 ng L[sup [minus]1]. [alpha]-HCH concentrations showed no strong temporal patterns on any river, which contrasts with [gamma]-HCH levels that increased considerably during late summer/early autumn following sustained periods of low river flow. Sampling during high river flow events on rivers with differing HCH pollution histories both showed the same dynamics in HCH isomer concentrations. [gamma]-HCH concentrations decreased 4-fold during events while [alpha]-HCH concentrations stayed constant. The increases in [gamma]-HCH concentrations under low flow conditions and the rapid dilution of this isomer during events indicate that [gamma]-HCH has current inputs to these river systems. It was calculated that these four rivers export 30.8 kg yr[sup [minus]1] of [gamma]-HCH and 14.8 kg yr[sup [minus]1] of [alpha]-HCH to the North Sea.

  1. Changing pattern of utilization of human donor cornea in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gogia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review the changing pattern of donor, corneal utilization in an eye bank at a Tertiary Care Center in Northern India by analyzing the trend in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011. Methods: A retrospective review of eye bank records for 3 years (2003, 2008, and 2011 was performed at the National Eye Bank. Details including a clinical grade of donor cornea, indication of corneal transplantation (therapeutic or optical, type of procedure (penetrating or lamellar keratoplasty [LK], and clinical diagnosis of the graft recipients were recorded. Primary outcome measure was to observe any preference toward LK, judicious usage of donor corneal tissue, and impact of lamellar corneal transplant in the usage of donor corneas. Secondary outcomes included overall utilization rate and change in trend of indication for keratoplasty. Results: A total of 673, 745, and 864 corneas were retrieved in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011, respectively. The percentage of donor corneal utilization increased significantly over time with the rate being 65.08%, 70.06%, and 68.29%, respectively, in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011 (P = 0.014; however, this change was reflected only in the usage of nonoptical grade corneas and not for the optical grade corneas. There was an overall increase in lamellar corneal procedures for any clinical grade of cornea (P = 0.0019; number of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK procedures increased significantly (P < 0.001, particularly for pseudophakic corneal edema (PCE (P = 0.0085 and failed graft (P = 0.002. Significant increase in the utilization of nonoptical grade corneas was observed over the years (P = 0.005, though the utilization did not increase significantly for optical purposes viz., LK (P = 0.08. Conclusions: Utilization rate of donor corneas increased over the years, primarily due to increase in usage of nonoptical grade corneas for therapeutic purposes. There was a procedural shift toward DSAEK for

  2. Chinese Textile industry Should Gear Up for Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the inception of last year,forecast on the"shuffling"of the textile industry has been spread widely.What’s more,some latest reports of Financial Medias on the bankruptcy of garment enterprises that used to run with main business of export or OEM in Guangdong province dealt a heavier blow on people’s nerve.It is said that Chinese textile industry are suffering"painful period"now……

  3. Successive leadership changes in the regional jet industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vertesy, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines leadership dynamics in the regional jet manufacturing industry from the 1980s onwards. With the help of leading products (aircraft or aircraft family), British Aerospace (BAe), Fokker, Bombardier and Embraer consecutively took the leadership in terms of new deliveries. In order to understand the co-evolution of demand for aircraft, technology and industrial structure, the paper applies a framework for innovation system dynamics that investigates in detail the preconditions...

  4. Successive leadership changes in the regional jet industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vertesy D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines leadership dynamics in the regional jet manufacturing industry from the 1980s onwards. With the help of leading products aircraft or aircraft family, British Aerospace BAe, Fokker, Bombardier and Embraer consecutively took the leadership in terms of new deliveries. In order to understand the co-evolution of demand for aircraft, technology and industrial structure, the paper applies a framework for innovation system dynamics that investigates in detail the preconditions for...

  5. Studies in Industrial Renewal : Coping with Changing Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide a picture of ongoing research at Mälardalen University in order to create a point of departure for future research on industrial renewal. Many aspects of industrial renewal are dealt with by the researchers who contributed to this book. Some of them focus on functional aspects such as distribution channels and management accounting and control. Others deal with broad perspectives such as strategies and entrepreneurship, and still others consider specific...

  6. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  7. Policy learning and policy change in a context of industry crisis: the case of Chilean salmon farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Petrasic, Veronica Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the policy response to the 2007-2010 sanitary crisis in the Chilean salmon industry, the second largest producer and exporter of salmon in the world. This industry is an emblematic case of the possible consequences of employing an intensive natural resource model for development. The research draws upon the two literatures on policy learning and policy change, and crisis and disaster management, and upon the system failure to explain the causes and consequences ...

  8. Location Patterns And Location Factors In Cultural And Creative Industries1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak Paulina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses spatial and locational aspects of cultural and creative industries (CCI taking into consideration the internal heterogeneity of this group of activities. Emphasis is put on similarities and differences in those aspects found for the sector as a whole and for its individual branches. On the basis of the proposed criteria the paper tries to exemplify a set of CCI characteristics, on the one hand to highlight their diversity, and on the other, to select the best criteria for analysing spatial and locational aspects of CCIs. A detailed analysis of CCI location patterns and location factors is also carried out, and on this basis two groups of models of the spatial aspects of CCIs are proposed: those of CCI location and those of the range of CCI markets.

  9. Technology changes and the Norwegian accounting industry: a profitability analysis perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brendemo, Øystein Røttereng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the Norwegian accounting industry using the framework of strategic management accounting. The perspective chosen is that of a strategic profitability analysis. Focus is placed on how the development and adoption of new technology are affecting the industry, and how the industry can adapt to changes. The empirical data has been collected using two case studies and a small sample of firms. The thesis starts with a macro- and industry analysis of factors influ...

  10. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  11. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  12. "Productivity Change and Mine Dynamics: The Coal Industry in Japan during World War II"

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Okazaki

    2012-01-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, the Japanese coal industry experienced huge fluctuations in production and labor productivity. In this paper, I explore the micro-aspects of labor productivity change in the coal industry during World War II, using mine-level data, compiled from official statistics and original documents of the Coal Control Association (Sekitan Toseikai). The coal industry in this period was characterized by dynamic changes in market structure: a number of mines entered and exited the ...

  13. Structural changes in the industry of Poland against the background of eastern European Union states

    OpenAIRE

    Gierańczyk, Wiesława; Rachwał, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Industrial restructuring processes associated with the transformation of the system taking place in Poland and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe bring about structural changes in manufacturing intended to develop intellectually-intensive industries based on the implementation of the latest research and development (R&D) results. The purpose of this article is therefore to present changes in the role of industry in the economy of Poland based on its share in employment and gross va...

  14. Developing Industry-Special Education's Joint Response To Changing Demographics in the Workforce. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donald M.

    This paper examines changing demographics in the American work force during the 1990s and implications for the economy, for America's ability to compete globally, and for industry and education. In response to these workplace and demographic changes, the National Association for Industry-Education Cooperation utilized the technique of networking…

  15. [The effect of new industries on changes in population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, C; Zou, N

    1985-05-29

    Since 1978, China's Qionggang township (population, 8023; area, 3 sq. km), traditionally a fishing village on Jiangsu province's Huanghai coast, has been investing its local capital in an effort to establish several industrial enterprises including its own full-time local labor force. Currently, the rapidly expanding factory work force exceeds the number of fishermen. In addition to providing a statistically detailed chronology of the socioeconomic transition from a small fishing settlement to a rapidly growing industrial town, free-time activities, educational pursuits, and life styles of the newly formed labor force are discussed. From 1981 to 1983, Qionggang's industrial sector produced 4 metal vessels which were delivered directly to the town's fishing sector. With the town's newly generated economic wealth, commercial and public service facilities (i.e., a hospital, a kindergarten, several stores, a bank, and a credit union) have emerged. The economic development of Qionggang township has inspired other rural villages to clear and develop nearby land for similar industrial growth. PMID:12341130

  16. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

  17. The changing role of chemistry in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion costs the U.S. electricity industry between five and ten billion dollars a year. In steam generating plants it is estimated that over half the forced outages are caused by corrosion, and in the U.S. industry, corrosion increases the cost of electricity more than it increases the cost of any other product, adding over 10% to its price. The total cost of corrosion to U.S. industry is in excess of dollar 276 billion annually, of which more than 30% could be prevented through the use of optimum corrosion management practices. In order to effectively deal with these issues it will require a coordinated approach throughout the industry, in which chemistry has a major role to play. Chemistry has effectively moved from being a problem to being a solution for materials and corrosion issues, and judging by the current advances and initiatives, will continue to do so. The window of opportunity to positively influence the entire industry is here. This will be especially challenging for us as chemists in Eskom, with an ageing fleet and lack of excess generating capacity. The spin-off of taking up this challenge to 'get our chemistry right' and take a quantum step forward would be a significant positive effect on the unit capability factor (UCF) and the forced loss rate (UCLF) for the Generation Division. This could, in turn, influence issues as far reaching as the cost of electricity for the South African consumer and when the construction of new generating plant is scheduled. (orig.)

  18. Changing patterns of competition in European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a period of statism in the European natural gas market, the author argues that economic, political and regulatory pressures are approaching which will force dramatic change in the market, and identifies factors relating to pipeline capacity, competition, prices and market changes and fuel use which will drive the changes. A historical perspective is used as a framework to explain the inevitability of these changes. (UK)

  19. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed. PMID:27432072

  20. Investigation of changes in water resources and grain production in China: changing patterns and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Wei; Hu, Yunjin; Dai, Xiangqian; Song, Xingyuan

    2015-11-01

    Water resources are very important for grain production in China. In this study, we investigate the changes in streamflow and grain production in China from 1956 to 2008. Since the 1980s, the increase of total grain production was mainly contributed by northern China where significantly decreasing precipitation and available water resources were observed. From 1985 to 2008, northern China accounted for 92.9 % of the national total grain production growth. Consequently, the main grain production area has shifted from the south to the north. However, the shift was mismatching the spatial distributions and temporal changes in precipitation and available water resources in China. During 1956 through 2008, precipitation decreased in the main grain production areas of the northern China by 1.23-1.27 mm per year. During the same period, observed streamflows in the five major rivers in northern China decreased by 13.4-92.4 %. Current grain production in northern China is dependent on overexploitation of groundwater. From 1987 to 2000, the average groundwater table declined 10.8 m with a maximum decrease of 34.8 m in North China Plain. Furthermore, the impacts of climate change and projected industrial development exacerbate the uncertainty of grain supply by northern China in the future. This study also indicated the potential of southern China for a more important role in ensuring sustainable food security of China, with increasing precipitation and streamflows observed in the Yangtze River and Pearl River basins.

  1. Managing laboratory automation in a changing pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The health care reform movement in the USA and increased requirements by regulatory agencies continue to have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry and the laboratory. Laboratory management is expected to improve effciency by providing more analytical results at a lower cost, increasing customer service, reducing cycle time, while ensuring accurate results and more effective use of their staff. To achieve these expectations, many laboratories are using robotics and automated work stat...

  2. Five complex forces could change structure of industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projections about the future of energy fall into Conventional or environmental (Green) categories. Although the issue of global warming dominates the Green projections, there are other forces in addition to the environment that are capable of undermining the current structure of the industry. Before going into some scenarios of the future and discussion of the forces that may be faced, here is a historic review of economic growth and energy demand

  3. Globalization and the changing clothing industry in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Nebahat Tokatli

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the manner in which, since the 1980s, some Turkish domestic firms in the clothing industry have found ways of connecting themselves to the global webs of manufacturing, distribution, and retailing of garments. I call attention to two related developments that have occurred during the process. First, a number of manufacturing firms have acquired enough autonomy to develop and exercise their own strategies, have upgraded their operations, and, as original brand-name man...

  4. The Economics of Regulated Changes to the Australian Egg Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trewin, Ray

    2001-01-01

    The Australian egg industry is facing adjustment pressures including from animal welfare developments. Production and consumption of free-range eggs are rising in response. However, considerations have been given to banning the dominant conventional cage production as in Switzerland. Consideration has also been given to compulsory labelling eggs by their form of production. A focus of the research is to develop possible future scenarios and to value any associated animal welfare benefits agai...

  5. Patterns of scald injuries in children--has anything changed?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yates, J

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to study presentation patterns of scald injuries in children and suggest potential countermeasures to reduce these injuries. We retrospectively studied scald injuries in children attending an urban paediatric emergency department between January 1st and December 31st 2008. Data was extracted from our emergency department database using search terms \\'burn\\

  6. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  7. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  8. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  9. A Global Review of Insurance Industry Responses to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Mills

    2009-01-01

    A vanguard of insurers is adapting its business model to the realities of climate change. In many ways, insurers are still catching up both to mainstream science and to their customers, which, in response to climate change and energy volatility, are increasingly changing the way they construct buildings, transport people and goods, design products and produce energy. Customers, as well as regulators and shareholders, are eager to see insurers provide more products and services that respond to...

  10. Design and Implementation of Integrated Solid Wastes Management Pattern in Industrial areas, Case Study of Shahroud, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiar Yaghmaeian; Ali Akbar Roudbari; Saeeid Nazemi

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives: The aim of the study was to design and implement integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial area, to evaluate the results, and to determine possible performance problems. Materials & Methods: This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial area and the implementation process included: 1. qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid wastes generated in the area, 2. determining the current state of solid w...

  11. Attribution of the spatial pattern of CO2-forced sea level change to ocean surface flux changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate models taking part in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) all predict a global mean sea level rise for the 21st century. Yet the sea level change is not spatially uniform and differs among models. Here we evaluate the role of air–sea fluxes of heat, water and momentum (windstress) to find the spatial pattern associated to each of them as well as the spread they can account for. Using one AOGCM to which we apply the surface flux changes from other AOGCMs, we show that the heat flux and windstress changes dominate both the pattern and the spread, but taking the freshwater flux into account as well yields a sea level change pattern in better agreement with the CMIP5 ensemble mean. Differences among the CMIP5 control ocean temperature fields have a smaller impact on the sea level change pattern. (paper)

  12. Household Consumption and Long-Term Structural Changes in Regional Retail and Service Industries (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAINOU Kazunari

    2009-01-01

    Regional economic trends by prefecture over the last thirty years in Japan show broad disparities in changes in population and income levels. These changes are understood to be closely linked to the industrial structures of each prefecture and their individual development. In contrast, the impact of these changes on household consumption has not been clearly explained.This paper analyzes the impact on household consumption of the retail and service industries by investigating household consum...

  13. Analysis of the regional pattern of sea level change due to ocean dynamics and density change for 1993-2099 in observations and CMIP5 AOGCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Roberto A. F.; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle

    2015-11-01

    Predictions of twenty-first century sea level change show strong regional variation. Regional sea level change observed by satellite altimetry since 1993 is also not spatially homogenous. By comparison with historical and pre-industrial control simulations using the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the CMIP5 project, we conclude that the observed pattern is generally dominated by unforced (internal generated) variability, although some regions, especially in the Southern Ocean, may already show an externally forced response. Simulated unforced variability cannot explain the observed trends in the tropical Pacific, but we suggest that this is due to inadequate simulation of variability by CMIP5 AOGCMs, rather than evidence of anthropogenic change. We apply the method of pattern scaling to projections of sea level change and show that it gives accurate estimates of future local sea level change in response to anthropogenic forcing as simulated by the AOGCMs under RCP scenarios, implying that the pattern will remain stable in future decades. We note, however, that use of a single integration to evaluate the performance of the pattern-scaling method tends to exaggerate its accuracy. We find that ocean volume mean temperature is generally a better predictor than global mean surface temperature of the magnitude of sea level change, and that the pattern is very similar under the different RCPs for a given model. We determine that the forced signal will be detectable above the noise of unforced internal variability within the next decade globally and may already be detectable in the tropical Atlantic.

  14. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  15. Enhanced Algorithms to Identify Change in Crime Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    malathi arunachalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing all law-enforcement and intelligence gathering organizations is accurately and efficiently analyzing the growing volumes of crime data. There has been an enormous increase in the crime in the recent past. The concern about national security has increased significantly since the 26/11 attacks. Crimes are a social nuisance and cost our society dearly in several ways. Here we look at use of missing value, clustering algorithm and Anomalies detection for a data mining approach to help predict the crimes patterns and speed up the process of solving crime. We will look at MV algorithm, DBScan and PAM outlier detection algorithm with some enhancements to aid in the process of filling the missing value and identification of crime patterns. We applied these techniques to real crime data. We can use semi-supervised learning technique here for knowledge discovery from the crime records and to help increase the predictive accuracy.

  16. Pattern Discovery and Change Detection of Online Music Query Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Fu

    In this paper, an efficient stream mining algorithm, called FTP-stream (Frequent Temporal Pattern mining of streams), is proposed to find the frequent temporal patterns over melody sequence streams. In the framework of our proposed algorithm, an effective bit-sequence representation is used to reduce the time and memory needed to slide the windows. The FTP-stream algorithm can calculate the support threshold in only a single pass based on the concept of bit-sequence representation. It takes the advantage of "left" and "and" operations of the representation. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm only scans the music query stream once, and runs significant faster and consumes less memory than existing algorithms, such as SWFI-stream and Moment.

  17. Can chitosan and chitooligosaccharides change microbial pattern in human colon?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimůnek, Jiří; Koppová, Ingrid; Mrázek, Jakub; Tishchenko, Galina

    Praha : ÚŽFG AV ČR, v.v. i, 2009. s. 98-98. [6th International Symposium on Anaerobic Micorbiology. 17.06.2009-20.06.2009, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/08/0803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chitosan * chitooligosaccharides * mirobial pattern Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Decomposition analysis of the change of energy intensity of manufacturing industries in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study computes and analyses the sources of the change of energy intensity of the manufacturing industries in Thailand during the period (1991–2011) using the decomposition method. The Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index is computed and the results show that the energy intensity in the period (1991–2000) increased greatly from the increased energy intensity of each industry. In the more recent period (2000–2011) the energy intensity declined a little. However the decline was mainly from the structural change effect with negligible contribution from decreased energy intensity of each industry. The findings imply the need to balance industrial restructuring policies with efforts to reduce energy intensity for a sustainable economic development. Besides, there is much room for individual industries to improve their energy efficiency. Policies on restructuring energy prices and other non-price related measures should be devised to induce individual industries, particularly the highly energy intensive ones, to reduce their energy intensity. - Highlights: • Decomposing change of energy intensity of Thai manufacturing industries, 1991–2011. • 1991–2000 energy intensity rose due to increased energy intensity of each industry. • 2000–2011 energy intensity declined due mainly to the structural change effect. • Need to balance industrial restructuring policies to reduce energy intensity

  19. Comprehensive Profiling of Proteome Changes Provide Insights of Industrial Penicillium chrysogenum During Pilot and Industrial Penicillin G Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The intracellular proteomes of the Penicillium chrysogenum throughout pilot and industrial processes were investigated by using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, respectively. We detected a total of 223 spots corresponding to 154 proteins and 231 spots corresponding to 157 proteins throughout pilot and industrial processes, respectively. The levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased (5.1- and 2.5-fold) under the pilot process, while its levels were no significant changes under the industrial process at 140 and 170 h when compared with that at 2 h. The levels of isocitrate lyase and fumarate hydratase were increased significantly under the industrial process, while their levels had no obvious changes after 20 h of fermentation throughout the pilot process. These results indicate that there were remarkable differences in carbohydrate metabolism (including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle) of P. chrysogenum during the pilot and industrial fermentations, which likely result in alterations of the primary metabolism and penicillin biosynthesis. Moreover, the differences in the levels of proteins involved in amino acid metabolisms (including valine, cysteine, and α-aminoadipic acid biosynthesis) indicated that the pilot and industrial processes influenced the supplies of penicillin precursors. Compared with that at 2 h, the maximum levels of superoxide (6.9-fold, at 32 h) and catalase (9-fold, at 80 h) during the industrial process and the maximum levels of superoxide (1.2-fold, at 20 h) and catalase (7.7-fold at 128 h) during the pilot process revealed the significant difference in cell redox homeostasis and stress responses during scale-up fermentation. Particularly, 10 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N synthetase and 4 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N (IPN) acyltransferase in pilot and industrial processes were identified, respectively. The levels of IPN acyltransferase (spots

  20. European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menzel, A.; Sparks, T.; Estrella, N.; Koch, E.; Aasa, A.; Ahas, R.; Alm-Kübler, K.; Bissolli, P.; Braslavska, O.; Briede, A.; Chmielewski, F.M.; Crepinsek, Z.; Curnel, Y.; Dahl, A.; Defila, C.; Donnelly, A.; Filella, Y.; Jatczak, K.; Mage, F.; Mestre, A.; Nordli, O.; Penuelas, J.; Pirinen, P.; Remisova, V.; Scheifinger, H.; Striz, M.; Susnik, A.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Wielgolaski, F.E.; Zach, S.; Zust, A.

    2006-01-01

    Global climate change impacts can already be tracked in many physical and biological systems; in particular, terrestrial ecosystems provide a consistent picture of observed changes. One of the preferred indicators is phenology, the science of natural recurring events, as their recorded dates provide

  1. Assimilation to Accommodation Immigrants and the Changing Patterns of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl E.

    2004-01-01

    The continuous inflow of immigrants into Canada, particularly in metropolitan cities like Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal where most immigrants tend to settle, has changed, and continues to change the social, cultural and educational realities of schooling. Immigrants, themselves, have played an important role in helping to establish an…

  2. The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somero, George N

    2012-01-01

    Global change includes alterations in ocean temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and pH, abiotic variables with strong and interacting influences on the physiology of all taxa. Physiological stresses resulting from changes in these four variables may cause broad biogeographic shifts as well as localized changes in distribution in mosaic habitats. To elucidate these causal linkages, I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges--and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to global change, notably in the case of species that have evolved in highly stable habitats? How fully can phenotypic acclimatization offset abiotic stress? Can physiological measurements, including new molecular ("-omic") approaches, provide indices of the degree of sublethal stress an organism experiences? And can physiological evolution keep pace with global change? PMID:22457968

  3. Diversifying meat consumption patterns: consumers' self-reported past behaviour and intentions for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latvala, Terhi; Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pouta, Eija; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Kotro, Jaana; Forsman-Hugg, Sari

    2012-09-01

    This study analysed meat consumption patterns among Finnish consumers, considering both stated past changes and intended future changes. Consumer segments with different patterns of and reasons for change were identified. Latent class analysis revealed six consumer clusters that formed three major cluster blocks. The first block, comprising 48% of the consumers, had established consumption patterns and no intentions to change them. In the second block, with 13% of the consumers, consumption patterns had already shifted towards more vegetables and less meat. The third block, with 39% of the consumers, was identified to be in the middle of a change with a general tendency to reduce the use of meat and increase the use of vegetables. Although the environmental effects of meat and animal welfare issues were important reasons for change in some clusters, healthiness was the most salient stated reason for changing consumption habits. PMID:22560481

  4. Intelligent Computing for the Management of Changes in Industrial Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    László Horváth; Rudas, Imre J.; Bitó, János F.; Gerhard Hancke

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in engineering modeling have changed the work of engineers during the last two decades. Sophisticated descriptions store information about shape oriented engineering objects and their relationships. Boundary representations of form features constitute shape models. Rules and checks have replaced simple data form of shape model entity attributes. This change of modeling facilitates a next step towards application of computer intelligence at engineering object related decisions. Th...

  5. An intensified industrial reforming process by change in combustible fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two dimensional mathematical model is developed to produce syngas (H2 and CO). • Coke formation is predicted for the novel process. • Significant carbon filament formation is expected by the methane cracking reaction for the process. - Abstract: Two-dimensional mathematical model is used for natural gas reforming to produce syngas. It is seen that coke formation by the Boudouard reaction is significant in entrance of the reactor and the maximum temperature gradient between the bed centerline and the wall is predicted to be 350 K. In order to reduce carbon filament formation and to avoid tube failure, heating value of the combustible fluid is increased to 15.5% by introducing ethane component as combustible fluid and the results show a better performance for reforming process in terms of lower coking and lower tube failure as compared to the industrial conditions

  6. Managing laboratory automation in a changing pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M L

    1995-01-01

    The health care reform movement in the USA and increased requirements by regulatory agencies continue to have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry and the laboratory. Laboratory management is expected to improve effciency by providing more analytical results at a lower cost, increasing customer service, reducing cycle time, while ensuring accurate results and more effective use of their staff. To achieve these expectations, many laboratories are using robotics and automated work stations. Establishing automated systems presents many challenges for laboratory management, including project and hardware selection, budget justification, implementation, validation, training, and support. To address these management challenges, the rationale for project selection and implementation, the obstacles encountered, project outcome, and learning points for several automated systems recently implemented in the Quality Control Laboratories at Eli Lilly are presented. PMID:18925014

  7. [Recent changes in the Mexican industrial labor force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, O; Garcia, B

    1996-01-01

    "We study...some of the repercussions of the crisis and economic restructuring on the manufacturing labour force in the main urban areas of Mexico. Using the data of the National Survey of Urban Employment for the period 1986-1992, we set, first of all, the evolution of female and male presence in the manufacture of the country's main industrial cities. Further, some of the characteristics of the manufacturing labour force in different types of cities are examined. For this purpose, we are considering several issues: the condition of wage earner and non-wage earner workers, the size of the establishment, some sociodemographic aspects (gender, age, schooling level, and condition of the head of household), as well as different aspects related to labour conditions (length of workday, job benefits, and salary levels)." (EXCERPT) PMID:12348665

  8. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF THE U.S. FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    C.S. Kim; Taylor, Harold; Hallahan, Charles B.; Schaible, Glenn D.

    2001-01-01

    This article evaluates structural changes in the U.S. nitrogen fertilizer industry by using a decomposed Negative Binomial Regression model. Results indicate that the U.S. nitrogen fertilizer industry can be characterized as an industry involving price leadership in oligopoly. Declining profit-margins might have forced fertilizer producers to consolidate and eliminate duplicate operations. The market concentration level is expected to intensify as the natural gas price rises.

  9. From PowerPoints to Reality - Managing Strategic Change in the Paper Packaging Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olander Roese, Malin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores and describes strategic change towards increased customer orientation and innovation in the Swedish forest and paper packaging industry, an industry which has been subject to calls for new strategic directions for more than two decades. The large-scale and cost-efficient strategy, which has been the industry's hallmark, is in need of a more customer based and innovative emphasis. The research is inspired by different schools of thought in strategy and m...

  10. The corporate centre in a financial conglomerate : governance under fundamental industry changes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiole, Eelco Rokus Willem

    2002-01-01

    In part 1, we discuss 1) the fundamental changes in the financial services industry, 2) financial conglomerate structures and 3) value-based-management. These are core components for understanding the challenges and intentions of corporate level management of financial conglomerates. The financial services industry, financial conglomeration and value orientation In the first chapter, we highlight the major trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. This trend...

  11. A Strategic Roadmap for Business Model Change for the Video-games Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Goumagias, Nik; Purvis, Kieran; Fernandes, Kiran; Cabras, Ignazio; Li, Feng; Shao, Jianhao; Devlin, Sam; Hodge, Victoria Jane; Cowling, Peter; Kudenko, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The global video games industry has experienced and exponential growth in terms of socioeconomic impact during the last 50 years. Surprisingly, little academic interest is directed towards the industry, particularly in the context of BM Change. As a technologically intensive creative industry, developing studios and publishers experience substantial internal and external forces to identify, and sustain, their competitive advantage. To achieve that, managers are called to systematically explor...

  12. Climate change issue table : petroleum downstream sector industry foundation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Canadian downstream petroleum industry is presented. The downstream sector includes petroleum refining, plus all activities regarding distribution, marketing and retailing of petroleum products. In 1990, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the production and consumption of petroleum products were about 207 megatons which is about 45 per cent of total Canadian CO2 emissions. This report includes the analysis of the Base Case and the Kyoto Case. The Base Case is premised on the implementation of fuel sulphur reductions to meet cleaner fuels requirements and an enhanced program of refinery efficiency initiatives. Under the Base Case assumptions the CO2 emissions from refinery operations in 2010 would be about 3.4 below 1990 levels. The Kyoto Case was developed on the basis of reductions in Canadian petroleum product demand that would be sufficient to achieve a 6 per cent reduction in GHG emissions from the production and consumption of petroleum products relative to 1990 levels. The model demonstrates the dramatic economic impact of the Kyoto Case reductions on the Canadian downstream petroleum sector. Investment requirements for capital improvements to further distillate production and to further desulphurization are estimated at $ 1.5 billion between 2005 and 2015. The reduced volume of gasoline sales would be expected to result in rationalization of retail outlets, resulting in the closure of some 2,000 retail outlets with a combined loss of about 12,000 jobs. It is suggested that similar impact in other countries that are signatory to the Kyoto Protocol could result in the shift of refining, refining industry jobs and related economic benefits to countries which are not participants in the Kyoto Protocol. 14 tabs., 6 figs., 5 appendices

  13. The Spanish retail petroleum market: New patterns of competition since the liberalization of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the recent development of the Spanish automotive fuels market, in the context of a long process of liberalization and competition. Our aims are twofold. First, to overview the market's current patterns of competition, while taking into account the political, structural and strategic aspects that have marked the industry's recent evolution. Second, to study in depth one competitive strategy that nowadays significantly influences competition and final prices, the vertical relationships between operators and service stations. Our analysis draws attention to several indicators that may demonstrate the success of the opening and liberalization process. Increased levels of competition have stimulated the sector's growth, development and modernization, and given national firms an excellent platform for competing with newcomers. Furthermore, studying the vertical agreements has produced interesting results. We have found that relative price differences among brands increase in line with perceived quality differences, and that the vertical separation of refineries and retailers eases price competition in the final market. The empirical evidence was backed up with a database of 4164 Spanish service stations. (author)

  14. The Spanish retail petroleum market: New patterns of competition since the liberalization of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the recent development of the Spanish automotive fuels market, in the context of a long process of liberalization and competition. Our aims are twofold. First, to overview the market's current patterns of competition, while taking into account the political, structural and strategic aspects that have marked the industry's recent evolution. Second, to study in depth one competitive strategy that nowadays significantly influences competition and final prices, the vertical relationships between operators and service stations. Our analysis draws attention to several indicators that may demonstrate the success of the opening and liberalization process. Increased levels of competition have stimulated the sector's growth, development and modernization, and given national firms an excellent platform for competing with newcomers. Furthermore, studying the vertical agreements has produced interesting results. We have found that relative price differences among brands increase in line with perceived quality differences, and that the vertical separation of refineries and retailers eases price competition in the final market. The empirical evidence was backed up with a database of 4164 Spanish service stations

  15. Chemical factor patterns and leachability of incinerator and industrial stack solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research being done under the IAEA Solid Wastes CRP is one part of a research program which is directed to study the environmental behaviour of selected inorganic components, their accumulation in the human body and environmental health assessment. Specimens selected for study include solid waste residues from industry, from municipal garbage, sewage and hospital incinerators nearby contaminated soil and surface deposits, water and sediments, atmospheric wet deposition, airborne particulate matter and emission stack fly ash, laboratory animal tissues, wild life specimens, and human scalp hair. The overall objectives include: (i) characterization of pollution sources through trace elements concentration patterns (or 'factors'), (ii) identification of toxic elements which are concentrated in solid wastes, aerosols or human tissues (iii) attempts to estimate pollution source contributions to the general environment, (iv) consideration of the bioavailability of selected elements of environmental health significance and (v) selection of suitable bioindicators of environmental pollution. (For the purpose of this solid wastes RCM only those experiments concerned with wastes and aerosols are presented). (author). 5 refs, 5 tabs

  16. School Drop out: Patterns, Causes, Changes and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sabates, R.; Westbrook, J; Akyeampong, K.; Hunt, F.

    2010-01-01

    This background paper for the UNESCO GMR team draws on a range of resources to provide a synthesis on drop out. The paper focuses on patterns of participation, age-specific drop out rates, equity in drop out rates, and the link between over age enrolment and drop out rates. The paper outlines the main causes of drop out and provides two country case studies, Ghana and Tanzania, to highlight the potential strategies that could be used to address drop out. The paper concludes with our main poli...

  17. Managing organizational change: Decision’s maker perceptions in the UAE manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okour, Adnan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the common practices of change projects in the manufacturing industry in UAE and the key factors for effective implementation and highlighting the roadblocks of organizational change. The primary data were collected through pre-interview questionnaires and analyzed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA. The findings revealed that technology change is the change most practiced by the UAE manufacturing industry, then strategy development, TQM driven change, and software development with less emphases on cultural change. The usable data were restively small (n=150. Further research could be done with a larger sample to test the findings. The paper offers rare insight into change management practices in the manufacturing industry in UAE in addition to the initiators’ perception of key factors of effectiveness or the roadblocks of organizational.

  18. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Hegerl, Gabriele; Zwiers, Francis; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and...

  19. Land use changes and its impacts on air quality and atmospheric patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, E. D.; Mazzoli, C. R.; Martins, L. D.; Martins, J. A.; Carvalho, V.; Andrade, M.

    2013-05-01

    Possible modifications on atmospheric patterns and air quality caused by land use changes are discussed in this work. With the increasing interest in alternative energy sources, mainly due to the replacement of fossil fuels, large part of the Brazilian territory is being used for sugar cane cultivation. The resultant modifications in land use and some activities associated to this crop are studied with some detail through numerical modeling of the atmosphere. The same tool was applied to study the effect of surface type and emission sources over urban areas in the neighborhoods of the cultivated areas, in particular those located in the Metropolitan Area of Campinas, inside the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The main focus of this work was to identify some relationship between these two types of land use modification and its influence on the regional atmospheric circulation patterns and air quality over agricultural and urban areas affected by biomass burning and the traditional sources of pollutants, such as industries and vehicles. First, the effect of urban areas was analyzed and it was possible to identify typical patterns associated with urban heat islands, especially over the city of Campinas. In this region, air temperature differences up to 3 K were detected during night time. During the day, due to the atmospheric conditions of the studied period, this effect was not significant. Afterwards, the effect of sugar cane cultivated regions was discussed. The results show that the regions of sugar cane grow can significantly modify the surface energy fluxes, with direct consequences to the standards of local temperature and humidity and over nearby regions. Sensitivity tests were carried out during part of September, 2007, through the substitution of the sugar cane by a generic crop in the model, and show that during the day the cultivated areas can present temperatures up to 0,65 k higher than those in the case of the generic one. Throughout the dispersion module

  20. Technological and Social Drivers of Change in the Online Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the legal implications arising from the distribution of music in a digital format via the Internet. However, less attention has been paid to the technological and social drivers of change in the music industry. This paper attempts to demonstrate the significant impact that social and technological forces have on the music industry, especially regarding lowering barriers to entry.

  1. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  2. Indonesia's Modern Retail Food Sector: Interaction With Changing Food Consumption and Trade Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dyck, John H.; Woolverton, Andrea E.; Rangkuti, Fahwani Yuliati

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia’s food market has changed in response to a changing and growing economy. The report examines changes in the food consumption pattern and measures the growth of modern food retail chains, packaged food purchases, and food imports in the world’s fourth-most-populous country. The evidence suggests that Indonesians are moving toward modern global purchasing and consumption patterns, but more slowly than in some comparable countries. Barriers to foreign and domestic commerce, affecting t...

  3. Discussion on the Landscape Pattern Change of Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating the transition of landscape can understand that ecosystem processes are being influenced by disturbance. For this reason, it is essential that using appropriate mapping techniques and quantitative methods to assess landscape condition within different disturbance regimes. Landscape metrics were calculated for segmented areas of homogeneous land use in watershed to allow understanding and characterization of ecosystem.Chen-yu-lan watershed, located in the central of Taiwan, is a sensitivity area for disaster such as earthquakes and typhoons. In this study we focus on how the natural disaster affect landscape pattern. The study shows that landscape metrics can measure the effect of typhoon and earthquake disturbance regime. The analysis shows that evaluating landscape transition can contribute more detailed information for managing ecosystem.

  4. Industrial arsenic contamination causes catastrophic changes in freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangjie; Shi, Haibin; Tao, Jianshuang; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lei, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohai; Smol, John P.

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is now widely recognized to pose severe health and environmental threats, yet much of what is known concerning its adverse impacts on ecosystem health is derived from short-term ecotoxicological studies. Due to the frequent absence of long-term monitoring data, little is known of the long-tem ecological consequences of pollutants such as arsenic. Here, our dated sediment records from two contaminated lakes in China faithfully document a 13.9 and 21.4-fold increase of total arsenic relative to pre-1950 background levels. Concurrently, coherent responses in keystone biota signal pronounced ecosystem changes, with a >10-fold loss in crustacean zooplankton (important herbivores in the food webs of these lake systems) and a >5-fold increase in a highly metal-tolerant alga. Such fundamental ecological changes will cascade through the ecosystem, causing potentially catastrophic consequences for ecosystem services in contaminated regions.

  5. Australian Power: Can renewable technologies change the dominant industry view?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynette Molyneaux; Craig Froome; Liam Wagner; John Foster

    2012-01-01

    With carbon dioxide the major contributor to anthropogenic climate change, being required to reduce the carbon emissions from burning coal for electricity presents a systemic shock to Australian power. The Australian government is committed to the development of its coal seam gas resources for export to lucrative world markets and to transition domestic power generation to greater resilience by moving away from a reliance on coal to lower-emissions intensive gas. Using a commercially availabl...

  6. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C; Koven, Charles D; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y-W; Miller, Charles E

    2016-07-12

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost. PMID:27354511

  7. Changing Patterns of Interracial Marriage in a Multiracial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    We use incidence data from the 1980 Census and 2008 American Community Survey to track recent trends in interracial marriage. Intermarriage with Whites increased rapidly among Blacks but stalled among Asians and American Indians. Black-White intermarriage increased threefold over 1980-2008, independent of changing socioeconomic status, suggesting…

  8. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  9. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-07-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

  10. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  11. Patterns and Composition of Weight Change in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Ryan J.; Morgan, Amy L.; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2015-01-01

    While it is well documented that college freshmen gain weight, there is a dearth of studies examining critical time periods for this weight change. Freshmen living on campus (n = 103; 21M, 82F) visited the laboratory in August/September, November, January, February/March, and April/May. Measurements at each visit included: weight, waist…

  12. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribe...... consumption seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  13. Method of lift-off patterning thin films in situ employing phase change resists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahlke, Matthias Erhard; Baldo, Marc A; Mendoza, Hiroshi Antonio

    2014-09-23

    Method for making a patterned thin film of an organic semiconductor. The method includes condensing a resist gas into a solid film onto a substrate cooled to a temperature below the condensation point of the resist gas. The condensed solid film is heated selectively with a patterned stamp to cause local direct sublimation from solid to vapor of selected portions of the solid film thereby creating a patterned resist film. An organic semiconductor film is coated on the patterned resist film and the patterned resist film is heated to cause it to sublime away and to lift off because of the phase change.

  14. Using LMDI approach to analyze changes in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Dai; Jing Zhu; Han Song

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: China is confronting with tremendous pressure in carbon emission reduction. While logistics industry seriously relies on fossil fuel, and emits greenhouse gas, especially carbon dioxide. The aim of this article is to estimate the carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics sector, and analyze the causes for the change of carbon dioxide emission, and identify the critical factors which mainly drive the change in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry. Design/methodolo...

  15. Robust Organizational Fitness for Reinventing Strategy in Rapidly Changing Industry Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Michael; Voelpel, Sven C.; Leibold, Marius

    2003-01-01

    In fast-changing industry landscapes, companies are often engaged in both adaptive (reactive) and inventive (proactive, newly-shaping) change processes, and these require different types of organizational fitness capabilities. Our research of more than a decade conducted in a wide range of industries (See "About our Research") reveal that many companies are predominantly focused on past successes and internal difficulties, and do not possess the necessary robust capabilities to also inventive...

  16. MARKETING RESPONSES TO CHANGING CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN THE FRESH BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Procopio, Mary Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The fresh meat industry is changing the way it markets its products. The decline in red meat consumption that has resulted from greater consumer concerns about the "healthfulness" of red meat, coupled with changes in consumer lifestyles emphasizing a need for convenience is contributing to the diminishment of "commodity selling" in favor of a true "marketing" approach (Pierson and Allen, 1986). In a traditional industry such as meats, the shift from a commodity-selling perspective (i.e., sell...

  17. Deregulation of the Swedish Audit Industry and Changes in the Competitive Environment : Conflict, Imitation, and Innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Sebhatu, Abiel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the deregulation of the audit industry in Sweden, the changing competitive environment and innovativeness, a research gap that has not yet been bridged. This paper raises the question of how the innovativeness of firms within the audit industry have changed after deregulation. The ambition of this research is to have both theoretical and practical knowledge contribution. The theoretical framework constructed for this research is rooted in the literature review of thre...

  18. Exploiting Patterns and Tool Support for Reusable and Automated Change Support for Software Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakash Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lehman?s law of continuing change implies that software must continually evolve to accommodate frequently changing requirements in existing systems. Also, maintainability as an attribute of system quality requires that changes are to be systematically implemented in existing software throughout its lifecycle. To support a continuous software evolution, the primary challenges include (i enhancing reuse of recurring changes; and (ii decreasing the efforts for change implementation. We propose change patterns and demonstrate their applicability as reusable solutions to recurring problems of architectural change implementation. Tool support can empower the role of a designer/architect by facilitating them to avoid labourious tasks and executing complex and large number of changes in an automated way. Recently, change patterns as well as tool support have been exploited for architecture evolution, however; there is no research to unify pattern-driven (reusable and toolsupported (automated evolution that is the contribution of this paper. By exploiting patterns with tool support we demonstrate the evolution of a peerto- peer system towards client-server architecture. Evaluation results suggest that: (i patterns promote reuse but lack fine-granular change implementation, and (ii tool supports automation but user intervention is required to customise architecture change management.

  19. Arctic climate change with a 2C global warming. Timing, climate patterns and vegetation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signatories to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are charged with stabilizing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous interference with the climate system. A number of nations, organizations and scientists have suggested that global mean temperature should not rise over 2C above preindustrial levels. However, even a relatively moderate target of 2C has serious implications for the Arctic, where temperatures are predicted to increase at least 1.5 to 2 times as fast as global temperatures. High latitude vegetation plays a significant role in the lives of humans and animals, and in the global energy balance and carbon budget. These ecosystems are expected to be among the most strongly impacted by climate change over the next century. To investigate the potential impact of stabilization of global temperature at 2C, we performed a study using data from six Global Climate Models (GCMs) forced by four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, the BIOME4 biogeochemistry-biogeography model, and remote sensing data. GCM data were used to predict the timing and patterns of Arctic climate change under a global mean warming of 2C. A unified circumpolar classification recognizing five types of tundra and six forest biomes was used to develop a map of observed Arctic vegetation. BIOME4 was used to simulate the vegetation distributions over the Arctic at the present and for a range of 2C global warming scenarios. The GCMs simulations indicate that the earth will have warmed by 2C relative to preindustrial temperatures by between 2026 and 2060, by which stage the area-mean annual temperature over the Arctic (60-90N) will have increased by between 3.2 and 6.6C. Forest extent is predicted by BIOME4 to increase in the Arctic on the order of 3 x 106 km2 or 55% with a corresponding 42% reduction in tundra area. Tundra types generally also shift north with the largest reductions in the prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra

  20. Management culture in Romania: Patterns of change and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Kevin; Kennedy, Liz

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how far restructuring has involved a change in leadership style and the development of new philosophies and approaches which derive from the Anglo-American model of 'people management'. During the Communist period, Romania experienced a highly centralised system of management. Broader currents of historical and political culture also served to inculcate values of bureaucratic formalism. In transitional times it appears that the management role is being re-defined and manag...

  1. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 2000 the European Commission launched a broad debate on the security of energy supply in the European Union. Fortunately these debates are occurring simultaneously in Europe and in the US, thus providing an opportunity for a transatlantic debate and further cooperation. The author come back to european facts and figures, then to stress the dramatic changes in the context since 1990 and finally to discuss the policy options. (A.L.B.)

  2. Climatic changes and uplift patterns - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our knowledge about the Pleistocene (= last 2.5 million years) climatic changes and their global environmental effects on the Earth system, e.g. the glacial-interglacial cycles, the sea level changes, and the significant crustal movements in glaciated regions, has increased greatly during the last decades. This report outlines the historical background and the present state-of-the-arts on these matters. Because the driving mechanisms and feed-back effects behind these changes have been more and more discussed in earth-science literature, analysed, and probably also better and better understood, it has become possible to present theoretical models for future climates (not including mans influence on the earth system). The report presents and discusses one such climate model (short of predicting mans future behaviour and its consequent effect on climate) and its likely implications on future climatic and glacial conditions, and bedrock movements, with focus on the Stockholm region. Possibilities for quaternary geologists to establish and map post glacial fault zones, related to irregular bedrock movements, are also briefly outlined in the report. (222 refs.)

  3. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  4. Industrial Restructuring and Urban Change in the Pittsburgh Region: Developmental, Ecological, and Socioeconomic Trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Haller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the steel industry's restructuring during the 1980s and its consequences for older industrial regions tied historically to steel production. These regions contained large working-class communities that declined because of deindustrialization and restructuring. This article first examines the transition of the steel industry from its roots in extractive and primary manufacturing to a scrap-recycling industry that minimizes labor and raw material inputs. This transition parallels the structural changes in other industries addressed by political economic perspectives, such as the new international division of labor and globalization of production. The article then focuses on the socioeconomic and structural changes, using the Pittsburgh region as an example, including the employment and land-use consequences of deindustrialization and the relationship between losses in manufacturing employment and increases in persistent joblessness and poverty associated with growth of the urban underclass.

  5. Optimization Strategy of Export Trade of Chinese Fruits under the Change of Chinese Fruit Industry Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikong Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available China enjoying a reputation of world fruit kingdom worldwide almost produces all kinds of fruits. Since 1990s, Chinese fruit industry develops rapidly. Both the planting area and the total output create new peak. However, China is a powerful fruit production country rather than a strong trading nation due to its unreasonable structure of fruit industry. Therefore, this study explored the reasons of growth and change of Chinese fruit trade in main output market in the perspective of the change of industry structure, the situation of output trade, etc. by analyzing examples, in order to find out the main problems emerging from the current fruit industry structure and strive to find out a competitive fruit industry structure that can keep rapid development of output trade, thereby providing a feasible way for promoting rapid development of fruit trade.

  6. Safety in a changing environment: Can we draw lessons from other industrial sectors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many industries confront vital economic and political changes at key times of their development, which may have an impact on their level of safety. As an example, the safety records of the air transport industry in the USA and the rail transport sector in the UK are contrasted through the two major changes these sectors underwent in recent history: deregulation under President Carter in the late 1970s and privatization of British Rail under Mrs. Thatcher. While deregulation did not seem to adversely affect the safety of air travel in the USA, safety in the rail sector in the UK has apparently dropped markedly. Using parallels involving mergers or splitting up scenarios from industrial sectors, some lessons are drawn for all safety critical industrial systems, in particular for the nuclear industry, and the concept of cyndinics, a methodical and scientific approach to danger and risk, is introduced. (author)

  7. Technical changes and the rate of profit in the Canadian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    M J Webber; Tonkin, S.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of profit and the causes of changes in the rate of profit in the Canadian food and beverage industry, for the years 1952 - 1981, are examined in this paper. Until the mid-1960s, the rate of profit was stable or rising, but since then it has fallen. In the first half of the period under consideration, the market strength of the food and beverage industry offset the negative effects of changes within the industry; in the second half of the period, however, the food and beverage industr...

  8. From print to screen: changes and challenges facing the Brazilian publishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Souza Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazil to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.

  9. The impact of potential climate change commitment on six industries in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises a series of six workshops that estimated the effects of potential climate change commitments on six energy intensive industries. The six industries are: steel, chemicals, paper and pulp, aluminium, cement and petroleum refining. The climate policy commitments are assumed to apply to the US and OECD countries, but not to developing countries. The assumed commitments would produce a substantial reduction in industrial output and employment in the US and in other participating countries. Non-participating countries would experience economic gain in these industries. Global carbon emissions would be redistributed and may not decline. An increase in fossil fuel prices would not encourage US industries to substitute capital for energy to reduce emissions, which indicates that capital and energy are complements in these industries. (Author)

  10. The structural changes of the food industry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos

    This paper studies the structural changes of food industry in the EU-27. We first provide a detailed description of the relative importance of the various sectors in the food industry. The structure is studied by calculating Gini coefficients for the EU members with regard to food industry. We find...... that the food industry is one of the most important components of the manufacturing sectors in terms of turnover and employment. Enterprises in the EU are relatively large in terms of turnover but small in the number of enterprises with the dairy and meat sectors being the most important branches of...... the food industry regarding the share of turnover, employment and enterprises. During the eight years 2000-2007, the Gini coefficient of the food industry in the EU is very close to 1, indicating a high degree of concentration....

  11. Study on the Change of Land Use and Landscape Pattern in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the statistical data concerning land use in Anhui Province from 1995 to 2005, this paper conduct comprehensive analysis on change of land use structure, change of land use degree, and landscape pattern change of land use in Anhui Province from 1995 to 2005 using statistical analysis and mathematical model. The results show that the land use structure has changed significantly; the rate of land use change is quick; the land use degree is not high; the spatial pattern of land use tends to be reasonable and gradually develops toward the equilibrium state.

  12. Monitoring of Pinus massoniana spatial pattern changes based on RS and GIS techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; HUANG Hua-guo; ZHANG Xiao-li; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan

    2008-01-01

    Our research focused on Pinus massoniana information extracted from remote sensing images based on the knowledge detection and decision tree algorithm and established a spatial pattern model, combining quantitative theoretical ecology with remote sensing (RS) and geometric information system (GIS) techniques. Applying information extraction methods and a spatial pattern model, we studied P. massoniana spatial patterns changes before and after the invasion by pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Fuyang and Zhoushan counties, Zhejiang Province, east China. The P. massoniana spatial patterns are clustering,whether the invasion happened or not. But the degree of clustering is different. Our results show good agreement with field data.Applying the results, we analyzed the relationship between spatial patterns and the invasion level. Then we drew the elementary conclusion that there are two kinds of patterns for pine wood nematode to spread: continuous and discontinuous diffusion. This approach can help monitor and evaluate the changes in ecological systems.

  13. METHODOLOGICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT OF THE INVESTMENT AND CIVIL ENGINEERING INDUSTRY WITH ACCOUNT FOR ITS SYSTEMIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Svetlana Sergeevna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of research of organizational and economic drivers of development of the civil engineering industry represents a cluster of interrelated methods, techniques, procedures, algorithms and models that shape up the basis for the development and implementation of effective management actions impacted by intrinsic fluctuations of the civil engineering industry, the local legislation, national and global economies. The proposed method contributes to the improvement of sustainability of construction companies and the construction industry. It also facilitates an inflow of capital into the investment sector of the construction industry and accelerates the economic growth of Russia. The proposed methodology is based on a synthesis of several scientific theories, such as the evolutionary theory, the theory of self-organization (the synergetic theory, the theory of changes and the catastrophe theory, the theory of cyclical development, the systems theory, the organizational theory, the institutional theory, and the pricing theory. There are many potential patterns of the system development; however, the awareness of the resonant excitation, feedback and the cumulative effect make it possible to predict the most probable changes. Random fluctuations are also exposed to these effects. Implementation of the proposed methodology makes it possible to generate science-based management solutions that ensure the development and implementation of effective management procedures.

  14. Analysis of Long-Term Precipitation Sequencing Pattern Changes in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, S.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates changes in long-term precipitation patterns in North America, focusing specifically on precipitation sequencing. Previous precipitation studies have explored changes in extreme precipitation events, intensity, and distribution, but sequencing changes and their effects are still largely not understood. Precipitation sequencing, or the overall temporal pattern of precipitation events, is a vital yet often overlooked part of developing long-term climate predictions; the assumption of long-term stationarity in climate variability, which suggests that past observed temporal patterns are likely to continue and can therefore be projected, weakens the robustness of climate models. Additionally, changes in sequencing could be a driver for fluctuations in the highly interconnected hydrologic cycle, meaning that tipping points and critical changes in the cycle could be better anticipated given a more complete picture of long-term temporal patterns. Analysis was based on precipitation data collected by the National Climatic Data Center for approximately 9000 stations in North America. Temporal patterns recorded at each station - the sequence of consecutive days with or without rain and the lengths of those increments - were reviewed and compared on a decadal and seasonal scale. Comparisons to date indicate that long-term precipitation patterns are non-stationary and therefore cannot be relied upon for long-term climate projections. It remains to be seen how exactly regional temporal patterns have fluctuated over time in North America, and results could provide interesting insight into observed hydrologic changes or serve to reinforce existing theories regarding regional hydrologic studies.

  15. Russian and Ukrainian welding industries learn to handle change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Less than three weeks after the coup against Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev that eventually led to the disbanding of the Soviet Union, a technical delegation from the US entered the newly renamed city of St. Petersburg. The delegation visited manufacturing facilities and welding institutions that were changing from central control to a local decentralized operation and that were unsure of what would be the government's role in their operations. Plans for the trip began at the AWS Welding Show in Detroit, Mich., in April 1991, when in-depth discussions were held with Deputy Director Sergey Kuchuk-Yatsenko of the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, Kiev, Ukraine. A summary of the trip is given in this paper

  16. The Changing Patterns of Romanian Immigration to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor TUDOROIU

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the largely neglected post-1990 Romanianimmigration to Canada. During the 1990s, most Romanians selected by Canadian immigration offices were highly skilled, university-educated professionals. As they ignored important details of the Canadian labor market, about three quarters of them became kindof lumpen-intellectuals. In recent years, however, Internet-based networks have improved the quality of information available to potential migrants. This and structural changes in the home country are preparing a major shift of Romanians' migratory flow to Canada. In the years to come, it will progressively take the form of circulatory migration currently characterizing Romanian immigration to Western Europe.

  17. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  18. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  19. Energy industry affected by the climate change; Energiewirtschaft als Betroffener des Klimawandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, B. [ElfER, Electricite de France, R et D (France)

    2007-07-01

    The climate change affects not only the production, transmission, distribution and demand of electricity, but also the energy services and energy trade. Under this aspect, within the scope of the meeting '1. Kufstein Energy Symposium - Energy industry vs energy intensive industry - recognition of trends', held between May 22nd and May 24th, 2006, at the University of Applied Sciences in Kufstein (Austria), the author of the contribution under consideration reports on aspects concerning the consternation of the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany according to the production, transmission and demand of electricity. In the following three chapters, the author reports on the consternation due to (a) the demand of cooling water at thermal power stations and changed possibilities of transportation of inland navigation; (b) atmospheric effects on existing power mains; (c) changed energy demand at extreme heat events. The consternation of the electric power industry is multi-layered.

  20. Ontogenetic pattern change in amphibians: the case of Salamandra corsica

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter Beukema

    2011-01-01

    Ontogenetic, post-metamorphic pattern development is a rarely studied topic in amphibian science. As there are indications that the pattern of Salamandra corsica might expand over time, digital image analyses were applied in order to measure several phenotypical variables which were related to the snout vent length. Results show a significant increase of patches which change to irregular shapes while SVL increases. Digital image analysis is identified as a suitable tool to explore pattern sha...

  1. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: → Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. → Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. → Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. → Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. → At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  2. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  3. Population size changes reshape genomic patterns of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pool, John E; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Elucidating the forces responsible for genomic variation is critical for understanding evolution. Under standard conditions, X-linked diversity is expected to be three-quarters the level of autosomal diversity. Empirical data often deviate from this prediction, but the reasons for these departures...... are unclear. We demonstrate that population size changes can greatly alter relative levels of X-linked and autosomal variation: population size reductions lead to particularly low X-linked diversity, whereas growth elevates X-linked relative to autosomal diversity. Genetic variation from a diverse...... array of taxa supports an important role for this effect in accounting for population differences in the ratio of X-linked to autosomal diversity. Consideration of this effect may improve the inference of population history and other evolutionary processes....

  4. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; González, Alejandro D

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximately 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO(2) equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change. PMID:19339402

  5. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  6. Comparison of Developmental Pattern Change in Preschool Children with Spastic Diplegic and Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice May-Kuen Wong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compares the longitudinal change of developmental patterns inpreschool children with spastic diplegic (SD and spastic quadriplegic (SQcerebral palsy (CP.Methods: Sixty children with spastic CP, aged 1-5 years (3.2

  7. Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factor of County-level Industrial Development in Liaoning Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiaona; MA Yanji

    2008-01-01

    County-level industrial development and structure upgrade is one of the most important issues of revitaliz-ing old industrial base of China. ARer the cluster analysis on GDP per capita and GDP per area of each county inLiaoning Province, this paper finds the similarity of population size, land use intensity, and economic development ofeach county. Location quotient reflects the specialization intensity of industries in each county, and it also reflects thespatial differences of county-level industrial development. Economic development level is higher in the southeast thanin the northwest of Liaoning, and the industry driving effect on county-level economy is apparent. The main influenc-ing factors include location, industrial foundation and economic system reform, capital input level, knowledge andtechnology dissemination, conditions of domestic and overseas markets, population and labor force transfer. Industri-alization is an important approach to urbanization for the counties in Liaoning Province. The proportion of agricultureis much higher in the northwest than in the southeast of Liaoning, so it will be take longer time for counties in thenorthwest of Liaoning to make industrialization, urbanization and modernization.

  8. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  9. A Novel Calculus? Institutional Change, Globalization and Industrial Conflict in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2006-01-01

    market protection seem major influences, while institutional and legal changes are important explanations of persistent major inter-country variance. This indicates a novel industrial conflict calculus for employees, which entails a more restricted use, but not the withering away of the strike.......Collective industrial conflict in Europe has declined dramatically since the 1970s. This decline is the result of significant changes in institutional factors, influencing the calculations of employees and their organizations when considering strike action. Declining union density and changes in...

  10. The CRINE initiative -- Cultural change in the U.K. oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRINE initiative could not succeed without two fundamental changes being accepted by everyone involved in the operation of the United Kingdom Continental Shelf North Sea enterprise. CRINE, an acronym for Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era, is an industry-wide program now under way in the UK whose main objective is to achieve thirty percent or more savings in capital costs and to half operating costs over the next few years. Perhaps the most difficult change to comprehend, let alone accept, is that of attitude. Changing the culture of a traditional industry is one of the most exciting challenges emerging from the CRINE initiative

  11. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  12. Study on spatial pattern of land-use change in China during 1995-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纪远; 刘明亮; 庄大方; 张增祥; 邓祥征

    2003-01-01

    It is more and more acknowledged that land-use/cover dynamic change has become a key subject urgently to be dealt with in the study of global environmental change. Supported by the Landsat TM digital images, spatial patterns and temporal variation of land-use change during 1995-2000 are studied in the paper. According to the land-use dynamic degree model, supported by the 1km GRID data of land-use change and the comprehensive characters of physical, economic and social features, a dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed to disclose the spatial pattern of land-use change processes. Generally speaking, in the traditional agricultural zones, e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, Yangtze River Delta and Sichuan Basin, the built-up and residential areas occupy a great proportion of arable land, and in the interlock area of farming and pasturing of northern China and the oases agricultural zones, the reclamation of arable land is conspicuously driven by changes of production conditions, economic benefits and climatic conditions. The implementation of "returning arable land into woodland or grassland" policies has won initial success in some areas, but it is too early to say that the trend of deforestation has been effectively reversed across China. In this paper, the division of dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed, for the sake of revealing the temporal and spatial features of land-use change and laying the foundation for the study of regional scale land-use changes. Moreover, an integrated study, including studies of spatial pattern and temporal process of land-use change, is carried out in this paper, which is an interesting try on the comparative studies of spatial pattern on change process and the change process of spatial pattern of land-use change.

  13. Comparison of optical characteristics according to shape change based on micro prism pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang-Eui; Choi, Hwan-Jin; Kang, Myoung-Chang; Jeon, Eun-chae; Park, Min-gyu; Jo, Byeong-Muk; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2015-07-01

    For high-functional optical films composed of micro patterns, the optical properties, such as the diffraction, reflection and diffusion, depend on the pattern size, shape, and arrangement. For this reason, a high precision machining process and the technology of pattern design were studied in order to increase function and efficiency. The basic shapes of micro patterns are often prisms, square pyramids and triangular pyramids. Generally, a prism pattern on a flat surface can be continuously grooved by a diamond tool same as a shape angle of the pattern. The square pyramid shape is perpendicularly machined on the prism pattern. The triangular pyramid is made with a bisection of the square pyramid along the diagonal direction. Thus, optical properties can be changed according to prism patterns produced by mechanical machining. In this paper, prism, square pyramid and triangular pyramid pattern molds were machined, and optical properties of the respective shapes were compared. The machining experiment employed an ultra-precision 4-axis planer, V-shape diamond tools, and Cu-plating molds. The machined micro patterns were replicated using UV-resin; then light-transmission measurements were performed to confirm the optical properties of the mold pattern.

  14. How can one explain changes in the monthly pattern of suicide?

    OpenAIRE

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2014-01-01

    The monthly pattern of suicides has remained a puzzle ever since it was discovered in the second half of the 19th century. In this paper we intend to "explain" not the pattern itself but rather its changes across countries and in the course of time. First, we show that the fairly common idea according to which this pattern is decaying in "modern" societies is not altogether true. For instance, around 2000, in well urbanized countries like South Korea or Spain this pattern was still as strong ...

  15. Drivers and patterns of supply chain collaboration in the pharmaceutical industry: A case study on SMEs in China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lin; Lin, Yong; Ieromonachou, Petros; Zhou, Li; Luo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to identify the supply chain collaboration models/patterns and its correspondent advantages on pharmaceutical supply chain. This paper aims to investigate how col-laborative activities could impact on the development of supply chain and industry. A case study methodology was adopted in this research, which involves pharmaceutical SMEs. The results indi-cate that collaborations are common in all phases of pharmaceutical supply chain, the different strength of b...

  16. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  17. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Changku Kang; Ye Eun Kim; Yikweon Jang

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree ...

  18. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  19. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  20. Hydro-climatic and lake change patterns in Arctic permafrost and non-permafrost areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Johanna Mård; Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates patterns of lake-area and hydro-climatic change in Arctic river basins, and possible influence of permafrost change reflected in such patterns. A salient change pattern, emerging across all investigated basins in both permafrost and non-permafrost areas, is an opposite change direction in runoff (R) from that in precipitation (P). To explain this change contrast, an increase (decrease) in relative water-balance constrained evapotranspiration ETwb/P is required where R decreases (increases). Increasing temporal variability of daily river discharge (sdQ) is found in all basins with spatially extensive lake decrease, which also exhibit decrease in ETwb/P. Clear indication of basin-wide permafrost thaw is found in only one basin, and is possible in two more, but unlikely in the largest of the total four investigated permafrost basins.

  1. Using LMDI approach to analyze changes in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: China is confronting with tremendous pressure in carbon emission reduction. While logistics industry seriously relies on fossil fuel, and emits greenhouse gas, especially carbon dioxide. The aim of this article is to estimate the carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics sector, and analyze the causes for the change of carbon dioxide emission, and identify the critical factors which mainly drive the change in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry. Design/methodology/approach: The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method has often been used to analyze decomposition of energy consumption and carbon emission due to its theoretical foundation, adaptability, ease of use and result interpretation. So we use the LMDI method to analyze the changes in carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics industry in this paper. Findings: By analyzing carbon dioxide emission of China’s logistics, the results show that the carbon dioxide emission of logistics in China has increased by 21.5 times, from 45.1 million tons to 1014.1 million tons in the research period. The highway transport is the main contributor to carbon dioxide emission in logistics industry. The energy intensity and carbon dioxide emission factors were contributing to the reduction of carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics industry in overall study period. Originality/value: Although there are a lot of literature analyzed carbon dioxide emission in many industry sectors, for example manufacturing, iron and steel , pulp and paper, cement, glass industry, and so on. However, few scholars researched on carbon dioxide emission in logistics industry. This the first study is in the context of carbon dioxide emission of China’s logistics industry.

  2. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation's economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures

  3. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  4. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  5. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism ec...

  6. Religious Orders and Growth through Cultural Change in Pre-Industrial England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan;

    We advance the hypothesis that cultural values such as high work ethic and thrift, “the Protestant ethic” according to Max Weber, may have been diffused long before the Reformation, thereby importantly affecting the pre-industrial growth record. The source of pre-Reformation Protestant ethic, acc......-industrial development of England may thus have been propelled by a process of growth through cultural change....

  7. Technical efficiency and embodied technical change in the Indonesian pulp and paper industry

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel van Dijk; Adam Szirmai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of technological change and technical efficiency in the Indonesian pulp and paper industry are analysed. The industry is characterised by rapid growth of output and capacity, with some mills investing heavily in state-of-the-art machinery after 1984. Using stochastic frontier analysis, we distinguish between technological advances of best practice mills and the rate of technological inefficiency. We use a newly constructed micro-level dataset describing the complete...

  8. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  9. Decomposition of Total Factor Productivity Change in the U.S. Hog Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.; McBride, William D.; Mosheim, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. hog industry has experienced dramatic structural changes and rapid increases in farm productivity. A stochastic frontier analysis is used to measure hog enterprise total factor productivity (TFP) growth between 1992 and 2004 and to decompose this growth into technical change and changes in technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and allocative efficiency. Productivity gains over the 12-year period are found to be explained almost entirely by technical progress and by improvements in ...

  10. SELECTIVE BREEDING, HERITABLE CHARACTERISTICS AND GENETIC-BASED TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE CANADIAN BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents an examination of genetic-based technological change in the Canadian beef cattle industry. A model of technological change is explicitly developed in characteristics space. Production functions with genetic characteristics as arguments are estimated and two forms of technological change identified. Shadow values for characteristics are then calculated and actual genetic improvements are compared to the improvements suggested by the shadow prices. It is concluded that market...

  11. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cathryn Clarke Murray; Selina Agbayani; Ban, Natalie C.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different sce...

  12. The impact of climate change on the global wine industry: Challenges & solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renée Mozell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of climate change upon the global production of winegrapes and wine. It includes a review of the literature on the cause and effects of climate change, as well as illustrations of the specific challenges global warming may bring to the production of winegrapes and wine. More importantly, this paper provides some practical solutions that industry professionals can take to mitigate and adapt to the coming change in both vineyards and wineries.

  13. Climate Change, Agricultural Productivity and its Impacts on the Food Industry: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ludena, Carlos E.; Mejia, Carla

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of climate change of food processing sectors worldwide. Specifically, we analyze the impacts that changes in agricultural productivity might have for seven food industry sectors, namely meat, vegetable oils and fats, dairy, sugar, processed rice, other food products and beverage and tobacco products. We analyze two different scenarios of crops yield changes based on Müller et al. (2009), one with full CO2 fertilization and one without CO2 fertilization. We use ...

  14. Analysing Productivity Changes Using the Bootstrapped Malmquist Approach: The Case of the Iranian Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arjomandi, Amir; Valadkhani,Abbas; Harvie, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This study employs various bootstrapped Malmquist indices and efficiency scores to investigate the effects of government regulation on the performance of the Iranian banking industry over the period 2003-2008. An alternative decomposition of the Malmquist index, introduced by Simar and Wilson (1998a), is also applied to decompose technical changes further into pure technical change and changes in scale efficiency. A combination of these approaches facilitates a robust and comprehensive analy...

  15. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution. PMID:27597446

  16. Industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  17. An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Industry Factors in the Internationalization Patterns of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøgaard, Birgitte; Gioia, Carmine; Benito, Gabriel R. G.

    neglected as potential determinants of companies' internationalization. We argue that differences across industries with regard to competition level, research intensity, tangibility of the products, and the existence of clusters should influence the impetus and opportunities to internationalize. This study......Research on companies' internationalization has mainly focused on firm-level and country-level factors in order to explain firms' cross-border activities. With the exception of a limited number of studies emphasizing rivalistic behavior in oligopolistic industries, industry factors have been...

  18. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using 1H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: → The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. → Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. → Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  19. Multinationals and global climate change. Issues for the automotive and oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D

    2003-07-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by U.S. and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional economic drivers of strategy do not provide a satisfactory account for these differences, and the chapter focuses instead on the conflicting institutional pressures on MNEs and the implications for their climate strategy. The home-country institutional context and individual corporate histories can create divergent pressures on strategy for MNEs based in different countries. At the same time, the location of MNEs in global industries and their participation in 'global issues arenas' such as climate change generate institutional forces for strategic convergence. It appears that local context influenced initial corporate reactions, but that convergent pressures predominate as the issue matures.

  20. Multinationals and global climate change. Issues for the automotive and oil industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by U.S. and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional economic drivers of strategy do not provide a satisfactory account for these differences, and the chapter focuses instead on the conflicting institutional pressures on MNEs and the implications for their climate strategy. The home-country institutional context and individual corporate histories can create divergent pressures on strategy for MNEs based in different countries. At the same time, the location of MNEs in global industries and their participation in 'global issues arenas' such as climate change generate institutional forces for strategic convergence. It appears that local context influenced initial corporate reactions, but that convergent pressures predominate as the issue matures

  1. Multi-pattern fingerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1996-08-01

    The multivariate optimal fingerprint method for the detection of an externally forced climate change signal in the presence of natural internal variability is extended to the attribution problem. To determine whether a climate change signal which has been detected in observed climate data can be attributed to a particular climate forcing mechanism, or combination of mechanisms, the predicted space-time dependent climate change signal patterns for the candidate climate forcings must be specified. In addition to the signal patterns, the method requires input information on the space-time dependent covariance matrices of the natural climate variability and the predicted signal pattern errors. The detection and attribution problem is treated as a sequence of individual consistency tests applied to all candidate forcing mechanisms, as well as to the null hypothesis that no climate change has taken place, within the phase space spanned by the predicted climate change patterns. As output the method yields a significance level for the detection of a climate change signal in the observed data and individual confidence levels for the consistency of the retrieved climate change signal with each of the forcing mechanisms. A statistically significant climate change signal is regarded as consistent with a given forcing mechanism if the statistical confidence level exceeds a given critical value, but is attributed to that forcing only if all other climate change mechanisms are rejected at that confidence level. The analysis is carried out using tensor notation, with a metric given by the natural-variability covariance matrix. This clarifies the relation between the covariant signal patterns and their contravariant fingerprint counterparts. The signal patterns define the vector space in which the climate trajectories are analyzed, while the fingerprints are needed to project the climate trajectories onto this space. (orig.)

  2. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2011-09-01

    Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation. For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America. The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin. Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes

  3. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution. The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation.

    For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America.

    The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin.

    Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the

  4. Patterns of waste generation, treatment and disposal in the chemical and allied industries in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Osei-Wusu Achaw

    2012-01-01

    Environmental pollution and degradation in urban Ghana has been on the increase as a result of the nations drive towards industrialization, a generally weak regulatory regime, and a lack of capacity to manage the environment. This situation is affecting the well-being and livelihood of affected communities. As part of an effort to address the issue, a thirteen (13) item questionnaire was designed and distributed to seventy (70) companies in the chemical and allied industry to solicit and anal...

  5. Multi-pattern fingerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    To determine whether a climate change signal which has been detected in observed climate data can be attributed to a particular climate forcing mechanism, or combination of mechanisms, the predicted space-time dependent climate change signal patterns for the candidate climate forcings must be specified. In addition to the signal patterns, the method requires input information on the space-time dependent covariance matrices of the natural climate variability and of the errors of the predicted signal patterns. The detection and attribution problem is treated as a sequence of individual consistency tests applied to all candidate forcing mechanisms, as well as to the null hypothesis that no climate change has taken place, within the phase space spanned by the predicted climate change patterns. As output the method yields a significance level for the detection of a climate change signal in the observed data and individual confidence levels for the consistency of the retrieved climate change signal with each of the forcing mechanisms. A statistically significant climate change signal is regarded as consistent with a given forcing mechanism if the statistical confidence level exceeds a given critical value, but is attributed to that forcing only if all other candidate climate change mechanisms (from a finite set of proposed mechanisms) are rejected at that confidence level. Although all relations can be readily expressed in standard matrix notation, the analysis is carried out using tensor notation, with a metric given by the natural-variability covariance matrix. This simplifies the derivations and clarifies the invariant relation between the covariant signal patterns and their contravariant fingerprint counterparts. The signal patterns define the reduced vector space in which the climate trajectories are analyzed, while the fingerprints are needed to project the climate trajectories onto this reduced space. (orig.) With 1 fig., 19 refs.

  6. Patterns of Holocene relative sea level change in the North of Britain and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Hunt, N.; Firth, C. R.; Jordan, J. T.; Fretwell, P. T.; Harman, M.; Murdy, J.; Orford, J. D.; Burnside, N. G.

    2012-10-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of relative sea level (RSL) change in the North of Britain and Ireland during the Holocene are examined. Four episodes, each defined by marked changes in the RSL trend, are identified. Each episode is marked by a rise to a culminating shoreline followed by a fall. Episode HRSL-1 dates from the Younger Dryas to early in the Holocene; HRSL-2 to HRSL-4 occurred later in the Holocene. There is extensive evidence for each episode, and on this basis the spatial distribution of the altitude data for three culminating shorelines and a shoreline formed at the time of the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami (ca 8110 ± 100 cal. BP) is analysed. Ordinary Kriging is used to determine the general pattern, following which Gaussian Trend Surface Analysis is employed. Recognising that empirical measurements of RSL change can be unevenly distributed spatially, a new approach is introduced which enables the developing pattern to be identified. The patterns for the most widely occurring shorelines were analysed and found to be similar and common centre and axis models were developed for all shorelines. The analyses described provide models of the spatial pattern of Holocene RSL change in the area between ca 8100 cal. BP and ca 1000 cal. BP based on 2262 high resolution shoreline altitude measurements. These models fit the data closely, no shoreline altitude measurement lying more than -1.70 m or +1.82 m from the predicted value. The models disclose a similar pattern to a recently published Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model for present RSL change across the area, indicating that the overall spatial pattern of RSL change may not have varied greatly during the last ca 8000 years.

  7. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  8. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  9. Investigation of climate change impacts on Prairie's petroleum industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, the three Prairie provinces of Canada, and their economies strongly depend on the petroleum industry. However, climate change may have potential impacts on the sector that could reverberate onto the socio-economic fabric of the provinces. The petroleum industry in the Prairies is faced with a big challenge: how to adapt to the changing climatic conditions so that they maintain or improve their economic and environmental efficiencies. The attitudes of the different stakeholders concerning climate change and the appropriate measures to be implemented by the petroleum industry were obtained through a questionnaire-based survey conducted between February and June 2001. Based on the responses received, a Chi-square statistical test was applied to look at the complex interactions in the results. An analysis of a number of petroleum-related processes and activities vulnerable to climate change was performed. A sound foundation was obtained for the decision-making process on the climate change measures required in the petroleum industry in the Prairies. 14 refs., 7 tabs

  10. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of glucosidases during apple seeds stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Podstolski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The technique of localization of glucosidases on disc electropherograms, based on reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride by enzymatically liberated sugar is described. The changes in electrophoretic patterns of amygdaline, phloridzin and p-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside hydrolysing glucosidases during apple seed stratification were studied. The changes were correlated with earlier described changes in endogenous apple seed amygdaline and phloridzin contents.

  11. Changes in latitude, changes in attitude - emerging biogeographic patterns of invasion in the Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeographic patterns of invasion of near-coastal and estuarine species in the Northeastern Pacific (NEP) are beginning to emerge based on surveys by U.S. EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and the EPA/USGS synthesis of native and nonindigenous species ...

  12. Powerful agent of change? The global insurance industry as a driver for greenhouse mitigation and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper explores the potential for the gloPal insurance industry to play a powerful and constructive role towards significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions as well as in climate change adaptation. Climate change presents a formidable public policy challenge (IPCC 2001) and one to which sections of the insurance industry have been responsive (Mills 2005). The industry can be expected to play a further constructive role for three reasons: the industry has core capacities in risk management and loss prevention; the industry is the world's largest with annual income in the order of US$3.4 trillion derived from premiums and US$1 trillion derived from investments; and anthropogenic climate change is constricting limits to insurability, with implications for the ongoing functioning of the insurance sector (Mills and Lecomte 2006). Insurance understood as a social institution is both a crucial component of contemporary socio-economic systems and a powerful agent of socio-economic change (Pfeffer and Klock 1974, Denenberg et al. 1964). The ability to transfer risk historically has played a major facilitative role in economic and social development at the broadest scales of human socio-economic systems (Supple 1984; Clark 1999). Governments historically and currently explicitly harness the potential of insurance in support of specific public policy outcomes. The creation of the modern welfare state is a public policy objective on a grand scale achieved in part through application of insurance, in the form of universal health care and pensions (Lengwiler2003). The insurance industry itself also initiates significant socioeconomic change in three ways: direct engagement, for example by establishing the first fire brigades (Kline 1964a); loss prevention research, for example by conducting and financing research into building and vehicle safety (Mills and Lecomte 2006; Kline 1964b); and engaging in lobbying for implementation of safety standards (Kline

  13. The US coal industry, 1970--1990: Two decades of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report, is to provide a comprehensive overview of the US coal industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that occurred, their causes, and their effects. The report presents and analyzes data compiled by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on the US coal industry, as well as EIA data on other energy sources and information from non-EIA sources where relevant. These data are used to reveal trends in coal production, consumption, distribution, and prices. Trends in coal mining productivity and employment are also examined, and the profitability of major energy companies' coal operations is tracked over the 1977 through 1990 period. Analysis of the data indicates the impacts on the coal industry of major events such as the oil embargo, technological breakthroughs, and Federal and State laws and regulations affecting the industry

  14. Management of change in the nuclear industry - Evidence from maintenance reorganizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry and especially the maintenance activities have been under various restructuring initiatives in addition to continuous incremental change due to e.g. new technologies, ageing plants, deregulation and the change of generation. These changes have been experienced as causing stress and uncertainty among the workers. Also, changes have lead to e.g. lowered sense of control, goal unclarity and lowered sense of personal responsibility over one's work. Organizational changes clearly are issues that have potential effects on safety. Both positive and negative cases on safety effects of organizational changes exist, and various accidents have been pinpointed to organizational changes in the company. In this report the challenges of management of change at nuclear power plants are considered mainly from organizational culture -perspective. The cultural perspective taken in this paper strives to combine technical approaches to human resources approaches. The report focuses on evidence gathered from studies made at Nordic NPP maintenance units, but the results and models depicted in the report are of general relevance in the nuclear industry. The report is based on four case studies of reorganizing in NPP maintenance units and on a literature review of change management at various other safety critical organizations. The report presents a framework for considering organizational changes and their safety consequences. (au)

  15. Management of change in the nuclear industry - Evidence from maintenance reorganizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The nuclear industry and especially the maintenance activities have been under various restructuring initiatives in addition to continuous incremental change due to e.g. new technologies, ageing plants, deregulation and the change of generation. These changes have been experienced as causing stress and uncertainty among the workers. Also, changes have lead to e.g. lowered sense of control, goal unclarity and lowered sense of personal responsibility over one's work. Organizational changes clearly are issues that have potential effects on safety. Both positive and negative cases on safety effects of organizational changes exist, and various accidents have been pinpointed to organizational changes in the company. In this report the challenges of management of change at nuclear power plants are considered mainly from organizational culture -perspective. The cultural perspective taken in this paper strives to combine technical approaches to human resources approaches. The report focuses on evidence gathered from studies made at Nordic NPP maintenance units, but the results and models depicted in the report are of general relevance in the nuclear industry. The report is based on four case studies of reorganizing in NPP maintenance units and on a literature review of change management at various other safety critical organizations. The report presents a framework for considering organizational changes and their safety consequences. (au)

  16. Spatio-temporal Patterns of Intra-urban Land Use Change in Beijing,China Between 1984 and 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    Urban internal structure is essential information for urban geography researchers and urban planners or managers.This research aims to examine the spatial structure changes of internal urban land use based on the interpreted datasets of 1984 and 2008.Spatio-temporal patterns of internal land use conversion and urban expansion are analyzed,and then dominant driving factors (e.g.,social economy,population growth and urban planning) were identified.The results indicate that Beijing's intra-urban layout has experienced tremendous adjustment from compact to disperse configure,otherwise its function objects have shifted from the major economic and industrial development before the 1990s to the combination with cultural,high-technological and inhabitable city at present.The dominant urban land use transformations include the relocation of industrial lands from core districts to suburban or other provinces,and the accelerating expansion of residential areas and green spaces for supplying the demand of housing and ecological protection.Although Beijing's urban planning has experienced three major adjustments and improvement since the 1980s,its optimization of urban internal patterns still remains a challenge.

  17. Challenging today's nuclear industry to be competitive in a changing tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the millennium approaches, the future of the nuclear power generation appears desolate. Today's nuclear executives are facing challenges resulting from worldwide change and have forced utilities to reevaluate their corporation's future directions. The nuclear industry must be competitive more than ever to address today's rapid changing marketplace and pressures exerted from: regulatory reformation; increased competition; changes in technology; customer evolution; and globalization. These factors have compelled nuclear executives to address questions such as: What impact will these changes have on today's marketplace, and on my corporation? What will characterize tomorrow's successful nuclear facility? How can today's nuclear corporation compete in tomorrow's marketplace? Will my corporation survive? (author)

  18. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  19. Changes in Price Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Industry: Evidence Using Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    The implications of market development in the catfish industry on catfish price behavior are explored using cointegration. It is hypothesized that market development, through increases in competition between processors and shifts in consumer preferences toward fish, has caused changes in price behavior among levels of the catfish market. Using monthly catfish price data, a cointegration analysis of subsets of prices shows that price behavior has changed through time, with catfish prices becom...

  20. A MARKOV CHAIN ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE TEXAS HIGH PLAINS COTTON GINNING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ethridge, Don E.; Roy, Sujit K.; Myers, David W.

    1985-01-01

    Markov chain analysis of changes in the number and size of cotton gin firms in West Texas was conducted assuming stationary and non-stationary transition probabilities. Projections of industry structure were made to 1999 with stationary probability assumptions and six sets of assumed conditions for labor and energy costs and technological change in the non-stationary transition model. Results indicate a continued decline in number of firms, but labor, energy, and technology conditions alter t...

  1. An Exploratory Analysis of Cooperative Model Change in the Process of Tomato Industrialization in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The cooperation models appeared in the process of tomato industrialization in Xinjiang include orders, intermediary agencies and work-shops. The cooperation content, the closeness and the cooperation stability of these models are different from each other. From the local to the Corps in Xinjiang, the cooperation model has undergone corresponding changes. The internal interest mechanism, the constraint mechanism and the protection mechanism have also undergone some changes. In order to make a ...

  2. A Discourse Analytical Approach to Understanding Institutional Changes in the Irish Advertising Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hand, Rosie; Samra-Fredericks, Dalvir, Professor; Pick, Polly

    2014-01-01

    The central objective of the research upon which this paper draws is to establish how technological, economic and socio-cultural change has impacted the structures, roles and processes of the Irish Advertising Industry. Institutional theory provides the central theoretical framework. The research takes an interpretivist, constructionist and inductivist perspective and employs the methodological approach of discourse analysis to explore how institutions are being shaped and arguably changed by...

  3. Emerging entrepreneurship opportunities in the changing telecommunications industry / Jacobus Desmond Mc Quirk

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Quirk, Jacobus Desmond

    2005-01-01

    Technology and regulatory changes have profoundly altered and will continue to alter the way business opportunities are conceived. Entrepreneurs evaluate these opportunities and initiate the start-up of businesses. This study assesses whether the two major factors essential to the entry of smaller telecommunications start-ups, liberalisation and technology changes, result in entrepreneurship opportunities. The South African telecommunications industry is entering its elevent...

  4. Evaluating Voluntary Climate Change Initiatives by US business and industry compared with the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dave R; Elzenga HE; Moor APG de; KMD

    2005-01-01

    This report evaluates voluntary climate change initiatives by US business and industry geared to reducing greenhouse gases. We conclude that most of them do not even meet the minimum requirements to be qualified as serious efforts. They lack sufficient information, ambition and direction. Targets ar

  5. The Examination of Change Management Using Qualitative Methods: A Case Industry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron C. T.; Evans, Daniel M.; Westerbeek, Hans M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the number of theories explaining the nature and antecedents of change, there is no consensus on a universally applicable model. Competing theories have been tested using deductive methods focusing on hypothesis testing. This study has utilized qualitative methods for collecting data within the sport industry to provide an initial…

  6. Management of change: Lessons learned from staff reductions in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Gort, J.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure are causing major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies have been continuously improving staff efficiency. As a result, most modern chemical plants can be regarded as lean. Plans to further reduce the number of staff h

  7. An integrated approach towards safety during change in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, J.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Lemkowitz, S.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure cause major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies continuously improve their manpower efficiency. As a result most chemical plants of today can be regarded as lean plants. Plans to further reduce the number of staff ar

  8. The Implications of Ownership Changes on Concentration and Diversity in the Phonogram Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Examines the changing industry role of the six transnational phonogram companies. Argues that high market concentration does not produce an inevitable decrease in popular music diversity. Presents a new popular music model that takes into account the open system of musical production as a strategy in maintaining control of the marketplace. (SR)

  9. 78 FR 58956 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... within the United States. This proposal would revise the Board's membership to reflect the diversity of... United States. This proposal would revise the Board's membership to reflect the diversity of the industry.... Background This proposal invites comments on changes to the Board's membership provisions under the...

  10. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry, The Need for Changes in Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    have established rules and control systems for organic agriculture (the last decade). A break-through of organic food production is now taking place in some EU member states. This third change is indicated by more positive attitudes to organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing...... need for a more appropriate respons in the food policy....

  11. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and

  12. Structural changes and competitiveness in Spanish manufacturing industry : analysis of some relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Fonfría Mesa, Antonio; Álvarez González, Isabel; Díaz de la Guardia Bueno, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the main changes occurred in the productive structure of Spanish manufacturing industry in the last years, by relating them to variations in economic results observed therein and their realtionships. The analysis was carried out to three figures on the NACE and registers variables relative to the economic structure and performance of sectors.

  13. Structural changes and competitiveness in Spanish manufacturing industry: analysis of some relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Fonfría Mesa; Isabel Alvarez González; Carlos Díaz de la Guardia Bueno

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the main changes occurred in the productive structure of Spanish manufacturing industry in the last years, by relating them to variations in economic results observed therein and their realtionships. The analysis was carried out to three figures on the NACE and registers variables relative to the economic structure and performance of sectors.

  14. Environmental management in a printing company; transformation patterns in the Dutch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Theo; Green, Ken; Hofman, Peter S.; Groenewegen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The concept of sustainability presents an enormous challenge for industry. Where in the past a sound economic performance ensured survival, in the near future the triple-bottom-line will determine whether a company is successful or not. Next to outstanding economic results, companies will have to mi

  15. How did the Master Settlement Agreement change tobacco industry expenditures for cigarette advertising and promotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2004-07-01

    The 1998 multistate Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with the tobacco industry restricted cigarette advertising and promotions. The MSA monetary settlement was also associated with an average cigarette price increase of U.S.$1.19/pack between 1998 and 2001 to fund, in part, industry payments to the states. We examined Federal Trade Commission reports on how the tobacco industry spends its cigarette advertising and promotional dollars to see if changes expected as a result of the MSA occurred. Expected changes included reduced total expenditures and reductions for outdoor advertising, specialty promotional items identified with a brand (e.g., caps, t-shirts, lighters), and public entertainment. However, tobacco industry spending for advertising and promotions increased 96% between 1995 and 2001, with large increases in 1998 and 1999, as the MSA took effect. Between 1997 and 2001, outdoor advertising declined 98%, expenditures for specialty promotional items decreased 41%, although public entertainment increased 45%. However, in 2001, these categories represented only a small fraction of the total budget. Expenditures for retail-value-added increased 344% between 1997 and 2001 (to 42.5% of total), perhaps to mitigate increased cigarette prices. In 2001, the incentives-to-merchants and retail-value-added categories comprised more than 80% of total expenditures. To adequately monitor tobacco industry expenditures as they adapt to the MSA and other tobacco control efforts, more refined reporting categories are essential. PMID:15231101

  16. Climate change and water conservation effects on water availability and vegetation patterns in a stream valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Yasmijn; de Graaf, Myrjam; van Ek, Remco; Witte, Jan-Philip; Aerts, Rien; Bierkens, Marc; van Bodegom, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Climate change predictions include an increase in global temperature and changes in precipitation patterns at spatial and seasonal scale. The seasonal changes for temperate Europe include a decrease in the amount of precipitation in summer and an increase in winter. This may lead to an increased flooding risk in winter and early spring, while in summer the drought risk is likely to increase. These hydrological changes can have profound effects on vegetation patterns and development, especially for groundwater dependent vegetation. Water conservation measures can be used to combat the potential negative effects of these changes. Conservation measures can include aquifer storage and recovery, damming streams, or creating retention zones for flooding events. The implementation of these measures can contribute to preserving groundwater dependent vegetation patterns. In this study we simulated with an integrated surface- and groundwater model and a climate robust vegetation model, the implementation of water conservation measures in a stream valley catchment in the Netherlands. We modeled the effects on water availability and on vegetation patterns. The conservation measures were simulated for the current climate and for two climate scenarios, with a temperature increase of two degrees Celsius and either an increase or decrease in precipitation. Water tables were increased in stream valley zones, where groundwater dependent vegetation dominates, to ensure suitable abiotic conditions. The results showed that the water conservation measures increased the water table considerably in a future climate, compared to no conservation measures. Groundwater dependent vegetation was positively stimulated with these new hydrological conditions. With these models we successfully tested the effectiveness of the water conservation measures on water availability and vegetation patterns to ameliorate the negative effects of climate change. We therefore argue that water conservation

  17. Winds of change: growing demands for transparency in the relationship between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Philip B

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between medicine and the pharmaceutical industry in the United States is undergoing rapid and momentous change; US Senator Grassley has alleged inadequate disclosure of earnings from industry and lack of acknowledgement of conflicts of interest by leading academics. This article is based on the premise that it is not the relationship per se that is the problem, but rather how that relationship is enacted. The influential 2008 report of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has provided detailed recommendations on appropriate interactions between academic physicians and industry (eg, proscribing receipt of gifts including travel support, and proscribing speaking at industry-sponsored educational programs). Contrary to expectations, there has been widespread acceptance of such guidelines. In Australia, details of all industry-sponsored educational events are now listed on the Medicines Australia website. Australian doctors have no alternative but to drastically improve the transparency of their interactions with industry, both in terms of the remuneration received and disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. Australian universities should seriously consider developing recommendations similar to those of the AAMC. PMID:19740050

  18. Modelling the Information Seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete

    1997-01-01

    Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…

  19. 我国苹果产业的格局和发展建议%Pattern and Suggestions for the Development of Apple Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰

    2015-01-01

    苹果生产在我国水果产业中占有重要地位,本文简要叙述了苹果的产量分布、出口状况以及苹果的价格变化,从生产模式和经营模式两个方面分析了苹果产业发展的新态势。最后针对苹果发展的新格局,笔者提出了苹果产业发展的建议,即加强信息交流,健全市场预警机制;强化品牌战略,拓展市场领域,搭建网络交易平台,拓宽果品营销渠道。%Apple production occupies the most important position in the fruit industry of our country. In this paper, the production and distribution of apple export, and the price changes of apple were briefly described, and the new development trend of apple industry was analysed from both production and operation mode. Finally, the author put forward some new suggestions which based on the new pattern of apple industry:strengthening information exchange, perfecting the market early warning mechanism; strengthening the brand strategy, expanding the market area and building the network trading platform, broadening the fruit marketing channel.

  20. Climate change and the insurance industry. The cost of increased risk and the impetus for action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convincing economic argument for taking action to prevent or ameliorate climate change has not developed because of both uncertainty about the degree of change and its timing. Recent costly weather-related catastrophes with consequent negative impacts on the insurance industry has made the insurance industry a potential advocate for slowing what has been identified as a causal factor in climate change: emissions of greenhouse gases. However, rising costs of claims, without a longer-term trend of such catastrophic losses, will make it difficult to present a strong case for taking costly economic action. Using the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model, it is shown that increasing levels of climate variability as embedded in the anticipated variability of damage to insured assets will have an immediate economic cost that could serve to bolster the argument for more immediate action. That cost is shown to be economically justified higher insurance premiums

  1. American commercial nuclear power industry programs, work processes, and organizational changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American electric utility industry is undergoing a continuing series of regulatory and commercial changes unprecedented in the recent history of the industry. The changes are resulting in an industrywide examination of all facets of the business including the arena of operations and maintenance costs in conjunction with the nuclear facilities. The very viability of most nuclear facilities to a large extent depends on the effective implementation of program, process, and organizational reviews. These reviews, in one form or another, are under way at a number of facilities sometimes as a open-quotes stand-alone activityclose quotes and as often as not as a portion of a corporate and firmwide initiative. The impetus is coming from the marketplace, and both major challenges and opportunities are encompassed by the changes

  2. Growth and pattern of intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh: 1975–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sushil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh over the period of 1975 to 2010. GL index is used to calculate intraindustry trade at the three-digit level of SITC. The study also calculated the trade complementarity index, and revealed comparative index. The extent of intra-industry trade is high in sectors like crude materials, inedible, except fuels, food and live animals. The study also reveals mismatch between Indian imports and Bangladesh exports. The present study indicates positive effect on consumer surplus and trade using SMART model. Finally, the paper suggests that Bangladesh should diversify his export structure to reduce the bilateral trade deficit on the basis of comparative advantage

  3. Architectures and design patterns for functional design of logic control and diagnostics in industrial automation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Recently in most of the industrial automation process an ever increasing degree of automation has been observed. This increasing is motivated by the higher requirement of systems with great performance in terms of quality of products/services generated, productivity, efficiency and low costs in the design, realization and maintenance. This trend in the growth of complex automation systems is rapidly spreading over automated manufacturing systems (AMS), where the integration of the mechanic...

  4. Modes of Knowledge Accumulation, Entry Regimes and Patterns of Industrial Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Bottazzi; Giovanni Dosi; Gaia Rocchetti

    2001-01-01

    In this work we explore the interplay between entry, selection and innovative learning as determinants of industrial evolution. We propose a model aimed to capture the essential features of learning and competition as drivers of the dynamics. Using both analytical and numerical techniques, we are able to disentangle possible generic properties which robustly hold for a wide range of parameterization. In particular, we identify different generic ``evolutionary archetypes'' in turn defined by c...

  5. E-business in Service Industries : Usage patterns and service gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Preissl, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The empirical data presented here have been derived from a company survey which has been conducted in eight service sectors across the EU. From these eight sectors four sectors have been chosen for the present analysis. The criterion for selection was comparability with respect to market orientation, regulation intensity and performance indicators. The dynamics of growth of the service industries analysed here varies between countries (E-biz Market Watch Group 2002, see also Preissl 2000). Co...

  6. Patterns of waste generation, treatment and disposal in the chemical and allied industries in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei-Wusu Achaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and degradation in urban Ghana has been on the increase as a result of the nations drive towards industrialization, a generally weak regulatory regime, and a lack of capacity to manage the environment. This situation is affecting the well-being and livelihood of affected communities. As part of an effort to address the issue, a thirteen (13 item questionnaire was designed and distributed to seventy (70 companies in the chemical and allied industry to solicit and analyze data and information on the their waste management situation. Forty-seven, representing 67.1%, of the distributed questionnaires were completed and returned. The responses were analyzed using tables, percentages and bar charts. The results revealed that while 80.9% of the respondents generate waste as a result of the operation of the plants, 23.3% directly dump their waste into the environment without any prior treatment. Only one company was found that incinerate its waste, and only four (8.5% had comprehensive waste water treatment plants. The low numbers of companies treating the waste they generate prior to disposal means that the chemical and allied industry is contributing to the environmental pollution and degradation in the country.

  7. Changes in competitive strategies due to deregulation and privatization in the petroleum industry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is part of a series of four dedicated to the study of the global oil competition game through the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. By means of a questionnaire answered by top executives in ten oil companies, the authors investigate the changes in the competitive strategy of these companies in the downstream side of the oil business due to deregulation and privatization. The paper starts by establishing the relationship between Porter's generic competitive strategies and specific competitive methods. Then, it describes how companies have changes their competitive methods after privatization and major deregulation. Changes in the industry structure are also analyzed. (authors)

  8. Spatial patterns and functional redundancies in a changing boreal lake landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Angeler,David; Allen, Craig R.; Daniel R. Uden; Johnson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Global transformations extend beyond local habitats; therefore, larger-scale approaches are needed to assess community-level responses and resilience to unfolding environmental changes. Using long-term data (1996-2011), we evaluated spatial patterns and functional redundancies in the littoral invertebrate communities of 85 Swedish lakes, with the objective of assessing their potential resilience to environmental change at regional scales (that is, spatial resilience). Multivariate spatial mod...

  9. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    OpenAIRE

    J. Laštovička; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; J. Bremer; Emmert, J. T.; Jacobi, C.; Jarvis, M J; G. Nedoluha; Yu. I. Portnyagin; T. Ulich

    2008-01-01

    In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and conta...

  10. Padrões de industrialização, riscos e meio ambiente Patterns of industrialization risks and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Franco

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a questão dos riscos industriais e de seus impactos sobre a saúde e o meio ambiente, buscando fazer uma retrospectiva histórica acerca da formação dos atuais padrões de trabalho, produção e consumo nas sociedades ocidentais contemporâneas. Neste percurso, salienta desafios e dilemas emergentes nas últimas décadas com os avanços da globalização da economia, da reestruturação produtiva e das formas de gestão do trabalho viabilizadas pela adoção de políticas neoliberais. Focaliza a historicidade da relação entre riscos industriais e meio ambiente e apresenta resultados de pesquisa que dizem respeito à mobilidade dos riscos e acidentes industriais no espaço socioeconômico-ambiental da Região Metropolitana de Salvador, resgatando aspectos concernentes às formas de gestão industrial e de organização do trabalho, com destaque para a terceirização.This article deals with industrial risks and its effects on health and environment, in a retrospective historical analysis of the creation of present patterns of work, production and consumption in contemporary western societies. Challenges and emerging dilemas from the few past decades are highligted and discussed by the authors in terms of economic globalization, productive restructuring and work management strategies conducted by neoliberal policies. The article focus on the relationship between industrial risks and environment and present research data on morbidity and risks related to industrial accidents in the social-economical-environmental space of the Metropolitan area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. In doing so, concerns on industrial management and labour organization are highligted.

  11. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined

  12. Control Patterns in Dyadic Systems: Marital Group Psychotherapy as Change Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, Anne K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined changes in response control patterns exhibited by five married couples who participated in two brief psychotherapy groups. Used the Ericson-Rogers Relational Coding System to score the control direction of interactions between group members. Found individual flexibility increased for each of these relationships over the course of group…

  13. Changes in plantar load distribution and gait pattern following foot drop correction in leprosy affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Mrinmoy; Joshua, Jerry; Mahato, Nidhu

    2015-09-01

    This study was done to compare the changes in plantar load (weight distribution) and gait patterns before and after tibialis posterior transfer surgery in people affected by leprosy. Changes in gait patterns were observed and proportionate changes in plantar load were quantified using data captured by a baropodometer. All the eight patients who underwent tibialis posterior transfer surgery in 2013 in our hospital were included in the study. In addition to the regular pre-operative and post-operative assessments, the patients also underwent baropodometric evaluation. There was a significant change in plantar load at the heel, lateral border and forefoot. Using the foot pressure scan, it was noted that the progression of the centre of mass (displayed graphically as 'the gait line') was also affected by the altered pattern of weight distribution. This study reiterates the importance of tibialis posterior transfer because: it restores the normal gait pattern of 1, 2, 3 (where 1 is heel strike, 2 is mid foot contact and 3 is forefoot contact) and provides a more uniform distribution of planter load. PMID:26665356

  14. Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell; Lanfear, Robert; Cassey, Phillip; Gibb, Gillian; Cardillo, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Predicting future species extinctions from patterns of past extinctions or current threat status relies on the assumption that the taxonomic and biological selectivity of extinction is consistent through time. If the driving forces of extinction change through time, this assumption may be unrealistic. Testing the consistency of extinction patterns between the past and the present has been difficult, because the phylogenetically explicit methods used to model present-day extinction risk typically cannot be applied to the data from the fossil record. However, the detailed historical and fossil records of the New Zealand avifauna provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct a complete, large faunal assemblage for different periods in the past. Using the first complete phylogeny of all known native New Zealand bird species, both extant and extinct, we show how the taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity of extinction, and biological correlates of extinction, change from the pre-human period through Polynesian and European occupation, to the present. These changes can be explained both by changes in primary threatening processes, and by the operation of extinction filter effects. The variable patterns of extinction through time may confound attempts to identify risk factors that apply across time periods, and to infer future species declines from past extinction patterns and current threat status. PMID:22859591

  15. Investigating the Connections between Oil and Gas Industry Affiliation and Climate Change Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, S. M.; Bunnell, D.; Danielson, C.; Borglum, S.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to the research on scientific aspects of climate change, significant work has also been done on the perception of climate change among various sectors of the population. This is an important area of research as in many cases the science policy of a country is a function of the popular sentiment. One area of interest is the relationship between education, specifically in related areas such as earth sciences and engineering, to one's views on climate change. While research has shown that there is a correlation between higher education and an acceptance of human caused climate change, this work looks into the question more specifically. The question asked here is: given a group of people with education and experience in the earth sciences, does the area of employment affect how they view the issue? In other words, does an engineer or geoscientist working in the oil and gas industry look at the data relating to climate change in the same way an equivalently educated engineer or geoscientist working in another field does? An understanding of whether or not employment in the oil and gas industry has a similar effect on views of climate change as political or religious ideologies may help in fostering communication between disciplines and working together for solutions. In order to look at this question, a survey is being conducted of members in the petroleum engineering community. The survey is designed along the lines of similar surveys to measure the respondents understanding of, concern with, and beliefs about climate change. It also includes other correlating factors such as political and religious views. A second group of engineers in fields that typically place them outside of the oil and gas industry are being surveyed as a control group. The results will determine whether individuals with similar educational backgrounds look at the data connected with climate change differently based on the field in which they work, and if so, are there other

  16. The emerging response of the insurance industry to the threat of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insurance industry is waking up fast to the threat anthropogenic enhancement of the greenhouse effect poses to its future market security. This has been in large measure because of a suspicious escalation in losses from windstorms and drought-related wildfire in recent years. Articulating worst-case analysis fears of a global-warming future, senior industry figures in London, Zurich, Munich, Tokyo and New York have spoken of the potential for a global collapse of the insurance industry. Such an eventuality would have negative consequences in many areas of economic activity. These consequences have been little explored or appreciated in the climate-change debate to date. In some developing countries, meanwhile, withdrawal of catastrophe insurance cover is already threatening development. (author). 16 refs

  17. Analysing Productivity Changes Using the Bootstrapped Malmquist Approach: The Case of the Iranian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Arjomandi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study employs various bootstrapped Malmquist indices and efficiency scores to investigate the effects of government regulation on the performance of the Iranian banking industry over the period 2003-2008. An alternative decomposition of the Malmquist index, introduced by Simar and Wilson (1998a, is also applied to further decompose technical changes into pure technical change and changes in scale efficiency. A combination of these approaches facilitates a robust and comprehensive analysis of Iranian banking industry performance. While this approach is more appropriate than the traditional Malmquist approach for banking efficiency studies, it has not previously been applied to any developing country’s banking system. The results show that although, in general, the regulatory changes had different effects on individual banks, the efficiency and productivity of the overall industry declined after regulation. We also find that productivity had positive growth before regulation, mainly due to improvements in pure technology, and that government ownership had an adverse impact on the efficiency level of state-owned banks. The bootstrap approach demonstrates that the majority of estimates obtained in this study are statistically significant.

  18. A changing world. A changing industry. Session cost efficient solutions for field development. A step forward (Paper G1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil companies in Norway and the oil related industry are presently in the middle of a one year long, and quite substantial, efficiency-process named NORSOK. The NORSOK has the objective of finding more cost- and time-efficient ways of exploiting oil and gas from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The paper discusses the industrial participation in the NORSOK working groups. It presents the changes to be foreseen as a result of experience gained, through previous projects as well as efficiency processes, and which will be applied to the planning and execution of two current field development projects, namely the Vigdis field in the North Sea and the Midgard field in the Haltenbanken area

  19. Distribution pattern of ambient cadmium in wetland ponds distributed along an industrial complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shamik; Jana, B B

    2004-04-01

    Water and sediment samples collected from 18 wetland ponds within and outside industrial areas were examined for cadmium concentration and water quality parameters during the period of January to July 1996. The Cd contents in gill, liver, mantle and shell of freshwater mussel (Lamellidens marginalis) as well as leaves and roots of water hyacinth Eichhornia those occurred in these ponds were also estimated. Cd concentration ranged from 0.006 to 0.7025 mg/l in water and from 7 to 77 microg/gdw in sediments of all the ponds investigated. The amount of Cd occurring in water and sediment was much higher in concentrations in the ponds located in Captain Bheri and Mudiali farm close to industrial areas, compared to remaining ponds located outside the industrial belt. Lamellidens marginalis procured from Mudiali and Captain Bheri ponds showed regardless of size, tissue and season of collection significantly higher Cd concentration than did those from other ponds. Likewise, tissue Cd in Eichhornia collected from Mudiali pond was as high as 125-152 microg/gdw in root and 21-63 microg/gdw in leaves compared to 40-108 microg/gdw in root and 9-43 microg/gdw in leaves in the remaining ponds. Seasonal variability of Cd was clear-cut; the concentration was relatively higher in water and sediment in all ponds during summer than during monsoon season or winter. Size-wise, smaller groups showed the highest concentrations of Cd in all tissues of Lamellidens compared with medium and large size groups. Concentration factor for all tissues of Lamellidens regardless of size and season, was inversely proportional with the ambient Cd concentrations. Concentration factor estimated for all tissues in all ponds and all seasons was in the order: liver>gill>shell>mantle. As all ponds located outside the industrial belt showed Cd concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 0.049 mg/l, it is suggested that these wetlands do not pose serious risk to the environment. PMID:14761690

  20. Unusual mortality pattern among short term workers in the perfumery industry in Geneva.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M

    1987-01-01

    A cohort of 537 workers employed for less than one year between 1900 and 1964 in the Geneva perfumery industry was followed up from entry to the end of 1983. During the period of study, 251 workers died and 41 (8%) were lost to follow up. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly above 100 for all causes (SMR = 120), all cancers (SMR = 127), lung cancer (SMR = 186), and violent death (SMR = 179). The highest SMR from all causes was associated with the shortest period of employm...

  1. The Effect of Sudden Change in Pipe Diameter on Flow Patterns of Air-Water Two-Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Flow patterns upstream and downstream of a sudden-contraction cross-section in a vertical straight pipe were presented. By comparing with flow patterns in uniform croes-section vertical tubes, the effect of the sudden change in pipe diameter on flow patterns was analyzed. Flow pattern transition mechanisms were discussed and transition criteria for flow pattern transitions were deduced accordingly using the dimensional analysis.

  2. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO2 emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: → The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. → It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. → The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO2 emissions. → The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  3. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B., E-mail: sreddy@igidr.ac.in [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Kumar Ray, Binay [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)

    2011-11-15

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO{sub 2} emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: > The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. > It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. > The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO{sub 2} emissions. > The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  4. Linking activity participation, socioeconomic characteristics, land use and travel patterns: a comparison of industry and commerce sector workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jorge Gonçalves de Sousa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the travel behavior of industry and commerce sector workers in terms of three variables groups: activity participation, socioeconomic characteristics and land use. This work is based on the Origin-Destination survey carried out in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA in 1997. Relationships were found between the concerned variables (Decision Tree, and the statistical significance of independent variables was assessed (Multiple Linear Regression. We analyzed the influence of the three variables groups on travel pattern choices: (A socioeconomic variables (Household Income, Transit Pass Ownership and Car-ownership affect the travel mode sequence; (B activity participation (Study, Work has an effect on the trip purpose sequence; and (C land use variables (accumulated proportion of jobs by distance buffers starting from the home traffic zone centroid influence the sequence of destinations chosen, especially in the case of industry sector workers. The different spatial distributions of economic activities (commercial and industrial in the urban environment influence the travel of workers. This paper contributes essentially proposing the land use variable, through the intervening opportunities model as well as the presentation of a methodology, formed by application of exploratory and confirmatory techniques of multivariate data analysis.

  5. Patterns of database citation in articles and patents indicate long-term scientific and industry value of biological data resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousfield, David; McEntyre, Johanna; Velankar, Sameer; Papadatos, George; Bateman, Alex; Cochrane, Guy; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Graef, Florian; Vartak, Vid; Alako, Blaise; Blomberg, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Data from open access biomolecular data resources, such as the European Nucleotide Archive and the Protein Data Bank are extensively reused within life science research for comparative studies, method development and to derive new scientific insights. Indicators that estimate the extent and utility of such secondary use of research data need to reflect this complex and highly variable data usage. By linking open access scientific literature, via Europe PubMedCentral, to the metadata in biological data resources we separate data citations associated with a deposition statement from citations that capture the subsequent, long-term, reuse of data in academia and industry.  We extend this analysis to begin to investigate citations of biomolecular resources in patent documents. We find citations in more than 8,000 patents from 2014, demonstrating substantial use and an important role for data resources in defining biological concepts in granted patents to both academic and industrial innovators. Combined together our results indicate that the citation patterns in biomedical literature and patents vary, not only due to citation practice but also according to the data resource cited. The results guard against the use of simple metrics such as citation counts and show that indicators of data use must not only take into account citations within the biomedical literature but also include reuse of data in industry and other parts of society by including patents and other scientific and technical documents such as guidelines, reports and grant applications. PMID:27092246

  6. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten; Greiner, Matthias

    can be randomly generated on the basis of farm density of the surrounding area of any farm is not correct since the patterns of animal movements have the topology of a scale-free network with a large degree of heterogeneity. This supported the opinion that the disease spread software assuming...... providing network knowledge to the local veterinarian in charge of controlling disease spread, should also be evaluated as a potential tool to manage epidemics during the crisis. Geographic information systems could also be linked in the approach to produce knowledge about local transmission of disease....

  7. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovička

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and contains several gaps and a few discrepancies, but the overall pattern of observed long-term changes throughout the upper atmosphere is consistent with model predictions of the effect of greenhouse gas increases. Together with the large body of lower atmospheric trend research, our synthesis indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the atmosphere at nearly all altitudes between ground and space.

  8. Spatio-temporal changes of lymphatic contractility and drainage patterns following lymphadenectomy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkuk Kwon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the redirection of lymphatic drainage post-lymphadenectomy using non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging, and to subsequently assess impact on metastasis. BACKGROUND: Cancer-acquired lymphedema arises from dysfunctional fluid transport after lymphadenectomy performed for staging and to disrupt drainage pathways for regional control of disease. However, little is known about the normal regenerative processes of the lymphatics in response to lymphadenectomy and how these responses can be accelerated, delayed, or can impact metastasis. METHODS: Changes in lymphatic "pumping" function and drainage patterns were non-invasively and longitudinally imaged using NIRF lymphatic imaging after popliteal lymphadenectomy in mice. In a cohort of mice, B16F10 melanoma was inoculated on the dorsal aspect of the paw 27 days after lymphadenectomy to assess how drainage patterns affect metastasis. RESULTS: NIRF imaging demonstrates that, although lymphatic function and drainage patterns change significantly in early response to popliteal lymph node (PLN removal in mice, these changes are transient and regress dramatically due to a high regenerative capacity of the lymphatics and co-opting of collateral lymphatic pathways around the site of obstruction. Metastases followed the pattern of collateral pathways and could be detected proximal to the site of lymphadenectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Both lymphatic vessel regeneration and co-opting of contralateral vessels occur following lymphadenectomy, with contractile function restored within 13 days, providing a basis for preclinical and clinical investigations to hasten lymphatic repair and restore contractile lymphatic function after surgery to prevent cancer-acquired lymphedema. Patterns of cancer metastasis after lymphadenectomy were altered, consistent with patterns of re-directed lymphatic drainage.

  9. The changing regulatory climate: How will it impact citizen, industry, and government participation in environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facca, G. [IES Utilities, Inc., Cedar Rapids, IA (United States); Arenstein, W. [Writrac Consulting, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper will address the future of public and industry participation in environmental regulatory activities, including rule making, permitting, and enforcement/compliance programs. Two aspects of the current regulatory climate will be explored in detail. First, the impacts of the ISO 14000 environmental management standards on the future of auditing and compliance activities will be discussed. Second, the impacts of changes already underway as a result of the current anti-regulatory climate will be summarized. The current anti-regulatory climate has caused air quality regulators to re-think their approaches to stationary, mobile, and indirect source emission reduction programs. These changes are already having an impact on public, industry, and government participation in regulatory programs and enforcement activities. This paper will describe some possible future regulatory scenarios that may occur if these current trends and programs continue.

  10. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and the Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges. (orig.)

  11. The changing structure of the electric power industry, 1970--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95--91) requires the Administrator of the Energy information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. To assist in meeting these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, The Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry, 1970--1991. The purpose of the this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the US electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects

  12. Changes in newcomer job satisfaction over time: examining the pattern of honeymoons and hangovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Wendy R; Shipp, Abbie J; Payne, Stephanie C; Culbertson, Satoris S

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors contribute insight into the temporal nature of work attitudes, examining how job satisfaction changes across the 1st year of employment for a sample of organizational newcomers. The authors examined factors related to job change (i.e., voluntary turnover, prior job satisfaction) and newcomer experiences (i.e., fulfillment of commitments, extent of socialization) that may strengthen or weaken the job satisfaction pattern. Results of a study of 132 newcomers with data collected at 4 unique time periods show a complex curvilinear pattern of job satisfaction, such that satisfaction reached a peak following organizational entry and decreased thereafter. However, examination of moderating factors revealed that individuals who reported less satisfaction with their prior job and those having more positive experiences on the new job, such as greater fulfilled commitments and a higher degree of socialization, were most likely to experience this pattern. Findings from this study offer important implications for theory and research on changes in newcomer attitudes over time as well as practical insight on key factors that shape the pattern of job attitudes as individuals enter and experience a new workplace. PMID:19594229

  13. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  14. How industry change has affected European airlines : Development of profitability and capital structure year 2000-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Hourani, Rayan; Helander, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Background: The airline industry of today functions in a very intense and competitive market and is also very sensitive to change. Over the last years the airline industry has changed and been affected drastically. Factors like sudden shocks, such as the terrorist attacks of September 11th in 2001 and the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) phenomenon in China 2003, change in macroeconomic factors, such as GDP growth in different regions, changes in the oil price and fluctuations in exch...

  15. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    ), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom and...... measurement system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...

  16. THE CONSEQUENCES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON THE HUMAN FACTOR IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    CHIRA MONICA; MARIAN LIVIU

    2013-01-01

    The study of this paper emphasizes the aspects of change in organizations from the textile industry and the consequences of their implementation on human resources. The present paper falls within the non-experimental quantitative research, as well as having an explorative side due to the fact that it explores a reality in order to discover whether there are certain relationships between the chosen variables. The research is transversal because the data collection is achieved by applying a one...

  17. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, B.G.; de Blok, K; Patel, M.K. (Martin)

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechno...

  18. Technological Change and Gender Wage Gaps in the U.S. Service Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Lup TICK; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between advances in technology and trends in the gender wage gaps in the US service industry. Using quarterly US Current Population Survey data on employment and wages by four major occupations between 1979 and 2001, the paper estimates a constant elasticity of substitution production function (CES) that incorporates male and female labor inputs, a non-labor input and a productivity parameter function that captures non-neutral technological change. The mod...

  19. The determinants of the changes in polish food industry based on the financial results

    OpenAIRE

    Malwina Białas

    2016-01-01

    For the last two decades Polish food sector has undergone significant transformations. It was one of the quickest branch to reborn after the crisis related to the changes of political system in Poland. Since then, it has become an important stimulator of economic growth. Due to  the constant technical, technological and organizational development of the sector, Poland has become one of the leading modern and innovative European food producers. The food industry development contributed to ...

  20. Structural changes in the organisation of world trade and implications for the shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Dag; Hernes, Tor; Omtvedt, Petter C.

    2002-01-01

    The report documents the results of a research and technical development (RTD) project focusing on the implication for the shipping industry of structural changes in the organisation of world trade. Among the many driving forces behind globalisation of trade and of business trends in logistics and supply chains have been identified and looked into. Characteristic features of leading firms have been identified. The recommendations for the shipping companies comprise the development of an a...

  1. THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY: TRENDS AND CHANGING STRUCTURE IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Friddle, Charlotte G.; Mangaraj, Sandeep; Kinsey, Jean D.

    2001-01-01

    By 2010, foodservice establishments are projected to capture 53 percent of consumers' food expenditures, whereas in 1980, foodservice captured less than 40 percent. The foodservice industry accounts for approximately 4 percent of the Gross Domestic Product and about 11 million jobs. It has been rapidly changing due to economic factors, technological advances, and labor matters.1 This overview covers many of the issues and trends affecting the different segments of the foodservice supply chain...

  2. THE CONSEQUENCES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON THE HUMAN FACTOR IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRA MONICA

    2013-07-01

    Along with a change in design or implementation plan and organizational culture, human resources contribute significantly to the success of any kind of change. Compared to the current process of globalization in which the economies and the financial markets are closely linked, and given the highly dynamic industrial climate that is characterized by items such as restructuring, relocation and subcontracting, Romanian companies appear to be aware that the social and ethical role of firms attracts increased attention on the living standards of employees. The resources of an organization in solving the arising problems are many, varied, and it depends only on its willingness to discover and capitalize. Difficult moments generated by implementing changes or the onset of seizures are such problems, which can not only have technical, but also human aspects. In managing the latter the human capital owned by the firm is undoubtedly important, but this must be combined with the quality of good management. The literature is replete with conceptual models of effective organization that can improve or streamline the industrial process, but a strategic orientation towards effective personnel policy is not very expensive, it being very necessary to ensuring the sustainability of the firm. For the textile industry to be successful, we need a better communication between industry and the education system and training, so that the needs and the qualification skills be clearly indicated in order to have a properly trained human resource. So, we can say that for the successful implementation of changes in the textile enterprises the material components, the financial and the human ones, should be combined, organized and updated with the aim of improving human resources management by specializing and training the personnel.

  3. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Binay Kumar Ray; Sudhakara Reddy, B.

    2008-01-01

    We develop and analyze physical energy intensity indicators for Indian manufacturing sector. Energy consumption in five industrial sub-sectors, viz., iron and steel, aluminium, textiles, paper and cement is examined for the period 1990Ä2005. It is feasible to develop specific energy consumption indicators that reflect the physical reality more accurately than monetary energy intensities. These indicators allow us to analyze the effect of change in product mix over time. The use of physical en...

  4. Conceptualizing change in the Portuguese footwear industry: regional voices and cognitive spaces of agency

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding national services sectors and global competition aggravate current and perceived future market pressures on traditional manufacturing industries. These perceptions of change have provoked a growing intensification of geo-political discourses on technological innovation and ‘learning’, and calls for competency in design among other professional skills. However, these political discourses on innovation and learning have paralleled public concerns with the apparent ‘grow...

  5. Technical change, non-tariff barriers, and the development of the Italian locomotive industry, 1850-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarelli, Carlo; Nuvolari, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of technical change in the Italian locomotive industry in the period 1850-1913. From an historical point of view, this industry presents a major point of interest: it was one of the few relatively sophisticated "high-tech" sectors in which Italy, a latecomer country, was able to set foot firmly before 1913. Using technical data on the performance of different vintages of locomotives, we construct a new industry-level index of technical change. Our reassessment...

  6. A Study on Effect of Technological Change on the Frequency of Child Labour in the Indian Match Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, C. Muthu; Palanivel, R. V.; Anbarasan, R.; Sinthuja, M.

    2012-08-01

    The Indian match industry in the southern state of Tamil Nadu has been characterized by child labour and a stagnant technology for over half a century. We investigate the technological changes and industrial restructuring, catalyzed by the changing duty structure that has moved the match industry towards greater mechanization. Our examination indicates that increased mechanization in the production processes has implied greater demand for skilled labour and a decline in child labour.

  7. A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine Cȏntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009

  8. Full Scale Experiences with Didactic Changes in Distance Education in Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten Haack; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper report the main results of didactic changes in the first year of an experiment in ICT-based distance learning. The results are based on a full scale experiment in the education, Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII). The experiment transforming the well functioning on......-campus engineering program based on project organized collaborative learning to the technology supported distance education program failed. Despite of many miner didactic changes we did not obtain the same self regulating learning effect in the group work among the off-campus students as is the case for oncampus...

  9. Industrial Growth and Structural Change: Brazil in a Long-Run Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Aldrighi; Colistete, Renato P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a long-run analysis of industrial growth and structural change in Brazil, from the coffee export economy in the nineteenth century to the present day. We focus on Brazil’s high economic growth in most of the twentieth century and the disruption caused by the collapse of debt-led growth in the early 1980s. We then examine the recent trends in economic growth and structural change, with a sectoral analysis of output, employment and productivity growth. Employing new data and...

  10. Diverging business strategies towards climate change. A USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, K.F.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E. [Institue for Environmental Studies, Vrije Univ. IVM/VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolk, A. [Institute for Environmental Management WIMM, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levy, D.L. [University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in successful efforts to address climate change, due to both their role as major emitters of greenhouse gases and to their capacity to invest in mitigation technologies. However, relatively little is known about the triggers for change in corporate behaviour, which are at the basis of corporate decisions to support or oppose policy initiatives. In the title project it has been investigated what strategies - and why and how - specific industrial sectors develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The objective was to provide information of relevance to the sixth Convention of Parties (CoP6) that is to be held in The Hague, Netherlands, November 2000. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the banking and insurance sector. Together, these sectors are the most important players in the climate policy debate. Special attention has been paid to the questions whether strategies of European Union (EU)- based corporations differ systematically from US-based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks. European corporations generally tend to have more advanced policies than their US counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. Corporate strategies appear to be highly determined by a combination of market situation in their home country and of access to alternative technologies. In the automobile industry, the USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible. 100 refs.

  11. Catastrophes and Climate Change. Concerns and Possible Countermeasures of the Insurance Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas such as coastal regions, which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, are showing a change for the worse as many atmospheric extremes are strongly influenced by global warming. In addition to the problems the insurance industry has with regard to pricing, capacity and loss reserves, the assessment of insured liabilities, preventive planning and the proper adjustment of catastrophe losses are gaining importance. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The changing probability distributions of many processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of heat waves, droughts, bush fires, tropical and extratropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance, apart from the consequences of the stratospheric ozone destruction for health and life insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain areas insurance cover will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed, as for example significant deductibles and low liability or loss limits. In areas of high insurance density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level at which the national and international insurance industries will run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is

  12. ST-T Changes of Multichannel Magnetocardiographic Pattern in Myocardial Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial ischemia causes heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization and sometimes produces changes of the ST-T wave in ECG. Therefore, morphological changes of ST-T waveform in ECG have a clinical significance in diagnosing myocardial ischemia. In this study, we investigated the ST-T changes caused by myocardial ischemia in magnetocardiography (MCG). We analyzed MCG patterns of biphasic T, ST segment deviations from baseline, main current angle of Tpeak and Tpeak dispersion in 300 CAD patients without ST elevation in ECG, 122 symptomatic patients and 48 normal subjects. MCGs were recorded by multichannel SQUID system in a magnetically shielded room. As results, we found that appearances of the abnormality were strongly correlated with the severity of myocardial ischemia. Also we found that the percentage of the patients showing MCG changes were higher than those in ECG. These results show that morphological changes of ST-T waveform in MCG can be used as a marker of myocardial ischemia.

  13. Spatial Pattern Change Simulation of Land Use in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riming; WANG; Xingyao; XIONG

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the county scale land use structure during the rapid urbanization and more accurately grasp the dynamic process of land use and cover change,we combine GIS technology with CLUE-S model to research the spatial pattern change of land use in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City. The results show that the forest and farmland were main land use types going through changes in Yongchuan District during 2000-2010,accounting for more than 90% of the total area in each year; during 2000- 2010,the urban area was significantly increased,an increase of 16. 11%,and the urban area during 2005- 2010 was changed more dramatically than during 2000- 2005; forest area was slightly increased and farmland area was reduced by 1660 ha in 10 years. We set three scenarios on land use change in Yongchuan District for simulation and compare the predicted results. It can be concluded that driven by rapid urbanization,the change in land use landscape pattern in Yongchuan District is mainly focused on forest and farmland,the urban area is substantially increased,and the forest area also shows an increasing trend while the farmland area is reduced accordingly. Under ecological protection scenarios,the land use type having a protective effect on the ecological environment achieves better control effect.

  14. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  15. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research. PMID:25997167

  16. The Other partner: The changing role of good provider for men's union formation in industrialized countries

    OpenAIRE

    Goldscheider, Frances; Hogan, Dennis; Turcotte, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    EnglishMost studies of union formation behaviors have focused on women and children,with less emphasis on men. Using comparable retrospective survey data, this study looks at the waysCanadian, Italian and Swedish men begin conjugal life (distinguishing between marriage andcohabitation) and at how the effects of their good provider status qualifications have changed in thelast 30 years. Results for Canadian men have shown that the simple patterns that have been assumed toshape separate and sym...

  17. Binge-pattern alcohol exposure during puberty induces long-term changes in HPA axis reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.

  18. Heterogeneity and Change in the Patterning of Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority: A Latent Transition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Darling, Nancy; Flaherty, Brian; Martinez, Maria Loreto

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the patterning of adolescents' beliefs about the legitimate domains of parental authority were modeled in 2,611 Chilean adolescents, 11-16 years old. Transitions in adolescents' belief patterns were studied over 3 years. Latent transition analysis (LTA) revealed 3 distinct patterns of beliefs--"parent control," "shared control," and…

  19. Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women after hormone replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shu-lan; Yu Shan-shan; Cao Zuan-sun

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women; and the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and thyroid and adrenal function. Methods:The levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol were measured in 60 postmenopausal women (30 cases in HRT group; 30 cases in control group) before and 12 months after HRT.Results:The serum levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol had no significant difference before and 12 months after HRT in postmenopausal women. The values of them were all in normal ranges.Conclusion:Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function was not as significant as that of gonads in postmenopausal women and the impact of HRT on it was not so significantly evident.

  20. Lead tolerance capacity of clinical bacterial isolates and change in their antibiotic susceptibility pattern after exposure to a heavy metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Garhwal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metal pollutions of soil and wastewater are a significant environmental problem as they are not degraded or destroyed. Several metal resistance mechanisms have been identified which is responsible for alteration of normal cell physiology leading to development of drug resistance in microorganisms. Heavy metals used in industry and in household products are, along with antibiotics, creating a selective pressure in the environment that leads to the mutations in microorganisms. The present study was carried out to study the heavy metal lead tolerance by bacteria and change in antibiotic-sensitivity pattern after its exposure. Materials and Methods: 30 clinical isolates from various samples received in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Surat, were included in the study. To check the lead tolerance capacity, isolates were exposed to graded concentration of lead nitrate by plate dilution method, starting from 50 up to 1000 μg/ml strength. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. A change in antibiotic susceptibility pattern was studied before and after lead exposure. Result: 30 clinical isolates were included in the study, 25 Gram negative (83.3% and 5 Gram positive (16.7%. MIC to lead was higher in Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. (600-1000 μg/ml as compared to E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. aureus (50-150 μg/ml. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes were changed significantly after lead exposure. Conclusion: Bacteria exposed to high levels of heavy metals in their environment have adapted to this stress by developing various resistance mechanism. Infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms create problem in treatment and management of patients. We should take efforts to prevent environmental pollution with such heavy metals and transmission of antibiotic-resistant microorganism from environment to health care set up.

  1. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  2. Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiman, Vineet K; Attwood, Kristopher; Campbell, Moray J.; Smiraglia, Dominic J

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to stable gene silencing by interfering with the ability of transcriptional regulators to bind to DNA. Recent findings have revealed that hormone stimulation of certain nuclear receptors induces rapid, dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns alongside transcriptional responses at a subset of target loci, over time. However, the ability of androgen receptor (AR) to dynamically regulate gene transcription is relatively under-stu...

  3. Future climate and changes in flow patterns in Czech headwater catchments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benčoková, A.; Krám, P.; Hruška, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-15. ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : climate change impact * flow pattern * regional climate scenarios * Headwater catchments * hydrological modelling * Broo90 Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.994, year: 2011

  4. Do Means-Tested School Lunch Subsidies Change Children's Weekly Consumption Patterns?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Larry L.; Prakash, Nishith

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether the means-tested component of the National School Lunch Program changes beneficiaries' dietary patterns by taking advantage of variation across public school districts in the financing of and demand for lunch and nutrition programs. Using data on fifth grade public elementary school children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (2003-2004), we find significant increases in weekly rates of consumption amongst fully and partially subsidized childr...

  5. Changes in DNA methylation patterns and repetitive sequences in blood lymphocytes of aged horses

    OpenAIRE

    Wnuk, Maciej; Lewinska, Anna; Gurgul, Artur; Zabek, Tomasz; Potocki, Leszek; Oklejewicz, Bernadetta; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika; Wegrzyn, Magdalena; Slota, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    It is known that aged organisms have modified epigenomes. Epigenetic modifications, such as changes in global and locus-specific DNA methylation, and histone modifications are suspected to play an important role in cancer development and aging. In the present study, with the well-established horse aging model, we showed the global loss of DNA methylation in blood lymphocytes during juvenile-to-aged period. Additionally, we tested a pattern of DNA methylation of ribosomal DNA and selected gene...

  6. Impact of nutritional interventions on food consumption pattern changes of workers and staff

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Boshtam; Karim Zare; Shahriar Sadeghi; Firozeh Sajadi; Shahnaz Shahrokhi; Mansoreh Boshtam; Abdoreza Parsa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program aiming at modifying life style of workers and staff in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas), and Arak (reference area) carried out for 5 years. Nutritional interventions are one of the interventions of this project. This research aiming at studying the effect of these interventions on food consumption pattern changes carried out in workers and staff of Isfahan and Najafabad. Materials and Method: Food consump...

  7. Changing pattern of prescribing antidiabetic agents in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Vipul P. Chaudhari; Barna Ganguly

    2013-01-01

    Background: Drug utilization studies are powerful exploratory tools to ascertain the role of drugs in society. They create a sound sociomedical and health economic basis for healthcare decision making. The study was aimed to find out the changing pattern of prescribing the antidiabetic agents in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. Methods: It was a cross sectional study done on 200 patients suffering from type 1 and 2diabetes. Indoor patients and diabetes mellitus due to s...

  8. Acquisition of changed pattern of injuries in two spaces of time by comparision

    OpenAIRE

    Tischer, Anja

    2010-01-01

    To protect the least of outside traffic participants, the pedestrians, were technological innovations done to expand the passive safety of automobiles in last decades. On the basis of available paper a contribution to the question on changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians that were killed in an accident was made. For this urban frontal collisions of two spaces of time between passenger cars and adult, erectly walking or standing pedestrians were compared. The selection of researched space...

  9. Biting patterns and host preference of Anopheles epiroticus in Chang Island, Trat Province, Eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ritthison, W.; Tainchum, K.; Manguin, Sylvie; Bangs, M.J.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2014-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes, biting patterns, and seasonal abundance of important mosquito vectors was conducted in two villages of Chang Island, Trat Province, in eastern Thailand, one located along the coast and the other in the low hills of the central interior of the island. Of 5,399 captured female anophelines, 70.25% belong to the subgenus Cellia and remaining specimens to the subgenus Anopheles. Five important putative malaria vectors were molecularly identifie...

  10. The Patterns of Change in Higher Education Institutions: The Context of the Changing Quality Assurance Mechanisms in England, Japan, and New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify the patterns of change in higher education institutions. It examines the contexts of the changing quality assurance mechanisms used by the different types of higher education institutions in England, Japan, and New York State between 2001 and 2007. The paper argues that there were no clear patterns of…

  11. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators. PMID:27278360

  12. Change in Pattern of Female Crime in Owerri, Nigeria 1980 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chukuezi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been unprecedented rise as well as sophistication in crime commission in Nigeria of whichwomen are becoming actively involved. The interest in this study was inspired by the observation that womenhave moved from traditional crimes of prostitution and stealing to more heinous crimes. The study examinedthe factors that have led to this shift in pattern. The political economy theory was used as a guide. A case studyapproach was adopted involving one hundred and thirty five (135 women who had been imprisoned in Ow erriFederal Prisons since 1980; out of which seventy three (73 of the inmates who were in the prison in 2000 wereinterviewed. Also three hundred and forty-eight (348 respondents for assessm ent of people’s perception ofthe change in pattern of female crime were interviewed. The data was subjected to both descriptive andinferential statistical analysis. The study observed that the change in pattern of female criminality in Owerriand Nigeria as a whole was not only due to poverty and the worsening economic conditions in Nigeria, but alsoas a result of the change in the traditional roles of bearing and rearing of children to economic occupations.Drug trafficking, armed robbery and fraud were observed to be new crimes among female prisoners within thestudy area. The study suggests that there is the need to encourage women in the form of education, skillsacquisition and employment opportunities to reduce poverty in order to am eliorate female criminality and saveour society from moral decadence.

  13. Linking the patterns of change in composition and function in bacterioplankton successions along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jérôme; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    The connections that exist between the composition of bacterial communities and their functional attributes are still a matter of intense debate, despite over a decade of intense studies. Here we explored three different facets of the links that may exist between bacterioplankton compositional and functional successions that occurred along the water flow path in a complex watershed in southern Quebec. We analyzed the correlation between composition and function in terms of their absolute patterns, and in terms of their rates of change relative to transit time in environmental transitions, and relative to shifts in resources along the same transitions. Our results showed that the absolute patterns in bacterial community composition (BCC, using DGGE [denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis] profiles) and functional capacities (FC, using BIOLOG profiles) were not correlated, but that the rates of change in BCC and FC along the transitions were strongly correlated to each other. Further, we observed that the strength and shape of the relationship between the changes in BCC and FC varied relative to the type and intensity of gradient considered. Collectively, these results showed that BCC and FC are strongly related but in a very dynamic manner, such that their absolute patterns do not appear to be connected. This in turn suggests a high level of functional redundancy that occurs both within the existing community and in the meta-community from which phylotypes are selected to occupy the new niches that are created along the transitions. PMID:20503878

  14. Spatio-Temporal Pattern Analysis for Regional Climate Change Using Mathematical Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, M.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Of late, significant changes in climate with their grave consequences have posed great challenges on humankind. Thus, the detection and assessment of climatic changes on a regional scale is gaining importance, since it helps to adopt adequate mitigation and adaptation measures. In this paper, we have presented a novel approach for detecting spatio-temporal pattern of regional climate change by exploiting the theory of mathematical morphology. At first, the various climatic zones in the region have been identified by using multifractal cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) of different climate variables of interest. Then, the directional granulometry with four different structuring elements has been studied to detect the temporal changes in spatial distribution of the identified climatic zones in the region and further insights have been drawn with respect to morphological uncertainty index and Hurst exponent. The approach has been evaluated with the daily time series data of land surface temperature (LST) and precipitation rate, collected from Microsoft Research - Fetch Climate Explorer, to analyze the spatio-temporal climatic pattern-change in the Eastern and North-Eastern regions of India throughout four quarters of the 20th century.

  15. Spatial-Temporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Land Use Changes in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Bin; CHEN Jian-Fei; QIU Hong-Lie; M.J.M.R(O)MKENS; YANG Xiao-Qi; JIANG Shi-Feng; LI Bi-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Using Landsat TM data of 1988, 1998 and 2001, the dynamic process of the spatial-temporal characteristics of land use changes during 13 years from 1988 to 2001 in the special economic zone of Xiamen, China was analyzed to improve understanding and to find the driving forces of land use change so that sustainable land utilization could be practiced.During the 13 years cropland decreased remarkably by nearly 11304.95 ha. The areas of rural-urban construction and water body increased by 10152.24 ha and 848.94 ha, respectively. From 1988 to 2001, 52.5% of the lost cropland was converted into rural-urban industrial land. Rapid urbanization contributed to a great change in the rate of cropland land use during these years. Land-reclamation also contributed to a decrease in water body area as well as marine ecological and environmental destruction. In the study area 1) urbanization and industrialization, 2) infrastructure and agricultural intensification, 3) increased affluence of the farming community, and 4) policy factors have driven the land use changes.Possible sustainable land use measures included construction of a land management system, land planning, development of potential land resources, new technology applications, and marine ecological and environmental protection.

  16. [Changes in the forms of industrial production and their effects on workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Assunção, Ada Avila; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to identify determinants of health in workers of plastic industries. Production organization, machinery from maintenance and productive areas, and workers' characteristics of 14 plastic industries from Greater Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, were described. Data were collected about development policy of each company; marketing, operational procedures; production and quality requirements, and formal rules of work organization. High strain management techniques for production time reduction have been implemented. The increase of work rhythm, reduction of break time, and a situation of high cognitive demand impose to workers anomalous body positioning for performing tasks that imply repetitive movements. Physical and psychosocial demands (repetitive work, lower control of the worker on his own tasks, time pressure and job dissatisfaction) compose a complex of conditions adverse to workers' health. Changes in production management, personnel and business impose new strains into the development of task by the workers and bringing in new risk factors to workers' health. PMID:20640318

  17. How customer satisfaction changes behavior: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifedoost

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase on competition industry from one side and the need for customer retention on the other side in banking industry create necessary motivation to learn more about customer behavior. This paper investigated the relationship between seven perspectives of banking services and customers’ attitude towards changing behavior. The seven perspectives included how bank employees’ treat customers, service prices, how to promote and market synergies, place and time to serve customers, products, equipment and process. The proposed study was implemented in two Iranian banks called Mellat and Tejarat in city of Tehran, Iran. The results indicated that all components except one case, which was “how to promote and market synergies” had meaningful and negative relationship with customer behavior.

  18. How Open Source Has Changed the Software Industry: Perspectives from Open Source Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Rajala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of F/LOSS (free/libre open source software has triggered several changes in the software industry. F/LOSS has been cited as an archetypal form of open innovation; it consists of the convergence and collaboration of like-minded parties. An increasing number of software firms have taken upon this approach to link outsiders into their service development and product design. Also, software firms have been increasingly grounded their business models on user-centric and service-oriented operations. This article describes a study that investigates these changes from the perspective of F/LOSS entrepreneurs. The findings are summarized into four issues that are critical in managing an F/LOSS business: i dealing with organizational changes in the innovation process; ii mastering user involvement; iii successfully using resources; and iv designing revenue models.

  19. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemish, Joseph [Lumileds LLC., San Jose, CA (United States); Soer, Wouter [Lumileds LLC., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) technology has proven to be an effective approach to improve efficacy and reduce cost of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The volume emission from the transparent substrate leads to high package efficiency, while the simple and robust architecture of PSS-based LEDs enables low cost. PSS substrates have gained wide use in mid-power LEDs over the past years. In this project, Lumileds has developed and industrialized PSS and epitaxy technology for high- power flip-chip LEDs to bring these benefits to a broader range of applications and accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting (SSL). PSS geometries were designed for highly efficient light extraction in a flip-chip architecture and high-volume manufacturability, and corresponding sapphire patterning and epitaxy manufacturing processes were integrally developed. Concurrently, device and package architectures were developed to take advantage of the PSS flip-chip die in different types of products that meet application needs. The developed PSS and epitaxy technology has been fully implemented in manufacturing at Lumileds’ San Jose, CA location, and incorporated in illumination-grade LED products that have been successfully introduced to the market, including LUXEON Q and LUXEON FlipChip White.

  20. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  1. LOW FREQUENCY VARIABILITY OF INTERANNUAL CHANGE PATTERNS FOR GLOBAL MEAN TEMPERATURE DURING THE RECENT 100 YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶淼; 丁裕国; 等

    2002-01-01

    The TEEOF method that expands temporally is used to conduct a diagnostic study of the variation patterns of 1,3,6and 10 years with regard to mean air temperature over the globe and Southern and Northern Hemispheres over the course of 100 years.The results show that the first mode of TEEOF takes up more than 50%in the total variance,with each of the first mode in the interannual osicllations generally standing for annually varying patterns which are related with climate and reflecting long-term tendency of change in air temperature.It is particularly true for the first mode on the 10-year scale.which shows an obvious ascending ascending trend concerning the temperature in winter and consistently the primary component of time goes in a way that is very close to the sequence of actual temperature,Apart from the first mode of all time sections of TEEOF for the globe and the two hemispheres and the second mode of the 1-year TEEOF.interannual variation described by other characteristic vectors are showing various patterns,with corresponding primary components having relation with longterm variability of specific interannual quasi-periodic oscillation structures.A T2 test applied to the annual variation pattern shows that the abrupt changes for the southern Hemisphere and the globe come close to the result of a uni-element t test for mean temperature than those for the Northern Hemisphere do.It indicates that the T2 test,when carried out with patterns of multiple variables.Seems more reasonable than the t test with single elements.

  2. Charging Customers or Making Profit? Business Model Change in the Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Malmmose Peyton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Advancements in technology, changing customer demands or new market entrants are often seen as a necessary condition to trigger the creation of new Business Models, or disruptive change in existing ones. Yet, the sufficient condition is often determined by pricing and how customers are willing to pay for the technology (Chesbrough and Rosenbloom, 2002. As a consequence, much research on Business Models has focused on innovation and technology management (Rajala et al., 2012; Zott et al., 2011, and software-specific frameworks for Business Models have emerged (Popp, 2011; Rajala et al., 2003; Rajala et al., 2004; Stahl, 2004. This paper attempts to illustrate Business Model change in the software industry. Design: Drawing on Rajala et al. (2003, this case study explores the (1 antecedents and (2 consequences of a Business Model-change in a logistics software company. The company decided to abolish their profitable fee-based licensing for an internet-based version of its core product and to offer it as freeware including unlimited service. Findings: Firstly, we illustrate how external developments in technology and customer demands (pricing, as well as the desire for a sustainable Business Model, have led to this drastic change. Secondly, we initially find that much of the company’s new Business Model is congruent with the company-focused framework of Rajala et al. (2003 [product strategy; distribution model, services and implementation; revenue logic]. Value: The existing frameworks for Business Models in the software industry cannot fully explain the disruptive change in the Business Model. Therefore, we suggest extending the framework by the element of ‘innovation’.

  3. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

  4. Dynamic Rainfall Patterns and the Simulation of Changing Scenarios: A behavioral watershed response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M.; Guzman, J.; Steiner, J. L.; Hou, C.; Moriasi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall is one of the fundamental drivers that control hydrologic responses including runoff production and transport phenomena that consequently drive changes in aquatic ecosystems. Quantifying the hydrologic responses to changing scenarios (e.g., climate, land use, and management) using environmental models requires a realistic representation of probable rainfall in its most sensible spatio-temporal dimensions matching that of the phenomenon under investigation. Downscaling projected rainfall from global circulation models (GCMs) is the most common practice in deriving rainfall datasets to be used as main inputs to hydrologic models which in turn are used to assess the impacts of climate changes on ecosystems. Downscaling assumes that local climate is a combination of large-scale climatic/atmospheric conditions and local conditions. However, the representation of the latter is generally beyond the capacity of current GCMs. The main objective of this study was to develop and implement a synthetic rainfall generator to downscale expected rainfall trends to 1 x 1 km rainfall daily patterns that mimic the dynamic propagation of probability distribution functions (pdf) derived from historic rainfall data (rain-gauge or radar estimated). Future projections were determined based on actual and expected changes in the pdf and stochastic processes to account for variability. Watershed responses in terms of streamflow and nutrients loads were evaluated using synthetically generated rainfall patterns and actual data. The framework developed in this study will allow practitioners to generate rainfall datasets that mimic the temporal and spatial patterns exclusive to their study area under full disclosure of the uncertainties involved. This is expected to provide significantly more accurate environmental models than is currently available and would provide practitioners with ways to evaluate the spectrum of systemic responses to changing scenarios.

  5. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidell Jaap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a western country is associated with changes in dietary patterns. This could have unfavourable effects on the risk of CVD. There is limited knowledge on the food patterns, awareness and knowledge about healthy nutrition among Chinese immigrants. The objective for this study is to explore changes in food patterns, and levels of awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition by length of residence among Chinese immigrants to Canada. Methods 120 Chinese individuals born in China but currently living in Canada completed an assessment on socio-demographic characteristics, changes in dietary patterns and variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods. With ordinal logistic regression the associations between the quartiles of length of residence and dietary patterns, variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods were explored, adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index. Results More than 50% of the participants reported increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreasing the use of deep-frying after immigration. Increased awareness and knowledge about healthy foods was reported by more than 50% of the participants. Ordinal regression indicated that Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the longest, compared to Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the shortest, consumed significant greater portion sizes (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 3.11 - 31.15, dined out more frequently (OR: 15.8; 95% CI: 5.0 - 49.85, and consumed convenience foods more often (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.23 - 10.01. Conclusions Chinese immigrants reported some favourable changes in their dietary intake and greater awareness and more knowledge about healthy foods after

  6. The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter temperature changes over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di

    2016-04-01

    Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded temperature dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter temperature changes over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean temperature within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter temperature decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the temperature spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that temperature was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after tropical volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the temperature decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport,therefore winter temperature increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that temperature decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the temperature of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height

  7. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:26156982

  8. Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state. PMID:24938808

  9. The impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity has played an important role in the economic development of Korea and, thus, has become a critical factor in sustaining the well-being of the Korean people. This study attempts to investigate the impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level using input–output (I–O) analysis. To this end, we apply the I–O price model to the 2011 I–O table recently produced by the Bank of Korea, paying particular attention to the electricity sector by considering it as exogenous and then investigating its impacts. The impacts of the electricity price changes on each industrial sector's prices and the general price level are quantitatively derived. For example, the overall impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean national economy is estimated to be 0.4367%. We also report the results from the model with the electricity sector endogenous and the model with endogenous electricity and labor sectors. This information can be usefully utilized in decision-making regarding price management for electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of electricity price changes on the Korean economy. • We use the input–output (I–O) analysis specifying the electricity sector as exogenous. • We apply the I–O price model to 2010 I–O table produced by the Bank of Korea. • The impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean economy is 0.2176%

  10. Structural differences between industrial carbon blacks indicated by uncorrected x-ray diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartsman, A.S.; Rutman, A.M.; Ermolaev, V.A.; Fialkov, A.S.

    1986-08-20

    The authors have compared the ordering in specimens of commercial carbon blacks on various parameters; the values are repeated to the proportions of the atoms scattering coherently in a given direction, the sizes of the CSR, and the homogeneity int he components as regards size, defectiveness, and ordering. One does not use integral intensities in these ratios (one measures the peak heights, not the areas), so defects, which merely broaden the lines without altering the intensity distribution between lines and background, are also incorporated with these parameters. The authors found that the size parameters (interlayer distance d/sub 002/ and dimensions of the CSR L/sub ..cap alpha../ and L/sub c/) are insufficient to reveal structural differences between commercial blacks. One can compare the structures on additional diffraction characteristics that evaluate the redistribution of the scattered intensity between the lines and the diffuse background. There is a correlation between the order estimated in this way and the elemental composition, and in particular the ratio between the oxygen and hydrogen concentrations. The various production conditions lead to differing distributions of the noncarbon atoms, which are related to differences in crystallochemical role. The noncarbon redistribution on modification alters the properties considerably. The structure change on modification may be due to the reagent interacting with the defects (including noncarbon atoms). One of the possible mechanisms is intercalation.

  11. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  12. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  13. How can one explain changes in the monthly pattern of suicide?

    CERN Document Server

    Roehner, Bertrand M

    2014-01-01

    The monthly pattern of suicides has remained a puzzle ever since it was discovered in the second half of the 19th century. In this paper we intend to "explain" not the pattern itself but rather its changes across countries and in the course of time. First, we show that the fairly common idea according to which this pattern is decaying in "modern" societies is not altogether true. For instance, around 2000, in well urbanized countries like South Korea or Spain this pattern was still as strong as it was in France (and other European countries) in the late 19th century. The method that we use in order to make some progress in our understanding is the time-honoured Cartesian approach of breaking up the problem under consideration "into as many parts as might be necessary to solve it". More specifically, we try two decompositions of monthly suicides: (i) according to suicide methods (ii) according to age-groups. The first decomposition points out the key-role of hanging and drowning. The second shows the crucial r...

  14. A Strategy and Model of Change for SMEs in the Hong Kong Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K; F; Chu

    2002-01-01

    The re-establishment of the Hong Kong manufacturin g industry as a local pillar of economy is vital in the restructuring of the e conomy in Hong Kong. The SMEs should play a key role in such a process. It requi res major changes to take place in the operation of the enterprises in order to enhance their competitiveness and therefore the chance of success in the restruc turing process. It is suggested that the strategy of going for high value-added products and related services together with the practic...

  15. Innovation and Change in the Process of Alliance Formation in the Japanese Electronics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, James R.; Guillot, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the changing process of strategic alliance formation in the Japanese electronics industry between 1985 and 1998. With data on 128 Japanese electronics/electrical machinery makers, we use a dyad panel regression methodology to address a series of hypotheses drawn from embeddedness and strong/weak tie theory on how keiretsu and prior alliance networks have constrained partner choice in new R&D and nonR&D alliances. We argue and find that the keiretsu effect is smaller on R&D...

  16. Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Kerr

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

  17. Patterns of Change in Cognitive Function over Six Months in Adults with Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Riegel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few investigators have studied cognition over time in adults with heart failure (HF. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 279 adults with chronic systolic or diastolic HF at baseline, three and six months. Growth mixture modeling (GMM was used to model the measure anticipated to be most sensitive, the digit symbol substitution task (DSST. We describe how and why the DSST patterns change over time. Other measures of cognition were examined to identify consistency with the DSST patterns. The sample was predominantly male (63.2%, Caucasian (62.7%, mean age 62 years. The best fit GMM revealed two trajectories of DSST scores: Average processing speed group (40.5% and Below Average processing speed (59.9%. Neither group changed significantly over the six month study. Other measures of cognition were consistent with the DSST patterns. Factors significantly associated with increased odds of being in the Below Average processing speed group included older age, male gender, Non-Caucasian race, less education, higher ejection fraction, high comorbid burden, excessive daytime sleepiness, and higher BMI. As some of the factors related to cognitive impairment are modifiable, research is needed to identify interventions to preserve and improve cognition in these patients.

  18. Neolithic\\Eneolithic settlement patterns and Holocene environmental changes in Bela Krajina (south-eastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Mason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the archaeological settlement pattern and vegetation history of Bela krajina region of Slovenia in order to better understand the interaction of human activities and environmental processes in the landscape. Pollen record of two small palaeoecological sites (Mlaka and Griblje indicates that human impact on the vegetation at circa 4150 calBC was intensive (forest cutting/burning, beech decline and formation of fields, pastures, meadows and can be associated with numerous Neolithic/Eneolithic sites, located in the Lahinja river basin and the Kolpa lowlands. Human pressure on the (lowland/riverine environment slightly decreased between c. 3750–2850 calBC. This coincides with the appearance of a more dispersed settlement pattern, including the formation of short-term settlement/activity areas on the karst plateau. This change to a more extensive Eneolithic settlement pattern can be presumably associated with change in economy (more intensive pastoralism and transhumance, possibly also soil erosion and is partially borne out by evidence from excavated sites in the area.

  19. Changing energy profiles and consumption patterns following electrification in five rural villages, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the democratic transition in South Africa in the early 1990s the government has implemented a widespread electrification programme, as well as introduced a free basic electricity allowance as a means of poverty alleviation. Yet there are limited longitudinal studies on the impacts of the introduction of electricity on the patterns of household energy use, and even more so in the neglected rural sector. This study reports on the patterns of household energy use in five rural settlements in 1991 and again in 2002. Results indicate a changing pattern of energy use for lighting and powering entertainment appliances, more specifically from dry-cell batteries and paraffin to electricity. Yet for thermal needs, most notably cooking, fuelwood has remained the most widespread fuel, and the amount used per month has not changed, despite increasing scarcity of wood in the local environment. There has been an increase in the proportion of households purchasing fuelwood as opposed to collecting their own. Overall, the mean total number of fuel types used per household has increased, indicating that electricity is simply viewed as an additional energy, rather than an alternative. Yet, electricity accounted for approximately 60% of expenditure on energy sources in 2002, despite the government's policy of a free basic allowance of 5-6 kWh per month. This has implications for energy supply costing, as well as the poverty alleviation dimensions of the whole programme

  20. Abnormal changes of multidimensional surface features using multivariate pattern classification in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25100588

  1. Using LMDI method to analyze the change of industrial CO2 emission from energy use in Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2011-03-01

    Low-carbon economy is becoming a new approach to optimize economic development, ensuring energy security and coping with climate change. As one of the important emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), the industrial sector should be prioritized in the development of low-carbon economy. In this study, the carbon emission from industrial energy use of Chongqing is accounted. On basis of industrial carbon emission (ICE) accounting, main factors responsible for industrial CO2 emission are identified and quantitatively analyzed using the Log-Mean Divisia Index method. The factors influencing ICE include energy mix, energy intensity, industrial structure and industrial output. It is found that the industrial output is the main driving force of ICE. The energy structure performs as a negative factor in carbon emission growth. By means of decomposing the influencing factors, several policy proposals were suggested for policy makers to build a low carbon city.

  2. Using LMDI method to analyze the change of industrial CO2 emission from energy use in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin YANG; Bin CHEN

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbon economy is becoming a new approach to optimize economic development, ensuring energy security and coping with climate change. As one of the important emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), the industrial sector should be prioritized in the development of low-carbon economy. In this study, the carbon emission from industrial energy use of Chongqing is accounted. On basis of industrial carbon emission (ICE)accounting, main factors responsible for industrial CO2emission are identified and quantitatively analyzed using the Log-Mean Divisia Index method. The factors influencing ICE include energy mix, energy intensity, industrial structure and industrial output. It is found that the industrial output is the main driving force of ICE. The energy structure performs as a negative factor in carbon emission growth. By means of decomposing the influencing factors, several policy proposals were suggested for policy makers to build a low carbon city.

  3. Using LMDI method to analyze the change of China's industrial CO2 emissions from final fuel use: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on time series decomposition of the Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI), this paper analyzes the change of industrial carbon emissions from 36 industrial sectors in China over the period 1998-2005. The changes of industrial CO2 emission are decomposed into carbon emissions coefficients of heat and electricity, energy intensity, industrial structural shift, industrial activity and final fuel shift. Our results clearly show that raw chemical materials and chemical products, nonmetal mineral products and smelting and pressing of ferrous metals account for 59.31% of total increased industrial CO2 emissions. The overwhelming contributors to the change of China's industrial sectors' carbon emissions in the period 1998-2005 were the industrial activity and energy intensity; the impact of emission coefficients of heat and electricity, fuel shift and structural shift was relatively small. Over the year 1998-2002, the energy intensity change in some energy-intensive sectors decreased industrial emissions, but increased emissions over the period 2002-2005. The impact of structural shift on emissions have varied considerably over the years without showing any clear trend, and the final fuel shift increased industrial emissions because of the increase of electricity share and higher emissions coefficient. Therefore, raw chemical materials and chemical products, nonmetal mineral products and smelting and pressing of ferrous metals should be among the top priorities for enhancing energy efficiency and driving their energy intensity close to the international advanced level. To some degree, we should reduce the products waste of these sectors, mitigate the growth of demand for their products through avoiding the excessive investment highly related to these sectors, increasing imports or decreasing the export in order to avoid expanding their share in total industrial value added. However, all these should integrate economic growth to harmonize industrial development and CO2

  4. Construction of the Structure Type Models for Identification the Measurement of Strategic Changes Potential of Industrial and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmyla Ladonko

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to defining the nature and content of multicomponent system - industrial capacity; improvement of the structure of industrial capacity; application of complex methodological approach to determine the composition and hierarchy of its elements, which enables optimization of administrative decision-making on development of defined priorities of industrial capacity. The changes, taking place in the national economy, require searching and working out of new approaches and ma...

  5. Phase Change Nanodots Patterning using a Self-Assembled Polymer Lithography and Crystallization Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Raoux, S; Krebs, D; Krupp, L; Topuria, T; Caldwell, M; Milliron, D; Kellock, A; Rice, P; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of scalable phase change materials can be studied on nanoscale structures. In this paper, high density ordered phase change nanodot arrays were fabricated using the lift-off technique on a self-assembled diblock copolymer template, polystyrene-poly(methyl-methacrylate). The size of the nanodots was less than 15 nm in diameter with 40 nm spacing. This method is quite flexible regarding the patterned materials and can be used on different substrates. The crystallization behavior of small scale phase change nanodot arrays was studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction, which showed the phase transition for different materials such as Ge15Sb85, Ge2Sb2Te5, and Ag and In doped Sb2Te. The transition temperatures of these nanodot samples were also compared with their corresponding blanket thin films, and it was found that the nanodots had higher crystallization temperatures and crystallized over a broader temperature range.

  6. Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties.

  7. The Compilation of Math Pattern for Productivity in Educational Organisations, Service Organisations (Municipalities), and Industrial Organisations Based on Organisational Climate in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah Nazem

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between organisational climate with the productivity of managers' services in educational, service, and industrial organisations, in order to present a suitable management pattern. The population of the research consist of all managers who work in Tehran high schools, municipalities managers, and managers of the National Company Petro-Chemical Industries. Two hundred and forty five High School managers, 52 municipalities mana...

  8. Visual Scanning Patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in previous literature. The present study explored ASD children’s visual scanning patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS task using eye-tracking technique. ASD and typical developing (TD children completed the standardized DCCS procedure on the computer while their eye movements were tracked. Behavioral results confirmed previous findings on ASD children’s deficits in executive function. ASD children’s visual scanning patterns also showed some specific underlying processes in the DCCS task compared to TD children. For example, ASD children looked shorter at the correct card in the postswitch phase and spent longer time at blank areas than TD children did. ASD children did not show a bias to the color dimension as TD children did. The correlations between the behavioral performance and eye moments were also discussed.

  9. Qualitative Changes in Flow Pattern in the Coating Flow inside a Rotating Cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.

    1996-11-01

    We describe experimental work on the flow patterns in coating flow inside a partially-filled circular cylinder, which is rotated about its horizontally placed axis of symmetry. A prominent front forms at the bottom of the cylinder, associated with a recirculating region. This front is initially straight along the span. For a limited range of parameters, the front develops robust spanwise undulations, named shark teeth (S. T. Thoroddsen & L. Mahadevan, ``Experimental study of coating flows in a partially-filled horizontally rotating cylinder''), Experiments in Fluids (in press).. An intricate three-dimensional flow field is associated with these patterns. We study here the qualitative changes in the flow field associated with the transition of these shark teeth into waves traveling spanwise along the front. The wavelength and speed of these waves is investigated.

  10. Optical and topographic changes in water-responsive patterned cholesteric liquid crystalline polymer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpel, Jelle E.; Broer, Dirk J.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Schenning, Albert P. H. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we present patterned water-responsive coatings, which alter both their topological and optical properties. The polymer coatings are based on a hydrogen-bonded cholesteric liquid crystalline polymer network. A two-step photopolymerization procedure leads to a patterned coating with repeating liquid crystalline and isotropic areas. The cholesteric liquid crystalline areas reflect green light, whilst the isotropic areas are transparent for visible light. Treatment with alkaline solution results in a hygroscopic polymer salt coating. When placed in demineralized water, the polymer films swells, leading to an enhancement of the surface topography structure in which the liquid crystalline areas swell more. Moreover, the pitch of the helical organization in the cholesteric areas increases due to this swelling leading to a color change from green to red.

  11. Identifying the impacts of climate change on key pests and diseases of plant and animal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major threat to natural and agricultural systems. Understanding these threats will enable government and primary industries to better prepare and adapt to climate change. While observations of climate change are well documented, the potential effects on pests, pathogens and their hosts are not clearly understood. To address this, a review of the potential impacts on plant biosecurity was undertaken to determine the effects of climate change on the behaviour and distribution of emergent plant pests and pathogens. The review identified increasing C02 and temperature, decreasing frost events, heavy and unseasonal rains, increased humidity, drought, cyclones and hurricanes, and warmer winter temperatures as influencing the behaviour of plant pests and pathogens. To study the effects of these changes in detail, three key plant biosecurity threats were analysed in case studies; wheat stripe rust, silver leaf whitefly and citrus canker. The predicted distribution of citrus canker was examined with increasing temperature scenarios using the bioclimatic model CLIMEX. The model predicted a southerly shift in the geographic range of the causal organism which would threaten the major southern citrus growing regions in future climates. A similar study on Bluetongue disease of sheep, spread by the Culicoides midge, also predicted a southerly shift in the vector's geographic range. Significant limitations were identified with bioclimatic modelling when examining the effects of climate change on pests and diseases. The model was unable to assess the plant and animal response to increasing temperature in conjunction with the pest. Also the influence of temperature on the life cycle of the organism, pathogenicity of strains, competition with other species, host coverage and the general effect on the biology of the organism could not be assessed. To begin to address this, a dynamic model was constructed using daily

  12. Historical Pattern and Future Trajectories of Terrestrial N2O Emission driven by Multi-factor Global Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.; Xu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is among the most important greenhouse gases only next to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to its long life time and high radiative forcing (with a global warming potential 265 times as much as CO2 at 100-year time horizon). The Atmospheric concentration of N2O has increased by 20% since pre-industrial era, and this increase plays a significant role in shaping anthropogenic climate change. However, compared to CO2- and CH4-related research, fewer studies have been performed in assessing and predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of N2O emission from natural and agricultural soils. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model, DLEM, to quantify the historical and future changes in global terrestrial N2O emissions resulting from natural and anthropogenic perturbations including climate variability, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover changes, and agricultural land management practices (i.e., synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use, manure application, and irrigation etc.) over the period 1900-2099. We focused on inter-annual variation and long-term trend of terrestrial N2O emission driven by individual and combined environmental changes during historical and future periods. The sensitivity of N2O emission to climate, atmospheric composition, and human activities has been examined at biome-, latitudinal, continental and global scales. Future projections were conducted to identify the hot spots and hot time periods of global N2O emission under two emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). It provides a modeling perspective for understanding human-induced N2O emission growth and developing potential management strategies to mitigate further atmospheric N2O increase and climate warming.

  13. Predicting Plant Diversity Patterns in Madagascar: Understanding the Effects of Climate and Land Cover Change in a Biodiversity Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kerry A.; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence r...

  14. Predicting plant diversity patterns in madagascar:Understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kerry A.; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin A.; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence r...

  15. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Lalit; Brown, Kerry A.; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin A.; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence r...

  16. Land use change pattern of analysis based on landscape ecology in Nanhai District of Foshan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingnian

    2008-10-01

    Land use is an important field in the global environment change. This paper, taking Luocun town of NanHai District of Foshan city as an example, with the help of GIS technology, mathematics model and landscape-ecology theory, analyses the landscape pattern's changes of land-use from different region scales and different levels(the whole luocun Town and every village in luocun Town). The study shows that the fragmentation level increased. The edge degree and the PD are increased, and the landscape contagion indexes increased, but the LPI decreased. It suggests that the fragment degree and the separate degree are increased constantly. The landscape evenness index is increased, which suggests that the area of land-use patch class approach to equality. The change of the landscape pattern takes on district diversity, in the mainly, which can be cured up two different area (the eastern area and the western area). The villages in the east have a high land-use index all the time, and they have a low extent during 1987-2002; but the villages in the west have a high extent during1987-2002, the landscape diversity index and landscape evenness index are increased, the land-use develop to the diversity and at the same time, the land-use develop to the evenness, also.

  17. CHANGE IN SPENDING PATTERN BEFORE AND AFTER RECEIPT OF BONUS PAYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHYATI A. VYAS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bonus money gives happiness and additional spending power when disbursement is timed around big festivals. Fundamental view is that people spend money, when they have, to spend during festival time. This study describes change in spending of employees of yearly bonus money, paid to employees in different Indian companies on spending activities. The bonus, here is a regular component of remuneration and is not related to specific individual for special achievement. It is a more routine reward system followed for legal compliances. An ex gratia payment done to legally excluded employees is included in the study. We look at spending difference in normal state and one after post receipt of bonus money. These findings give insight into spending pattern change with respect to timing of money receipt at festival time. Sample of 60 employees was selected working in companies of different sectors of economy. All employees were at least 18 years of age. Employees belonged to different layers of management and were full time employees. None of the employee worked less than a year in present company. Employees belonged to Vapi, Navsari, Vadodara and Ahmedabad. It was observed that employees do not show significant relationship in spending pattern on receipt of bonus money. Scores are Gender independent and there is no significant change in spending style.

  18. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P C D; Dunne, K A; Vecchia, A V

    2005-11-17

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10-40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10-30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems. PMID:16292308

  19. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between ‑25 and ‑2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha‑1year‑1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  20. Impulsive sounds change European seabass swimming patterns: Influence of pulse repetition interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We exposed impulsive sounds of different repetition intervals to European seabass. • Immediate behavioural changes mirrored previous indoor & outdoor studies. • Repetition intervals influenced the impacts differentially but not the recovery. • Sound temporal patterns may be more important than some standard metrics. - Abstract: Seismic shootings and offshore pile-driving are regularly performed, emitting significant amounts of noise that may negatively affect fish behaviour. The pulse repetition interval (PRI) of these impulsive sounds may vary considerably and influence the behavioural impact and recovery. Here, we tested the effect of four PRIs (0.5–4.0 s) on European seabass swimming patterns in an outdoor basin. At the onset of the sound exposures, the fish swam faster and dived deeper in tighter shoals. PRI affected the immediate and delayed behavioural changes but not the recovery time. Our study highlights that (1) the behavioural changes of captive European seabass were consistent with previous indoor and outdoor studies; (2) PRI could influence behavioural impact differentially, which may have management implications; (3) some acoustic metrics, e.g. SELcum, may have limited predictive power to assess the strength of behavioural impacts of noise. Noise impact assessments need to consider the contribution of sound temporal structure

  1. Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åqvist Almlöv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water properties in two different areas, Möja and Ornö parishes within the Stockholm Archipelago, revealed a very diverse pattern of property and user rights, with a large number of water and fishing rights owners. Recreational fisheries, including both sport and household fishing, seem to predominate in both areas, but ownership differs. In Möja, most waters are collectively owned, whereas in Ornö, individual ownership predominates. Very few examples of local influence on fisheries management were found in either area, although the social structure for joint management does exist in Möja. Instead, larger-scale institutions at the regional, national, or international level regulate fisheries, often not addressing local conditions and fish populations. The ongoing shift in resource use has created a heterogeneous user group, and the limitations of centralized management authorities in dealing with the diversity in the coastal ecosystem have created mismatches within the social–ecological system. Combined with a large-scale decline in coastal fish stocks, these mismatches challenge the existing local property rights arrangements as well as the more centralized regulatory management structure. A key issue for fisheries management is how to develop and stimulate appropriate distribution of management functions at different geographical scales and organizational levels. The complexity and diversity in archipelago fisheries call for multilevel arrangements and

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES AND JOB SATISFACTION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nedeljkovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to investigate what factors influence a high level of the service customer orientation of hotels employees under the conditions of the transition and a high rate of the unemployment. One of the conclusions of the research is that management of the hotels in Serbia don’t fully recognize the potentials of the knowledge of employees as a possible competitive advantage during organizational changes in a high competitive global environment. Since job satisfaction is one the most important factor which influences readiness for organizational changes of employees we investigate in the study the relationships between job satisfaction, perceptions of organizational customer climate, cultural dimensions and employees customer orientation among front-line employees in the hotel industry in a non-Western country in the transition. Data for the current study were collected through the use of a survey instruments completed by front-line employees in several hotels in the north province of Serbia –Vojvodina. This part of Serbia is one of the most developed part of Serbia and tourism industry is one of the important factors of the economic development of the region.

  3. Assessment of change in soil water content properties irrigated with industrial sugar beet wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Sayyed Hassan; Najafi, Payam; Amini, Hussein

    2007-05-15

    In this research the effect of industrial sugar beet wastewater has been assessed on the soil water content properties in summer 2005. The evaluated parameters were the soil water content points such as Saturation Percent (SP), Field Capacity (FC), Permanent Wilting Point (PWP), gravitational water and Total Available Water (TAW). The pilot design was fully randomized with three replications and three treatments. The three treatments were: 1-normal water, 2-industrial sugar beet wastewater (50%) and normal water (50%) and 3-sugar beet wastewater (100%). The experiments have been carried out in the field, in 21 columns with the diameter 110 mm and the height of 400 mm. The soil was irrigated using surface irrigation method for 12 events with a constant volume and period. Based on the result, the SP, FC and PWP initial value were 46.5, 35 and 15%, respectively for all the treatments. At the end of the period, the values changed to 47, 36.6 and 17.5% for T2. They are also increased significantly to 48.5, 37 and 18.7% for T3 at the end of the period. The increasing of soil Organic Matter (OM) during the period is expected to be the main factor for this change. The result shows that although the FC and PWP parameters are increased during the period but TAW decreased significantly from the 20 to 18.5%. The other effects of wastewater on soil and leached water quality should be evaluated too. PMID:19086512

  4. Quantitative analysis on the contribution of industrial structure change to sustainable development: a case study of Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Qing; Wang Ying

    2009-01-01

    Development and sustainability are the core connotation of sustainable development.Sustainahility of economic development and the provision capability of resources and environment ore teo aspects of sustainable development.The former ones are the foundation of the latter ones.Industrial structure has a close relutionship with sustainable development.The optumization of industrial strneture is the important base for the sustainable development of modern economy and also the important ways of the sustainable utilization of resources and environment.The intensive growth effect of industrial structure change has the meaning of sustainable development.This paper reviews and explains the theory on the contribution of industrial structure change to sustainable development,builds the calculation model through introducing the coefficient of industrtal structure change,makes an empirical study on the contribution of indnstrial structure change to sustainable development in Fujian,and puts forward ways and polictes af optimizing industrial structure both among mdustries and inside the industry in the process of industrial structure change.

  5. Frequent changes in subtelomeric DNA methylation patterns and its relevance to telomere regulation during human hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Um, Tae-Hee; Choi, Gi Hong; Park, Young Nyun

    2011-02-15

    Subtelomeric chromatin modifications are important regulators of telomere length. We examined the subtelomeric DNA methylation status of 7q, 8q, 17q, 18p, 21q and XpYp in 32 pairs of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their adjacent non-HCCs via methylation-specific PCR (quantified as methylation ratio). In addition, 10q was subjected to bisulfite-genomic-sequencing. Telomere length was determined by Southern hybridization. In all cases, the relationship between methylation ratio and telomere length was determined. High levels of methylation ratio were found on chromosomes 7q, 18p and XpYp, whereas 8q 17q and 21q were less methylated in both HCCs and non-HCCs. Compared to non-HCCs, HCCs exhibited a higher methylation ratio on 18p and 21q, and a wider distribution of methylation ratio on 7q, 21q and 10q (p telomere length of HCCs, respectively (p HCC to HCC were found at 47 sites and hypomethylation changes at 31 sites. Changes in methylation pattern were observed at three to four sites among six chromosomal sites in 15 patients (47%). There was a tendency toward hypomethylation changes at 7q (p = 0.013) and hypermethylation changes at 21q (p = 0.057) when telomere lengthened from non-HCCs to HCCs. In summary, subtelomeric methylation patterns dynamically changed during hepatocarcinogenesis. Subtelomeric methylation at certain regions was related to telomere lengthening or shortening, suggesting an association between subtelomeric chromatin structure and telomere length regulation in human hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:20473888

  6. Upstream oil and gas industry options paper : report of the upstream oil and gas working group of the Industry Issues Table to the National Climate Change Secretariat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has coordinated the efforts of the upstream oil and natural gas industry to draft a foundation paper to provide data on industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and actions. This paper is a technical piece targeted at government officials and stakeholders involved in the National Climate Change Secretariat process. The paper also outlines the context for considering policies aimed at reducing oil and gas industry emissions on climate change. The 6 key messages that CAPP wanted to emphasize in this paper were: (1) Canada's situation is very different from that of the U.S. and most other industrial countries, (2) GHG emissions are primarily an end-use consumption issue, (3) the climate change issue and the Kyoto Protocol present a major uncertainty that could undermine Canadian oil and natural gas development opportunities, (4) Canada should not be penalised by its growth of oil and natural gas resources, (5) the ability to reduce emissions by changing production technology is limited because large reductions in Canadian upstream emissions would only mean a shift of production to other countries which would not help to reduce global emissions, and (6) Canada should focus on promoting cost-effective action, research and development and international flexibility, and ensure that recognition is given to those companies that reduce emissions. tabs., figs

  7. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, ORGANIZATIONAL RESILIENCE AND IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE ON THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Idayanti

    2012-01-01

    A research that relates to strategic human resources management has not been conducted extensively, particularly when it is related to the organizational change and organizational resilience on the hospitality industry. Objective of this research is to analyze the influence of strategic human resources management, organizational change, and organizational resilience on the organization performance. The research was conducted o the hospitality industry, which included 234 hot...

  8. Research Note: Changing Climate Pattern and Its Impact on Paddy Productivity in Ludhiana District of Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, D.K.; Upadhya, Deepack

    2014-01-01

    Relevant time series data/information on temperature, rainfall and relative humidity over considerable period of about 4 decades has been analysed using simple statistical tools such as periodic mean, mean deviation and t-test to ascertain the changing climate pattern in Ludhiana district of Punjab. During past 40 years, the region experienced significant increase in average minimum temperature for all months in kharif season in the range of 1.4-2.1°C. The average maximum temperature has inc...

  9. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  10. Changing pattern of prescribing antidiabetic agents in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul P. Chaudhari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug utilization studies are powerful exploratory tools to ascertain the role of drugs in society. They create a sound sociomedical and health economic basis for healthcare decision making. The study was aimed to find out the changing pattern of prescribing the antidiabetic agents in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. Methods: It was a cross sectional study done on 200 patients suffering from type 1 and 2diabetes. Indoor patients and diabetes mellitus due to secondary cause were excluded. Each patient was followed up over a period of 1 year and the analysis of the prescriptions was done during that period. At end of study only 129 patients could be included for analysis. Results: In this study the maximal change in medicine was with pioglitazone which was discontinued as a 1st change in 6.2% of patients followed by metformin [5.4%], insulin [4.6%], and glipizide [3.8%]. The drug most commonly added as a first change was glipizide [11.6%] followed by metformin [10.0%] and pioglitazone [7.7%]. In order of 2nd change the most common drug discontinued was insulin [4.6%] followed by pioglitazone [3.8%] whereas drug commonly added as second change was insulin [2.3%] followed by glipizide [1.5%] and pioglitazone [1.5%]. In our cross sectional study average onset of 1st change was found to be at 4.38±2.75 months for discontinuation of drug and 3.75±2.42 months in adding the drugs. Conclusions: Due to lack of certain records, it is envisaged that the change of medicine both discontinuation as well as addition was done because of blood glucose control, cost factor [in case of pioglitazone] as well as patient’s compliance. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 47-50

  11. ST-T Changes of Multichannel Magnetocardiographic Pattern in Myocardial Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H.; Kim, K.; Lee, Y. H. [Biosignal Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2007-10-15

    Myocardial ischemia causes heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization and sometimes produces changes of the ST-T wave in ECG. Therefore, morphological changes of ST-T waveform in ECG have a clinical significance in diagnosing myocardial ischemia. In this study, we investigated the ST-T changes caused by myocardial ischemia in magnetocardiography (MCG). We analyzed MCG patterns of biphasic T, ST segment deviations from baseline, main current angle of T{sub peak} and T{sub peak} dispersion in 300 CAD patients without ST elevation in ECG, 122 symptomatic patients and 48 normal subjects. MCGs were recorded by multichannel SQUID system in a magnetically shielded room. As results, we found that appearances of the abnormality were strongly correlated with the severity of myocardial ischemia. Also we found that the percentage of the patients showing MCG changes were higher than those in ECG. These results show that morphological changes of ST-T waveform in MCG can be used as a marker of myocardial ischemia.

  12. Assessment of climate change impacts on hydrological processes and patterns in the Spree River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, H.; Gädeke, A.; Koch, H.; Grünewald, U.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, a successful river catchment planning and management should consider climate change impacts on hydrological processes and patterns. This is of particular interest for stakeholders in the Spree River catchment, which is significantly affected by long term lignite mining activities. Furthermore, the consideration of climate change impacts is essential for the development of climate change adaptation strategies, e.g. land use change. Therefore, the Innovation Network of Climate Change Adaptation Brandenburg Berlin (INKA BB), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), was launched to reveal among others the impact of climate change on the hydrology at the regional scale. To achieve this, simulations with help of the process-based, spatially distributed Water Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM-ETH) were conducted. In a first step, a model for the Spree River catchment (up to gauge Leibsch, 4500 km2) was set up, calibrated (from 1998 to 2002), and validated (from 2002 to 2006) on measured discharge for a headwater sub-catchment (135 km2) which discharge is only minor affected by water management. To consider climate change impacts, results of the STAtistical Regional climate model STAR were used as meteorological input for hydrological modeling in a second step. From 100 available STAR-realizations, three were chosen which are closest to the median, the 10%-, and 90%-percentile of the entire number of realizations and hereafter called as moderate, dry, and wet scenario. The model period of the three scenarios spans over 10 years (from 2045 to 2054) and was compared to a 30 year period in the past (from 1961 to 1990) where measurements were used as climate input parameters (reference period). The model results show reduced precipitation (except the wet scenario), increased evapotranspiration and consequently reduced runoff in the scenarios compared to the reference period. Hence, the climate water budget decreases and hydrological patterns e

  13. Diet-Induced Changes in Spectrum Patterns of Serum Gangliosides in 6-Month-Old Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida A. Gurnida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human milk contains higher levels of gangliosides than infant formula. Gangliosides play a role in neuronal growth, migration and maturation, sinaptogenesis, and myelination. Seven of gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b are dominant with their own specific functions. Thus, the aim of the study was to know the effects of add on diet gangliosides and to compare the spectrum patterns of those seven classes of serum gangliosides in infants consuming standard infant formula (IF group, ganglioside-fortified infant formula (GA group and exclusive breastfeeding (BF group. This study used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS method. This was a prospective study involving 30 infants in IF group, 29 in GA group and 32 in BF group. Subject recruitment was performed using consecutive admission from March 2008 to February 2009 in Bandung. Statistical analyses using Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant change in the spectrum patterns of GD3, GM1, GM2 and GT1b in IF group; of GD1a, GM1 and GM2 in GA group and of GD1a, GD1b, GM1 and GM3 in BF group. Conclusions, add on diet gangliosides extend spectrum patterns of gangliosides especially in seven of them, i.e. GM1, GM2, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, in 6-month old infants.

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Chapman, M Gee; Thompson, Richard C; Amaral Zettler, Linda A; Jambeck, Jenna; Mallos, Nicholas J

    2015-06-16

    Floating and stranded marine debris is widespread. Increasing sea levels and altered rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, waves, and oceanic currents associated with climatic change are likely to transfer more debris from coastal cities into marine and coastal habitats. Marine debris causes economic and ecological impacts, but understanding the scope of these requires quantitative information on spatial patterns and trends in the amounts and types of debris at a global scale. There are very few large-scale programs to measure debris, but many peer-reviewed and published scientific studies of marine debris describe local patterns. Unfortunately, methods of defining debris, sampling, and interpreting patterns in space or time vary considerably among studies, yet if data could be synthesized across studies, a global picture of the problem may be avaliable. We analyzed 104 published scientific papers on marine debris in order to determine how to evaluate this. Although many studies were well designed to answer specific questions, definitions of what constitutes marine debris, the methods used to measure, and the scale of the scope of the studies means that no general picture can emerge from this wealth of data. These problems are detailed to guide future studies and guidelines provided to enable the collection of more comparable data to better manage this growing problem. PMID:25938368

  15. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO2, soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist's choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change

  16. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Elnesr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%; the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10% and the WUE (~14%, but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability.

  17. Changes of Urban Wetland Landscape Pattern and Impacts of Urbanization on Wetland in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuelei; NING Longmei; YU Jing; XIAO Rui; LI Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, remote sensing data of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in 1996-2001 were selected to ex-tract wetland landscape information. Several landscape indices were used to evaluate the changes of landscape patternwithin the five years, including patch number, patch density, patch fractal dimension, landscape diversity, dominance,evenness, and fragmentation indexes. Then, transformation probabilities of wetland landscapes into non-wetland land-scapes were calculated based on Markov Model, and on these grounds the relationship between changes of wetlandlandscape pattern and urban construction was analyzed. The results showed that fragmentation degree of all wetlandtypes increased, lake area declined, and dominance of natural wetland decreased. The reasons for these results weremainly because of urban construction. According to the features of abundant wetland in Wuhan City, we suggested thatprotection of wetland landscape should cooperate with urban construction, which means wetland should become im-portant part of urban landscape.

  18. Monitoring changes in landscape pattern: use of Ikonos and Quickbird images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan; Çelik, Nil

    2016-02-01

    This paper aimed to analyze short-term changes in landscape pattern that primarily results from building development in the east coast of Mersin Province (Turkey). Three sites were selected. Ikonos (2003) and Quickbird (2009) images for these sites were classified, and land cover transformations were quantitatively analyzed using cross-tabulation of classification results. Changes in landscape structure were assessed by comparing the calculated values of area/edge and shape metrics for the earlier and later dates. Area/edge metrics included percentage of land and edge density, while shape metrics included perimeter-area ratio, fractal dimension, and related circumscribing circle (RCC) metrics. Orchards and buildings were dominating land cover classes. Variations in patch edge, size, and shapes were also analyzed and discussed. Degradation of prime agricultural areas due to building development and implications of such development on habitat fragmentation were highlighted. PMID:26739011

  19. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems. PMID:26441403

  20. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  1. Changes in Brain Tissue and Behavior Patterns Induced by Single Short-Term Fasting in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Yuko; Asakura, Kyo; Kugino, Kenji; Kurokawa, Mamoru; Asakura, Tomiko; Nakata, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis. PMID:24224039

  2. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hisatomi

    Full Text Available In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  3. Holocene shelf sedimentation patterns off equatorial East Africa constrained by climatic and sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Meyer, Inka; Henrich, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial East Africa experienced significant variations in paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions during the Holocene. These environmental changes influenced sedimentation patterns on the continental shelf. To date, however, little is known about the sediment source, its transport to, and deposition on, the Tanzanian shelf. This paper presents a new high-resolution Holocene sedimentary record off northeast Tanzania (equatorial East Africa) and provides insights into how sedimentation patterns responded to climatic and oceanographic changes during the Holocene. Based on grain-size distribution patterns and mineral assemblages, three types of shelf sediments were identified: Type I (fine-grained terrigenous sediment) is dominated by clay minerals that originated from continental weathering; Type II (coarse-grained terrigenous sediment) is mainly composed of feldspar and quartz, derived from reworking of pre-existing deposits; and Type III (biogenic marine sediment), with low- and high-magnesium calcite, was produced by marine carbonate-secreting organisms. The high input of Type I sediment during the early Holocene (10-8 cal kyr BP) was caused by river mouth bypassing. This supply-dominated regime was controlled by intense river discharge and subsequent resuspension of mud in shelf settings, responding to the humid climate in the hinterland and sea-level rise with low rate off Tanzania. The first occurrence of Type II sediments was around 8 cal kyr BP and dominated when sedimentation rates lowered. This accommodation-dominated regime was caused by shoreface bypassing due to an arid climate and sea-level highstand. Type III sediments increased significantly from the early to late Holocene, resulting from the weakening dilution effect of the terrigenous component. The sedimentation pattern on the Tanzanian shelf shifted from allochthonous to autochthonous sedimentation constrained by climatic changes and relative sea-level fluctuations at the end of the early

  4. Progressive changes in detrusor function and micturition patterns with chroinc bladder ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuohui; Azad, Roya; Yang, Jing-Hua; Siroky, Mike B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are bothersome constellation of voiding symptoms in men and women as they age. Multiple factors and comorbidities are attributed to this problem but underlying mechanisms of nonobstructive nonneurogenic detrusor overactivity, detrusor underactivity and LUTS remain largely unknown. Our goal was to characterize detrusor function and voiding patterns in relation to muscarinic receptors expression, nerve fiber density, and neural ultrastructure in chronic bladder ischemia. Materials and Methods Iliac artery atherosclerosis and bladder ischemia were produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At 8 and 16 weeks after ischemia, micturition patterns and cystometrograms were recorded in conscious rats then bladder blood flow and nonvoiding spontaneous contractions were measured under general anesthesia. Bladder tissues were processed for Western blotting, immunostaining, and transmission electron microscopy. Results Bladder responses to ischemic insult depended on the duration of ischemia. Micturition patterns and cystometric changes at 8-week ischemia suggested detrusor overactivity, while voiding behavior and cystometrograms at 16-week ischemia implied abnormal detrusor function resembling underactivity. Upregulation of muscarinic M2 receptor was found after 8- and 16 weeks of ischemia. Downregulation of M3 and upregulation of M1 were detected at 16-week ischemia. Neural structural damage and marked neurodegeneration were found after 8 and 16 weeks of ischemia, respectively. Conclusions Prolonged ischemia may be a mediating variable in progression of overactive bladder to dysfunctional patterns similar to detrusor underactivity. The mechanism appears to involve differential expression of M1, M2, and M3 receptors, neural structural injury, and progressive loss of nerve fibers. PMID:27437534

  5. The effect of changes in shift patterns on the risk of pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang Tran, L.; Loizou, G.

    2006-07-01

    The study investigated how the risks of pneumoconiosis vary for different patterns of exposure in coalminers. Five exposure scenarios were investigated in shift patterns on the risk of category 2 pneumoconiosis by means of a mathematical model. This model describes the exposure-dose relationship, where the dose is the burden of coalmine dust in the human lungs. For humans, the pulmonary adverse effect of coal dust is the impairment of normal functions of the alveolar region (i.e. the blood-air barrier). This region is normally kept clean and sterile by scavenging cells, the macrophages, which ingest foreign matters and clear them from the lung. However, coal dust is predominantly retained in the interstitial space, i.e. the matrix of supporting tissue of the lung and therefore is prevented from being removed by macrophages. The accumulation of coal dust in the interstitial space eventually impairs normal lung functions. Calculations indicate that: in all cases, a reduction in the level of airborne concentration with respect to the different shift patterns would lead to a reduction in pneumoconiosis in comparison to the pneumoconiosis level obtained when the airborne concentration is at 3 mg.m{sup -3} while allowing for the shift pattern to change correspondingly. Model simulations also indicated that the clearance of coal dust from the lungs is also a sensitive factor affecting the risk of pneumoconiosis. It is recommended that the coal mine dust concentration in the air in coal mines should be reduced according to the proposed time-weighting model in order to reduce pneumoconiosis risk or maintain the level of or maintain the level of risk at the baseline level. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs., 1 app.

  6. Patterns of radiographic changes in hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)

  7. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Castel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  8. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns. PMID:26553093

  9. Changes in diversification patterns and signatures of selection during the evolution of murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses' molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space. PMID:24618811

  10. Spatiotemporal changes in neural response patterns to faces varying in visual familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natu, Vaidehi S; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-03-01

    Increasing experience with a previously unfamiliar face improves human ability to recognize it in challenging and novel viewing conditions. Differential neural responses to familiar versus unfamiliar faces in multiple regions of the ventral-temporal and parietal cortex have been reported in previous work, but with limited attention to how behavioral and neural measures change with increasing familiarity. We examined changes in the spatial and temporal characteristics of neural response patterns elicited by faces that vary in their degree of visual familiarity. First, we developed a behavioral paradigm to familiarize participants to low-, medium-, and high-levels of familiarity with faces. Recognition of novel, naturalistic images of the learned individuals improved with increasing familiarity with faces. Next, a new set of participants learned faces using the behavioral paradigm, outside the fMRI scanner, and subsequently viewed blocks of whole-body images of the learned and novel people, inside the scanner. We found that the face-selective FFA and OFA, and a combination of the ventral-temporal areas (e.g., fusiform gyrus) and parietal areas (e.g., precuneus) contained patterns useful for classifying highly familiar versus unfamiliar faces. Classification along the temporal-sequence of the face blocks revealed an early separation of neural patterns elicited in response to highly familiar versus unfamiliar faces in the FFA and OFA, but not in other regions of interest. This indicates the potential for a rapid assessment of the "known versus unknown" status of faces in core face-selective regions of the brain. The present study provides a first look at the perceptual and neural correlates underlying experience gains with faces as they become familiar. PMID:25524650

  11. Diverging business strategies towards climate change : a USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, van der K.F.; Wit, de C.M.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The research project has investigated what strategies specific sectors of industry develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In an USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the bank and insu

  12. The Impacts of Climate Change Negotiation on Domestic Industrial Structure and International Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The world community adopted the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 at the third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC). The main achievement was agreement by developed(Annex I) countries to reduce or limit their greenhouse gas emissions. To assist parties in meeting their emission targets the Protocol sanctions the use of economic instruments such as the clean development mechanism(CDM), joint implementation(JI) and emissions trading(ET). However, there is still significant uncertainty surrounding the Kyoto Protocol for much of the details in the Protocol remains to be negotiated. The challenge now facing those negotiating the Kyoto Protocol is to remove the uncertainty and secure ratification of the Protocol. After the negotiation reaches an agreement in near future, the next main issue to be addressed is the way of involvement of developing countries in emission abatement commitments. The analysis presented in this report is based on the application of a global computable general equilibrium(CGE) model - GTEM-KOR. According to the analysis, compliance with Kyoto Protocol commitments, regardless of the emissions trading, is projected to impose economic costs on Annex I regions in the aggregate. Despite having no emission abatement commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, non-Annex I economies would be affected by emission abatement in Annex I regions undertaken as a result of entry into force of the Protocol. These effects would arise through trade and investment linkages between economies. Although the net impact for non-Annex I regions in aggregate is projected to be positive, there is a range of effects and the net impact for any one non-Annex I country will depend on its particular production and trade structure. As industrialized countries reduce their fossil fuel consumption to meet their emission reduction targets, their demand for fossil fuel imports from non-Annex I countries will decline, leading to lower fossil

  13. Rewetted industrial cutaway peatlands in western Ireland: a prime location for climate change mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rewetting of drained industrial peatlands may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and promote recolonisation by peat forming plant species. We investigated carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O dynamics over a three-year period in a rewetted industrial peatland in Ireland. Sample plots were established in bare peat, Juncus effusus-Sphagnum cuspidatum, Sphagnum cuspidatum and Eriophorum angustifolium dominated microsites. The relationships between fluxes and environmental variables were examined and regression models were used to provide an estimate of the annual GHG balance for each microsite. All the vegetated microsites were carbon sinks for the duration of the study. Highest uptake occurred in the Eriophorum microsite (146–583 g C m-2 yr-1, followed by Juncus-Sphagnum (35–204 g C m-2 yr-1 and Sphagnum (5–140 g C m-2 yr-1. The bare peat microsite was a source of 37–82 g C m-2 yr-1. No N2O fluxes were detected. Strong inter-annual variation was observed in all microsites, driven by variation in precipitation and subsequent changes in the position of the water table. In terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP, the microsites had either a cooling effect (Eriophorum, a close to neutral effect (Juncus-Sphagnum, Sphagnum or a warming effect (bare peat on the climate.

  14. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  15. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Wallace, Carden C.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D.; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry.

  16. Patterns of regional hydroclimatic shifts: An analysis of changing hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Minsker, B. S.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-03-01

    Temporal shifts in precipitation and runoff regime curves appear throughout the continental United States, but differ from region to region. This paper explores these regime shifts by building upon a hydroclimatic classification system that partitions the United States into clusters of similarly behaved catchments using four simple hydroclimatic indicators. Hydroclimate data from over four hundred catchments over a 55 year period (belonging to the MOPEX data set) are analyzed to reveal how the indicators have shifted before and after 1970, before and after 1975, and before and after 1980. Statistically significant hydroclimatic changes in these indicators are explored qualitatively, suggesting which catchments today might resemble other catchments tomorrow. Thus, a preview of current locations in one class under future conditions is provided by observing existing locations of another class. The classification system structure enables organization of these data, allowing patterns of regime change to emerge without highly specified models at each individual site. Regional analyses explore changes in mean seasonal precipitation/runoff regimes, including shifts in the daily variability of precipitation and runoff. Additionally, changes in regime curves of minimum and maximum precipitation/runoff observations are analyzed and discussed. Results indicate that after 1980, classifications typically found in the southeastern quarter of the United States have expanded northward and westward. Regionally, the Midwest and Rocky Mountains seem to demonstrate more frequent, but less intense storms after 1980, while southeastern catchments receive much less water in the form of precipitation and runoff than in previous years.

  17. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Wallace, Carden C.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D.; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry. PMID:27302371

  18. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis. PMID:27595001

  19. Adaptation to climate change in industry: improving resource efficiency through sustainable production applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkayal, Emrah; Bogurcu, Merve; Ulutas, Ferda; Demirer, Göksel Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the climate change adaptation opportunities of six companies from different sectors through resource efficiency and sustainable production. A total of 77 sustainable production options were developed for the companies based on the audits conducted. After screening these opportunities with each company's staff, 19 options were selected and implemented. Significant water savings (849,668 m3/year) were achieved as a result of the applications that targeted reduction of water use. In addition to water savings, the energy consumption was reduced by 3,607 MWh, which decreased the CO2 emissions by 904.1 tons/year. Moreover, the consumption of 278.4 tons/year of chemicals (e.g., NaCl, CdO, NaCN) was avoided, thus the corresponding pollution load to the wastewater treatment plant was reduced. Besides the tangible improvements, other gains were achieved, such as improved product quality, improved health and safety conditions, reduced maintenance requirements, and ensured compliance with national and EU regulations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first ever activity in Turkey devoted to climate change adaptation in the private sector. This study may serve as a building block in Turkey for the integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation approach in the industry, since water efficiency (adaptation) and carbon reduction (mitigation) are achieved simultaneously. PMID:25630123

  20. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. PMID:27266302