WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing industrial patterns

  1. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  2. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for open-quotes greenfieldsclose quotes in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed

  3. Patterns of Industrial Change in the USA since 1960: A Preliminary Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Doblin, C.P.

    1983-01-01

    This analysis of industrial changes in the USA is the first in a series of case studies on structural changes since 1960. Generally, this has been a period of economic growth in the USA, but no means all industries have shared in it to the same extent. Measured by means of index numbers, the growth of total national production represents the national average. Industries with slower growth than that for total industrial production may be viewed as underperformers, and those with faster growth ...

  4. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  5. Changing hotel location patterns in Ekurhuleni, South Africa’s industrial workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne M. Rogerson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accommodation sector is of central importance to research on urban tourism. A number of studies seek to understand the location of hotels in urban areas. This article contributes to the limited scholarship on hotel location in African cities. Under investigation is hotel development in Ekurhuleni, one of South Africa’s newest metropolitan areas with a strong tradition of mining and industrial activities. This is a non-traditional tourism destination where until recently leisure tourism was not a component of the local economy. In terms of tourism development Ekurhuleni has expanded its share of business tourism as a result of its geographical location in South Africa’s economic heartland. Importantly, business tourism has been driven by the location in Ekurhuleni of OR Tambo Airport, South Africa’s major international gateway airport. Between 1990 and 2010 this investigation shows that the local hotel economy of Ekurhuleni has been transformed. One aspect of restructuring has been the collapse of the low quality liquor dominated hotel which was numerically the major accommodation type of the pre-1990 period. The booming business tourism economy caused new investments and hotel property developments in medium-size and high quality four and five star hotel establishments. Growth has clustered geographically in and around the international airport which is the key contemporary locational influence for hotel location in this investigation.

  6. Agglomeration patterns in the Polish manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Brodzicki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available External liberalization should affect regional agglomeration patterns in manufacturing industry. In Poland, the largest CEE economy, economic transition was marked by accelerated restructuring associated with relatively rapid external trade and capital flows liberalization. The process of economic transition was reinforced by accession to the EU. Economic transition could potentially have a sizeable impact on industrial agglomeration patterns. Using sectoral agglomeration indices we examine changes in the agglomeration patterns of the Polish manufacturing industry. The analysis is carried out on a disaggregated data set on employment for 2 and 3-digit NACE manufacturing industry sectors at the level of local administrative districts (LAD4 level. The data set covers the period 1999-2006. The overall agglomeration index for Polish manufacturing industry decreased only by 0.5 percent within the analyzed period of time. The patter of agglomeration remained largely unaffected despite of significant structural adjustments in other areas.

  7. Students Working in the Melbourne Sex Industry: Education, Human Capital and the Changing Patterns of the Youth Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Students in Australia are entering the sex industry as a pragmatic response to increasing education costs and a reduction in government income support. This paper examines the lived experiences of a group of 40 young women, all post-secondary education students, working in the Melbourne sex industry. Their experiences suggest that while the…

  8. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  9. Trade patterns of the tree nursery industry in Europe and changes following findings of citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis Forster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Eschen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade in plants for planting is a major pathway for the introduction and further spread of alien plants, pests and diseases. Information about the structure of plant trade networks is not generally available, but it is valuable for better assessing the potential risks associated with the trade in live plants and the development of prevention and mitigation measures and policy. The discovery of two larvae of Anoplophora chinensis (citrus longhorn beetle – CLB in 2009, at a nursery importing Acer palmatum from China in one of the major Dutch tree nursery areas, has resulted in the creation of a detailed dataset on the intra-European Union trade in its potential hosts. This study describes European imports of the primary host of A. chinensis, Acer spp., into the Netherlands (1998-2012 and the effects of the finding in a tree nursery area. In addition, shipments of Acer spp. from 138 producers in the nursery area in 2009 were analysed in a one-off analysis of intra-EU trade. The volume of Acer spp. imports from Asia was stable early during the studied period, and declined to 5% of the initial imports after a period of interceptions, illustrating the effect of regulations. The number of notifications of A. chinensis infestations in imported consignments of Acer spp. increased sharply in the years up to 2007, then declined as imports also reduced. Although plants were shipped to destinations throughout Europe, each producer shipped plants only to few destinations in few countries. Most of the plants were shipped to nurseries in EU countries. These patterns could make it easier to target these high risk destinations for control measures. The lack of transaction records makes it difficult to trace the destination of plants. More systematic electronic record keeping by traders and growers and the data being collated in a database that can be made available to regulatory authorities, together with further studies of plant trade data using network

  10. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis and Industry Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Kosfeld, Reinhold; Eckey, Hans-Friedrich; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Traditional measures of spatial industry concentration are restricted to given areal units. They do not make allowance for the fact that concentration may be differently pronounced at various geographical levels. Methods of spatial point pattern analysis allow to measure industry concentration at a continuum of spatial scales. While common distance based methods are well applicable for sub-national study areas, they become inefficient in measuring concentration at various levels within indust...

  11. Reading Patterns Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are

  12. CHANGE@CERN:Changes in Industrial Services

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The changes envisaged in the Management's draft plan will focus the resources of the Laboratory on the LHC project and its completion. One of CERN's largest areas of spending is in Industrial Service Contracts, which currently amount to nearly 15% of the CERN budget. At present more than 2000 people have access to CERN through such contracts, although the nature of the contracts means that expenditure is not only on labour but also on materials. The revised cost to completion of the LHC has caused understandable concern that savings in Industrial Services will give rise to job losses at CERN, and rumours of '500 lay-offs' appeared in some newspaper reports. These reports were based on misunderstanding and speculation rather than the actual plan being prepared at CERN. The current proposal regarding expenditure on Industrial Services - which is supported by the findings of Task Force 3 - is to redirect about CHF170 M to the LHC, spread over the period 2003-2009. Crucially, the Management's plan envisages a r...

  13. Changing Pattern of Saudi Arabia's Oil Exports and Broad Prospects for China and Saudi Arabia Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Changing pattern of Saudi Arabia's oil exports Saudi Arabia (hereinafter referred to as Saudi) long time ranks No. one of world oil production and lost the title only in 2009 and 2010 due to cutting output which is slightly lower than the Russian output. It is predicted that global annual oil output in the next 10 years will be more than 4 billion tons, during which Saudi annual oil output will be up to 540-550 million tons, accounting for about 14 percent of global annual oil output. Saudi's 2005 oil exports of about 360 million tons accounted for 17.78 percent of the global oil exports, and 42.66% of the Middle East. Over the next 10 years, it is expected Saudi oil exports will reach 380-400 tons. Saudi plenty of spare oil production capacity and enhanced oil recovery will increase its remaining recoverable oil reserve,

  14. Eco-Industry: A New Pattern for Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYourun; HuShanying; ShenJingzhu; ChenDingjiang

    2003-01-01

    Eco-industry is a new pattern for industrial development. This paper bnefly reviews the progress of eco-industry. The research work of Center for Industrial Ecology, Chemical Engineering Department, Tsinghua University is well introduced. Several academic issues that need further research are suggested from a system engineering point of view.

  15. Major Changes in Coal Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In recent years, facing the unprecedented difficulties and challenges such as fuel price increase, supply tension of power coal and increasing pressure of environmental protection, the survival of power enterprises is subjected to certain squeeze. The impact of coal industry on the power industry is increasing.

  16. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  17. Child drownings: a changing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, D T; Ross, F I; Grattan-Smith, T M

    1991-02-01

    Paediatric drownings in New South Wales during the years 1987-1990 are reviewed to document the current pattern. Over these three years we have registered 250 paediatric deaths by physical injury. Sixty-one (24%) of these deaths were by drowning. Twenty-nine of the 61 drownings (47%) occurred in domestic pools; 25 of these were in unfenced or inadequately fenced pools. Of the remaining four cases, one was associated with a chair being used to gain access and the other three remain unexplained. Thirty-three of the 61 drownings occurred in country areas; of these 10 were in pools, eight in rivers or creeks, six in boating accidents, four in the surf and three in dams. A changing trend identified by this study is the increasing percentage of drownings (44%) occurring in nominally "fenced" pools in which the fencing was not functioning because the gate was open or the fencing was in disrepair. Legislation must be supported by public education and council inspection if the full benefit of isolation fencing is to be realised. With respect to all drownings there is a continuing need for education about the dangers that bodies of water, even in the bath or a bucket, pose to young children, and the need for parents to strive for optimal supervision. PMID:1988786

  18. Effects of changes in steel industry concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenič, T.; A. Bobenič Hintošová; Hliboká, L.; I. Vasková

    2015-01-01

    The paper on a basis of completed mergers and acquisitions within global steel industry presents changes in steel industry concentration and analyzes its effects on world trade with steel products and on prices of input materials as well as of output products. The analyses performed for the 1990 - 2012 period revealed that increased concentration in global steel industry did not lead to more intensive world trade with steel products; however it is connected with increase of finished products ...

  19. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  20. Structural change and industrial policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Atiyas, İzak; Atiyas, Izak; Bakış, Ozan; Bakis, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on structural change in Turkey and provides an overview of the evolution of industrial policy in the last three decades. We show that Turkey has experienced substantial growth in labor productivity in the last decade and that this has been associated with substantial change in the composition of value added and employment both in the overall economy and within the manufacturing industry. Using sectoral national accounts data we decompose aggregate productivity g...

  1. Technical innovation and industrial change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical development is leading by rationalization at economical stagnation to a decrease in the working volume. The economical difficulties are based on the discrepancy between the offer of goods and services as well as the actual demand. The demand of common goods is growing compared to the consumption goods, which will decrease. The therefore necessary structure change requires a high standard of governmental efforts and social consensus. (orig.)

  2. Changing patterns of wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was not to analyze the effects of global warming on wildlife disease patterns, but to serve as a springboard for future efforts to identify those wildlife diseases, including zoonotic diseases, that could be influenced the most by warming climates and to encourage the development of models to examine the potential effects. Hales et al. (1999) examined the relationship of the incidence of a vector-borne human disease, Dengue fever, and El Nino southern oscillations for South Pacific Island nations. The development of similar models on specific wildlife diseases which have environmental factors strongly associated with transmission would provide information and options for the future management of our wildlife resources.

  3. Structural Changes in Serbian Industry during Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikolić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition is a complex process whereby a country in transition is stimulating structural changes wishing to achieve economic growth and improved social wellbeing. In this paper the authors aim to show that during transition in Serbia there such changes in the structure of manufacturing industry occurred, which resulted with only modest ​​growth that in fact was slower than in other transitional countries. By the means of theoretical and empirical approach – deductive methods, statistical and mathematical evaluation the authors have come to conclusion that structural changes did not improve industry branches like the hi-tech industry that contribute the most to PPP generation. At the same time, some low productive industries have gained on importance, therefore keeping the standard on the low levels without possibility to rapidly converge towards EU average, which was set as an ultimate goal of transition in Serbia.

  4. Evolutionary change - patterns and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Salzano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review considered: (a the factors that conditioned the early transition from non-life to life; (b genome structure and complexity in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organelles; (c comparative human chromosome genomics; and (d the Brazilian contribution to some of these studies. Understanding the dialectical conflict between freedom and organization is fundamental to give meaning to the patterns and processes of organic evolution.A presente revisão considerou: (a os fatores que condicionaram a transição inicial entre não-vida e vida; (b a estrutura e complexidade genômica em procariotos, eucariotos e organelas; (c a genômica comparada dos cromossomos humanos; (d a contribuição brasileira a alguns desses estudos. A compreensão do conflito dialético entre liberdade e organização é fundamental para dar significado aos padrões e processos da evolução orgânica.

  5. Retail industry adopting change : adaptation: automation: benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains the research on the key change adoptive agents/forces and the solu-tions to the world‟s rapidly growing and one of the most consumer facing industry. The trillions worth retail industries are undergoing the period of important restructuring inter-nally and externally. The author highlights the key factors that force the retail industry to adopt modern technologies for their daily business processes in order to be more competi-tive. The factors have been viewed in two pers...

  6. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  7. Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marianne; Jeffery, Tonya D.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of Change: Forces and Motion is an integrated science lesson that uses the 5E lesson cycle to tie together science with language arts, mathematics, literature, technology, engineering and social studies in an engaging format applicable for young learners. This lesson has been uniquely designed for the purpose of providing elementary…

  8. Creative Industry a Pattern for Growth in Bucharest Ilfov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Adumitroaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creative industries comprise the creation, production, marketing and distribution of products and services resulting from human creativity. The European cultural and creative industries (CCI represent a significant set of industries. Social, cultural and technological changes have helped fuel our thirst and demand for cultural products, new forms of entertainment, distraction, and inspiration creative and cultural industries manufacturing and production activities are the most regionally concentrated, and consumer oriented activities such as retail the least regionally concentrated. In this paper, we consider that the creative and cultural cannot be seen simply as cyclically dependent service functions to the rest of the economy. In Bucharest Ilfov region the cultural and creative industries is a model of economic development.

  9. Are Breastfeeding Patterns in Pakistan Changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Zubeda Khan

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding, apart from being beneficial to the child's health, helps in keeping the birth rate low. One of the effects of malnutrition in developing countries is the reduction in the period of lactation. In Pakistan, where the birth rate is already very high and the use of contraceptives limited, any reduction in the breastfeeding period may result in an increase of the birth rate. This study was undertaken to find out the recent changes in the breastfeeding pattern and their pot...

  10. [Changes in marriage patterns in Java].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarimbun, M

    1991-06-01

    "The paper reviews the changes that have taken place in the marriage pattern among rural Javanese. Low age at marriage and decision regarding marriage made by the parents were the norms in the past. Consummation of marriage was frequently delayed. Although marriage has been highly valued in the society, [the] divorce rate was high. With the advance of education and social progress in general, changes have taken place. Age at marriage has gone up, parental role in marital decision making has declined and the divorce rate has dropped significantly." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12317015

  11. Energy change in the industrial society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains the speeches and discussion reports of the 29th Trier colloquium on the environmental and techniques law, which was dedicated to the theme ''Energy change in the industrial society''. The goal a the colloquium consisted, to work out central questions of the energy change and also to look beyond the legal field. The documented speeches deal mainly with the promotional system of the renewal-energy law and its need for reform, whereby this topic is discussed from legal, economic, and business perspective. A further main topic form questions of planning. Hereby it deals both with the regulation of the increased use of renewable energies in zoning and land-use planning and with the network expansion including public participation. Object of the discussion are also the providing of the base load by conventional power plants as well as legal questions of the compensation and load balancing in the connection of off-shore facilities.

  12. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olascoaga, María J.; Haller, George

    2012-01-01

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer. PMID:22411824

  13. Competitive Patterns in the Danish Organic Industry & its Usefulness in Predicting Development in other EU Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2003-01-01

    The organic market in Denmark is not a niche market any longer as it was in the late 1980s. The development has followed the typical pattern for diffusion of innovations and by 2002 the market supply seemed to have surpassed the equilibrium supply by around 30% and a potential adjustment is ahead....... During the period 1987-2002 the development in the organic industry has undergone dramatic changes. In the beginning many small new businesses dominated the area. Presently, there is a remarkable concentration of cooperative monopolies and oligopolies from the conventional industry dominating...

  14. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work Reorganization and Industrial Relations Change"…

  15. Quebec industry and climatic changes : Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climatic change is a phenomenon greatly influenced by greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activity and the natural greenhouse effect necessary to sustain life on the planet. Carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere now exceed the levels prior to the industrial revolution by 31 per cent. Half of this increase occurred during the past 30 years, while the average temperature increased by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C. By using climate change models, scientists have linked this increase to the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and predict that the average temperature will rise by 1 to 3.5 degrees C during the next century with increases of 5 to 10 degrees C being felt in certain parts of Canada. In an effort to curb the emissions of carbon dioxide, the Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Change was created to represent different sectors of the industry, including energy, metallurgy, aluminium, cement, environment, mines, plastics, petrochemicals, pulp and paper, and manufacturing. The group worked at meeting the following objectives: (1) to examine the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases emissions in the industrial sector, (2) to propose and evaluate measures and initiatives for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions including their cost, impact and potential timetable for implementation, (3) to identify new and promising technologies in the field of greenhouse gases reduction, (4) to identify business opportunities and risks for industry in Quebec, and (5) to recommend an implementation strategy for the Kyoto Protocol for each sector, in terms of reduction measures that would be economical and in agreement with the various plans in place at the federal, provincial and municipal levels. A total of 22 recommendations were proposed covering the entire spectrum of the mandate. 15 tabs, 2 appendices

  16. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  17. The Changing Pattern of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Falkinham

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria are human opportunistic pathogens whose source of infection is the environment. These include both slow-growing (eg, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium and rapid-growing (eg, Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium fortuitum species. Transmission is through ingestion or inhalation of water, particulate matter or aerosols, or through trauma. The historic presentation of pulmonary disease in older individuals with predisposing lung conditions and in children has been changing. Pulmonary disease in elderly individuals who lack the classic predisposing lung conditions is increasing. Pulmonary disease and hypersensitivity pneumonitis have been linked with occupational or home exposures to nontuberculous mycobacteria. There has been a shift from Mycobacterium scrofulaceum to M avium in children with cervical lymphadenitis. Further, individuals who are immunosuppressed due to therapy or HIV-infection are at a greatly increased risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The changing pattern of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is due in part to the ability of these pathogens to survive and proliferate in habitats that they share with humans, such as drinking water. The advent of an aging population and an increase in the proportion of immunosuppressed individuals suggest that the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease will increase.

  18. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  19. growth pattern and the industrial development of the lagos region, nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Dare Ajayi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nature, growth and spatial pattern of industries within the Lagos Region. Industrial activities in this region grew progressively over the year from mere brickwork, palm oil mills, printing press, soap factory, and metal container factory to capital intensive manufacturing. Indeed, the number of industrial establishments increased from 122 in 1962 to 637 in 1993. Lagos developed into Nigeria's leading industrial center; especially following the expansion in its service and administrative sectors. Whereas, chemicals and pharmaceutical; and basic metal, iron and steel and fabricated metal products industry groups dominate in industrial scene, wood and wood products (including furniture; and non-metallic mineral products are rare. The spatial pattern shows that industrial establishments vary amongst the industrial estates/areas, and also among the industry groups. Ikeja/Ogballsheri industrial estate/area dominates the industrial scene.

  20. Changing need for Education of Industrial Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1997-01-01

    Many changes have taken place in societies and enterprises during the last decades, but have we changed our university structure according to this? Have changes in educational structure only been made according to technologies? The paper propose a change to work flow education....

  1. Technological and Structural Change in the European Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Panapoulou, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The world banking industry is undergoing a large-scale transformation. Banking systems and financial markets, both domestic and international, have been undergoing a series of profound changes. One of the main driving forces of these worldwide changes is the introduction of innovations in new information technologies. Against these trends, industrial structure in the banking industry and banking regulation have sometimes encouraged these trends and sometimes adapted to them. The aim of this p...

  2. The changing landscape of careers in the chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith J.

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the chemical industry over the past decade -- ranging from globalization to an increased focus on speciality chemicals -- threaten to leave the aspiring industrial chemist unprepared. This Commentary discusses those changes and outlines strategies to enter the job market as well equipped as possible.

  3. The Changing Face of Labor in the Newspaper Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwis, Gail L.

    Noting that the employment practices of both large and small newspapers are changing as a result of automation, this paper deals with how automation is affecting the industry employment picture in general and the union employment picture in particular, how the changing employment picture is altering the industry's economic condition, and how…

  4. Managing complex industrial change through projects

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Clément; Minel, Stéphanie; Benoit, Roussel; Jean, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper proposes some elements showing that project is an appropriate way to manage organizational change, and that an individual change occurs during these phases. We suggest that project team should manage individual change in the framework of project for three main reasons. First, being at the crossroad of strategic and operational levels, project team is in the right position in organisation to "translate" organizational change to individuals, and vice-versa. ...

  5. A Strategic Study of Establishing the Industrial Needs in Pattern Design and Technology in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joe S. AU; Allan C. CHAN; ZHANG Lei

    2007-01-01

    Pattern design and, technology play a very important role in the garment industry. In order to improve the level of pattern making and design of the garment industry, a survey was conducted to investigate the industrial needs in pattern design and technology in mainland China. The data were collected from the employers and employees from the garment industry and students in the major of fashion and clothing studies. It indicated that there was a gap between the employer and employee, especially the requirements of the industrial needs and the course contents covered by the tertiary schools. The employers expected to recruit more experienced pattern designers, at the same time, they were not reluctant to hire fresh graduates and spent more resources on the training of employees. The students knew little about their employment situation of the garment industry, spent too little time on the course study and learned too little practical skills in pattern design. They could not make use of the knowledge which prevented them from being employed by the garment industry. Efforts should be taken by both the tertiary schools and the garment industry. The students should be aspirated towards the profession of pattern cutters and the syllabuses of pattern making should be more practical and industrial orientated. The solution might benefit the garment industry a lot in a long run.

  6. Industry Clustering: Branding Changes or Substantial Differences

    OpenAIRE

    John Hobbs; Michael Walsh; Richard Moloney

    2013-01-01

    In economic policy the term ?industry cluster? is often used to explain geographical concentrations of economic and innovation activities. The prominence of the cluster idea that was in particular triggered by Porter (1990) and Enright (1996) is not too surprising since ?both firms keen to improve their competitiveness, and governments keen to exploit new sources of economic growth, need to understand how innovation works in order to better stimulate it? (OECD, 1999). Many believe that cluste...

  7. Patterns of change in family-based aggression prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, L D; Tolan, P H

    2001-04-01

    Patterns of change on three intervention targets were examined in 151 families that participated in a family intervention designed to reduce and prevent children's aggressive behavior. Measures of parents' alliance and parenting skills and children's aggressive behavior were obtained at five times during the intervention. Three cluster analyses were conducted to identify patterns of change on each target. Linear and nonlinear patterns of improvement as well as two distinct patterns of no change were obtained. The patterns were differentiated by net improvement, overall level of skill, and trajectory of change. Family characteristics also differentiated the patterns and relations were found among patterns across intervention targets. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11314554

  8. Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

  9. Diverse Pattern-making Approaches, Salary Differentials And Skills Gaps In Apparel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Japjee Kaur Kohli; Mankomal Kaur Thapar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Pattern-making is an important stage in apparel manufacture. Indian apparel industry employs both fashion designers and pattern makers (FD&PM) for developing patterns for apparel production. Employed FD&PM possess varied qualifications, work experience, back-grounds and come from different geographical regions. Migratory nature of workforce has also contributed in use of self developed pattern making approaches. Numerous pattern-making approaches have been evolved since beginning of ...

  10. Structural and technological changes of greenhouse gas emissions during the transition period in Polish industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasierb, Slawomir; Niedziela, Karol; Wojtulewicz, Jerzy

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the patterns of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Polish industry arising during the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. A method of analyzing industry energy use and GHG emissions is discussed. Using this method, the impact of changes in industrial production value, the share of specific industry branches in the total industrial production, energy intensity, and the mix of the energy carriers in the 1989 1993 period has been analyzed. The last year of the analyzed period shows favorable trends in efficiency and signs of production structure shift to a less energy-intensive one. Economic reform implemented after 1989, which released energy carriers' prices from government control, had important effects on the industrial sector. Energy efficiency and emission intensity trends of 1992 1994 were favorable; if they continue, production will return to 1989 levels with much lower energy consumption and significantly decreased GHG emissions.

  11. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  12. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...

  13. Business Model Change in the Newspaper Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uliyanova, Anastasia; Holm, Anna B.; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    identities as one of the main triggers of value proposition change in newspaper firms. The present paper seeks to fill in this research gap by focussing on young consumers’ understanding of news value in the age of postmodernity and assuming that the postmodern features of fragmentation, decentering...... of the subject, hyperreality as well as fluidity of consumers’ identities imply a change in designing strategies of news products’ value proposition(s) inside newspaper firms. By desk-reviewing existing research within identity, social linking and fragmentation of consumption in the age of postmodernity......In the strategic management literature, the customer requirements and the opportunity to satisfy a real customer who needs a job to be done are considered to be the main instigators driving the company to initiate a business model change. However, an extensive search in peer-reviewed media...

  14. Changes in the Graphic Arts Industry in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rene-Simon

    1992-01-01

    Major changes affecting Swiss graphic arts are photocomposition, replacement of letterpress with offset printing, scanners, and microcomputers and laser printers for desktop publishing. Effects on workers include monotony, alienation, and apprehension. Sex discrimination continues in the industry. (SK)

  15. Productivity Change in the Australian Sheep Industry Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Villano, Renato A.; Fleming, Euan M.; Farrell, Terence C.; Fleming, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Recent low estimates of total factor productivity change for wool producers in the Australian sheep industry indicate that they are struggling to improve their performance. This evidence is at odds with the views of many technical observers of industry performance, prompting us to re-estimate total factor productivity change for farmers in a benchmarking group in south-west Victoria who had been the subject of such a negative finding. An important transformation in sheep production in Austral...

  16. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    to support this development and explores the consequences in governance and in law that have been taken or that need to be drawn from this finding. Consistent with market-based theoretical accounts on corporate law, it finds that the changes currently underway are mainly a response to global market pressure......German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...

  17. Key Directions of Sectoral and Spatial Changes in the Russian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasovsky V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers major trends in the spatial and sectoral structure of national production and analyses the patterns of transformation of industrial systems into integrated industrial complexes, which show higher efficiency in transit condiétions. The author presents a new approach to studying the structural transformation of industrial systems during the transition of the national economy, which will make it possible to identify major trends in national production. The article seeks to draw attention to the methodology of developing and implementing industrial policy and devising an algorithm of effective transition of Russian industries in the modern conditions of international division of labor. The modernization and transnationalization of national production rests on a number of methods that make it possible for the corporate management to react rapidly to changes in the global market situation. These methods include strategic segmentation, analyzing the ability to adapt to the expected conditions, devising a company’s entrepreneurial strategy, and changes in the spatial and industrial structure of production. The transformation of national industry is associated with the introduction of mechanisms of industrial integration structures using single organizational production modules capable of rational combination and transformation of the elements of national production structure to create competitive transnational production associations, such as clusters and other production forms serving as ‘growth poles’ and becoming elements of the emerging framework for national production. This methodology makes it possible to develop new approaches, methods, and principles for analyzing the transformation of the national spatial and industrial system during economic transition. Current factors, features, patterns and trends in the transformation of national industrial systems are identified; a mechanism for devising and implementing a

  18. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    ) analyses of the cultural emancipation process during the process of cultural transformation that characterises capitalism. The starting point for Ziehe's work consists of two connected evolutionary tendencies that affect our cultural reality, and which partly destroy it and partly absorb and change it. We...... relate to this type of information. Consumers can't take any more information than they get at the moment, but this could be focused more precisely on the things consumers to know....

  19. Characteristic occurrence patterns of micropollutants and their removal efficiencies in industrial wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seok; Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Chang-Won; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-02-01

    The concentrations and removal efficiencies of various kinds of micropollutants were investigated and the relationships between the input sources of industrial wastewater and occurrence patterns of each micropollutant were identified at nine on-site industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The distribution pattern of each compound varied according to the WWTP type and several micropollutants were significantly related with specific industries: chlorinated phenols (ClPhs) with paper and metal industries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with petrogenic- and pyrogenic-related industries, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) with the paper industry, and chlorinated benzenes (ClBzs) with dye-related industries. The activated sludge (AS) process was very efficient in the removal of ClPhs and PAHs, and the filtration process in the removal of PCDD/Fs and 1,4-dioxane. Generally, the removal efficiencies of each micropollutant varied according to the WWTP type. PMID:21140016

  20. Study on the Integration Innovation Pattern of Strategic Emerging Industry in "Chang-zhu-tan" Urban Agglomeration——According to innovation agent%长株潭城市群战略性新兴产业集成创新模式研究——基于创新动因的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟荣丙

    2012-01-01

    Strategic emerging industry is the support of low-carbon economy,and its innovational is integration innovation.By analyzing the characteristic and actuality of strategic emerging industry and the advantage of integration innovation,the model of strategic emerging industry integration innovation can be classified into externally-driven and internally-driven types.The typical organization patterns are enterprise technology alliance,government-industry-university-institute collaboration,etc.And summarized the successful case of integration innovation in "chang-zhu-tan" urban agglomeration.%战略性新兴产业是发展低碳经济的支撑,集成创新是其创新的主导模式。通过分析战略性新兴产业的特点、现状和集成创新的优势,从创新动因角度探索了战略性新兴产业集成创新模式分为外力推动型和内力驱动型,其典型组织模式有官产学研、企业技术联盟等,其有效实施途径有建设工业园区、建设大学科技园、组建重点实验室等,并总结了长株潭城市群战略性新兴产业集成创新的成功典例。

  1. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate...... the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men....... Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss...

  2. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  3. Change and Its Repercussions for the Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adizes Ichak Kalderon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes have always existed but their speed and frequency have become rather apparent. Changes are present in all areas of life, but here we focus on those happening in the banking industry. Banks are undergoing revolutionary changes and they must change or perish in their present form. The article explains why banks must change and what are the threats to both asset and liability sides they would face otherwise. Changes result in modifications of strategies, organizations and management. The article concludes that banks that are the most flexible and able to adapt will win the day.

  4. Labor and Technology Change in the Nursery Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera; Buccola, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. nursery industry is highly complex, and affected on their demand side by the construction industry and on their factor supply side by the market for low-skill labor, which in turn is influenced by gyrating construction activity as well as southern-border immigration. We examine an industry seeking to adapt to a changing demand and labor environment. Our emphasis is on the manner in which nurseries cope with increasing retailer power, increasingly quality- and variety-conscious consum...

  5. Technology life cycle and specialization patterns of latecomer countries: The case of the semiconductor industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triulzi, G.

    2014-01-01

    Catching-up, leapfrogging and falling behind in terms of output and productivity in high-tech industries crucially depends on firms' ability to keep pace with technological change. In fast changing industries today's specialization does not guarantee tomorrow's success as changes in the technologica

  6. Structural change in European power and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After decades of stability the European power and gas industries are now undergoing fundamental changes. Made possible by policy reforms and technological developments, these changes are largely driven by commercial forces which have developed their own momentum and dynamics. New commercial risks are a key feature of the emerging market order and companies cannot protect themselves through a ''no move strategy''. This report explores the key changes and examines the emerging commercial strategies in response to the new environment. (author)

  7. Of yeast and mushrooms : Patterns of industry-level productivity growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert; Timmer, Marcel P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyse labour productivity growth in the United States, four European countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom), Australia and Canada between 1987 and 2003 from an industry perspective. Rather than analysing broad industry groups, we compare the pattern of gro

  8. Dual Structure-Economic Development Pattern of Chinese Mining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The theory and practice of the Chinese mining economy for the past twenty years show that the orientation of mining policy is almost contradictory to the theoretical views and policy-decisions of Chinese mining economy. Theoretical the shortage or potential crisis of resources has continuously reminded us of our focus on the guaranteeing of the mineral resources. The mining economists have drawn conclusion that China is in a primary industrial stage when a large number of raw and energy minerals are consumed to support the highspeed economic development. The researchers, managers and officials often appeal to the government to decrease social and debt burden of the mining enterprises.

  9. Determinants of land-use change patterns in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Ritsema van Eck, J.R.; Nijs, de T.C.M.; Dijst, M.J.; Schot, P.

    2004-01-01

    Land-use-change patterns are the result of the complex interaction between the human and the physical environment. Case studies of the determinants of land-use change can help to analyse which theory is appropriate in a particular region and stimulate the development of new theoretic understandings.

  10. NEW DETERMINANT FACTORS OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia ALECU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The factors that we took into account the following important elements: for goods and capital (brand promotion, reliable predictions against risk factors, knowledge capital, intangible values for hotels, for health and safety (the easily with which diseases can cross oceans and borders and multiplying rows of old and new infections, some impossible to treat, strict control of food and non-food products entering in the hotel, for new management (planning education and training process in hospitality industry, demographic problem, New trends in the workplace. One of the most dramatic changes in this industry is the way to sold products and services for public hotels. New technology, development of hospitality industry and social problems are very important, also in this process of change management to hotels.

  11. Changes in the Vector of Industrial Policy and Possibilities for Innovative Development of the Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, reasons for the increased interest in industrial policy, both in developed and developing countries are explained. The systematization of the development results of the Russian industry from 1989 to 2014 showed a lack of systematic selection of its priorities, preventing the formation of a strategic vector of industrial policy. The desired industrial policy diversity is established at the different economic development stages of the country. In the context of economic sanctions against Russia, it is shown that the emergence of a new industrial policy vector is connected to the need for import substitution and concomitant changes in the development model of the domestic economy. The dynamics and characteristics of the industrial development area are shown by the example of a highly developed region like the Central Urals. The total level of innovation activity of organizations continues to be low and composes only 12 %, although in the manufacturing sector this index is higher than the regional economy index by four absolute percentage points. The industrial policy of the Middle Urals is analyzed, and innovation drivers of the industrial sector of the regional economy are established. The possibilities of the defense, civil engineering, mining, chemical and pharmaceutical, and forest complexes of Sverdlovsk Region to implement the import substitution policy are revealed. The most significant investment projects that will reduce the import dependence of the regional economy are presented. The possibilities of the research sector and created innovation infrastructure of the region in solving this problem are shown. The necessity of the regional laws on industrial policy elaboration, developing the basic regulations of the Federal Law "On Industrial Policy in the Russian Federation" in proved

  12. Impact of Changing Facets of Inter-firm Interactions on Manufacturing Excellence: A Social Network Perspective of Indian Automotive Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mamata Parhi

    2008-01-01

    The inherent complexity of the innovation process puts interaction among firms and their specificities concerning the patterns of interaction at the center-stage. Hence, an uncovering of the interactive pattern among firms in the industry may reveal many hidden patterns, viz., the existing dependence and dominance structure of firms and the evolving dynamical changes based their on. Guided by these, this paper studies the vertical relational structure of automotive and auto component firms in...

  13. Changes in Business Structures: Challenges for Management of Libyan Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abouazoum, Alafi; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2008-01-01

    Libya has become a transition economy due to global industrial and political changes in the past decades. Being for long time under government control has created a number of challenges for the management of the SOEs. The most challenging aspect is firm performance improvement. Based on a pilot stud

  14. Changing Skills in Metalworking Industries: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchiers, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Transformations in the French metalworking industries have given rise to numerous studies on employment and job content in metallurgy over the past decade. One study related technical transformations to changes in the skills content of certain categories of workers. Although automation results in the elimination of certain know-how belonging to an…

  15. Industrial Change and Black Men's Relative Earnings: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroman, Wayne

    This study examines the relative earnings of black men from a time series perspective covering 1930 to 1990. Regression analyses were fitted to annual data to isolate factors responsible for changes in relative earnings. National and regional data on population growth and employment growth by industry were analyzed to determine the degree of…

  16. Technological change and industry competitiveness through the evolution of localised comparative advantages - The case of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Daniela; Zini, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The influence of technological change on industry performances is nowadays being increasingly investigated under the broad category of "national systemic competitiveness". Moreover theoretical works have shown that the relationship between technology and economic performance not only takes different forms in different socio-economic contexts, but is also powerfully influenced by the way that innovation processes evolve over time along strongly localised patterns. The present study is focused ...

  17. Industrial Development, Firm Dynamics and Patterns of Productivity Growth: The Case of the Cotton Spinning Industry in Prewar Japan, 1894-1924

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between patterns of productivity growth and the development stage of an industry, using firm-level data on the cotton spinning industry in Japan in the late nineteenth century. It is found that patterns of productivity growth depend on the development stage of the industry. In the earlier stage of industrial development, productivity growth of each firm, namely the within effect, was the sole major source of aggregate productivity growth. On the other hand...

  18. "Industrial Development, Firm Dynamics and Patterns of Productivity Growth: The Case of the Cotton Spinning Industry in Prewar Japan, 1894-1924"

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between patterns of productivity growth and the development stage of an industry, using firm-level data on the cotton-spinning industry in Japan in the late-nineteenth century. It is found that patterns of productivity growth depend on the development stage of the industry. In the earlier stage of industrial development, the productivity growth of each firm, namely the within effect, was the sole major source of aggregate productivity growth. On the other ...

  19. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  20. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-07-07

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.

  1. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, B.; Keegan, P. [International Institute for Energy Conservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  2. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues

  3. Energy conservation and technological change as factors in climate change - a pulp and paper industry example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleff, A.M. [Stone Container Corp., Tucker, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Pulp and Paper Industry in the United States is one of this country`s most energy intensive industries with energy generally being the second or third largest direct operating expense in mill budgets. As such, the industry has long had an effective energy conservation program and has recorded impressive reductions in energy use. It is also one of the two most capital intensive industries in the United States and has a long capital investment cycle, which can be estimated by various techniques at between 20 and 30 years. This paper discusses the estimated impact of the industry`s energy conservation achievements on long term emission reductions of greenhouse gases and will show how technological changes within the industry have impacted past emission reductions and the prospects for continued progress through emerging technologies. The importance to the global competitiveness of the industry of implementing technological change designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within the industry`s normal investment cycle will also be reviewed.

  4. Climate change and agriculture. The agricultural industry = offender and victim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, attention has been repeatedly drawn to the rapidly increasing effects of human influences and the changing climate. The industrial landscape is seen as an important cause, with industrialisation and increasing energy consumption as well as our consumer society and the volume of traffic. The actual extent and speed of climatic change can only be estimated. The process leading to the current extent of scientific knowledge of climatic change, its possible extent and its effects on the plant and wildlife eco-systems are described in detail. Finally, counter-measures and recommendations for action are discussed. (orig.)

  5. The phylogenetic pattern of speciation and wing pattern change in neotropical Ithomia butterflies (Lepidoptera: nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiggins, Chris D; Mallarino, Ricardo; Willmott, Keith R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2006-07-01

    Species level phylogenetic hypotheses can be used to explore patterns of divergence and speciation. In the tropics, speciation is commonly attributed to either vicariance, perhaps within climate-induced forest refugia, or ecological speciation caused by niche adaptation. Mimetic butterflies have been used to identify forest refugia as well as in studies of ecological speciation, so they are ideal for discriminating between these two models. The genus Ithomia contains 24 species of warningly colored mimetic butterflies found in South and Central America, and here we use a phylogenetic hypothesis based on seven genes for 23 species to investigate speciation in this group. The history of wing color pattern evolution in the genus was reconstructed using both parsimony and likelihood. The ancestral pattern for the group was almost certainly a transparent butterfly, and there is strong evidence for convergent evolution due to mimicry. A punctuationist model of pattern evolution was a significantly better fit to the data than a gradualist model, demonstrating that pattern changes above the species level were associated with cladogenesis and supporting a model of ecological speciation driven by mimicry adaptation. However, there was only one case of sister species unambiguously differing in pattern, suggesting that some recent speciation events have occurred without pattern shifts. The pattern of geographic overlap between clades over time shows that closely related species are mostly sympatric or, in one case, parapatric. This is consistent with modes of speciation with ongoing gene flow, although rapid range changes following allopatric speciation could give a similar pattern. Patterns of lineage accumulation through time differed significantly from that expected at random, and show that most of the extant species were present by the beginning of the Pleistocene at the latest. Hence Pleistocene refugia are unlikely to have played a major role in Ithomia diversification.

  6. Climate change in the North and the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottem, Svein Vigeland; Moe, Arild

    2007-11-15

    How will climate change affect oil industry operations in the High North? The report analyses impacts in the North that are different from, or come in addition to, the impacts felt globally, from two angles: One outlining climate-related changes in nature and their impacts on oil industry operations, and the second discussing actual and possible policy responses and their impact. Forecasts and scenarios developed by climate scientists indicate that the situation is volatile. The climate and weather will be less predictable. Although the long term tendency is clear, there will be large variations in ice from year to year, with some seasons colder and with more ice than what has been 'normal' in recent years. The industry cannot count on areas remaining ice-free, and when it comes to fixed installations it will have to prepare for a situation in 2030 with maximum ice not much different than today. Climate policies are not likely to have a strong direct impact on the operations of oil companies in the north, but the climate development in the North is likely to impact other political processes, public opinion and consumers. In turn they may affect the conditions for oil industry operations. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs

  7. NEW CONSUMPTION PATTERNS CAUSED BY CHANGES IN FAMILY COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Gílson de Lima Garófalo; Patrícia Emídio dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The idea of this contribution arose from observations in supermarkets, buildings with smaller apartments scattered throughout the large cities and the new family compositions. The work aims to verify the reasons for changes in consumption patterns, notoriously from the XXI century, the time of redistribution of income and consequently the reduction of inequality in Brazil. The access to goods and services by a middle class emerging from political and economic changes in the country showed the...

  8. ECOCHIC Design: Ready to Change the Pattern of Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    How to do sustainable fashion? A unique specially- established Design Award would inspire you the principles of zero-waste, up-cycling as well as reconstruction into your design. Are you ready to change and challenge the traditional pattern of fashion?

  9. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.;

    2008-01-01

    rates increased annually by 7.0% (95% confidence interval 3.4%-10.7%) and 3.4% (0.1%-6.8%), respectively, in men and by 13.7% (9.1%-18.6%) and 12.2% (7.8-16.8%), respectively, in women between 1968 and 2004. However, the incidence peak remained considerably lower than what can be observed in young......A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  10. Industrial change and social mobility: Black men in New York City & London 1970-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Ladipo, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper takes up a theme which has been a major area of sociological inquiry since the end of the last century: the impact of industrial change on patterns of social mobility. It looks at the inter- generational mobility of black men in New York City and London, cities which have undergone ‘massive and parallel changes in their economic base, spatial organization, and social structure' over the past twenty five years (Sassen 1991, p. 4). In terms of occupations, there is seen to be a strik...

  11. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption...... seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  12. Investigation of impact of environmental changes on precipitation pattern of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghumman, A R; Hassan, I; Khan, Q U Z; Kamal, M A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, variability in precipitation pattern of Pakistan due to environmental and climatic changes has been studied. Maps have been generated to depict global precipitation variation. Precipitation data of 25 stations of Pakistan have been used. These data were taken from Meteorological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results of two global climate models, namely Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research's third generation general circulation model and National Center for Atmospheric Research's first generation precipitation circulation model for A2 scenario have been applied to investigate the changes. It is observed that precipitation pattern will change significantly in the future. The occurrence of precipitation in all seasons for Pakistan is expected to increase with almost uniform distribution across a season. Average annual precipitation of the country will undergo an increase in the range of +57 to +71 % as compared to average of the base period.

  13. Change in the automotive industry; Fordonsindustrin i foeraendring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaellstroem, Mikael [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Pohl, Hans [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Liljemark, Stefan [SwedPower AB (Sweden); Leander, Aasa [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Maruo, Kanehira [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden); Waldenby, Torbjoern [JIC Consulting AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mellgren, Henry [Fordonskomponentgruppen, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The 'Change in the Automotive Industry' investigation was initiated by the Swedish Energy Agency in the autumn of 2000. The objective has been to illuminate and analyse technical developments in respect of the use of electricity in vehicles, not only for various ancillary systems but also for propulsion. A number of Swedish businesses that have, or could have, links with the automotive industry have been investigated. The main aim has been to attempt to identify the opportunities for the industry to meet and benefit from the changes. A total of 14 businesses have been visited, and a further 29 companies have replied to a survey questionnaire on the theme. Business intelligence shows that a great deal of work is being done on the use of electricity for automotive propulsion, in everything from battery vehicles, via electric hybrid vehicles to fuel cell vehicles. In terms of development, the Japanese manufacturers are in the lead, while the USA constitutes the largest single driving force behind development. The technical development requires a greater understanding within several new disciplines, and leads to major changes between different industry sectors. The results show that Sweden possesses world class expertise in several of the fields that can become very important for tomorrow's automotive industry. At the same time, the companies expect difficulties in recruiting personnel qualified in the appropriate disciplines, such as development and design. There is, therefore, a clear risk that the present-day expertise will progressively fade away if nothing is done.There is a wide range of awareness of the greater use of electricity in vehicles. However, in principle, all companies feel that development towards new drive trains will proceed rapidly. Most of the companies are also very interested in descriptions and analyses of the state of development. The general conclusion of the work is that there are excellent prospects for Swedish industry to

  14. Land use changes in Europe: Processes of change, environmental transformations, and future patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the pressures to control costs and resources expended on cleaning up hazardous waste sites increase, there is a growing notion that consideration of ultimate land use or end states should aid in focusing remediation efforts, and thus, controlling costs. Resources would not be expended on all sites equally, rather knowledge that a particular site is most likely to be used for industrial rather than residential purposes, for example, would influence the type of clean-up invoked at a site and the clean-up goals themselves. Thus, land use has become a hot topic among environmental risk assessors and risk managers. This milieu makes the contents of Volume 18 in Kluwer's GeoJournal Library of particular interest. The book is a collection of papers, with contributors from across Europe. The paper generally fall into three categories: analyses of historical land use patterns in particular countries, forecasts of changing land use trends for the EC countries, and analyses of particular factors affecting land use decisions (atmospheric contamination, hydrologic regimes, land use decision methodologies). Although very little of the text deals explicitly with hazardous waste clean up, the perspective provided by a view of the European struggles with land use allocations provides helpful context to those in the historically unlimited spaces of the United States just beginning to come to terms with the concept

  15. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

  16. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  17. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, S. van den [MEDIAN, Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, M. [University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Bettignies, H.C. de [INSEAD, Fontainebleau (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  18. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  19. Gaze patterns of gross anatomy students change with classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C; Iyer, Arjun; Ghebremichael, Abenet; Frustace, Bruno S; Flannery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that experts exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than those of less experienced individuals. In visual search tasks, experts use fewer, longer fixations to fixate for relatively longer on salient regions of the visual field while less experienced observers spend more time examining nonsalient regions. This study investigates whether changes in gaze patterns reflect learning by students in a medical gross anatomy course. Students were asked to examine photographs of dissections similar to those they experienced in class and to identify the tagged structure in each image. We postulated that, compared to naive behavior (behavior at baseline and when examining unfamiliar content) students would examine familiar content for longer and would direct proportionally more fixation time on cognitively salient regions of the images while using fewer, longer duration fixations. Our students examined familiar images for significantly longer than they did at baseline (P studies of expertise, which have primarily focused on the gaze patterns of true experts. PMID:25156955

  20. Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial sector is responsible for a significant share of global energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Energy efficiency is commonly seen as the most cost-effective, least-polluting, and most readily-accessible industrial energy saving option available in the industrial sector worldwide. Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In the International Energy Agency (IEA) 450 parts per million stabilisation scenario, over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector by 2050, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated by IEA and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent, depending upon the sector. There is significant potential to reduce, at low or no cost, the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities. Many policies and programmes - at a national level - have already demonstrated significant improvements in industrial energy efficiency. The associate reduction in energy needs often also improves economic competitiveness as well as mitigates GHG emissions. However, at an international level, approaches such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are not yet delivering the expected energy efficiency improvements. Existing and effective industrial energy efficiency policies and measures could be replicated at a global level. Key elements of those policies and measures include increasing facility management attention to the issue of energy efficiency; promoting the dissemination of information, practice, and tools; increasing the auditing and implementation capacity; and developing the market for industrial energy efficiency

  1. An industrial customer's view of changes in electricity purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purchasing agent for Canadian Occidental Chemicals described his experiences in the purchase of electricity under the new circumstances of competition. Electrical power costs for Canadian Occidental's manufacturing operation were described as a key consideration in expanding their chlorate production. The ideal purchasing scheme was described from the purchaser's standpoint. A list of what purchasers wish to gain from increased supplier choices was provided. The behaviour of the electricity suppliers that provide power to CanadianOccidental was described since changes in British Columbia's electric power regulations were enacted. Electric utility marketing practices in Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta were noted in comparison. It was prophesized that deeregulation will ultimately benefit consumers and provincial economies, by transforming the power industry into a customer driven industry

  2. LABOUR MARKET AMID THE CHANGES IN LIGHT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemboiu George-Nicolae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian economy has undergone a number of changes after 1989, their effects being present all over the areas and causing chain reactions. An eloquent example is light industry, whose internal supply market has known a significant decrease due to the reducing activity in agriculture, animal husbandry, etc., while internal outlets had to face imports, usually of a low quality. In this respect, light industry has turned to international trade, given the cheap labour force, over time has been developed the lohn production system. The gross labour was among the most required in this area, the design and sales activities were often external customer's responsibility. The old factories were not able to adapt to the new conditions, so many of them reduced the activity. In the end it led to a major layoff of labour force both in light industry, as well as in associated areas. Only a part of it has managed to reintegrate in the new enterprises which were more adapted to current market conditions. Solving the problem of excess labour force, given its presence especially in rural areas and in mono-industrial towns, representative areas and the developing Region South-West Oltenia, also involves the relaunching of light industry. There is need to support the internal sources of supply of raw materials, as well as a new view related to the selling of products, based on creative activities and exploration of markets. These marks can lead to occupational integration of the excess labour force and to ensure the social balance in the areas affected by the restructuring of national economy.

  3. Climate change and amphibian diversity patterns in Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochoa-Ochoa, Leticia M.; Rodríguez, Pilar; Mora, Franz;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to characterize at fine scale alpha and beta diversity patterns for Mexican amphibians and analyze how these patterns might change under a moderate climate-change scenario, highlighting the overall consequences for amphibian diversity at the country level. We used a geo...... of presence and dispersal capability) in the modelling processes. We simulated the base line (2000) and future scenarios for Mexican amphibian diversity (2020, 2050, 2080), using climate data layers constructed for Mexico. Using moving-window analyses of different sizes (9, 25, 100, 225 and 400 km2) we...... country boundaries) were particularly intense during the period 2020–2050. The results implied that heterogeneous zones associated with mountain ranges will remain particularly important for amphibian diversity and thus constitute areas for continued conservation prioritization in the face of climate...

  4. Political economy and price ratio changes: Electric industry under transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary E.

    This study began early in 2000, when the electric market was beginning to evolve from a vertical integrated industry to a market-driven, global industry where the generation portion of the industry was being sold to independent market-based companies. The beginnings of acquisitions, restructuring and re-alignments of the transmission and distribution systems were heightened during this period. In addition, as this study was underway, a tumultuous restructuring in California caused some proponents of deregulation to question the changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate price changes at the state level during the last 10 years (1990-2000). The conceptual framework is built on a study released in 1996. This study predicted lower prices as deregulation in the electric industry occurred and consumers had more choices in suppliers. In order to gain additional insight, the study is comprised of a quantitative analysis of price changes over time as well as a qualitative investigation of a certain geographic area. As a result of the quantitative analysis performed, the study has failed to reject the null hypothesis that deregulated states exhibited no difference in price ratios than those states that remain regulated. This was tested at the level of political influence (states with elected versus appointed) commissions. In fact, whether the population is segmented nationally, regionally, politically or by level of deregulation, price ratios have decreased from 1985-1996. National price ratios have been declining since the mid-1980s. A flattening of the trend for the last four years (1997-2000) may be due to the current retrenching as a result of the California deregulation experience. The qualitative section seeks to understand what influences electric prices have on regional economic development efforts. The interview results have determined that lower electric prices help to contribute to successful economic development activities, but they are not the

  5. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time–space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

  6. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism economy after its democratic transition. Historically, the South African hotel industry became dominated by one- and two-star budget accommodation as a result of the country’s liquor legislation. With the reconfiguration of the hotel industry after 1990 to target the growing international tourism market, the role of budget hotels changed. This analysis examines the diminished role of budget hotels in South Africa’s hotel economy, the shifting nature of the budget hotel and location patterns of budget hotels from 1990 to the present. It shows that post-1990 budget hotels are mainly concentrated in large cities and secondary centres of South Africa, and that in small towns the former liquor-focused budget hotel has been replaced by other forms of accommodation.

  7. The ongoing changes in the base oil industry and their potential impact on the lubricant industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Holm, Valentina [Nynas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    During the last years the base oil industry has undergone significant changes, with the rapid growth of Group II and Group III paraffinic base oils and the corresponding decline of Group I supply. The announcements of future instalments show that the increase of Group II and III capacity is indeed a stable trend all over the world. Based on publicly available information, the Group II capacity is expected to grow by 8.6 million tpa, reaching over 22 million tpa, and Group III capacity is expected to double from current 4.1 million tpa up to 8.2 million tpa. As the demand is not expected to grow at the same pace as the increasing supply, it is likely that this new capacity will lead to an oversupply situation in the next five years. Because of their production disadvantages compared to Group II and III and a shrinking demand in automotive applications, it is likely that Group I plants will close down or will operate at reduced throughput to compensate for the new Group II and III capacity. A decline of Group I capacity in favour of Group II and III may pose problems in the formulation of those industrial lubricants where solvency and/or viscosity are needed, such as lubricating greases, metalworking fluids, and several process oils applications. Either alone or in combination with Group II or III oils, naphthenic oils can be used in the formulation of industrial lubricants, as solvency and viscosity poroviders. (orig.)

  8. NEW CONSUMPTION PATTERNS CAUSED BY CHANGES IN FAMILY COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gílson de Lima Garófalo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this contribution arose from observations in supermarkets, buildings with smaller apartments scattered throughout the large cities and the new family compositions. The work aims to verify the reasons for changes in consumption patterns, notoriously from the XXI century, the time of redistribution of income and consequently the reduction of inequality in Brazil. The access to goods and services by a middle class emerging from political and economic changes in the country showed the formation of a new archetype of consumption that is not only from the demands of modern life, but also from historical facts that can lead to behavioral changes, including different types of family compositions. Thus, by using a qualitative and quantitative methodology, with a theoretical basis accompanied by a field research with application of a specific questionnaire consistent with the research of family budgets, this work aimed to map the metamorphoses and understand the consequences for the economy of this whole context.

  9. Changing patterns in global lead supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H.

    The past decade has seen some very significant changes in the supply and the demand for lead. One of the most obvious developments is the emergence of China—both as the world's largest producer of primary lead and as a very significant consumer. Perhaps less obvious have been the increasing role of secondary lead in meeting demand for refined metal and the rapid growth in demand for industrial batteries, which have helped to sustain an annual average growth rate in Western World consumption of 3.4% between 1993 and 2000. Patchy knowledge about the lead industry in China has made it difficult to anticipate developments there and has created uncertainty in the global market. This uncertainty, and lead's poor environmental image, largely undeserved as it may be today, has meant few companies outside the lead business want to be seen participating in it. This is just one factor accounting for the very limited increase in lead mine production for the foreseeable future. With around 75% of lead now being used in batteries and a very high global scrap recycling rate, it is probable that most, if not all, growth in lead demand can be met without an overall increase in mine production. The challenge for the lead industry will be to ensure that sufficient recycling capacity is in place in the right parts of the world to process an increasing quantity of battery and other lead-bearing scrap. Huge investment in the world's telecommunications infrastructure and IT networks in the second half of the 1990s created a major market for industrial lead-acid batteries. With the collapse of the market for telecommunications equipment in 2001, lead consumption has fallen sharply and has revealed the extent to which demand growth in recent years has been dependent on this sector.

  10. Design and Implementation of Integrated Solid Wastes Management Pattern in Industrial areas, Case Study of Shahroud, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Yaghmaeian

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Results showed that implementation of this pattern, i.e. running source separation, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

  11. Effects Climate Change on Water Resources Availability and Vegetation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, S.; Pizzolla, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2012-12-01

    Society is facing growing environmental problems that require new research efforts to understand the way ecosystems operate and survive and their mutual relationships with the hydrologic cycle. Ecohydrology faces this task with the aim to provide better understanding of implications of land use changes on terrestrial ecosystems and better comprehension of climatic changes effects on terrestrial ecosystems. The scope of the present research is to deepen our understanding on the mutual relationship between climate, vegetation and basin water budget within an ecohydrological framework. With this aim, a coupled hydrological/ecological model is adopted to describe simultaneously vegetation pattern evolution and hydrological water budget at the basin scale. Analyses have been carried out over the Basilicata Region (in Southern Italy) that is an ideal test area located in the core of the Biodiversity Hotspot area of the Mediterranean basin with a significant variety of climatic conditions ranging from humid to semi-arid and arid. The hydrological analysis have been carried out using a recently formulated framework for the water balance at the daily level linked with a spatial model for the description of the spatial organization of vegetation. This makes possible to quantitatively assess the effects on soil water balance of future climatic scenario and to identify the most vulnerable area of the region under study. Results describe the non-linear relationship between climatic forcing, vegetation patterns and water budget. It is interesting to underline that in the most vulnerable ecosystems small change in climatic conditions may produce significant transformation on vegetation patterns and water resources availability.

  12. A Research on the Trend Pattern Analysis of Industrial Water Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Nishida, Wataru; Kim, Dong Mun; Lim, Yong Min; Jun, Byungdug

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose the average trend pattern of the industrial water consumption. A real-time sensing technique was adopted for the consumption data acquisition. Data were transformed from the field equipments to the management server in every 5 minutes. The data acquired were substituted to a polynomial formula selected. As a result, a series of models were developed for each day. Each of these models is finalized to represent the average water consumption for the day. I...

  13. Diffusion Patterns in Convergence among High-Technology Industries: A Co-Occurrence-Based Analysis of Newspaper Article Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeokseong Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Firms in high-technology industries have faced great technological and market uncertainty and volatility in the past few decades. In order to be competitive and sustainable in this environment, firms have been pursuing technological innovation, product differentiation, vertical integration, and alliances, which eventually drive industry convergence, defined as the process of blurring boundaries between previously distinct industries. Although industry convergence has greatly affected industrial structure and the economy, little research has investigated this phenomenon, especially its diffusion patterns; thus, it is still unclear which industries are converging more rapidly or have a higher potential for convergence. This paper explores these issues by investigating industry convergence in U.S. high-technology industries, using a large set of newspaper articles from 1987 to 2012. We perform a co-occurrence-based analysis to obtain information on industry convergence and estimate its diffusion patterns using an internal-influence logistic model. We find heterogeneous diffusion patterns, depending on convergent-industry pairs and their wide dispersion. In addition, we find that the potential degree of industry convergence is significantly negatively associated with its growth rate, which indicates that a great deal of time will be required for industry convergence between high-technology industries with this high potential to achieve a high degree of convergence.

  14. Innovative semielliptical seismic pattern improving line-change efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walus, Artur; Gucma, Lucjan; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a new method for conducting turns by vessels towing seismic cables. A comparison was made between the traditional way of turning to indicate the advantages of the proposed pattern. In order to improve the overview of the complete geometry of a towed streamer system, a model of marine seismic research quality coefficients was applied. The turning method was tested onboard a seismic vessel towing eight streamers of 6 km in length. A significant reduction of time required for line-change was achieved (up to 45 % depending on ocean current speed and direction, speed of the vessel, skills of navigating team). The introduced quality coefficient of geophysical research works is based on the mathematical model of positions deviation of streamers geophones with relation to their idealized position. The model was created to be used while the vessel is on a steady course to improve the quality of acquired data; however, it was found useful during line changes as well.

  15. Detecting regional changes in myocardial contraction patterns using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ortiz, Gerardo I.; Chandrashekara, Raghavendra; Rhode, Kawal S.; Razavi, Reza; Hill, Derek L. G.; Rueckert, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Measuring changes in cardiac motion patterns can assist in diagnosing the onset of arrhythmia and ischaemia and in the follow-up of treatment. This work presents a methodology for measuring such motion changes from MR images. Non-rigid registration is used to track cardiac motion in a sequence of 3D tagged MR images. We use a cylindrical coordinate system to subdivide the myocardium into smaller anatomically meaningful regions and to express motion derived measurements such as displacement and strain for each myocardial region during the cardiac cycle. In the first experiment we have evaluated the proposed methods using synthetic image sequences where the ground truth was available. These images were generated using a cardiac motion simulator for tagged MRI. Normal and abnormal motion fields were produced by modifying parameters in a small region of the myocardium. In the second experiment we have acquired two separate tagged MR image sequences from five healthy volunteers. Both acquisitions have been carried out without moving the volunteer inside the scanner, thus avoiding potential misregistration errors due to subject motion between scans. In addition, one of volunteers was subjected to stress during one of the scans. In the final experiment we acquired tagged MR images from a patient with super-ventricular tachyarrhythmia, before and after radio frequency ablation. The image acquisition and catheter intervention were performed with a combined X-ray and MRI system. Detection results were correct on synthetic data and no region was incorrectly classified as having significant changes in the repetition studies. Significant changes in motion pattern were measured in the stress and ablation studies. Furthermore, results seem to corroborate that the ablation regularised cardiac contraction.

  16. Changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological response after partial deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiekenkamp, Inge; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Lin, Henry; Drüe, Clemens; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of land use change on hydrology can be extremely challenging. It requires looking beyond the current structure and functioning of hydrological systems to predict how the system is influenced in a changed setting. Although the hydrological effects of land use change have been studied extensively, only few high resolution datasets are available to accurately describe, model and predict detailed changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological fluxes and states due to land use change. The TERENO test site Wüstebach provides a unique monitoring setup to measure the major components of the water balance (evapotranspiration, discharge, precipitation) and the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture before and after a partial deforestation. Here, we present 5 years of measured hydrological data, including soil moisture and water budget component data 3 years before and 2 years after the partial deforestation. A data-driven investigation was used to understand changes and related feedback mechanisms in spatiotemporal hydrological response patterns. The effects of deforestation on soil moisture and evapotranspiration were analyzed by comparing states and fluxes for the control and the deforested area. The effects on discharge characteristics were analyzed using discharge metrics, including baseflow separation, peakflow rates and time to peak. Changes in preferential flow occurrence were identified using a sensor response time analysis of soil moisture measurements before and after the deforestation where preferential flow was identified as a non-sequential sequence of sensor response times within the soil. As expected from earlier studies, the partial deforestation caused a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in discharge. A closer look at the high resolution datasets however reveals new insights in the intra-annual variability of the water balance components. The overall decrease in evapotranspiration caused a large increase in soil

  17. Changing perception of value as a driver for industry transformation - case music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vainio, Velde

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to better understand the dynamics of how and why industries transform and the role that value perception, innovation and business models play in that transformation. More specifically, we aim to get a better understanding of where the music industry is currently standing and where it is headed in order to make more informed decisions about new business ventures in this industry. In the current debate over the future of music industry and whether the industry...

  18. Energy change in the industrial society; Energiewende in der Industriegesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebeler, Timo; Hendler, Reinhard; Proelss, Alexander; Reiff, Peter (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The present volume contains the speeches and discussion reports of the 29th Trier colloquium on the environmental and techniques law, which was dedicated to the theme ''Energy change in the industrial society''. The goal a the colloquium consisted, to work out central questions of the energy change and also to look beyond the legal field. The documented speeches deal mainly with the promotional system of the renewal-energy law and its need for reform, whereby this topic is discussed from legal, economic, and business perspective. A further main topic form questions of planning. Hereby it deals both with the regulation of the increased use of renewable energies in zoning and land-use planning and with the network expansion including public participation. Object of the discussion are also the providing of the base load by conventional power plants as well as legal questions of the compensation and load balancing in the connection of off-shore facilities.

  19. International change and technological evolution in the fashion industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Pratt (Andy); P. Borrione (Paola); M. Lavanga (Mariangela); M. D' Ovidio (Marianna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to sketch out the parameters of the fashion industry. Whilst, without doubt fashion is a means of personal and cultural expression, it is also an industry. The industrial and economic aspects have been relatively under-researched. We highlight the fact that th

  20. Finding occupational accident patterns in the extractive industry using a systematic data mining approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with occupational accident patterns of in the Portuguese Extractive Industry. It constitutes a significant advance with relation to a previous study made in 2008, both in terms of methodology and extended knowledge on the patterns’ details. This work uses more recent data (2005–2007) and this time the identification of the “typical accident” shifts from a bivariate, to a multivariate pattern, for characterising more accurately the accident mechanisms. Instead of crossing only two variables (Deviation x Contact), the new methodology developed here uses data mining techniques to associate nine variables, through their categories, and to quantify the statistical cohesion of each pattern. The results confirmed the “typical accident” of the 2008 study, but went much further: it reveals three statistically significant patterns (the top-3 categories in frequency); moreover, each pattern includes now more variables (4–5 categories) and indicates their statistical cohesion. This approach allowed a more accurate vision of the reality, which is fundamental for risk management. The methodology is best suited for large groups, such as national Authorities, Insurers or Corporate Groups, to assist them planning target-oriented safety strategies. Not least importantly, researchers can apply the same algorithm to other study areas, as it is not restricted to accidents, neither to safety.

  1. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B and control experiment 20C3M are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. This reveals in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that have a high likelihood and are consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1 the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2 the quantification of notable consistent changes calculated relative to the GCM specific natural variability. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions the likelihood of hydrological change is large.

    Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases strongly for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube while discharge of monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  2. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B, and control experiment 20C3M are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. We reveal in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that are significant and consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1 the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2 the quantification of consistent significant change calculatesd relative to both the natural variability and the inter-model spread. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions likelihood of hydrological change is large.

    Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases are large for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube. While discharge of Monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  3. Insensitivity of Global Neolithic Transition Patterns On Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, K. W.

    Aiming to assess the relative importance of climate events on human history through- out the Holocene here a recently build model is employed. In the model 196 world regions are resolved which mainly differ in their food extraction potential (FEP) and potential number of agricultures. Both regional features are estimated using exist- ing vegetation maps. An array of state variables describes farming to foraging ratio, domestication success, technological and organizational development and population density. Deterministic rules for their time evolution are derived from a growth func- tion, an adaptation principle and a diffusion submodel. Overall model validity can be demonstrated by a striking similarity of simulated patterns and archaeological evi- dence. It is demonstrated that abrupt as well as smooth climatic changes, induced by FEP modifications, do not significantly affect development trajectories of Neolithic communities or global transition patterns. The stability of this result is tested through conducting numerical experiments based on massive parameter variation. However, population density always reacts sensitively, leading to the emergence of distinct mi- gration waves. An in-depth analysis of the differential model behavior provides new arguments in the face of recent or established theories linking climatic factors with human development.

  4. Gonorrhoea in men: diagnostic aspects and changing antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sandeepkumar om nanda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gonorrhea since the ancient times is causing significant morbidity. Though a number of methods are available for diagnosis in men, culture still remains the gold standard. Gonococci are delicate and fastidious bacteria but its remarkable ability to develop resistance to a variety of antibiotics makes it a major threat to public health. OBJECTIVES: - To detect the incidence in symptomatic men and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the gonococcal isolates. MATERIALS & METHODS: - 100 urethral swabs from men with urethritis were screened for presence of gonococci by gram stain and culture on Chocolate Agar and Modified Thayer-Martin medium. The isolated gonococci were screened for Penicillinase production and susceptibility to antibiotics was subsequently carried out by standard disc diffusion method. RESULTS: - Gonorrhoea was detected in 56 of the urethral swabs giving a incidence of 56%. The difference of detection in gram stain and culture was insignificant (P>0.05. Of all the isolated gonococci considerable resistance was seen to ciprofloxacin(46.4%, tetracycline(23.2% and Penicillin(17% with Incidence of PPNG being 12.5%. All strains were uniformly sensitive to Spectinomycin and Cephalosporins. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: - Neisseria gonorrhoeae is main etiological agent in urethritis in sexually active men and culture though time consuming, costly and demands expertise is still better method for diagnosis as gives high isolation rate and observe changing patterns in antibiotic susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 177-180

  5. Change of radiation pattern in a plasma monopole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpoush, V.; Shokri, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we have numerically solved the dispersion equation of the surface wave propagating on a uniform collisional plasma column. The electric field and surface current distributions have been computed in different situations. We have investigated the effect of plasma frequency variation on the spatial distribution of the surface current. Results show that varying the electron density of the plasma column enables the plasma column to work as a plasma monopole antenna with a fixed geometrical structure and excited frequency which is able to create different radiation patterns. Our numerical analysis also shows that a little change in the radius of the plasma column has a strong influence on the current distribution at the excited frequency in RF region. This effect can be ignored in the usual (metallic) antenna while it is very important in designing of the plasma monopole antenna.

  6. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  7. Real-time optical fiber digital speckle pattern interferometry for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Robert K.; Cheung, Y. M.; Lo, C. H.; Tam, T. K.

    1997-03-01

    There is current interest, especially in the industrial sector, to use the digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) technique to measure surface stress. Indeed, many publications in the subject are evident of the growing interests in the field. However, to bring the technology to industrial use requires the integration of several emerging technologies, viz. optics, feedback control, electronics, imaging processing and digital signal processing. Due to the highly interdisciplinary nature of the technique, successful implementation and development require expertise in all of the fields. At Baptist University, under the funding of a major industrial grant, we are developing the technology for the industrial sector. Our system fully exploits optical fibers and diode lasers in the design to enable practical and rugged systems suited for industrial applications. Besides the development in optics, we have broken away from the reliance of a microcomputer PC platform for both image capture and processing, and have developed a digital signal processing array system that can handle simultaneous and independent image capture/processing with feedback control. The system, named CASPA for 'cascadable architecture signal processing array,' is a third generation development system that utilizes up to 7 digital signal processors has proved to be a very powerful system. With our CASPA we are now in a better position to developing novel optical measurement systems for industrial application that may require different measurement systems to operate concurrently and requiring information exchange between the systems. Applications in mind such as simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane DSPI image capture/process, vibrational analysis with interactive DSPI and phase shifting control of optical systems are a few good examples of the potentials.

  8. Changes in sleep patterns during prolonged stays in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Moushum; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2008-11-01

    Various countries have permanent research bases in Antarctica that are manned year-round by a few members of an expedition team, facing extremes of temperature with the associated hardships. Acclimatisation to such an environment is associated with pyschophysiological changes along with alterations in sleep patterns. The present study was undertaken to explore the changes in sleep patterns of six members of the Indian expedition team during their winter stay at Maitri, the permanent research station of India in Antarctica. The mean (± SEM) age, height and weight of the subjects were 35.7 ± 2.32 years, 168.3 ± 2.37 cm and 71.0 ± 1.88 kg, respectively. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained as baseline data in November 2004 in Delhi (altitude 260 m, latitude 29° N, longitude 77° E); data on the same parameters were collected at Maitri, Antarctica (altitude 120 m, latitude 70° 45' 39″ S, longitude 11° 44' 49″ E) from January to December 2005. A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant variation with time (month effect) in most of the sleep parameters recorded. Total sleep time decreased from Delhi baseline values in all months, sleep efficiency decreased significantly during winter months, duration of waking period after sleep onset increased significantly in winter, sleep latency increased immediately after exposure in January, stages 3 and 4 (slow wave sleep) reduced during dark winter months, whereas stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep increased during dark winter months. This study observed a prevailing general trend of sleep disturbances amongst overwintering members in a modern Antarctic station.

  9. A fractured peace: a changing pattern of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, M H; Kneafsey, B; Gordon, D

    1997-09-01

    Since the paramilitary cease-fire in Northern Ireland in August 1994 we have seen a change in the pattern of so called 'punishment attacks'. Shootings with low velocity handguns have been replaced by severe beatings to the extremities from multiple assailants using iron bars or similar weapons. In the 18 months prior to the cease-fire there were 177 punishment shootings, which were usually relatively minor and did not require any plastic surgical expertise. Between August 1994 and November 1996, however, there were 461 punishment beatings. These beatings result in much greater morbidity and require considerable orthopaedic and plastic surgical input. In the Northern Ireland Plastic and Maxillofacial Unit we have treated 18 patients with a mean age of 22.9 years (range 16-32 years) who have been the victims of punishment beatings. These patients sustained multiple injuries, all with severe soft tissue involvement; 70% had compound fractures. The majority of patients had multiple wounds. Four patients with compartment syndrome as a result of their injuries required fasciotomies. Soft tissue reconstruction included split skin grafting (4 patients), fasciocutaneous flaps (4 patients), adipofascial flaps (2 patients), local muscle flaps (2 patients) and free muscle transfers (2 patients). Six patients required more than one procedure for soft tissue reconstruction because of multiple injuries. Each patient had a cumulative mean time in theatre of 6.7 hours. The mean hospital stay was 22.2 days (range 2-52 days). This change in the pattern of injury has led to an increased use of plastic surgical resources. Patient morbidity is significantly greater than when guns are used, and permanent disability is often the result. PMID:9326144

  10. CONCENTRATION AND HEMODYNAMICS PATTERN CHANGES IN CIRRHOTIC RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖秋; 萧树东; 莫剑忠; 张德中

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of hemoglobin (Hb) on serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration and hemodynamics pattern changes in rats with cirrhosis. Methods Cirrhosis model was induced in male SD rats by injection of 60% CCl4 oily solution subcutaneously. Cirrhotic rats were treated with erythropoietin (l00U/kg) injected subcutaneously for 2 weeks. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), splanchnic vascular resistance (SVR), splanchnic blood flow (SBF) and serum NO concentration were determined in erythropoietin - treated, erythropoietin - untreated cirrhotic rats and controls by using 57Co- labelled microsphere technique and a fluorometric assay, respectively. In addition, blood Hb levels were also measured in the 3 groups. Results Untreated cirrhotic rats had significantly lower MAP, SVR, Hb and higher CO, CI, SBF and NO concentration than those of the controls (P<0.01). In treated cirrhotic rats, erythropoietin significantly attenuated the increase of CO, CI, SBF, NO concentration and the decrease of MAP and SVR. In cirrhotic rats,epoetin beta in subcutaneous dose of 100U· kg-1· d-1 induced a markedly increment of blood Hb levels and decrement of NO concentration in comparison with untreated cirrhotic rats (181±11g/L vs 120±15g/L;1.14±0.62μmol/L vs 4.20±1.25μmol/L). Conclusion The endogenous NO may play an important role in the changes of hemodynamics pattern in cirrhosis, and hyperdynamic circulatory status in rats with cirrhosis might be ameliorated by inactivation of overproduced NO by increasing hemoglobin with erythropoietin.

  11. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends. PMID:17049949

  12. PATTERNS OF SUPPLIER LEARNING: CASE STUDIES IN THE MALAYSIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadzrina Abdul Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier development programs support the development of a supplier's capabilities, usually with the assistance of a buyer. In an industrial environment that lacks home- grown technology, it is of interest to explore precisely how suppliers learn and increase their capabilities. There are also questions regarding how the buyer impacts this learning process, specifically with respect to dependent suppliers for which major buyers account for more than 20% of sales. It is claimed that support from buyers for supplier training has been deficient. Thus, there is a need to identify the types of training that suppliers themselves prefer. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the patterns of learning for dependent suppliers in the Malaysian automotive industry by exploring how suppliers learn best and defining the role of buyers in providing assistance. This study presents a model based on empirical findings and discusses the implications of the findings.

  13. Managing Price Risk in a Changing Policy Environment: The Case of the EU Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Declan; Keane, Michael; Barnes, Edel

    2008-01-01

    The EU dairy industry faces an unprecedented level of change. The anticipated removal of milk quotas and the move to a less restricted global trade environment will provide the industry with both opportunities and challenges. The primary challenge will be the need for the industry to deal with more volatile prices. Active management of the risks associated with these more volatile prices will help to place the industry in a more competitive position. However this will require the industry and...

  14. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  15. Leadership in the media industry : Changing contexts, emerging challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The topic of leadership in the media industry is a compelling one. While other industries have leaders or captains, the media sector has moguls, magnates and barons. Randolph Hearst, William Paley, Henry Luce and Robert Maxwell represent some of the most controversial and flamboyant business leaders of recent times. And the current crop of contemporary media industry leaders – Rupert Murdoch, Ted Turner and Steve Jobs – is no less charismatic. However leadership is also a sprawling area of ma...

  16. Tolerance adaptation and precipitation changes complicate latitudinal patterns of climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Mastrandrea, Michael D

    2010-07-13

    Global patterns of biodiversity and comparisons between tropical and temperate ecosystems have pervaded ecology from its inception. However, the urgency in understanding these global patterns has been accentuated by the threat of rapid climate change. We apply an adaptive model of environmental tolerance evolution to global climate data and climate change model projections to examine the relative impacts of climate change on different regions of the globe. Our results project more adverse impacts of warming on tropical populations due to environmental tolerance adaptation to conditions of low interannual variability in temperature. When applied to present variability and future forecasts of precipitation data, the tolerance adaptation model found large reductions in fitness predicted for populations in high-latitude northern hemisphere regions, although some tropical regions had comparable reductions in fitness. We formulated an evolutionary regional climate change index (ERCCI) to additionally incorporate the predicted changes in the interannual variability of temperature and precipitation. Based on this index, we suggest that the magnitude of climate change impacts could be much more heterogeneous across latitude than previously thought. Specifically, tropical regions are likely to be just as affected as temperate regions and, in some regions under some circumstances, possibly more so.

  17. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today's electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry's transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment

  18. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Richard

    2007-05-01

    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  19. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  20. Land use/land cover change and their effects on landscape patterns in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuixian; Wang, Shengli

    2013-12-01

    Human modification of land use and land cover change (LUCC) drives the change of landscape patterns and limits the availability of products and services for human and livestock. LUCC can undermine environmental health. Thus, this study aimed to develop an understanding of LUCC in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China, an arid area experiencing dramatic water and land resource use. A time series of satellite images (1964, 1973, 1989, 1999, and 2009) were used to calculate the index of landscape patterns to study the processes involved in changes to land uses and landscape patterns and the influence of this changes on landscape patterns. The results show that land uses in the Yanqi Basin have changed dramatically since 1964 with grassland being mainly converted to cropland. Landscape fragmentation and diversity have decreased in the study area, although landscape fragmentation increased from 1964 to 1999 and then decreased by 2009. The index of landscape diversity decreased from 1.64 in 1964 to 0.71 in 2009. The heterogeneity and complexity of the landscape increased during this period. In contrast, the index of dominance decreased from 0.85 in 1964 to 0.83 in 2009. Land use change drives landscape patterns of the development of the watershed toward diversity and a fragmented structure. Population growth, economic development, and industrial policies were the dominant driving forces behind LUCC in the Yanqi Basin. Sustainable use of land resources is a significant factor in maintaining economic development and environmental protection in this arid inland river basin.

  1. Color pattern changes in Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidclay Calaça Dias

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 presents ontogenetic changes of its coloration pattern throughout its development. After emergence from the eggs, spiderlings are bluish, with metallic and/or iridescent nuances. The juveniles have a vertically directed black stripe in the central region of abdomen dorsum and three horizontally directed black stripes in the abdomen dorsum. Adults are completely black. These coloration differences between juveniles and adults of the same species appear to be a strategy to avoid the intraspecific competition.Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 apresenta mudanças ontogenéticas no seu padrão de coloração. Após emergirem dos ovos, as pequenas aranhas são azuladas, com nuances metálicas. Os juvenis possuem uma listra negra na região central do dorso do abdômen orientada no sentido vertical e três listras negras no dorso do abdômen orientadas horizontalmente. Os adultos são totalmente negros. Acredita-se que a diferença na coloração entre indivíduos de instares diferentes dentro de uma mesma espécie seja uma estratégia para se evitar a competição intraespecífica.

  2. The changing pattern of pathology due to Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the autopsy data on hepatosplenic schistosomiasis during periods, before and after the advent of new chemotherapeutic drugs, revealed that: a the pathological presentation was the same for the two periods; b the number of cases in the last five years is progressively decreasing; c hepatosplenic disease due to schistosomiasis is becoming rare in young people. These data represent a change in the pattern of pathology in schistosomiasis, probably related to new chemotherapy.Uma revisão dos dados de necrópsias realizadas em portadores da forma hépato-esplênica da esquistossomose, feita em dois períodos, antes e após a introdução das novas e efetivas drogas contra o S. mansoni, revelou que: a as lesões encontradas foram qualitativamente as mesmas nos dois períodos; b a percentagem dos casos hépato-esplênicos mostra decréscimo progressivo nos últimos cinco anos do estudo; c os casos de esquistossomose hépato-esplênica estão se tornando raros em jovens. Tais elementos constituem uma mudança no padrão de apresentação da doença, possivelmente relacionada com a introdução da nova quimioterapia curativa.

  3. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  4. The Changing Patterns of Advertising Strategy by Japanese Business Firms in the U.S. Market: Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiko Suzuki

    1980-01-01

    This article analyzes the changing pattern of advertisement strategy by Japanese business firms in the U.S. market. Taking the advertisement activities of four major industrial sectors that appeared in both Business Week and Newsweek during the 1965–1977 period as samples, this article has found that the Japanese advertisement strategy in the U.S. market has passed sequentially through the following four stages: (1) Nationality-Supportive, (2) Product-Attributes, (3) Challenge and Responses, ...

  5. University Binge Drinking Patterns and Changes in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Undergraduates in a Hong Kong University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H.; Chan, Karli W. C.; Chow, Julie K. W.; Fung, K. P.; Fong, Ben Y. F.; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of binge drinking and changes in drinking patterns among Chinese university students. Participants and Methods: Responses to an anonymous questionnaire were compared between a random sample of 411 second year Chinese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2,630 first year students from the previous year. Students…

  6. The role of landscape pattern analysis in understanding concepts of land cover change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JerryAGRIFFITH

    2004-01-01

    Landscape ecology and landscape pattern analysis are important components of national-scale programs to identify trends in land cover change because: 1) Statistics on changes in land cover proportions are not spatial. A change matrix derived from GIS provides useful information, but it does not show the spatial form of change in the landscape. Landscape pattern metrics reveal spatial pattern. 2) A growing body of literature has shown that a change in landscape pattern might indicate important changes in ecological functions: forest connectivity and species movements, number and size of farm patches, effects on water quality. Spatial pattern is important in structuring ecological communities and in maintaining existence of competitors. Spatial pattern may be determined by disturbance and may in turn, determine how disturbances propagate through the system. 3) Sometimes landscape pattern may not significantly change, even though land cover proportions do change. Or, vice-versa, sometimes landscape pattern can significantly change, even though land cover proportions don't significantly change. 4) Landscape pattern is an inherent and important part of describing landscapes: based on the literature, one of the most important descriptive characteristics of a landscape is its texture. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) Explain the importance of the role of landscape ecology and landscape pattern analysis in land cover change studies; 2) Review the literature that specifically incorporates landscape ecology into land cover change studies; and 3) List the theoretical and technical issues involved and suggest solutions for them.

  7. Successive leadership changes in the regional jet industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vertesy, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines leadership dynamics in the regional jet manufacturing industry from the 1980s onwards. With the help of leading products (aircraft or aircraft family), British Aerospace (BAe), Fokker, Bombardier and Embraer consecutively took the leadership in terms of new deliveries. In order to understand the co-evolution of demand for aircraft, technology and industrial structure, the paper applies a framework for innovation system dynamics that investigates in detail the preconditions...

  8. Successive leadership changes in the regional jet industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vertesy D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines leadership dynamics in the regional jet manufacturing industry from the 1980s onwards. With the help of leading products aircraft or aircraft family, British Aerospace BAe, Fokker, Bombardier and Embraer consecutively took the leadership in terms of new deliveries. In order to understand the co-evolution of demand for aircraft, technology and industrial structure, the paper applies a framework for innovation system dynamics that investigates in detail the preconditions for...

  9. Chinese Textile industry Should Gear Up for Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the inception of last year,forecast on the"shuffling"of the textile industry has been spread widely.What’s more,some latest reports of Financial Medias on the bankruptcy of garment enterprises that used to run with main business of export or OEM in Guangdong province dealt a heavier blow on people’s nerve.It is said that Chinese textile industry are suffering"painful period"now……

  10. Studies in Industrial Renewal : Coping with Changing Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide a picture of ongoing research at Mälardalen University in order to create a point of departure for future research on industrial renewal. Many aspects of industrial renewal are dealt with by the researchers who contributed to this book. Some of them focus on functional aspects such as distribution channels and management accounting and control. Others deal with broad perspectives such as strategies and entrepreneurship, and still others consider specific...

  11. Changing pattern of utilization of human donor cornea in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gogia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review the changing pattern of donor, corneal utilization in an eye bank at a Tertiary Care Center in Northern India by analyzing the trend in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011. Methods: A retrospective review of eye bank records for 3 years (2003, 2008, and 2011 was performed at the National Eye Bank. Details including a clinical grade of donor cornea, indication of corneal transplantation (therapeutic or optical, type of procedure (penetrating or lamellar keratoplasty [LK], and clinical diagnosis of the graft recipients were recorded. Primary outcome measure was to observe any preference toward LK, judicious usage of donor corneal tissue, and impact of lamellar corneal transplant in the usage of donor corneas. Secondary outcomes included overall utilization rate and change in trend of indication for keratoplasty. Results: A total of 673, 745, and 864 corneas were retrieved in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011, respectively. The percentage of donor corneal utilization increased significantly over time with the rate being 65.08%, 70.06%, and 68.29%, respectively, in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011 (P = 0.014; however, this change was reflected only in the usage of nonoptical grade corneas and not for the optical grade corneas. There was an overall increase in lamellar corneal procedures for any clinical grade of cornea (P = 0.0019; number of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK procedures increased significantly (P < 0.001, particularly for pseudophakic corneal edema (PCE (P = 0.0085 and failed graft (P = 0.002. Significant increase in the utilization of nonoptical grade corneas was observed over the years (P = 0.005, though the utilization did not increase significantly for optical purposes viz., LK (P = 0.08. Conclusions: Utilization rate of donor corneas increased over the years, primarily due to increase in usage of nonoptical grade corneas for therapeutic purposes. There was a procedural shift toward DSAEK for

  12. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies adopted by both countries. However, since incorporation, changing competitiveness due to both international, regional end local pressures, has meant local garment firms have had to implement a range ...

  13. Policy learning and policy change in a context of industry crisis: the case of Chilean salmon farming industry

    OpenAIRE

    Roa Petrasic, Veronica Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the policy response to the 2007-2010 sanitary crisis in the Chilean salmon industry, the second largest producer and exporter of salmon in the world. This industry is an emblematic case of the possible consequences of employing an intensive natural resource model for development. The research draws upon the two literatures on policy learning and policy change, and crisis and disaster management, and upon the system failure to explain the causes and consequences ...

  14. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  15. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country with high fertility and high infant and child mortality, and declines in total mortality and substantial development initiatives. The discussion considers whether fertility patterns in Pakistan can be related to changes in child mortality, and whether current and future changes in fertility influence child survival favorably. Omran's study linked large family size to child survival. Resources, which are divided, become more important deficits in households below the poverty line: a situation common in Pakistan. High fertility is associated with short birth intervals, which are related to higher infant and child mortality. In Pakistan, the spacing and mortality link was found among both poverty and higher socioeconomic households. There is some support for the notion that it is birth weight and general health that are linked to survival rather than competition for resources. Other studies link the maternal age at birth and birth order with child mortality (Alam and Cleland). Trussel argues for limiting births in high risk ages of under 20 years and over 35 years. The exact casual link is not well documented. Institutional and community factors are also considered important in influencing child survival: sanitation, potable water, access to roads, electricity, health and family planning services, and sewage. Young infants are more vulnerable to these factors. Bangladesh and some Indian states have shown that population programs and raising per captia incomes are necessary to fertility decline. In India, female autonomy, access to education, and more equal income distribution were considered more important than economic development to child survival. In Pakistan, Sathar and Kazi have linked at least 2 years of elementary, maternal education with reductions in child mortality. The pervasiveness of female illiteracy hinders the chances of child survival. Sex preferences also impact on female children. The probably impacts of declines in breast

  16. "Productivity Change and Mine Dynamics: The Coal Industry in Japan during World War II"

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuji Okazaki

    2012-01-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, the Japanese coal industry experienced huge fluctuations in production and labor productivity. In this paper, I explore the micro-aspects of labor productivity change in the coal industry during World War II, using mine-level data, compiled from official statistics and original documents of the Coal Control Association (Sekitan Toseikai). The coal industry in this period was characterized by dynamic changes in market structure: a number of mines entered and exited the ...

  17. Developing Industry-Special Education's Joint Response To Changing Demographics in the Workforce. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donald M.

    This paper examines changing demographics in the American work force during the 1990s and implications for the economy, for America's ability to compete globally, and for industry and education. In response to these workplace and demographic changes, the National Association for Industry-Education Cooperation utilized the technique of networking…

  18. Successive leadership changes in the regional jet industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertesy, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines leadership dynamics in the regional jet manufacturing industry from the 1980s onwards. With the help of leading products (aircraft or aircraft family), British Aerospace (BAe), Fokker, Bombardier and Embraer consecutively took the leadership in terms of new deliveries. In order t

  19. The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Ted K.

    The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural…

  20. Extractive Industries and Indigenous Peoples: A Changing Dynamic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous peoples and other rural or remote populations often bear the social and environmental cost of extractive industries while obtaining little of the wealth they generate. Recent developments including national and international recognition of Indigenous rights, and the growth of "corporate social responsibility" initiatives among mining…

  1. Eco-environmental Impact Assessment of the Change of Regional Industrial Structure and Regulative Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Acting as an important driving force for the change of the regional land use, the change of industrial structure also has some influences on the ecological environment. The assessment and mechanism analysis of these influences will be beneficial to the sustainable development of regional economy and the im-provement of relationships between man and earth. Taking Chuzhou City in Anhui Province as an example, on the basis of a qualitative analysis of the influence of the development of differ-ent industry on the regional ecological environment, this paper builds the influence factor of industrial structure on natural envi-ronment and the influence index of industrial structure on natural environment, makes a quantitative assessment of the change of the industrial structure and its comprehensive influences on the eco-logical environment in the Chuzhou City from 1974 to 1995. Studies show that, during the analysed period, Chuzhou City's industrial structure has changed markedly, having undergone two transformations. The influence of industrial structure on natural environment from 1974 to 1995 increased as a whole, while from 1996 to 2004, the influence of industrial structure on natural en-vironment decreased year-on-year. These changes indicate that the regional change of industrial structure results in better ecological effects. Finally, we propose appropriate regulatory measures ac-cording to our research results.

  2. The changing role of chemistry in the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion costs the U.S. electricity industry between five and ten billion dollars a year. In steam generating plants it is estimated that over half the forced outages are caused by corrosion, and in the U.S. industry, corrosion increases the cost of electricity more than it increases the cost of any other product, adding over 10% to its price. The total cost of corrosion to U.S. industry is in excess of dollar 276 billion annually, of which more than 30% could be prevented through the use of optimum corrosion management practices. In order to effectively deal with these issues it will require a coordinated approach throughout the industry, in which chemistry has a major role to play. Chemistry has effectively moved from being a problem to being a solution for materials and corrosion issues, and judging by the current advances and initiatives, will continue to do so. The window of opportunity to positively influence the entire industry is here. This will be especially challenging for us as chemists in Eskom, with an ageing fleet and lack of excess generating capacity. The spin-off of taking up this challenge to 'get our chemistry right' and take a quantum step forward would be a significant positive effect on the unit capability factor (UCF) and the forced loss rate (UCLF) for the Generation Division. This could, in turn, influence issues as far reaching as the cost of electricity for the South African consumer and when the construction of new generating plant is scheduled. (orig.)

  3. Change detection in registered psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    The M.A.D. Transform is applied to pairs of registered psoriasis lesion patterns within and between weekly sessions. Color band contribution to the first M.A.D. component is analyzed.......The M.A.D. Transform is applied to pairs of registered psoriasis lesion patterns within and between weekly sessions. Color band contribution to the first M.A.D. component is analyzed....

  4. Preventing type 2 diabetes: Changing the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Kenan, W R

    2016-06-01

    Improving our global diet by working with the food industry is a fairly complex task. Previously the global food manufacturing companies and governments were the major players. However, matters have shifted rapidly so that food retailers, food manufacturers, the restaurant-food service sector, and agribusinesses are now the major players. The current modern system of packaged processed food has now penetrated the globe-rich and poor, rural and urban are all in reach of this food system. Consequently, working with this complex sector when possible and an array of governmental regulatory large-scale options to improve our diet have increased in importance. Taxation of unhealthy foods and beverages, marketing controls, and front of the package labeling are the primary current options. Evaluations of the impacts of both public and industry initiatives are needed. PMID:27432072

  5. Five complex forces could change structure of industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projections about the future of energy fall into Conventional or environmental (Green) categories. Although the issue of global warming dominates the Green projections, there are other forces in addition to the environment that are capable of undermining the current structure of the industry. Before going into some scenarios of the future and discussion of the forces that may be faced, here is a historic review of economic growth and energy demand

  6. Managing laboratory automation in a changing pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The health care reform movement in the USA and increased requirements by regulatory agencies continue to have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry and the laboratory. Laboratory management is expected to improve effciency by providing more analytical results at a lower cost, increasing customer service, reducing cycle time, while ensuring accurate results and more effective use of their staff. To achieve these expectations, many laboratories are using robotics and automated work stat...

  7. The Economics of Regulated Changes to the Australian Egg Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trewin, Ray

    2001-01-01

    The Australian egg industry is facing adjustment pressures including from animal welfare developments. Production and consumption of free-range eggs are rising in response. However, considerations have been given to banning the dominant conventional cage production as in Switzerland. Consideration has also been given to compulsory labelling eggs by their form of production. A focus of the research is to develop possible future scenarios and to value any associated animal welfare benefits agai...

  8. Laser direct writing pattern structures on AgInSbTe phase change thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aihuan Dun; Jingsong Wei; Fuxi Gan

    2011-01-01

    Different pattern structures axe obtained on the AglnSbTe (AIST) phase change film as induced by laser beam. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe and analyze the different pattern structures. The AFM photos clearly show the gradually changing process of pattern structures induced by different threshold effects, such as crystallization threshold, microbump threshold, melting threshold, and ablation threshold. The analysis indicates that the AIST material is very effective in the fabrication of pattern structures and can offer relevant guidance for application of the material in the future.%@@ Different pattern structures are obtained on the AgInSbTe(AIST) phase change film as induced by laser beam.Atomic force microscopy(AFM) was used to observe and analyze the different pattern structures.The AFM photos clearly show the gradually changing process of pattern structures induced by different threshold effects,such as crystallization threshold,microbump threshold,melting threshold,and ablation threshold.

  9. Investigation of changes in water resources and grain production in China: changing patterns and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Wei; Hu, Yunjin; Dai, Xiangqian; Song, Xingyuan

    2015-11-01

    Water resources are very important for grain production in China. In this study, we investigate the changes in streamflow and grain production in China from 1956 to 2008. Since the 1980s, the increase of total grain production was mainly contributed by northern China where significantly decreasing precipitation and available water resources were observed. From 1985 to 2008, northern China accounted for 92.9 % of the national total grain production growth. Consequently, the main grain production area has shifted from the south to the north. However, the shift was mismatching the spatial distributions and temporal changes in precipitation and available water resources in China. During 1956 through 2008, precipitation decreased in the main grain production areas of the northern China by 1.23-1.27 mm per year. During the same period, observed streamflows in the five major rivers in northern China decreased by 13.4-92.4 %. Current grain production in northern China is dependent on overexploitation of groundwater. From 1987 to 2000, the average groundwater table declined 10.8 m with a maximum decrease of 34.8 m in North China Plain. Furthermore, the impacts of climate change and projected industrial development exacerbate the uncertainty of grain supply by northern China in the future. This study also indicated the potential of southern China for a more important role in ensuring sustainable food security of China, with increasing precipitation and streamflows observed in the Yangtze River and Pearl River basins.

  10. Linking process and pattern of land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, Koen Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Land use change results from the interaction between the human and the natural system and therefore various scientific disciplines have developed paradigms and methods to study land use change. However, these disciplinary approaches can only cover part of the complex system of land use change. The o

  11. Patterns of scald injuries in children--has anything changed?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yates, J

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to study presentation patterns of scald injuries in children and suggest potential countermeasures to reduce these injuries. We retrospectively studied scald injuries in children attending an urban paediatric emergency department between January 1st and December 31st 2008. Data was extracted from our emergency department database using search terms \\'burn\\

  12. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  13. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  14. Comprehensive Profiling of Proteome Changes Provide Insights of Industrial Penicillium chrysogenum During Pilot and Industrial Penicillin G Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The intracellular proteomes of the Penicillium chrysogenum throughout pilot and industrial processes were investigated by using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, respectively. We detected a total of 223 spots corresponding to 154 proteins and 231 spots corresponding to 157 proteins throughout pilot and industrial processes, respectively. The levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased (5.1- and 2.5-fold) under the pilot process, while its levels were no significant changes under the industrial process at 140 and 170 h when compared with that at 2 h. The levels of isocitrate lyase and fumarate hydratase were increased significantly under the industrial process, while their levels had no obvious changes after 20 h of fermentation throughout the pilot process. These results indicate that there were remarkable differences in carbohydrate metabolism (including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle) of P. chrysogenum during the pilot and industrial fermentations, which likely result in alterations of the primary metabolism and penicillin biosynthesis. Moreover, the differences in the levels of proteins involved in amino acid metabolisms (including valine, cysteine, and α-aminoadipic acid biosynthesis) indicated that the pilot and industrial processes influenced the supplies of penicillin precursors. Compared with that at 2 h, the maximum levels of superoxide (6.9-fold, at 32 h) and catalase (9-fold, at 80 h) during the industrial process and the maximum levels of superoxide (1.2-fold, at 20 h) and catalase (7.7-fold at 128 h) during the pilot process revealed the significant difference in cell redox homeostasis and stress responses during scale-up fermentation. Particularly, 10 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N synthetase and 4 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N (IPN) acyltransferase in pilot and industrial processes were identified, respectively. The levels of IPN acyltransferase (spots

  15. Comprehensive Profiling of Proteome Changes Provide Insights of Industrial Penicillium chrysogenum During Pilot and Industrial Penicillin G Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Qiao, Bin; Lu, Hua; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-07-01

    The intracellular proteomes of the Penicillium chrysogenum throughout pilot and industrial processes were investigated by using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF MS, respectively. We detected a total of 223 spots corresponding to 154 proteins and 231 spots corresponding to 157 proteins throughout pilot and industrial processes, respectively. The levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased (5.1- and 2.5-fold) under the pilot process, while its levels were no significant changes under the industrial process at 140 and 170 h when compared with that at 2 h. The levels of isocitrate lyase and fumarate hydratase were increased significantly under the industrial process, while their levels had no obvious changes after 20 h of fermentation throughout the pilot process. These results indicate that there were remarkable differences in carbohydrate metabolism (including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle) of P. chrysogenum during the pilot and industrial fermentations, which likely result in alterations of the primary metabolism and penicillin biosynthesis. Moreover, the differences in the levels of proteins involved in amino acid metabolisms (including valine, cysteine, and α-aminoadipic acid biosynthesis) indicated that the pilot and industrial processes influenced the supplies of penicillin precursors. Compared with that at 2 h, the maximum levels of superoxide (6.9-fold, at 32 h) and catalase (9-fold, at 80 h) during the industrial process and the maximum levels of superoxide (1.2-fold, at 20 h) and catalase (7.7-fold at 128 h) during the pilot process revealed the significant difference in cell redox homeostasis and stress responses during scale-up fermentation. Particularly, 10 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N synthetase and 4 spots corresponding to isopenicillin N (IPN) acyltransferase in pilot and industrial processes were identified, respectively. The levels of IPN acyltransferase (spots

  16. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  17. Attribution of the spatial pattern of CO2-forced sea level change to ocean surface flux changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate models taking part in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) all predict a global mean sea level rise for the 21st century. Yet the sea level change is not spatially uniform and differs among models. Here we evaluate the role of air–sea fluxes of heat, water and momentum (windstress) to find the spatial pattern associated to each of them as well as the spread they can account for. Using one AOGCM to which we apply the surface flux changes from other AOGCMs, we show that the heat flux and windstress changes dominate both the pattern and the spread, but taking the freshwater flux into account as well yields a sea level change pattern in better agreement with the CMIP5 ensemble mean. Differences among the CMIP5 control ocean temperature fields have a smaller impact on the sea level change pattern. (paper)

  18. Intelligent Computing for the Management of Changes in Industrial Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    László Horváth; Rudas, Imre J.; Bitó, János F.; Gerhard Hancke

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in engineering modeling have changed the work of engineers during the last two decades. Sophisticated descriptions store information about shape oriented engineering objects and their relationships. Boundary representations of form features constitute shape models. Rules and checks have replaced simple data form of shape model entity attributes. This change of modeling facilitates a next step towards application of computer intelligence at engineering object related decisions. Th...

  19. Software Development Process Changes in the Telecommunications Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kevin Doyle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous changes in the telecommunications business in the last several years drove changes in the software development processes of telecommunications equipment providers. We compare changes in these very large projects, in two companies, with those proposed in the Theory of Constraints / Critical Chains, Extreme Programming, and Agile development models. The 2000s have been a time of significant challenge in the telecommunications equipment business. Telecommunications service providers have excess equipment capacity. Many are waiting for next generation telephone switches that will simultaneously lower operating costs and enable additional revenue generation. The large service providers have drastically reduced their capital and expense purchases. Many small service providers, particularly the dot-coms, went bankrupt; much of their equipment is on the secondary market, at a fraction of the original cost. Thus the equipment market has significantly shrunk, and the equipment providers have been reducing expenses, while continuing to deliver software and hardware equipment at the high quality level required by the service providers. This drove many changes in the software development process. While the process changes are reported in two telecommunication equipment development organizations, the changes are applicable in any product development organization.

  20. Enhanced Algorithms to Identify Change in Crime Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    malathi arunachalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing all law-enforcement and intelligence gathering organizations is accurately and efficiently analyzing the growing volumes of crime data. There has been an enormous increase in the crime in the recent past. The concern about national security has increased significantly since the 26/11 attacks. Crimes are a social nuisance and cost our society dearly in several ways. Here we look at use of missing value, clustering algorithm and Anomalies detection for a data mining approach to help predict the crimes patterns and speed up the process of solving crime. We will look at MV algorithm, DBScan and PAM outlier detection algorithm with some enhancements to aid in the process of filling the missing value and identification of crime patterns. We applied these techniques to real crime data. We can use semi-supervised learning technique here for knowledge discovery from the crime records and to help increase the predictive accuracy.

  1. Pattern Discovery and Change Detection of Online Music Query Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Fu

    In this paper, an efficient stream mining algorithm, called FTP-stream (Frequent Temporal Pattern mining of streams), is proposed to find the frequent temporal patterns over melody sequence streams. In the framework of our proposed algorithm, an effective bit-sequence representation is used to reduce the time and memory needed to slide the windows. The FTP-stream algorithm can calculate the support threshold in only a single pass based on the concept of bit-sequence representation. It takes the advantage of "left" and "and" operations of the representation. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm only scans the music query stream once, and runs significant faster and consumes less memory than existing algorithms, such as SWFI-stream and Moment.

  2. A Strategic Roadmap for Business Model Change for the Video-games Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Goumagias, Nik; Purvis, Kieran; Fernandes, Kiran; Cabras, Ignazio; Li, Feng; Shao, Jianhao; Devlin, Sam; Hodge, Victoria Jane; Cowling, Peter; Kudenko, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The global video games industry has experienced and exponential growth in terms of socioeconomic impact during the last 50 years. Surprisingly, little academic interest is directed towards the industry, particularly in the context of BM Change. As a technologically intensive creative industry, developing studios and publishers experience substantial internal and external forces to identify, and sustain, their competitive advantage. To achieve that, managers are called to systematically explor...

  3. From PowerPoints to Reality - Managing Strategic Change in the Paper Packaging Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olander Roese, Malin

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores and describes strategic change towards increased customer orientation and innovation in the Swedish forest and paper packaging industry, an industry which has been subject to calls for new strategic directions for more than two decades. The large-scale and cost-efficient strategy, which has been the industry's hallmark, is in need of a more customer based and innovative emphasis. The research is inspired by different schools of thought in strategy and m...

  4. The corporate centre in a financial conglomerate : governance under fundamental industry changes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiole, Eelco Rokus Willem

    2002-01-01

    In part 1, we discuss 1) the fundamental changes in the financial services industry, 2) financial conglomerate structures and 3) value-based-management. These are core components for understanding the challenges and intentions of corporate level management of financial conglomerates. The financial services industry, financial conglomeration and value orientation In the first chapter, we highlight the major trend of consolidation in the financial services industry. This trend...

  5. Emergence of river dynamics through changing vegetation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, Mijke; Kleinhans, Maarten; Middelkoop, Hans; Geerling, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation interacts with morphodynamic processes in rivers to create distinct habitat mosaics supporting a large biodiversity. The aim of our work is to quantitatively investigate the emergent patterns in vegetation and river morphology at the river reach scale by dynamically modelling the processes and their interactions. Here, we coupled an advanced morphodynamic model to a novel dynamic riparian vegetation model to study the interaction between vegetation and morphodynamics. Vegetation colonizes bare substrate within the seed dispersal window, passes several growth stages with different properties and can die through flooding, desiccation, uprooting, scour or burial. We have compared river morphology and vegetation patterns of scenarios without vegetation, with static vegetation that does not grow or die and several dynamic vegetation scenarios with a range of vegetation strategies and eco-engineering properties. Results show that dynamic vegetation has a decreased lateral migration of meander bends and maintains its active meandering behavior as opposed to the scenarios without vegetation and with static vegetation. Also the patterns in vegetation and fluvial morphology and the vegetation age distribution mostly resemble the natural situation when compared to aerial photos of the study area. We find that river dynamics, specifically sinuosity and sediment transport, are very sensitive to vegetation properties that determine vegetation density, settlement location and survival. Future work will include the effects of invasive species, addition of silt and the effect of various river management strategies.

  6. Managing laboratory automation in a changing pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M L

    1995-01-01

    The health care reform movement in the USA and increased requirements by regulatory agencies continue to have a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry and the laboratory. Laboratory management is expected to improve effciency by providing more analytical results at a lower cost, increasing customer service, reducing cycle time, while ensuring accurate results and more effective use of their staff. To achieve these expectations, many laboratories are using robotics and automated work stations. Establishing automated systems presents many challenges for laboratory management, including project and hardware selection, budget justification, implementation, validation, training, and support. To address these management challenges, the rationale for project selection and implementation, the obstacles encountered, project outcome, and learning points for several automated systems recently implemented in the Quality Control Laboratories at Eli Lilly are presented. PMID:18925014

  7. European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menzel, A.; Sparks, T.; Estrella, N.; Koch, E.; Aasa, A.; Ahas, R.; Alm-Kübler, K.; Bissolli, P.; Braslavska, O.; Briede, A.; Chmielewski, F.M.; Crepinsek, Z.; Curnel, Y.; Dahl, A.; Defila, C.; Donnelly, A.; Filella, Y.; Jatczak, K.; Mage, F.; Mestre, A.; Nordli, O.; Penuelas, J.; Pirinen, P.; Remisova, V.; Scheifinger, H.; Striz, M.; Susnik, A.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Wielgolaski, F.E.; Zach, S.; Zust, A.

    2006-01-01

    Global climate change impacts can already be tracked in many physical and biological systems; in particular, terrestrial ecosystems provide a consistent picture of observed changes. One of the preferred indicators is phenology, the science of natural recurring events, as their recorded dates provide

  8. Assimilation to Accommodation Immigrants and the Changing Patterns of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl E.

    2004-01-01

    The continuous inflow of immigrants into Canada, particularly in metropolitan cities like Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal where most immigrants tend to settle, has changed, and continues to change the social, cultural and educational realities of schooling. Immigrants, themselves, have played an important role in helping to establish an…

  9. Climate change issue table : petroleum downstream sector industry foundation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the Canadian downstream petroleum industry is presented. The downstream sector includes petroleum refining, plus all activities regarding distribution, marketing and retailing of petroleum products. In 1990, the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the production and consumption of petroleum products were about 207 megatons which is about 45 per cent of total Canadian CO2 emissions. This report includes the analysis of the Base Case and the Kyoto Case. The Base Case is premised on the implementation of fuel sulphur reductions to meet cleaner fuels requirements and an enhanced program of refinery efficiency initiatives. Under the Base Case assumptions the CO2 emissions from refinery operations in 2010 would be about 3.4 below 1990 levels. The Kyoto Case was developed on the basis of reductions in Canadian petroleum product demand that would be sufficient to achieve a 6 per cent reduction in GHG emissions from the production and consumption of petroleum products relative to 1990 levels. The model demonstrates the dramatic economic impact of the Kyoto Case reductions on the Canadian downstream petroleum sector. Investment requirements for capital improvements to further distillate production and to further desulphurization are estimated at $ 1.5 billion between 2005 and 2015. The reduced volume of gasoline sales would be expected to result in rationalization of retail outlets, resulting in the closure of some 2,000 retail outlets with a combined loss of about 12,000 jobs. It is suggested that similar impact in other countries that are signatory to the Kyoto Protocol could result in the shift of refining, refining industry jobs and related economic benefits to countries which are not participants in the Kyoto Protocol. 14 tabs., 6 figs., 5 appendices

  10. The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somero, George N

    2012-01-01

    Global change includes alterations in ocean temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and pH, abiotic variables with strong and interacting influences on the physiology of all taxa. Physiological stresses resulting from changes in these four variables may cause broad biogeographic shifts as well as localized changes in distribution in mosaic habitats. To elucidate these causal linkages, I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges--and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to global change, notably in the case of species that have evolved in highly stable habitats? How fully can phenotypic acclimatization offset abiotic stress? Can physiological measurements, including new molecular ("-omic") approaches, provide indices of the degree of sublethal stress an organism experiences? And can physiological evolution keep pace with global change? PMID:22457968

  11. Managing organizational change: Decision’s maker perceptions in the UAE manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okour, Adnan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the common practices of change projects in the manufacturing industry in UAE and the key factors for effective implementation and highlighting the roadblocks of organizational change. The primary data were collected through pre-interview questionnaires and analyzed using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA. The findings revealed that technology change is the change most practiced by the UAE manufacturing industry, then strategy development, TQM driven change, and software development with less emphases on cultural change. The usable data were restively small (n=150. Further research could be done with a larger sample to test the findings. The paper offers rare insight into change management practices in the manufacturing industry in UAE in addition to the initiators’ perception of key factors of effectiveness or the roadblocks of organizational.

  12. The Spanish retail petroleum market: New patterns of competition since the liberalization of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the recent development of the Spanish automotive fuels market, in the context of a long process of liberalization and competition. Our aims are twofold. First, to overview the market's current patterns of competition, while taking into account the political, structural and strategic aspects that have marked the industry's recent evolution. Second, to study in depth one competitive strategy that nowadays significantly influences competition and final prices, the vertical relationships between operators and service stations. Our analysis draws attention to several indicators that may demonstrate the success of the opening and liberalization process. Increased levels of competition have stimulated the sector's growth, development and modernization, and given national firms an excellent platform for competing with newcomers. Furthermore, studying the vertical agreements has produced interesting results. We have found that relative price differences among brands increase in line with perceived quality differences, and that the vertical separation of refineries and retailers eases price competition in the final market. The empirical evidence was backed up with a database of 4164 Spanish service stations

  13. The Spanish retail petroleum market: New patterns of competition since the liberalization of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the recent development of the Spanish automotive fuels market, in the context of a long process of liberalization and competition. Our aims are twofold. First, to overview the market's current patterns of competition, while taking into account the political, structural and strategic aspects that have marked the industry's recent evolution. Second, to study in depth one competitive strategy that nowadays significantly influences competition and final prices, the vertical relationships between operators and service stations. Our analysis draws attention to several indicators that may demonstrate the success of the opening and liberalization process. Increased levels of competition have stimulated the sector's growth, development and modernization, and given national firms an excellent platform for competing with newcomers. Furthermore, studying the vertical agreements has produced interesting results. We have found that relative price differences among brands increase in line with perceived quality differences, and that the vertical separation of refineries and retailers eases price competition in the final market. The empirical evidence was backed up with a database of 4164 Spanish service stations. (author)

  14. Technological and Social Drivers of Change in the Online Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the legal implications arising from the distribution of music in a digital format via the Internet. However, less attention has been paid to the technological and social drivers of change in the music industry. This paper attempts to demonstrate the significant impact that social and technological forces have on the music industry, especially regarding lowering barriers to entry.

  15. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  16. Land use changes and its impacts on air quality and atmospheric patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, E. D.; Mazzoli, C. R.; Martins, L. D.; Martins, J. A.; Carvalho, V.; Andrade, M.

    2013-05-01

    Possible modifications on atmospheric patterns and air quality caused by land use changes are discussed in this work. With the increasing interest in alternative energy sources, mainly due to the replacement of fossil fuels, large part of the Brazilian territory is being used for sugar cane cultivation. The resultant modifications in land use and some activities associated to this crop are studied with some detail through numerical modeling of the atmosphere. The same tool was applied to study the effect of surface type and emission sources over urban areas in the neighborhoods of the cultivated areas, in particular those located in the Metropolitan Area of Campinas, inside the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The main focus of this work was to identify some relationship between these two types of land use modification and its influence on the regional atmospheric circulation patterns and air quality over agricultural and urban areas affected by biomass burning and the traditional sources of pollutants, such as industries and vehicles. First, the effect of urban areas was analyzed and it was possible to identify typical patterns associated with urban heat islands, especially over the city of Campinas. In this region, air temperature differences up to 3 K were detected during night time. During the day, due to the atmospheric conditions of the studied period, this effect was not significant. Afterwards, the effect of sugar cane cultivated regions was discussed. The results show that the regions of sugar cane grow can significantly modify the surface energy fluxes, with direct consequences to the standards of local temperature and humidity and over nearby regions. Sensitivity tests were carried out during part of September, 2007, through the substitution of the sugar cane by a generic crop in the model, and show that during the day the cultivated areas can present temperatures up to 0,65 k higher than those in the case of the generic one. Throughout the dispersion module

  17. An Ontology Design Pattern of the Multidisciplinary and Complex Field of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Diop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the manual and collaborative construction of an ontology design pattern (a generic ontology, named OntoCLUVA, of climate change (CC field. This pattern is built for the needs of the construction of climate change ontologies. We used this pattern for a knowledge management system (KMS of climate change. It will allow to each module of this KMS to build its own ontology of climate change domain for its tasks consisting in discovering and adapting the ontology components.

  18. Industrial arsenic contamination causes catastrophic changes in freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangjie; Shi, Haibin; Tao, Jianshuang; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lei, Guoliang; Liu, Xiaohai; Smol, John P.

    2015-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is now widely recognized to pose severe health and environmental threats, yet much of what is known concerning its adverse impacts on ecosystem health is derived from short-term ecotoxicological studies. Due to the frequent absence of long-term monitoring data, little is known of the long-tem ecological consequences of pollutants such as arsenic. Here, our dated sediment records from two contaminated lakes in China faithfully document a 13.9 and 21.4-fold increase of total arsenic relative to pre-1950 background levels. Concurrently, coherent responses in keystone biota signal pronounced ecosystem changes, with a >10-fold loss in crustacean zooplankton (important herbivores in the food webs of these lake systems) and a >5-fold increase in a highly metal-tolerant alga. Such fundamental ecological changes will cascade through the ecosystem, causing potentially catastrophic consequences for ecosystem services in contaminated regions.

  19. Deregulation of the Swedish Audit Industry and Changes in the Competitive Environment : Conflict, Imitation, and Innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Sebhatu, Abiel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the deregulation of the audit industry in Sweden, the changing competitive environment and innovativeness, a research gap that has not yet been bridged. This paper raises the question of how the innovativeness of firms within the audit industry have changed after deregulation. The ambition of this research is to have both theoretical and practical knowledge contribution. The theoretical framework constructed for this research is rooted in the literature review of thre...

  20. Robust Organizational Fitness for Reinventing Strategy in Rapidly Changing Industry Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Michael; Voelpel, Sven C.; Leibold, Marius

    2003-01-01

    In fast-changing industry landscapes, companies are often engaged in both adaptive (reactive) and inventive (proactive, newly-shaping) change processes, and these require different types of organizational fitness capabilities. Our research of more than a decade conducted in a wide range of industries (See "About our Research") reveal that many companies are predominantly focused on past successes and internal difficulties, and do not possess the necessary robust capabilities to also inventive...

  1. MARKETING RESPONSES TO CHANGING CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN THE FRESH BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Procopio, Mary Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The fresh meat industry is changing the way it markets its products. The decline in red meat consumption that has resulted from greater consumer concerns about the "healthfulness" of red meat, coupled with changes in consumer lifestyles emphasizing a need for convenience is contributing to the diminishment of "commodity selling" in favor of a true "marketing" approach (Pierson and Allen, 1986). In a traditional industry such as meats, the shift from a commodity-selling perspective (i.e., sell...

  2. Australian Power: Can renewable technologies change the dominant industry view?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynette Molyneaux; Craig Froome; Liam Wagner; John Foster

    2012-01-01

    With carbon dioxide the major contributor to anthropogenic climate change, being required to reduce the carbon emissions from burning coal for electricity presents a systemic shock to Australian power. The Australian government is committed to the development of its coal seam gas resources for export to lucrative world markets and to transition domestic power generation to greater resilience by moving away from a reliance on coal to lower-emissions intensive gas. Using a commercially availabl...

  3. Discussion on the Landscape Pattern Change of Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating the transition of landscape can understand that ecosystem processes are being influenced by disturbance. For this reason, it is essential that using appropriate mapping techniques and quantitative methods to assess landscape condition within different disturbance regimes. Landscape metrics were calculated for segmented areas of homogeneous land use in watershed to allow understanding and characterization of ecosystem.Chen-yu-lan watershed, located in the central of Taiwan, is a sensitivity area for disaster such as earthquakes and typhoons. In this study we focus on how the natural disaster affect landscape pattern. The study shows that landscape metrics can measure the effect of typhoon and earthquake disturbance regime. The analysis shows that evaluating landscape transition can contribute more detailed information for managing ecosystem.

  4. Industrial Restructuring and Urban Change in the Pittsburgh Region: Developmental, Ecological, and Socioeconomic Trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Haller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the steel industry's restructuring during the 1980s and its consequences for older industrial regions tied historically to steel production. These regions contained large working-class communities that declined because of deindustrialization and restructuring. This article first examines the transition of the steel industry from its roots in extractive and primary manufacturing to a scrap-recycling industry that minimizes labor and raw material inputs. This transition parallels the structural changes in other industries addressed by political economic perspectives, such as the new international division of labor and globalization of production. The article then focuses on the socioeconomic and structural changes, using the Pittsburgh region as an example, including the employment and land-use consequences of deindustrialization and the relationship between losses in manufacturing employment and increases in persistent joblessness and poverty associated with growth of the urban underclass.

  5. From print to screen: changes and challenges facing the Brazilian publishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Souza Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The publishing industry is at a turning point. Facing the first major disruptive innovation in five centuries, its long-established structure and business model are at stake. Building on literature based on the pitfalls for incumbents, we interviewed key executives from the major publishers in Brazil to understand their perspective. We find that not only are they facing those pitfalls, but we also propose a new one, The Industry View Trap, concerning challenges created by convergence, the difficulty to deal with changes in the ecosystem and the fact that the very definition of the industry you're part of might have changed.

  6. Technical changes and the rate of profit in the Canadian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    M J Webber; Tonkin, S.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of profit and the causes of changes in the rate of profit in the Canadian food and beverage industry, for the years 1952 - 1981, are examined in this paper. Until the mid-1960s, the rate of profit was stable or rising, but since then it has fallen. In the first half of the period under consideration, the market strength of the food and beverage industry offset the negative effects of changes within the industry; in the second half of the period, however, the food and beverage industr...

  7. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from social...... sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to practice ecodesign. This original experience of green nudging in a private company context supported the diffusion...... systemically consider individuals’ engagement, including behavioural aspects, interaction with project teams and higher level business organisations....

  8. The structural changes of the food industry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos

    This paper studies the structural changes of food industry in the EU-27. We first provide a detailed description of the relative importance of the various sectors in the food industry. The structure is studied by calculating Gini coefficients for the EU members with regard to food industry. We find...... that the food industry is one of the most important components of the manufacturing sectors in terms of turnover and employment. Enterprises in the EU are relatively large in terms of turnover but small in the number of enterprises with the dairy and meat sectors being the most important branches of the food...... industry regarding the share of turnover, employment and enterprises. During the eight years 2000-2007, the Gini coefficient of the food industry in the EU is very close to 1, indicating a high degree of concentration....

  9. Indonesia's Modern Retail Food Sector: Interaction With Changing Food Consumption and Trade Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dyck, John H.; Woolverton, Andrea E.; Rangkuti, Fahwani Yuliati

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia’s food market has changed in response to a changing and growing economy. The report examines changes in the food consumption pattern and measures the growth of modern food retail chains, packaged food purchases, and food imports in the world’s fourth-most-populous country. The evidence suggests that Indonesians are moving toward modern global purchasing and consumption patterns, but more slowly than in some comparable countries. Barriers to foreign and domestic commerce, affecting t...

  10. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C; Koven, Charles D; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y-W; Miller, Charles E

    2016-07-12

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost. PMID:27354511

  11. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  12. Changing Patterns of Interracial Marriage in a Multiracial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    We use incidence data from the 1980 Census and 2008 American Community Survey to track recent trends in interracial marriage. Intermarriage with Whites increased rapidly among Blacks but stalled among Asians and American Indians. Black-White intermarriage increased threefold over 1980-2008, independent of changing socioeconomic status, suggesting…

  13. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-07-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

  14. Method of lift-off patterning thin films in situ employing phase change resists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahlke, Matthias Erhard; Baldo, Marc A; Mendoza, Hiroshi Antonio

    2014-09-23

    Method for making a patterned thin film of an organic semiconductor. The method includes condensing a resist gas into a solid film onto a substrate cooled to a temperature below the condensation point of the resist gas. The condensed solid film is heated selectively with a patterned stamp to cause local direct sublimation from solid to vapor of selected portions of the solid film thereby creating a patterned resist film. An organic semiconductor film is coated on the patterned resist film and the patterned resist film is heated to cause it to sublime away and to lift off because of the phase change.

  15. The Assessment of Vulnerability of Industrial Parks to Climate Change in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. E.; Lee, D. K.; Jung, T. Y.; Choi, K. L.; Lee, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Many countries are developing policy and measures to adapt to climate changes at the national and local levels, but the assessment of vulnerability to climate change and the establishment of countermeasures in the industries considering industrial factors such as worker, infrastructure are insufficient due to the characteristics of diverse processes and fields. In South Korea, the national government provides infrastructures for industrial parks where various companies in manufacturing and other industries are concentrated . Because of their concentration, damages can aggravate in case of natural disasters such as typhoons. In this study, vulnerability indices for climate change were developed and evaluated using climate scenarios for the climate exposure of localized terrential downpour for eight industrial parks. The vulnerability indices were selected and reviewed through literature review and two in-depth interviews with experts in various industries, and the assessment of vulnerability to climate change was conducted by collecting relevant information including the Directory of Industrial Complexes. The vulnerability of each industrial park to climate change was assessed for four time serious such as the base line, 2020s, 2050s, and 2100s . As a result, even though the possibility of localized heavy rain was the highest in Yeosu(Southeast coast) at present, but it was predicted that Gwangyang(Southwest coast) will be higher in the future. For the influences of climate including sensitivity, Ulsan Mipo(Southeast coast) is currently under the highest influence of climate, but the Gumi(Inland area) was forecasted to be under the highest influence of climate in the future. As a result of the assessment of vulnerability to climate change including adaptive capacity, Gumi and Myongji Noksan(Southeast coast) were most vulnerable to localized heavy rain. The degree of vulnerability of all the industrial parks except Ulsan and Yeosu was forecasted to increase in the

  16. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  17. Arctic climate change with a 2C global warming. Timing, climate patterns and vegetation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signatories to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are charged with stabilizing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous interference with the climate system. A number of nations, organizations and scientists have suggested that global mean temperature should not rise over 2C above preindustrial levels. However, even a relatively moderate target of 2C has serious implications for the Arctic, where temperatures are predicted to increase at least 1.5 to 2 times as fast as global temperatures. High latitude vegetation plays a significant role in the lives of humans and animals, and in the global energy balance and carbon budget. These ecosystems are expected to be among the most strongly impacted by climate change over the next century. To investigate the potential impact of stabilization of global temperature at 2C, we performed a study using data from six Global Climate Models (GCMs) forced by four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, the BIOME4 biogeochemistry-biogeography model, and remote sensing data. GCM data were used to predict the timing and patterns of Arctic climate change under a global mean warming of 2C. A unified circumpolar classification recognizing five types of tundra and six forest biomes was used to develop a map of observed Arctic vegetation. BIOME4 was used to simulate the vegetation distributions over the Arctic at the present and for a range of 2C global warming scenarios. The GCMs simulations indicate that the earth will have warmed by 2C relative to preindustrial temperatures by between 2026 and 2060, by which stage the area-mean annual temperature over the Arctic (60-90N) will have increased by between 3.2 and 6.6C. Forest extent is predicted by BIOME4 to increase in the Arctic on the order of 3 x 106 km2 or 55% with a corresponding 42% reduction in tundra area. Tundra types generally also shift north with the largest reductions in the prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra

  18. Changing patterns – Indian diasporic flows in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    gaps in the labour market since the past decade and the trend is continuing, in contrast to the unskilled labor migration flows of 1970s. At the same time there are transformations in nation state’s involvement towards the diaspora - from exclusion to inclusion in the past few decades in a number......This paper explores the changing dynamics of Indian diasporic flows and mobility in Scandinavia, a rather under- explored theme. Based on quantitative background data and an empirical qualitative study conducted in Denmark, the aim is to look into the recent trends related to this migration, both.......Qualitative- in-depth interviews have been conducted, based on theoretical and empirically derived themes focusing on Indian diasporic - young people, people in endogamous marriages as well in exogamous marriages with Danish spouses (mixed couples). The results show a nuanced understanding of changing migration...

  19. Management culture in Romania: Patterns of change and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Kevin; Kennedy, Liz

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how far restructuring has involved a change in leadership style and the development of new philosophies and approaches which derive from the Anglo-American model of 'people management'. During the Communist period, Romania experienced a highly centralised system of management. Broader currents of historical and political culture also served to inculcate values of bureaucratic formalism. In transitional times it appears that the management role is being re-defined and manag...

  20. Will climate change affect outbreak patterns of planthoppers in Bangladesh?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Ali

    Full Text Available Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.. We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation and the abundance of brown planthopper (BPH during 1998-2007. Data show that BPH has become significantly more abundant in April over the 10-year period, but our data do not indicate that this is due to a change in climate, as no significant time trends in temperature and precipitation could be demonstrated. The abundance of BPH varied considerably between months within a year which is attributed to seasonal factors, including the availability of suitable host plants. On the other hand, the variation within months is attributed to fluctuations in monthly temperature and precipitation among years. The effects of these weather variables on BPH abundance were analyzed statistically by a general linear model. The statistical model shows that the expected effect of increasing temperatures is ambiguous and interacts with the amount of rainfall. According to the model, months or areas characterized by a climate that is either cold and dry or hot and wet are likely to experience higher levels of BPH due to climate change, whereas other combinations of temperature and rainfall may reduce the abundance of BPH. The analysis indicates that global warming may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of BPH in some rice growing areas of Asia, and that the severity of such outbreaks is likely to increase if climate change exaggerates. Our study highlights the need to consider climate change when designing strategies to manage planthoppers outbreaks.

  1. Energy industry affected by the climate change; Energiewirtschaft als Betroffener des Klimawandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, B. [ElfER, Electricite de France, R et D (France)

    2007-07-01

    The climate change affects not only the production, transmission, distribution and demand of electricity, but also the energy services and energy trade. Under this aspect, within the scope of the meeting '1. Kufstein Energy Symposium - Energy industry vs energy intensive industry - recognition of trends', held between May 22nd and May 24th, 2006, at the University of Applied Sciences in Kufstein (Austria), the author of the contribution under consideration reports on aspects concerning the consternation of the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany according to the production, transmission and demand of electricity. In the following three chapters, the author reports on the consternation due to (a) the demand of cooling water at thermal power stations and changed possibilities of transportation of inland navigation; (b) atmospheric effects on existing power mains; (c) changed energy demand at extreme heat events. The consternation of the electric power industry is multi-layered.

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Anthonia Adeniji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the relationship between human resource management interventionist strategies and organizational change; and flexibility that can make employees more adaptive and receptive to changes. Out of one hundred and sixty copies of questionnaire administered, one hundred and twenty three (123 were collected and analyzed. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM, a hypothesized relationship was tested using Amos 18 that allows test of complex relationships between variables. Our model shows that relationship exists among human resource management interventionist strategies and was consistent with organizational change in the studied industry. However, the study can be extended to other industries, for example manufacturing industry as well as industry within the merger and acquisition of companies.

  3. Landscape pattern change in the upper valley of Min River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-hua; HE Xing-yuan; HU Yuan-man; CHANG Yu

    2005-01-01

    The upper valley of Min River (102° 59′ -104° 14′ E, 31° 26′ - 33° 16′ N), which is consisted of the counties Wenchuan, Maoxian, Lixian, Heishui, and Songpan, refers to the part up to Dujiangyan City, and locates on the transition zone from the Tibetan Plateau to the Sichuan Basin. It is one of the most important forest areas in China, especially in Sichuan Province. Over past two decades, the landscape changed remarkably in the region. The 3S techniques (Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Position System (GPS)) were used to classify the images and analyze the landscape change. The remotely sensed data of Landsat TM 1986 and Landsat ETM+ 2000 were used to analyze the landscape change of the region. The landscape were classified into 10 types of cropland, forest, shrub land, economic forest, grassland, build up land, river, lake, swamp, and unused land. The results showed that: 1) the woodland and grassland were dominating landscape types in the upper valley of Min River, which is more than 91% of the study area; 2) the alteration of the landscape was mainly happened among forest, shrub land, grassland, economic forest, cropland, and build up land, where forest decreased from 51.17% to 47.56%; 3) the landscape fragmentation in the upper valley of Min River was aggravated from 1986 to 2000.

  4. Climatic changes and uplift patterns - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our knowledge about the Pleistocene (= last 2.5 million years) climatic changes and their global environmental effects on the Earth system, e.g. the glacial-interglacial cycles, the sea level changes, and the significant crustal movements in glaciated regions, has increased greatly during the last decades. This report outlines the historical background and the present state-of-the-arts on these matters. Because the driving mechanisms and feed-back effects behind these changes have been more and more discussed in earth-science literature, analysed, and probably also better and better understood, it has become possible to present theoretical models for future climates (not including mans influence on the earth system). The report presents and discusses one such climate model (short of predicting mans future behaviour and its consequent effect on climate) and its likely implications on future climatic and glacial conditions, and bedrock movements, with focus on the Stockholm region. Possibilities for quaternary geologists to establish and map post glacial fault zones, related to irregular bedrock movements, are also briefly outlined in the report. (222 refs.)

  5. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  6. Dynamics of productivity change in the Australian electricity industry: Assessing the impacts of electricity reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian electricity industry has undergone a significant reform, since the mid-1990s. Key changes comprised functional unbundling, market restructuring, regulatory reform, public corporatisation and privatisation. Technological development has been another indisputable constituent of these changes, in the wake of ICT revolution. The principle rationale behind these changes has been that they would improve productivity of the industry and social well-being of people. This paper examines the dynamics of productivity changes in the Australian electricity industry and conducts several hypotheses-testings to identify whether industry's efficiency measures are truly improved as a result of the reform-driven changes. Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index approach and ANOVA are used for this purpose. The results reveal that the productivity gains in the industry have been largely driven by technological improvements and, to a lesser extent, by reform-induced comparative efficiency gains. On average at national level and for the entire industry, there are efficiency gains that, to large extents, can be attributed to functional unbundling and public corporatisation and, to a lesser extent, to market restructuring and privatisation. The results, however, reveal that the reform-driven changes have made insignificant contribution to comparative efficiency, at the level of thermal generation. - Highlights: → Dynamics of productivity changes in Australian electricity industry are examined. → Several hypotheses are also tested against reform-driven changes. → Technology impact is proved to be far larger than reform-induced impacts. → Unbundling and corporatisation had larger impacts than market restructuring and privatisation. → At thermal generation level, no reform-induced impact is encountered.

  7. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  8. Do economic globalization and industry growth destabilize careers? An analysis of career complexity and career patterns over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Biemann; A.E. Fasang; D. Grunow

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the impact of economic globalization and industry growth on the complexity of early work careers in Germany. We conceptualize complexity as the absolute number of employer changes, the regularity in the order of job changes, and the variability of the durations spent in different employme

  9. Patterns of Change: Transitions in Hmong Textile Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Hmong life, women produced complex textiles as markers of clan identity and cultural values. Paj ntaub (flower cloth, created by embroidery, appliqué, reverse appliqué, and indigo batik (among the Blue or Green Hmong, were primary transmitters of Hmong culture from one generation to the next over centuries. Clothing, funeral and courtship cloths, baby carriers and hats were designed with traditionally geometric, abstract patterns Hmong could understand as a shared visual language within an oral culture.This photo essay introduces the author’s twenty-five year fascination with paj ntaub and documents a trip to Laos and northern Thailand in November/December 2009 to discover whether story cloths were being produced in Hmong villages in Laos or if story cloths remain a product of refugees only. The researcher also hoped tolearn whether traditional Hmong clothing is still produced and worn in the Laos, to observe how Hmong textiles are made and consumed for a tourist market, and to discover possible sources for the dramatic shift in paj ntaub visual language from symbolic abstraction to pictorial representation.

  10. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  11. Study on the Change of Land Use and Landscape Pattern in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the statistical data concerning land use in Anhui Province from 1995 to 2005, this paper conduct comprehensive analysis on change of land use structure, change of land use degree, and landscape pattern change of land use in Anhui Province from 1995 to 2005 using statistical analysis and mathematical model. The results show that the land use structure has changed significantly; the rate of land use change is quick; the land use degree is not high; the spatial pattern of land use tends to be reasonable and gradually develops toward the equilibrium state.

  12. Chordoma characterization of significant changes of the DNA methylation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Rinner

    Full Text Available Chordomas are rare mesenchymal tumors occurring exclusively in the midline from clivus to sacrum. Early tumor detection is extremely important as these tumors are resistant to chemotherapy and irradiation. Despite continuous research efforts surgical excision remains the main treatment option. Because of the often challenging anatomic location early detection is important to enable complete tumor resection and to reduce the high incidence of local recurrences. The aim of this study was to explore whether DNA methylation, a well known epigenetic marker, may play a role in chordoma development and if hypermethylation of specific CpG islands may serve as potential biomarkers correlated with SNP analyses in chordoma. The study was performed on tumor samples from ten chordoma patients. We found significant genomic instability by Affymetrix 6.0. It was interesting to see that all chordomas showed a loss of 3q26.32 (PIK 3CA and 3q27.3 (BCL6 thus underlining the potential importance of the PI3K pathway in chordoma development. By using the AITCpG360 methylation assay we elucidated 20 genes which were hyper/hypomethylated compared to normal blood. The most promising candidates were nine hyper/hypomethylated genes C3, XIST, TACSTD2, FMR1, HIC1, RARB, DLEC1, KL, and RASSF1. In summary, we have shown that chordomas are characterized by a significant genomic instability and furthermore we demonstrated a characteristic DNA methylation pattern. These findings add new insights into chordoma development, diagnosis and potential new treatment options.

  13. Monitoring of Pinus massoniana spatial pattern changes based on RS and GIS techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; HUANG Hua-guo; ZHANG Xiao-li; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan

    2008-01-01

    Our research focused on Pinus massoniana information extracted from remote sensing images based on the knowledge detection and decision tree algorithm and established a spatial pattern model, combining quantitative theoretical ecology with remote sensing (RS) and geometric information system (GIS) techniques. Applying information extraction methods and a spatial pattern model, we studied P. massoniana spatial patterns changes before and after the invasion by pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Fuyang and Zhoushan counties, Zhejiang Province, east China. The P. massoniana spatial patterns are clustering,whether the invasion happened or not. But the degree of clustering is different. Our results show good agreement with field data.Applying the results, we analyzed the relationship between spatial patterns and the invasion level. Then we drew the elementary conclusion that there are two kinds of patterns for pine wood nematode to spread: continuous and discontinuous diffusion. This approach can help monitor and evaluate the changes in ecological systems.

  14. Analysis of Long-Term Precipitation Sequencing Pattern Changes in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, S.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates changes in long-term precipitation patterns in North America, focusing specifically on precipitation sequencing. Previous precipitation studies have explored changes in extreme precipitation events, intensity, and distribution, but sequencing changes and their effects are still largely not understood. Precipitation sequencing, or the overall temporal pattern of precipitation events, is a vital yet often overlooked part of developing long-term climate predictions; the assumption of long-term stationarity in climate variability, which suggests that past observed temporal patterns are likely to continue and can therefore be projected, weakens the robustness of climate models. Additionally, changes in sequencing could be a driver for fluctuations in the highly interconnected hydrologic cycle, meaning that tipping points and critical changes in the cycle could be better anticipated given a more complete picture of long-term temporal patterns. Analysis was based on precipitation data collected by the National Climatic Data Center for approximately 9000 stations in North America. Temporal patterns recorded at each station - the sequence of consecutive days with or without rain and the lengths of those increments - were reviewed and compared on a decadal and seasonal scale. Comparisons to date indicate that long-term precipitation patterns are non-stationary and therefore cannot be relied upon for long-term climate projections. It remains to be seen how exactly regional temporal patterns have fluctuated over time in North America, and results could provide interesting insight into observed hydrologic changes or serve to reinforce existing theories regarding regional hydrologic studies.

  15. Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factor of County-level Industrial Development in Liaoning Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiaona; MA Yanji

    2008-01-01

    County-level industrial development and structure upgrade is one of the most important issues of revitaliz-ing old industrial base of China. ARer the cluster analysis on GDP per capita and GDP per area of each county inLiaoning Province, this paper finds the similarity of population size, land use intensity, and economic development ofeach county. Location quotient reflects the specialization intensity of industries in each county, and it also reflects thespatial differences of county-level industrial development. Economic development level is higher in the southeast thanin the northwest of Liaoning, and the industry driving effect on county-level economy is apparent. The main influenc-ing factors include location, industrial foundation and economic system reform, capital input level, knowledge andtechnology dissemination, conditions of domestic and overseas markets, population and labor force transfer. Industri-alization is an important approach to urbanization for the counties in Liaoning Province. The proportion of agricultureis much higher in the northwest than in the southeast of Liaoning, so it will be take longer time for counties in thenorthwest of Liaoning to make industrialization, urbanization and modernization.

  16. The changing pattern of Tinea capitis in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East-Innis, A; Rainford, L; Dunwell, P; Barrett-Robinson, D; Nicholson, A M

    2006-03-01

    The species of dermatophyte fungi causing tinea capitis vary from country to country and may also change with time. This study was done to identify the predominant organisms causing tinea capitis in the Jamaican population. It was a retrospective study looking at all fungal culture requests to the Microbiology Department at the University Hospital of the West Indies during the period January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002. The results showed a gradual switch from the dominance of Microsporum audouinii (61.5%) in 1998 to the dominance of Trichophyton tonsurans (85%) in 2002. The mean age was 8.6. Females constituted 55.7% of positive cases and males, 44.3%. PMID:16921700

  17. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; González, Alejandro D

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximately 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO(2) equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change. PMID:19339402

  18. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  19. A Novel Calculus? Institutional Change, Globalization and Industrial Conflict in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Collective industrial conflict in Europe has declined dramatically since the 1970s. This decline is the result of significant changes in institutional factors, influencing the calculations of employees and their organizations when considering strike action. Declining union density and changes...... in market protection seem major influences, while institutional and legal changes are important explanations of persistent major inter-country variance. This indicates a novel industrial conflict calculus for employees, which entails a more restricted use, but not the withering away of the strike....

  20. Continuity and Change: Patterns of Mate Selection and Marriage Ritual in a Malay Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Heather

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected primarily through participant observation, open-ended interviews and discussions with selected informants. A description is given of the village, occupants, and traditional patterns of mate selection and marriage rituals. The second section deals with changing patterns, those of young village women with postsecondary education…

  1. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  2. Changing and Differentiated Urban Landscape in China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong; Wang, Shaojian

    2016-03-01

    Urban landscape spatiotemporal change patterns and their driving mechanisms in China are poorly understood at the national level. Here we used remote sensing data, landscape metrics, and a spatial econometric model to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urban landscape change and investigate its driving forces in China between 1990 and 2005. The results showed that the urban landscape pattern has experienced drastic changes over the past 15 years. Total urban area has expanded approximately 1.61 times, with a 2.98% annual urban-growth rate. Compared to previous single-city studies, although urban areas are expanding rapidly, the overall fragmentation of the urban landscape is decreasing and is more irregular and complex at the national level. We also found a stair-stepping, urban-landscape changing pattern among eastern, central, and western counties. In addition, administrative level, urban size, and hierarchy have effects on the urban landscape pattern. We also found that a combination of landscape metrics can be used to supplement our understanding of the pattern of urbanization. The changes in these metrics are correlated with geographical indicators, socioeconomic factors, infrastructure variables, administrative level factors, policy factors, and historical factors. Our results indicate that the top priority should be strengthening the management of urban planning. A compact and congregate urban landscape may be a good choice of pattern for urban development in China.

  3. An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Industry Factors in the Internationalization Patterns of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøgaard, Birgitte; Gioia, Carmine; Benito, Gabriel R. G.

    Research on companies' internationalization has mainly focused on firm-level and country-level factors in order to explain firms' cross-border activities. With the exception of a limited number of studies emphasizing rivalistic behavior in oligopolistic industries, industry factors have been negl...

  4. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  5. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation's economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures

  6. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  7. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism ec...

  8. Industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  9. Study on spatial pattern of land-use change in China during 1995-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纪远; 刘明亮; 庄大方; 张增祥; 邓祥征

    2003-01-01

    It is more and more acknowledged that land-use/cover dynamic change has become a key subject urgently to be dealt with in the study of global environmental change. Supported by the Landsat TM digital images, spatial patterns and temporal variation of land-use change during 1995-2000 are studied in the paper. According to the land-use dynamic degree model, supported by the 1km GRID data of land-use change and the comprehensive characters of physical, economic and social features, a dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed to disclose the spatial pattern of land-use change processes. Generally speaking, in the traditional agricultural zones, e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, Yangtze River Delta and Sichuan Basin, the built-up and residential areas occupy a great proportion of arable land, and in the interlock area of farming and pasturing of northern China and the oases agricultural zones, the reclamation of arable land is conspicuously driven by changes of production conditions, economic benefits and climatic conditions. The implementation of "returning arable land into woodland or grassland" policies has won initial success in some areas, but it is too early to say that the trend of deforestation has been effectively reversed across China. In this paper, the division of dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed, for the sake of revealing the temporal and spatial features of land-use change and laying the foundation for the study of regional scale land-use changes. Moreover, an integrated study, including studies of spatial pattern and temporal process of land-use change, is carried out in this paper, which is an interesting try on the comparative studies of spatial pattern on change process and the change process of spatial pattern of land-use change.

  10. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cathryn Clarke Murray; Selina Agbayani; Ban, Natalie C.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different sce...

  11. Decomposition of Total Factor Productivity Change in the U.S. Hog Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.; McBride, William D.; Mosheim, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. hog industry has experienced dramatic structural changes and rapid increases in farm productivity. A stochastic frontier analysis is used to measure hog enterprise total factor productivity (TFP) growth between 1992 and 2004 and to decompose this growth into technical change and changes in technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and allocative efficiency. Productivity gains over the 12-year period are found to be explained almost entirely by technical progress and by improvements in ...

  12. The impact of climate change on the global wine industry: Challenges & solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renée Mozell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of climate change upon the global production of winegrapes and wine. It includes a review of the literature on the cause and effects of climate change, as well as illustrations of the specific challenges global warming may bring to the production of winegrapes and wine. More importantly, this paper provides some practical solutions that industry professionals can take to mitigate and adapt to the coming change in both vineyards and wineries.

  13. SELECTIVE BREEDING, HERITABLE CHARACTERISTICS AND GENETIC-BASED TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE CANADIAN BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents an examination of genetic-based technological change in the Canadian beef cattle industry. A model of technological change is explicitly developed in characteristics space. Production functions with genetic characteristics as arguments are estimated and two forms of technological change identified. Shadow values for characteristics are then calculated and actual genetic improvements are compared to the improvements suggested by the shadow prices. It is concluded that market...

  14. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  15. An example of change - the end of apartheid in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This publication reports on a visit by four British MPs to the South African Coal Industry (SACI), made under the auspices of the SACI Committee which represents all the major coal exporting companies of South Africa. It is a private industry which operates independently of both the Government and the Chamber of Mines and does not benefit from any Government Subsidies. The aim of the visit was to investigate the SACI against a background of international pressure against an industry which appears to be a major example of change in South Africa. The visit programme included presentations on the South African coal industry in general, industrial relations and safety and research in the mining industry. Visits were made to both an underground mine and an opencast mine, a collieries training college, hospital, school, mine village and a coal terminal. At the end of the visit the delegation drew the conclusions that the South African coal industry is now organised on a totally non-discriminatory basis, offering employment and promotion opportunities to all workers regardless of their race and that there is therefore no justification for singling out this industry as a victim of sanctions policy.

  16. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  17. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Changku Kang; Ye Eun Kim; Yikweon Jang

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree ...

  18. Multinationals and global climate change. Issues for the automotive and oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D

    2003-07-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by U.S. and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional economic drivers of strategy do not provide a satisfactory account for these differences, and the chapter focuses instead on the conflicting institutional pressures on MNEs and the implications for their climate strategy. The home-country institutional context and individual corporate histories can create divergent pressures on strategy for MNEs based in different countries. At the same time, the location of MNEs in global industries and their participation in 'global issues arenas' such as climate change generate institutional forces for strategic convergence. It appears that local context influenced initial corporate reactions, but that convergent pressures predominate as the issue matures.

  19. Compositional changes in industrial hemp biomass (Cannabis sativa L.) induced by electron beam irradiation Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical decomposition of industrial hemp biomass were evaluated at doses of 150, 300, and 450 kGy. The quantity of decomposed components was indirectly estimated by measuring changes in alkaline extraction. The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation doses resulted in larger amounts of alkaline extract. Carbohydrate compositional analysis using 1H-NMR spectroscopy was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the polysaccharides of the industrial hemp. The xylose peak intensity in the NMR spectra decreased with increasing electron irradiation dose, indicating that xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose. -- Highlights: → The more severe degradation of structural components induced by higher irradiation. → Carbohydrate analysis was applied to quantitatively investigate changes in the industrial hemp. → Xylan was more sensitive to electron beam irradiation than cellulose.

  20. Multinationals and global climate change. Issues for the automotive and oil industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by U.S. and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional economic drivers of strategy do not provide a satisfactory account for these differences, and the chapter focuses instead on the conflicting institutional pressures on MNEs and the implications for their climate strategy. The home-country institutional context and individual corporate histories can create divergent pressures on strategy for MNEs based in different countries. At the same time, the location of MNEs in global industries and their participation in 'global issues arenas' such as climate change generate institutional forces for strategic convergence. It appears that local context influenced initial corporate reactions, but that convergent pressures predominate as the issue matures

  1. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  2. Multidimensional patterns of change in outpatient psychotherapy: the phase model revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulz, Niklaus; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    In this study, groups of psychotherapy outpatients were identified on the basis of shared change patterns in the three dimensions of the phase model of psychotherapeutic outcome: well-being, symptom distress, and life functioning. Treatment courses provided by a national provider network of a managed care company in the United States (N = 1128) were analyzed using growth mixture models. Several initial patient characteristics (treatment expectations, amount of prior psychotherapy, and global assessment of functioning) allowed for the discrimination between three patient groups of shared change patterns. Those patterns can be classified into three groups as phase model consistent, partial rapid responders, or symptomatically highly impaired patients with each having typical change patterns. PMID:17674397

  3. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  4. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution. The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation.

    For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America.

    The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin.

    Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the

  5. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2011-09-01

    Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation. For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America. The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin. Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes

  6. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  7. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-09-06

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  8. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution. PMID:27597446

  9. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution. PMID:27597446

  10. Multi-pattern fingerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1996-08-01

    The multivariate optimal fingerprint method for the detection of an externally forced climate change signal in the presence of natural internal variability is extended to the attribution problem. To determine whether a climate change signal which has been detected in observed climate data can be attributed to a particular climate forcing mechanism, or combination of mechanisms, the predicted space-time dependent climate change signal patterns for the candidate climate forcings must be specified. In addition to the signal patterns, the method requires input information on the space-time dependent covariance matrices of the natural climate variability and the predicted signal pattern errors. The detection and attribution problem is treated as a sequence of individual consistency tests applied to all candidate forcing mechanisms, as well as to the null hypothesis that no climate change has taken place, within the phase space spanned by the predicted climate change patterns. As output the method yields a significance level for the detection of a climate change signal in the observed data and individual confidence levels for the consistency of the retrieved climate change signal with each of the forcing mechanisms. A statistically significant climate change signal is regarded as consistent with a given forcing mechanism if the statistical confidence level exceeds a given critical value, but is attributed to that forcing only if all other climate change mechanisms are rejected at that confidence level. The analysis is carried out using tensor notation, with a metric given by the natural-variability covariance matrix. This clarifies the relation between the covariant signal patterns and their contravariant fingerprint counterparts. The signal patterns define the vector space in which the climate trajectories are analyzed, while the fingerprints are needed to project the climate trajectories onto this space. (orig.)

  11. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of concur......Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent...... of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were......, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  12. Investigation of climate change impacts on Prairie's petroleum industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, the three Prairie provinces of Canada, and their economies strongly depend on the petroleum industry. However, climate change may have potential impacts on the sector that could reverberate onto the socio-economic fabric of the provinces. The petroleum industry in the Prairies is faced with a big challenge: how to adapt to the changing climatic conditions so that they maintain or improve their economic and environmental efficiencies. The attitudes of the different stakeholders concerning climate change and the appropriate measures to be implemented by the petroleum industry were obtained through a questionnaire-based survey conducted between February and June 2001. Based on the responses received, a Chi-square statistical test was applied to look at the complex interactions in the results. An analysis of a number of petroleum-related processes and activities vulnerable to climate change was performed. A sound foundation was obtained for the decision-making process on the climate change measures required in the petroleum industry in the Prairies. 14 refs., 7 tabs

  13. Electroencephalographic Coherence and Learning: Distinct Patterns of Change during Word Learning and Figure Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter; Hogan, Michael; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Kaiser, Jochen; Fischer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    One likely mechanism in learning new skills is change in synchronous connections between distributed neural networks, which can be measured by coherence analysis of electroencephalographic patterns. This study examined coherence changes during the learning of two tasks, a word association task and a figure association task. Although learning…

  14. Comparing tide gauge observations to regional patterns of sea-level change (1961–2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Van de Wal, R.S.W.; Wada, Y.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the global mean sea-level budget for the 20th century can now be closed, the understanding of sea-level change on a regional scale is still limited. In this study we compare observations from tide gauges to regional patterns from various contributions to sea-level change to see how much of

  15. Comparing tide gauge observations to regional patterns of sea-level change (1961-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A. B. A.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Wada, Y.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Although the global mean sea-level budget for the 20th century can now be closed, the understanding of sea-level change on a regional scale is still limited. In this study we compare observations from tide gauges to regional patterns from various contributions to sea-level change to see how much of

  16. Powerful agent of change? The global insurance industry as a driver for greenhouse mitigation and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper explores the potential for the gloPal insurance industry to play a powerful and constructive role towards significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions as well as in climate change adaptation. Climate change presents a formidable public policy challenge (IPCC 2001) and one to which sections of the insurance industry have been responsive (Mills 2005). The industry can be expected to play a further constructive role for three reasons: the industry has core capacities in risk management and loss prevention; the industry is the world's largest with annual income in the order of US$3.4 trillion derived from premiums and US$1 trillion derived from investments; and anthropogenic climate change is constricting limits to insurability, with implications for the ongoing functioning of the insurance sector (Mills and Lecomte 2006). Insurance understood as a social institution is both a crucial component of contemporary socio-economic systems and a powerful agent of socio-economic change (Pfeffer and Klock 1974, Denenberg et al. 1964). The ability to transfer risk historically has played a major facilitative role in economic and social development at the broadest scales of human socio-economic systems (Supple 1984; Clark 1999). Governments historically and currently explicitly harness the potential of insurance in support of specific public policy outcomes. The creation of the modern welfare state is a public policy objective on a grand scale achieved in part through application of insurance, in the form of universal health care and pensions (Lengwiler2003). The insurance industry itself also initiates significant socioeconomic change in three ways: direct engagement, for example by establishing the first fire brigades (Kline 1964a); loss prevention research, for example by conducting and financing research into building and vehicle safety (Mills and Lecomte 2006; Kline 1964b); and engaging in lobbying for implementation of safety standards (Kline

  17. The US coal industry, 1970--1990: Two decades of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report, is to provide a comprehensive overview of the US coal industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that occurred, their causes, and their effects. The report presents and analyzes data compiled by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on the US coal industry, as well as EIA data on other energy sources and information from non-EIA sources where relevant. These data are used to reveal trends in coal production, consumption, distribution, and prices. Trends in coal mining productivity and employment are also examined, and the profitability of major energy companies' coal operations is tracked over the 1977 through 1990 period. Analysis of the data indicates the impacts on the coal industry of major events such as the oil embargo, technological breakthroughs, and Federal and State laws and regulations affecting the industry

  18. Multi-pattern fingerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    To determine whether a climate change signal which has been detected in observed climate data can be attributed to a particular climate forcing mechanism, or combination of mechanisms, the predicted space-time dependent climate change signal patterns for the candidate climate forcings must be specified. In addition to the signal patterns, the method requires input information on the space-time dependent covariance matrices of the natural climate variability and of the errors of the predicted signal patterns. The detection and attribution problem is treated as a sequence of individual consistency tests applied to all candidate forcing mechanisms, as well as to the null hypothesis that no climate change has taken place, within the phase space spanned by the predicted climate change patterns. As output the method yields a significance level for the detection of a climate change signal in the observed data and individual confidence levels for the consistency of the retrieved climate change signal with each of the forcing mechanisms. A statistically significant climate change signal is regarded as consistent with a given forcing mechanism if the statistical confidence level exceeds a given critical value, but is attributed to that forcing only if all other candidate climate change mechanisms (from a finite set of proposed mechanisms) are rejected at that confidence level. Although all relations can be readily expressed in standard matrix notation, the analysis is carried out using tensor notation, with a metric given by the natural-variability covariance matrix. This simplifies the derivations and clarifies the invariant relation between the covariant signal patterns and their contravariant fingerprint counterparts. The signal patterns define the reduced vector space in which the climate trajectories are analyzed, while the fingerprints are needed to project the climate trajectories onto this reduced space. (orig.) With 1 fig., 19 refs.

  19. Management of change in the nuclear industry - Evidence from maintenance reorganizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The nuclear industry and especially the maintenance activities have been under various restructuring initiatives in addition to continuous incremental change due to e.g. new technologies, ageing plants, deregulation and the change of generation. These changes have been experienced as causing stress and uncertainty among the workers. Also, changes have lead to e.g. lowered sense of control, goal unclarity and lowered sense of personal responsibility over one's work. Organizational changes clearly are issues that have potential effects on safety. Both positive and negative cases on safety effects of organizational changes exist, and various accidents have been pinpointed to organizational changes in the company. In this report the challenges of management of change at nuclear power plants are considered mainly from organizational culture -perspective. The cultural perspective taken in this paper strives to combine technical approaches to human resources approaches. The report focuses on evidence gathered from studies made at Nordic NPP maintenance units, but the results and models depicted in the report are of general relevance in the nuclear industry. The report is based on four case studies of reorganizing in NPP maintenance units and on a literature review of change management at various other safety critical organizations. The report presents a framework for considering organizational changes and their safety consequences. (au)

  20. Management of change in the nuclear industry - Evidence from maintenance reorganizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry and especially the maintenance activities have been under various restructuring initiatives in addition to continuous incremental change due to e.g. new technologies, ageing plants, deregulation and the change of generation. These changes have been experienced as causing stress and uncertainty among the workers. Also, changes have lead to e.g. lowered sense of control, goal unclarity and lowered sense of personal responsibility over one's work. Organizational changes clearly are issues that have potential effects on safety. Both positive and negative cases on safety effects of organizational changes exist, and various accidents have been pinpointed to organizational changes in the company. In this report the challenges of management of change at nuclear power plants are considered mainly from organizational culture -perspective. The cultural perspective taken in this paper strives to combine technical approaches to human resources approaches. The report focuses on evidence gathered from studies made at Nordic NPP maintenance units, but the results and models depicted in the report are of general relevance in the nuclear industry. The report is based on four case studies of reorganizing in NPP maintenance units and on a literature review of change management at various other safety critical organizations. The report presents a framework for considering organizational changes and their safety consequences. (au)

  1. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  2. Challenging today's nuclear industry to be competitive in a changing tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the millennium approaches, the future of the nuclear power generation appears desolate. Today's nuclear executives are facing challenges resulting from worldwide change and have forced utilities to reevaluate their corporation's future directions. The nuclear industry must be competitive more than ever to address today's rapid changing marketplace and pressures exerted from: regulatory reformation; increased competition; changes in technology; customer evolution; and globalization. These factors have compelled nuclear executives to address questions such as: What impact will these changes have on today's marketplace, and on my corporation? What will characterize tomorrow's successful nuclear facility? How can today's nuclear corporation compete in tomorrow's marketplace? Will my corporation survive? (author)

  3. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  4. Changes in latitude, changes in attitude - emerging biogeographic patterns of invasion in the Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeographic patterns of invasion of near-coastal and estuarine species in the Northeastern Pacific (NEP) are beginning to emerge based on surveys by U.S. EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and the EPA/USGS synthesis of native and nonindigenous species ...

  5. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of glucosidases during apple seeds stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Podstolski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The technique of localization of glucosidases on disc electropherograms, based on reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride by enzymatically liberated sugar is described. The changes in electrophoretic patterns of amygdaline, phloridzin and p-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside hydrolysing glucosidases during apple seed stratification were studied. The changes were correlated with earlier described changes in endogenous apple seed amygdaline and phloridzin contents.

  6. Changes in Price Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Industry: Evidence Using Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    1998-01-01

    The implications of market development in the catfish industry on catfish price behavior are explored using cointegration. It is hypothesized that market development, through increases in competition between processors and shifts in consumer preferences toward fish, has caused changes in price behavior among levels of the catfish market. Using monthly catfish price data, a cointegration analysis of subsets of prices shows that price behavior has changed through time, with catfish prices becom...

  7. A MARKOV CHAIN ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE TEXAS HIGH PLAINS COTTON GINNING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ethridge, Don E.; Roy, Sujit K.; Myers, David W.

    1985-01-01

    Markov chain analysis of changes in the number and size of cotton gin firms in West Texas was conducted assuming stationary and non-stationary transition probabilities. Projections of industry structure were made to 1999 with stationary probability assumptions and six sets of assumed conditions for labor and energy costs and technological change in the non-stationary transition model. Results indicate a continued decline in number of firms, but labor, energy, and technology conditions alter t...

  8. Evaluating Voluntary Climate Change Initiatives by US business and industry compared with the Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dave R; Elzenga HE; Moor APG de; KMD

    2005-01-01

    This report evaluates voluntary climate change initiatives by US business and industry geared to reducing greenhouse gases. We conclude that most of them do not even meet the minimum requirements to be qualified as serious efforts. They lack sufficient information, ambition and direction. Targets ar

  9. Structural changes and competitiveness in Spanish manufacturing industry : analysis of some relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Fonfría Mesa, Antonio; Álvarez González, Isabel; Díaz de la Guardia Bueno, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the main changes occurred in the productive structure of Spanish manufacturing industry in the last years, by relating them to variations in economic results observed therein and their realtionships. The analysis was carried out to three figures on the NACE and registers variables relative to the economic structure and performance of sectors.

  10. Structural changes and competitiveness in Spanish manufacturing industry: analysis of some relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Fonfría Mesa; Isabel Alvarez González; Carlos Díaz de la Guardia Bueno

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the main changes occurred in the productive structure of Spanish manufacturing industry in the last years, by relating them to variations in economic results observed therein and their realtionships. The analysis was carried out to three figures on the NACE and registers variables relative to the economic structure and performance of sectors.

  11. The changing industry structure of software development for consumer electronics and its consequences for software architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Herman; Trew, Tim; Bosch, Jan

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade the structure of the consumer electronics industry has been changing profoundly. Current consumer electronics products are built using components from a large variety of specialized firms, whereas previously each product was developed by a single, vertically integrated company

  12. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry, The Need for Changes in Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    have established rules and control systems for organic agriculture (the last decade). A break-through of organic food production is now taking place in some EU member states. This third change is indicated by more positive attitudes to organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing...... need for a more appropriate respons in the food policy....

  13. Management of change: Lessons learned from staff reductions in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Gort, J.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure are causing major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies have been continuously improving staff efficiency. As a result, most modern chemical plants can be regarded as lean. Plans to further reduce the number of staff h

  14. An integrated approach towards safety during change in the chemical process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, J.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Lemkowitz, S.; Steijger, N.; Moonen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition and shareholder pressure cause major changes in the chemical industry. Over the last decade companies continuously improve their manpower efficiency. As a result most chemical plants of today can be regarded as lean plants. Plans to further reduce the number of staff ar

  15. The Implications of Ownership Changes on Concentration and Diversity in the Phonogram Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Examines the changing industry role of the six transnational phonogram companies. Argues that high market concentration does not produce an inevitable decrease in popular music diversity. Presents a new popular music model that takes into account the open system of musical production as a strategy in maintaining control of the marketplace. (SR)

  16. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and

  17. 78 FR 58956 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Changes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... within the United States. This proposal would revise the Board's membership to reflect the diversity of... United States. This proposal would revise the Board's membership to reflect the diversity of the industry.... Background This proposal invites comments on changes to the Board's membership provisions under the...

  18. Spatio-temporal Patterns of Intra-urban Land Use Change in Beijing,China Between 1984 and 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Wenhui

    2012-01-01

    Urban internal structure is essential information for urban geography researchers and urban planners or managers.This research aims to examine the spatial structure changes of internal urban land use based on the interpreted datasets of 1984 and 2008.Spatio-temporal patterns of internal land use conversion and urban expansion are analyzed,and then dominant driving factors (e.g.,social economy,population growth and urban planning) were identified.The results indicate that Beijing's intra-urban layout has experienced tremendous adjustment from compact to disperse configure,otherwise its function objects have shifted from the major economic and industrial development before the 1990s to the combination with cultural,high-technological and inhabitable city at present.The dominant urban land use transformations include the relocation of industrial lands from core districts to suburban or other provinces,and the accelerating expansion of residential areas and green spaces for supplying the demand of housing and ecological protection.Although Beijing's urban planning has experienced three major adjustments and improvement since the 1980s,its optimization of urban internal patterns still remains a challenge.

  19. Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time

    OpenAIRE

    Bromham, Lindell; Lanfear, Robert; Cassey, Phillip; Gibb, Gillian; Cardillo, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Predicting future species extinctions from patterns of past extinctions or current threat status relies on the assumption that the taxonomic and biological selectivity of extinction is consistent through time. If the driving forces of extinction change through time, this assumption may be unrealistic. Testing the consistency of extinction patterns between the past and the present has been difficult, because the phylogenetically explicit methods used to model present-day extinction risk typica...

  20. Environmental management in a printing company; transformation patterns in the Dutch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Theo; Green, Ken; Hofman, Peter S.; Groenewegen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The concept of sustainability presents an enormous challenge for industry. Where in the past a sound economic performance ensured survival, in the near future the triple-bottom-line will determine whether a company is successful or not. Next to outstanding economic results, companies will have to mi

  1. Staffing Patterns in the Wholesale and Retail Trade Industry in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis. Research and Statistics Section.

    Directed towards designers of vocational education training programs, the document presents statistical data and discussion concerning employment trends in Indiana for various industries in the wholesale and retail trade sector. Data are based on a survey conducted in 1973-74, covering 5,986 establishments and 202,070 employees, with a usable…

  2. Network analysis of Danish cattle industry trade patterns as an evaluation of risk potential for disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, M.; Thompson, R.A.; Chriél, Mariann;

    2006-01-01

    of heterogeneity. This heterogeneity in movements between farms should be used to evaluate the risk potential of disease transmission for each premise and must be considered when modelling disease spread between premises. The objective of this research was to describe the network of animal movements and not just......Trade patterns of animal movements in a specific industry are complex and difficult to study because there are many stakeholders, premises that are heterogeneously spread over the country, and a highly dynamic flow of animals exists among them. The Danish cattle industry was defined as a network...... of animal movements and graph theory was used to analyse the movements of cattle within this network. A premise was defined as a farm, an abattoir or a market. These premises constituted the network nodes in the graph and the animal movements between them were the links. In this framework, each premise had...

  3. How did the Master Settlement Agreement change tobacco industry expenditures for cigarette advertising and promotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2004-07-01

    The 1998 multistate Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with the tobacco industry restricted cigarette advertising and promotions. The MSA monetary settlement was also associated with an average cigarette price increase of U.S.$1.19/pack between 1998 and 2001 to fund, in part, industry payments to the states. We examined Federal Trade Commission reports on how the tobacco industry spends its cigarette advertising and promotional dollars to see if changes expected as a result of the MSA occurred. Expected changes included reduced total expenditures and reductions for outdoor advertising, specialty promotional items identified with a brand (e.g., caps, t-shirts, lighters), and public entertainment. However, tobacco industry spending for advertising and promotions increased 96% between 1995 and 2001, with large increases in 1998 and 1999, as the MSA took effect. Between 1997 and 2001, outdoor advertising declined 98%, expenditures for specialty promotional items decreased 41%, although public entertainment increased 45%. However, in 2001, these categories represented only a small fraction of the total budget. Expenditures for retail-value-added increased 344% between 1997 and 2001 (to 42.5% of total), perhaps to mitigate increased cigarette prices. In 2001, the incentives-to-merchants and retail-value-added categories comprised more than 80% of total expenditures. To adequately monitor tobacco industry expenditures as they adapt to the MSA and other tobacco control efforts, more refined reporting categories are essential. PMID:15231101

  4. Changes in the competitive advantages of Croatia’s manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Galović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the position and detecte competitive advantages of Croatia’s manufacturing industry in foreign exchange trading. The methodology of this research is based on the application of indices of openness to foreign trade and detected competitive advantages, as well as the complete analysis of the manufacturing industry structure of the Republic of Croatia. In order to analyse the competitive advantages of the manufacturing industry in the Republic of Croatia the following quantitative methods were used: Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA, as a method for detecting comparative advantages of exporting goods of some countries, Export Competitiveness Indices (XS, as a method for measuring export competitiveness of the observed countries, Export Specialization Index (ES, as a method for comparing export activities of the manufacturing industry in the Republic of Croatia and the European Union, and the Relative Trade Advantage Index (RTA that incorporates the RCA and the RMA indices. The main results of the research indicate competitive advantages detected by measuring, evaluation of the Croatian manufacturing industry particularly on foreign markets, recommendations and proposals in order to reach a higher level of export competitiveness. The main conclusion of this research is that there is a need to establish prerequisites and to define measures for structural changes in the Croatian manufacturing industry.Key words: JEL classification: O18, O12, F18, R11

  5. Winds of change: growing demands for transparency in the relationship between doctors and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Philip B

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between medicine and the pharmaceutical industry in the United States is undergoing rapid and momentous change; US Senator Grassley has alleged inadequate disclosure of earnings from industry and lack of acknowledgement of conflicts of interest by leading academics. This article is based on the premise that it is not the relationship per se that is the problem, but rather how that relationship is enacted. The influential 2008 report of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has provided detailed recommendations on appropriate interactions between academic physicians and industry (eg, proscribing receipt of gifts including travel support, and proscribing speaking at industry-sponsored educational programs). Contrary to expectations, there has been widespread acceptance of such guidelines. In Australia, details of all industry-sponsored educational events are now listed on the Medicines Australia website. Australian doctors have no alternative but to drastically improve the transparency of their interactions with industry, both in terms of the remuneration received and disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. Australian universities should seriously consider developing recommendations similar to those of the AAMC. PMID:19740050

  6. 我国苹果产业的格局和发展建议%Pattern and Suggestions for the Development of Apple Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰

    2015-01-01

    苹果生产在我国水果产业中占有重要地位,本文简要叙述了苹果的产量分布、出口状况以及苹果的价格变化,从生产模式和经营模式两个方面分析了苹果产业发展的新态势。最后针对苹果发展的新格局,笔者提出了苹果产业发展的建议,即加强信息交流,健全市场预警机制;强化品牌战略,拓展市场领域,搭建网络交易平台,拓宽果品营销渠道。%Apple production occupies the most important position in the fruit industry of our country. In this paper, the production and distribution of apple export, and the price changes of apple were briefly described, and the new development trend of apple industry was analysed from both production and operation mode. Finally, the author put forward some new suggestions which based on the new pattern of apple industry:strengthening information exchange, perfecting the market early warning mechanism; strengthening the brand strategy, expanding the market area and building the network trading platform, broadening the fruit marketing channel.

  7. Modelling the Information Seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David; Haugan, Merete

    1997-01-01

    Engineers and research scientists at Statoil's Research Center in Trondheim, Norway were interviewed to determine information-seeking patterns. Eight characteristics were identified: surveying, chaining, monitoring, browsing, distinguishing, filtering, extracting, and ending. The results showed that although there were differences in the features…

  8. Climate change and the insurance industry. The cost of increased risk and the impetus for action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convincing economic argument for taking action to prevent or ameliorate climate change has not developed because of both uncertainty about the degree of change and its timing. Recent costly weather-related catastrophes with consequent negative impacts on the insurance industry has made the insurance industry a potential advocate for slowing what has been identified as a causal factor in climate change: emissions of greenhouse gases. However, rising costs of claims, without a longer-term trend of such catastrophic losses, will make it difficult to present a strong case for taking costly economic action. Using the Black Scholes Option Pricing Model, it is shown that increasing levels of climate variability as embedded in the anticipated variability of damage to insured assets will have an immediate economic cost that could serve to bolster the argument for more immediate action. That cost is shown to be economically justified higher insurance premiums

  9. Growth and pattern of intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh: 1975–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sushil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the intra-industry trade between India and Bangladesh over the period of 1975 to 2010. GL index is used to calculate intraindustry trade at the three-digit level of SITC. The study also calculated the trade complementarity index, and revealed comparative index. The extent of intra-industry trade is high in sectors like crude materials, inedible, except fuels, food and live animals. The study also reveals mismatch between Indian imports and Bangladesh exports. The present study indicates positive effect on consumer surplus and trade using SMART model. Finally, the paper suggests that Bangladesh should diversify his export structure to reduce the bilateral trade deficit on the basis of comparative advantage

  10. Architectures and design patterns for functional design of logic control and diagnostics in industrial automation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Recently in most of the industrial automation process an ever increasing degree of automation has been observed. This increasing is motivated by the higher requirement of systems with great performance in terms of quality of products/services generated, productivity, efficiency and low costs in the design, realization and maintenance. This trend in the growth of complex automation systems is rapidly spreading over automated manufacturing systems (AMS), where the integration of the mechanic...

  11. E-business in Service Industries : Usage patterns and service gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Preissl, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    The empirical data presented here have been derived from a company survey which has been conducted in eight service sectors across the EU. From these eight sectors four sectors have been chosen for the present analysis. The criterion for selection was comparability with respect to market orientation, regulation intensity and performance indicators. The dynamics of growth of the service industries analysed here varies between countries (E-biz Market Watch Group 2002, see also Preissl 2000). Co...

  12. Changes in competitive strategies due to deregulation and privatization in the petroleum industry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is part of a series of four dedicated to the study of the global oil competition game through the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. By means of a questionnaire answered by top executives in ten oil companies, the authors investigate the changes in the competitive strategy of these companies in the downstream side of the oil business due to deregulation and privatization. The paper starts by establishing the relationship between Porter's generic competitive strategies and specific competitive methods. Then, it describes how companies have changes their competitive methods after privatization and major deregulation. Changes in the industry structure are also analyzed. (authors)

  13. Climate change and water conservation effects on water availability and vegetation patterns in a stream valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Yasmijn; de Graaf, Myrjam; van Ek, Remco; Witte, Jan-Philip; Aerts, Rien; Bierkens, Marc; van Bodegom, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Climate change predictions include an increase in global temperature and changes in precipitation patterns at spatial and seasonal scale. The seasonal changes for temperate Europe include a decrease in the amount of precipitation in summer and an increase in winter. This may lead to an increased flooding risk in winter and early spring, while in summer the drought risk is likely to increase. These hydrological changes can have profound effects on vegetation patterns and development, especially for groundwater dependent vegetation. Water conservation measures can be used to combat the potential negative effects of these changes. Conservation measures can include aquifer storage and recovery, damming streams, or creating retention zones for flooding events. The implementation of these measures can contribute to preserving groundwater dependent vegetation patterns. In this study we simulated with an integrated surface- and groundwater model and a climate robust vegetation model, the implementation of water conservation measures in a stream valley catchment in the Netherlands. We modeled the effects on water availability and on vegetation patterns. The conservation measures were simulated for the current climate and for two climate scenarios, with a temperature increase of two degrees Celsius and either an increase or decrease in precipitation. Water tables were increased in stream valley zones, where groundwater dependent vegetation dominates, to ensure suitable abiotic conditions. The results showed that the water conservation measures increased the water table considerably in a future climate, compared to no conservation measures. Groundwater dependent vegetation was positively stimulated with these new hydrological conditions. With these models we successfully tested the effectiveness of the water conservation measures on water availability and vegetation patterns to ameliorate the negative effects of climate change. We therefore argue that water conservation

  14. Padrões de industrialização, riscos e meio ambiente Patterns of industrialization risks and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Franco

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a questão dos riscos industriais e de seus impactos sobre a saúde e o meio ambiente, buscando fazer uma retrospectiva histórica acerca da formação dos atuais padrões de trabalho, produção e consumo nas sociedades ocidentais contemporâneas. Neste percurso, salienta desafios e dilemas emergentes nas últimas décadas com os avanços da globalização da economia, da reestruturação produtiva e das formas de gestão do trabalho viabilizadas pela adoção de políticas neoliberais. Focaliza a historicidade da relação entre riscos industriais e meio ambiente e apresenta resultados de pesquisa que dizem respeito à mobilidade dos riscos e acidentes industriais no espaço socioeconômico-ambiental da Região Metropolitana de Salvador, resgatando aspectos concernentes às formas de gestão industrial e de organização do trabalho, com destaque para a terceirização.This article deals with industrial risks and its effects on health and environment, in a retrospective historical analysis of the creation of present patterns of work, production and consumption in contemporary western societies. Challenges and emerging dilemas from the few past decades are highligted and discussed by the authors in terms of economic globalization, productive restructuring and work management strategies conducted by neoliberal policies. The article focus on the relationship between industrial risks and environment and present research data on morbidity and risks related to industrial accidents in the social-economical-environmental space of the Metropolitan area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. In doing so, concerns on industrial management and labour organization are highligted.

  15. Investigating the Connections between Oil and Gas Industry Affiliation and Climate Change Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, S. M.; Bunnell, D.; Danielson, C.; Borglum, S.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to the research on scientific aspects of climate change, significant work has also been done on the perception of climate change among various sectors of the population. This is an important area of research as in many cases the science policy of a country is a function of the popular sentiment. One area of interest is the relationship between education, specifically in related areas such as earth sciences and engineering, to one's views on climate change. While research has shown that there is a correlation between higher education and an acceptance of human caused climate change, this work looks into the question more specifically. The question asked here is: given a group of people with education and experience in the earth sciences, does the area of employment affect how they view the issue? In other words, does an engineer or geoscientist working in the oil and gas industry look at the data relating to climate change in the same way an equivalently educated engineer or geoscientist working in another field does? An understanding of whether or not employment in the oil and gas industry has a similar effect on views of climate change as political or religious ideologies may help in fostering communication between disciplines and working together for solutions. In order to look at this question, a survey is being conducted of members in the petroleum engineering community. The survey is designed along the lines of similar surveys to measure the respondents understanding of, concern with, and beliefs about climate change. It also includes other correlating factors such as political and religious views. A second group of engineers in fields that typically place them outside of the oil and gas industry are being surveyed as a control group. The results will determine whether individuals with similar educational backgrounds look at the data connected with climate change differently based on the field in which they work, and if so, are there other

  16. Industrialization and City Change; the Concept and Historical Evolution of Urban Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Mehdipour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is essentially motivated by the increasing number of problems caused by industrial diversity in urban areas. Environmental degradation, Social decay and economic decline as ultimate outcomes of the Industrialization period forced dramatic changes in the process of urbanization, particularly in the developed countries where the population growth rapidly transformed the textures of cities. Hence, several cities were compelled to reconsider and encourage the practice of sustainable urban regeneration as a momentous process to revitalize these declined urban fabrics. This study first aims to trigger a brief discussion about the Industrialization period and how this trend contributed to transformation of cities. Subsequently, the concept and objectives of urban regeneration process will be extensively explained.

  17. The emerging response of the insurance industry to the threat of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insurance industry is waking up fast to the threat anthropogenic enhancement of the greenhouse effect poses to its future market security. This has been in large measure because of a suspicious escalation in losses from windstorms and drought-related wildfire in recent years. Articulating worst-case analysis fears of a global-warming future, senior industry figures in London, Zurich, Munich, Tokyo and New York have spoken of the potential for a global collapse of the insurance industry. Such an eventuality would have negative consequences in many areas of economic activity. These consequences have been little explored or appreciated in the climate-change debate to date. In some developing countries, meanwhile, withdrawal of catastrophe insurance cover is already threatening development. (author). 16 refs

  18. Call for an industry standard for pattern transfer models for usage in OPC and design for manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Thomas; Grimm, Wolfgang; Thiele, Jörg

    2006-03-01

    Lately, "Design for Manufacturability" (DFM) can be found in almost any self-respecting EDA vendor's top-five list of most critical and urgent strategic topics. While the envisioned DFM activities cover a broad spectrum of topics, the exact definition of DFM continues to evade capture [1]. However, it appears self-evident that an important portion of DFM hinges upon the availability of models accurately describing the pattern transfer from the layout to the wafer, here called "pattern transfer models" (PTMs). In combination with a suitable design environment, PTMs will allow physical designers to optimize their layout, thus ensuring the structural integrity over the process window upon transfer to the wafer. In this paper, we argue that PTMs have an importance comparable to that of the "electrical device models" (EDMs) widely used for circuit simulation. We point out some striking analogies between PTMs and EDMs, as far as the basic concepts and use models are concerned. Furthermore, we highlight the significant differences in the EDA land-scapes for both model types, most importantly the fact that an industry standard only exists for EDMs. Based on the consequences for EDA vendors and users, as well as manufacturing cooperations that derive from this situation, we formulate the call for an industry standard for PTMs for usage in "Optical Proximity Correction" (OPC) and DFM.

  19. Unusual mortality pattern among short term workers in the perfumery industry in Geneva.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubéran, E; Usel, M

    1987-01-01

    A cohort of 537 workers employed for less than one year between 1900 and 1964 in the Geneva perfumery industry was followed up from entry to the end of 1983. During the period of study, 251 workers died and 41 (8%) were lost to follow up. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was significantly above 100 for all causes (SMR = 120), all cancers (SMR = 127), lung cancer (SMR = 186), and violent death (SMR = 179). The highest SMR from all causes was associated with the shortest period of employm...

  20. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    OpenAIRE

    J. Laštovička; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; J. Bremer; Emmert, J. T.; Jacobi, C.; Jarvis, M J; G. Nedoluha; Yu. I. Portnyagin; T. Ulich

    2008-01-01

    In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and conta...

  1. Spatial patterns and functional redundancies in a changing boreal lake landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Angeler,David; Allen, Craig R.; Daniel R. Uden; Johnson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Global transformations extend beyond local habitats; therefore, larger-scale approaches are needed to assess community-level responses and resilience to unfolding environmental changes. Using long-term data (1996-2011), we evaluated spatial patterns and functional redundancies in the littoral invertebrate communities of 85 Swedish lakes, with the objective of assessing their potential resilience to environmental change at regional scales (that is, spatial resilience). Multivariate spatial mod...

  2. Patterns and structures of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingbiao; Wang, Yi Chen; Guo, Luo; Xue, Dayuan

    2015-01-01

    Located in Qinghai Province of China, the Three Rivers Headwaters Region is the source region of the Yangtze, Yellow and Lantsang Rivers, and plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and regulating water supply. Despite many efforts on land use change in Qinghai, knowledge of the spatial variation of land use change is still lacking. This study examines the patterns of land use change across various watersheds, prefectures and the temple surroundings. Remote sensing images of 1987, 1997 and 2007 were analyzed to derive land use distributions; patterns and structures of the landscape were then quantified with landscape metrics. The results illustrated that the Yangtze River headwater region had more diverse and more evenly distributed landscape, while the Lantsang and the Yellow headwater regions showed a decline in landscape diversity. Comparison of the land use patterns of four prefectures revealed that Yushu Prefecture experienced an increase in landscape diversity from 1987 to 2007 while the land use patches in Guoluo Prefecture exhibited more aggregated patterns than other prefectures. Analysis of the spatial variations of land use change in the temple surroundings illustrated that 19.7% and 35.9% of the temples in Guoluo and Yushu Prefectures, respectively, encountered land use change for their immediate areas within 2 km. Comparison of the surroundings of temples and human settlements found that land use change was not evenly distributed, and that greater land use change had occurred for the surroundings of human settlements. Such findings provided insights into the spatial variation of land use change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region.

  3. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B., E-mail: sreddy@igidr.ac.in [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India); Kumar Ray, Binay [Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Goregaon (E), Mumbai 400 065 (India)

    2011-11-15

    This study develops and examines physical energy intensity indicators in five industrial sub-sectors-iron and steel, aluminum, textiles, paper, and cement-and investigates mitigation options for energy related CO{sub 2} emissions (during 1991-2005). Decomposition analysis has been employed to separate the structural effect (share of different products in the sector) from pure intensity effect (efficiency increase through technical improvement) for each industry. The results show that the combined effect (considering both structural and intensity effects together) on both iron and steel and paper and pulp industries is negative while it is positive for aluminum and textiles. The intensity effect for all the industries, barring textiles, is negative showing improvement in energy efficiency; iron and steel in particular, has seen a decrease of 134 PJ in energy consumption owing to improvements in efficiency. However, energy intensity in textiles has risen by 47 PJ due to increased mechanization. Structural effect is positive in aluminum and iron and steel industries indicating a movement towards higher energy-intensive products. In the case of aluminum, positive structural effect dominates over negative intensive effect whereas negative intensive effect dominates iron and steel industry. The paper helps in designing policies for improving productivity and reduce energy consumption in India's manufacturing sector. - Highlights: > The study develops physical energy intensity indicators in industrial sub-sectors of India. > It identifies technological and other options for reduction in energy consumption. > The study quantifies savings in energy as well as CO{sub 2} emissions. > The indicators are useful in examining structural changes.

  4. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing; Xie, Guoxin

    2016-10-01

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal-insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  5. [Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Dayang River Estuary based on high-resolution remote sensing image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Zhao, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Feng-shou; Wei, Bao-quan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the comprehensive consideration of the high resolution characteristics of remote sensing data and the current situation of land cover and land use in Dayang River Estuary wetland, a classification system with different resolutions of wetland landscape in the Estuary was established. The landscape pattern indices and landscape transition matrix were calculated by using the high resolution remote sensing data, and the dynamic changes of the landscape pattern from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. In the study period, the wetland landscape components changed drastically. Wetland landscape transferred from natural wetland into artificial wetland, and wetland core regional area decreased. Natural wetland's largest patch area index descended, and the fragmentation degree ascended; while artificial wetland area expanded, its patch number decreased, polymerization degree increased, and the maximum patch area index had an obvious increasing trend. Increasing human activities, embankment construction, and reclamation for aquaculture were the main causes for the decrease of wetland area and the degradation of the ecological functions of Dayang River Estuary. To constitute long-term scientific and reasonable development plan, establish wetland nature reserves, protect riverway, draft strict inspective regimes for aquaculture reclamation, and energetically develop resource-based tourism industry would be the main strategies for the protection of the estuarine wetland. PMID:22007462

  6. Daily changes of individual gait patterns identified by means of support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, F; Kramer, F; Schäfer, B; Eekhoff, A; Hegen, P; Nigg, B M; Schöllhorn, W I

    2016-09-01

    Despite the common knowledge about the individual character of human gait patterns and about their non-repeatability, little is known about their stability, their interactions and their changes over time. Variations of gait patterns are typically described as random deviations around a stable mean curve derived from groups, which appear due to noise or experimental insufficiencies. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of intrinsic inter-session variability in more detail by proving separable characteristics of gait patterns between individuals as well as within individuals in repeated measurement sessions. Eight healthy subjects performed 15 gait trials at a self-selected speed on eight days within two weeks. For each trial, the time-continuous ground reaction forces and lower body kinematics were quantified. A total of 960 gait patterns were analysed by means of support vector machines and the coefficient of multiple correlation. The results emphasise the remarkable amount of individual characteristics in human gait. Support vector machines results showed an error-free assignment of gait patterns to the corresponding individual. Thus, differences in gait patterns between individuals seem to be persistent over two weeks. Within the range of individual gait patterns, day specific characteristics could be distinguished by classification rates of 97.3% and 59.5% for the eight-day classification of lower body joint angles and ground reaction forces, respectively. Hence, gait patterns can be assumed not to be constant over time and rather exhibit discernible daily changes within previously stated good repeatability. Advantages for more individual and situational diagnoses or therapy are identified.

  7. Changes in plantar load distribution and gait pattern following foot drop correction in leprosy affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Mrinmoy; Joshua, Jerry; Mahato, Nidhu

    2015-09-01

    This study was done to compare the changes in plantar load (weight distribution) and gait patterns before and after tibialis posterior transfer surgery in people affected by leprosy. Changes in gait patterns were observed and proportionate changes in plantar load were quantified using data captured by a baropodometer. All the eight patients who underwent tibialis posterior transfer surgery in 2013 in our hospital were included in the study. In addition to the regular pre-operative and post-operative assessments, the patients also underwent baropodometric evaluation. There was a significant change in plantar load at the heel, lateral border and forefoot. Using the foot pressure scan, it was noted that the progression of the centre of mass (displayed graphically as 'the gait line') was also affected by the altered pattern of weight distribution. This study reiterates the importance of tibialis posterior transfer because: it restores the normal gait pattern of 1, 2, 3 (where 1 is heel strike, 2 is mid foot contact and 3 is forefoot contact) and provides a more uniform distribution of planter load. PMID:26665356

  8. Age and attitude: Changes in cycling patterns of different e-bike user segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The use and purchase of electric bicycles (e-bikes) is emerging in many countries. Existing knowledge about changes in cycling patterns and car replacement after gaining e-bike access is limited and partly contradictory. Based on an online survey among e-bike users in Denmark (N = 427), this study...

  9. Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell; Lanfear, Robert; Cassey, Phillip; Gibb, Gillian; Cardillo, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Predicting future species extinctions from patterns of past extinctions or current threat status relies on the assumption that the taxonomic and biological selectivity of extinction is consistent through time. If the driving forces of extinction change through time, this assumption may be unrealistic. Testing the consistency of extinction patterns between the past and the present has been difficult, because the phylogenetically explicit methods used to model present-day extinction risk typically cannot be applied to the data from the fossil record. However, the detailed historical and fossil records of the New Zealand avifauna provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct a complete, large faunal assemblage for different periods in the past. Using the first complete phylogeny of all known native New Zealand bird species, both extant and extinct, we show how the taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity of extinction, and biological correlates of extinction, change from the pre-human period through Polynesian and European occupation, to the present. These changes can be explained both by changes in primary threatening processes, and by the operation of extinction filter effects. The variable patterns of extinction through time may confound attempts to identify risk factors that apply across time periods, and to infer future species declines from past extinction patterns and current threat status. PMID:22859591

  10. Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell; Lanfear, Robert; Cassey, Phillip; Gibb, Gillian; Cardillo, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Predicting future species extinctions from patterns of past extinctions or current threat status relies on the assumption that the taxonomic and biological selectivity of extinction is consistent through time. If the driving forces of extinction change through time, this assumption may be unrealistic. Testing the consistency of extinction patterns between the past and the present has been difficult, because the phylogenetically explicit methods used to model present-day extinction risk typically cannot be applied to the data from the fossil record. However, the detailed historical and fossil records of the New Zealand avifauna provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct a complete, large faunal assemblage for different periods in the past. Using the first complete phylogeny of all known native New Zealand bird species, both extant and extinct, we show how the taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity of extinction, and biological correlates of extinction, change from the pre-human period through Polynesian and European occupation, to the present. These changes can be explained both by changes in primary threatening processes, and by the operation of extinction filter effects. The variable patterns of extinction through time may confound attempts to identify risk factors that apply across time periods, and to infer future species declines from past extinction patterns and current threat status.

  11. The Alliance in Couple Therapy: Partner Influence, Early Change, and Alliance Patterns in a Naturalistic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Morten G.; Owen, Jesse; Duncan, Barry L.; Sparks, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the alliance and outcome in couple therapy and examine whether the alliance predicted outcomes over and above early change. The authors also investigated partner influence and gender and sought to identify couple alliance patterns that predicted couple outcomes. Method:…

  12. Modelling land Use Change : Improving the prediction of future land use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Modelling land Use Change: Improving the prediction of future land use patterns. Man has been altering his living environment since prehistoric times and will continue to do so. It is predicted that by 2030 about 90,000 ha will be needed for residential developments in the Netherlands and 55,000 ha

  13. The Changing Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment in EU Accession Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Ionascu, Delia Simona; Kulawczuk, Przemyslaw;

    2005-01-01

    in the emerging economies of Egypt, India, South Africa, and Vietnam, which allows us to benchmark FDI patterns in CEE against other emerging economies in different parts of the world. We find that find fewer changes over the period of the 1990s then we expected, but some interesting differences across the three...... countries in our study, and between CEE and other emerging economies....

  14. Control Patterns in Dyadic Systems: Marital Group Psychotherapy as Change Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, Anne K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined changes in response control patterns exhibited by five married couples who participated in two brief psychotherapy groups. Used the Ericson-Rogers Relational Coding System to score the control direction of interactions between group members. Found individual flexibility increased for each of these relationships over the course of group…

  15. Simulation of changes in the spatial pattern of land use in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Veldkamp, A.; Fresco, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model for simulating country-wide changes in the land use pattern of China. It is based upon an empirical analysis of the spatial distribution of land use types in China which takes into account socioeconomic as well as geophysical variables. The empirical analysis indicates th

  16. Patterns of database citation in articles and patents indicate long-term scientific and industry value of biological data resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousfield, David; McEntyre, Johanna; Velankar, Sameer; Papadatos, George; Bateman, Alex; Cochrane, Guy; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Graef, Florian; Vartak, Vid; Alako, Blaise; Blomberg, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Data from open access biomolecular data resources, such as the European Nucleotide Archive and the Protein Data Bank are extensively reused within life science research for comparative studies, method development and to derive new scientific insights. Indicators that estimate the extent and utility of such secondary use of research data need to reflect this complex and highly variable data usage. By linking open access scientific literature, via Europe PubMedCentral, to the metadata in biological data resources we separate data citations associated with a deposition statement from citations that capture the subsequent, long-term, reuse of data in academia and industry.  We extend this analysis to begin to investigate citations of biomolecular resources in patent documents. We find citations in more than 8,000 patents from 2014, demonstrating substantial use and an important role for data resources in defining biological concepts in granted patents to both academic and industrial innovators. Combined together our results indicate that the citation patterns in biomedical literature and patents vary, not only due to citation practice but also according to the data resource cited. The results guard against the use of simple metrics such as citation counts and show that indicators of data use must not only take into account citations within the biomedical literature but also include reuse of data in industry and other parts of society by including patents and other scientific and technical documents such as guidelines, reports and grant applications. PMID:27092246

  17. Changes in Cyclone Pattern with Climate Change Perspective in the Coastal Regions of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Masud Rana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has started to alter the way how climatic events take place on the earth. Occurrence and distribution of extreme climatic events are now more frequent and undoubtedly Bangladesh is experiencing the effects of climate change among which the extreme events manifest in a more evident and devastating way. This paper aims at eliciting evidences of the effect of climate change on the characteristics of cyclones of this region.   Recent histories of cyclones that formed at the Bay of Bengal and made landfall on the coasts of Bangladesh, ranging from 1795 to 2009, were studied. Frequency of the cyclones has shown an increasing trend along with their intensity. Frequency of weaker cyclones is decreasing and although intensity of the weaker storm is rising, they are rising at a greater rate for the stronger storms and hence there will be large differences among the intensity of the future cyclones. Storm surges show a positive correlation with the intensity of the storms hence greater storm surges can be expected in the future. Storms tracks seem to remain unaltered for a long tract of time. These analyses implicate the necessity to decelerate climate change and also increase awareness among the highly dense population of the coastal regions of the developing countries to reduce damages due to such extreme events.

  18. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and the Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges. (orig.)

  19. The changing structure of the electric power industry, 1970--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95--91) requires the Administrator of the Energy information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. To assist in meeting these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, The Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry, 1970--1991. The purpose of the this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the US electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects

  20. Exploration Patterns in Fast Growing Entrepreneurial Firms: A Multiple Case Study in the Internet Technology Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, Dries; Visscher, Klaasjan; Lamers, Fleur; Cassia, Lucio; Minola, Tommaso; Paleari, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Based on the seminal paper of March (1991), numerous scholars (e.g. Ahuja & Lampert, 2001; Elfring & Hulsink, 2003; Tushman & Anderson, 1986) emphasize that realizing technological change requires exploration or activities such as creative search, experimentation, improvisation, and technology probi

  1. [Effects of land use change on landscape pattern vulnerability in Yinchuan Basin, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Landscape pattern vulnerability reflects the instability and sensitivity of ecological system to external disturbances and helps to understand the status and trend of ecological environment. This paper used landscape sensitivity index and landscape adaptability index to construct the landscape pattern vulnerability index of Yinchuan Basin, and got the distribution of the landscape pattern vulnerability in 2001 and 2013. Our study explored the effect of the land use degree composite index, the integrated land use dynamic degree, the importance index of land use change and various types of land transfer on landscape pattern vulnerability. Results showed that the land use degree composite index was mainly caused by the increase of the arable land, forest and the construction land. The higher proportion of the arable land or forest, the lower the vulnerability was, and the construction land had the opposite effect. With the increase of integrated land use dynamic degree, the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability, followed by grassland, and the forest significantly decreased the vulnerability, followed by the arable land. As the importance index of land use change increasing, the arable land could significantly decrease the vulnerability, followed by the forest, the grassland had a weaker trend with no obvious pattern, and the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability. When the arable land, forest and the grassland were the maintypes of land use transfer, the increasing proportion of the construction land increased the vulnerability. When the construction land was the main type of land use transfer, the grassland and forest improved the vulnerability and the arable land had the opposite effect. Changes in the number of land use types influenced the spatial structure of land use to a certain extent, which could offer a reference on using and developing the land resources scientifically. The ternary diagram could reflect the impact

  2. Structural changes in the organisation of world trade and implications for the shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Dag; Hernes, Tor; Omtvedt, Petter C.

    2002-01-01

    The report documents the results of a research and technical development (RTD) project focusing on the implication for the shipping industry of structural changes in the organisation of world trade. Among the many driving forces behind globalisation of trade and of business trends in logistics and supply chains have been identified and looked into. Characteristic features of leading firms have been identified. The recommendations for the shipping companies comprise the development of an a...

  3. THE CONSEQUENCES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON THE HUMAN FACTOR IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRA MONICA

    2013-07-01

    Along with a change in design or implementation plan and organizational culture, human resources contribute significantly to the success of any kind of change. Compared to the current process of globalization in which the economies and the financial markets are closely linked, and given the highly dynamic industrial climate that is characterized by items such as restructuring, relocation and subcontracting, Romanian companies appear to be aware that the social and ethical role of firms attracts increased attention on the living standards of employees. The resources of an organization in solving the arising problems are many, varied, and it depends only on its willingness to discover and capitalize. Difficult moments generated by implementing changes or the onset of seizures are such problems, which can not only have technical, but also human aspects. In managing the latter the human capital owned by the firm is undoubtedly important, but this must be combined with the quality of good management. The literature is replete with conceptual models of effective organization that can improve or streamline the industrial process, but a strategic orientation towards effective personnel policy is not very expensive, it being very necessary to ensuring the sustainability of the firm. For the textile industry to be successful, we need a better communication between industry and the education system and training, so that the needs and the qualification skills be clearly indicated in order to have a properly trained human resource. So, we can say that for the successful implementation of changes in the textile enterprises the material components, the financial and the human ones, should be combined, organized and updated with the aim of improving human resources management by specializing and training the personnel.

  4. Technological Change and Gender Wage Gaps in the U.S. Service Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Lup TICK; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relation between advances in technology and trends in the gender wage gaps in the US service industry. Using quarterly US Current Population Survey data on employment and wages by four major occupations between 1979 and 2001, the paper estimates a constant elasticity of substitution production function (CES) that incorporates male and female labor inputs, a non-labor input and a productivity parameter function that captures non-neutral technological change. The mod...

  5. Understanding industrial energy use: Physical energy intensity changes in Indian manufacturing sector

    OpenAIRE

    Binay Kumar Ray; Sudhakara Reddy, B.

    2008-01-01

    We develop and analyze physical energy intensity indicators for Indian manufacturing sector. Energy consumption in five industrial sub-sectors, viz., iron and steel, aluminium, textiles, paper and cement is examined for the period 1990Ä2005. It is feasible to develop specific energy consumption indicators that reflect the physical reality more accurately than monetary energy intensities. These indicators allow us to analyze the effect of change in product mix over time. The use of physical en...

  6. Change of soils agrochemical properties at industrial plots polluted by fluorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Pavlyukova

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of some agrochemical properties of soils of model plots closed to industrial enterprises with fluoride atmospheric emissions were studied. The alkalescence of soils at the plots was found. The reduction of content of the mobile forms of phosphorus, nitrite and nitrate forms of nitrogen and humus level in soil is caused by the increasing amount of nitrogen of ammonium compounds.

  7. THE CONSEQUENCES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE ON THE HUMAN FACTOR IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    CHIRA MONICA; MARIAN LIVIU

    2013-01-01

    The study of this paper emphasizes the aspects of change in organizations from the textile industry and the consequences of their implementation on human resources. The present paper falls within the non-experimental quantitative research, as well as having an explorative side due to the fact that it explores a reality in order to discover whether there are certain relationships between the chosen variables. The research is transversal because the data collection is achieved by applying a one...

  8. Producing Bio-Based Bulk Chemicals Using Industrial Biotechnology Saves Energy and Combats Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, B.G.; de Blok, K; Patel, M.K. (Martin)

    2007-01-01

    The production of bulk chemicals from biomass can make a significant contribution to solving two of the most urgent environmental problems: climate change and depletion of fossil energy. We analyzed current and future technology routes leading to 15 bulk chemicals using industrial biotechnology and calculated their CO2 emissions and fossil energy use. Savings of more than 100% in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions are already possible with current state of the art biotechno...

  9. The determinants of the changes in polish food industry based on the financial results

    OpenAIRE

    Malwina Białas

    2016-01-01

    For the last two decades Polish food sector has undergone significant transformations. It was one of the quickest branch to reborn after the crisis related to the changes of political system in Poland. Since then, it has become an important stimulator of economic growth. Due to  the constant technical, technological and organizational development of the sector, Poland has become one of the leading modern and innovative European food producers. The food industry development contributed to ...

  10. Conceptualizing change in the Portuguese footwear industry: regional voices and cognitive spaces of agency

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding national services sectors and global competition aggravate current and perceived future market pressures on traditional manufacturing industries. These perceptions of change have provoked a growing intensification of geo-political discourses on technological innovation and ‘learning’, and calls for competency in design among other professional skills. However, these political discourses on innovation and learning have paralleled public concerns with the apparent ‘grow...

  11. How industry change has affected European airlines : Development of profitability and capital structure year 2000-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Hourani, Rayan; Helander, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Background: The airline industry of today functions in a very intense and competitive market and is also very sensitive to change. Over the last years the airline industry has changed and been affected drastically. Factors like sudden shocks, such as the terrorist attacks of September 11th in 2001 and the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) phenomenon in China 2003, change in macroeconomic factors, such as GDP growth in different regions, changes in the oil price and fluctuations in exch...

  12. The Effect of Sudden Change in Pipe Diameter on Flow Patterns of Air-Water Two-Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Flow patterns upstream and downstream of a sudden-contraction cross-section in a vertical straight pipe were presented. By comparing with flow patterns in uniform croes-section vertical tubes, the effect of the sudden change in pipe diameter on flow patterns was analyzed. Flow pattern transition mechanisms were discussed and transition criteria for flow pattern transitions were deduced accordingly using the dimensional analysis.

  13. A need for planned adaptation to climate change in the wine industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Marc J.; Rounsevell, Mark D. A.

    2011-09-01

    The diversity of wine production depends on subtle differences in microclimate and is therefore especially sensitive to climate change. A warmer climate will impact directly on wine-grapes through over-ripening, drying out, rising acidity levels, and greater vulnerability to pests and disease, resulting in changes in wine quality (e.g. complexity, balance and structure) or potentially the style of wine that can be produced. The growing scientific evidence for significant climate change in the coming decades means that adaptation will be of critical importance to the multi-billion dollar global wine-industry in general, and to quality wine producers in particular (White et al 2006, 2009; Hertsgaard 2011). Adaptation is understood as an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected environmental change, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities (IPCC 2007). Autonomous adaptation has been an integral part of the 20th century wine industry. Technological advances, changes in consumer demand, and global competition have meant that growers and producers have had to adapt to stay in business. The gradual temperature rise in the 20th Century (0.7 °C globally) has been accommodated successfully by gradual changes in vine management, technological measures, production control, and marketing (White et al 2009), although this has in many cases resulted in the production of bolder, more alcoholic wines (Hertsgaard 2011). In spite of this success, the wine industry is surprisingly conservative when it comes to considering longer term planned adaptation for substantial climate change impacts. A few producers are expanding to new locations at higher altitudes or cooler climates (e.g. Torres is developing new vineyards high in the Pyrenees, and Mouton Rothschild is setting up new vineyards in South America), and the legal and cultural restrictions of Appelation d'Origine Cȏntrollée (AOC) systems are being discussed (White et al 2009

  14. Full Scale Experiences with Didactic Changes in Distance Education in Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten Haack; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper report the main results of didactic changes in the first year of an experiment in ICT-based distance learning. The results are based on a full scale experiment in the education, Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII). The experiment transforming the well functioning on......-campus engineering program based on project organized collaborative learning to the technology supported distance education program failed. Despite of many miner didactic changes we did not obtain the same self regulating learning effect in the group work among the off-campus students as is the case for oncampus...

  15. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovička

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and contains several gaps and a few discrepancies, but the overall pattern of observed long-term changes throughout the upper atmosphere is consistent with model predictions of the effect of greenhouse gas increases. Together with the large body of lower atmospheric trend research, our synthesis indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the atmosphere at nearly all altitudes between ground and space.

  16. Dietary transition, nutritional and health outcomes, and changing agrifood production and trade patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Cao, Lijuan

    dietary patterns (defined on both nutritional contents as well as on compositions of product sources) mainly follow the income-driven transition path as reported in recent literature. Then in the alternative scenarios, we impose on the baseline several distinct diets according to official diet guidelines...... such as those from the WHO and the Chinese health authority, as exogenous changes to consumer demands via shifts of consumer preferences. Simulations of these scenarios will then reveal the production and trade pattern changes that are necessary to accommodate the demand shifts, as well as the associated...... efficiency and welfare consequences. Realizing that changing dietary trends are likely to be costly, in a more refined scenario, we consider public policy options to influence consumer choices for purposes of reaching a given alternative diet target. Since the costs of the policy intervention...

  17. Diverging business strategies towards climate change. A USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, K.F.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E. [Institue for Environmental Studies, Vrije Univ. IVM/VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolk, A. [Institute for Environmental Management WIMM, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levy, D.L. [University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in successful efforts to address climate change, due to both their role as major emitters of greenhouse gases and to their capacity to invest in mitigation technologies. However, relatively little is known about the triggers for change in corporate behaviour, which are at the basis of corporate decisions to support or oppose policy initiatives. In the title project it has been investigated what strategies - and why and how - specific industrial sectors develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The objective was to provide information of relevance to the sixth Convention of Parties (CoP6) that is to be held in The Hague, Netherlands, November 2000. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the banking and insurance sector. Together, these sectors are the most important players in the climate policy debate. Special attention has been paid to the questions whether strategies of European Union (EU)- based corporations differ systematically from US-based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks. European corporations generally tend to have more advanced policies than their US counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. Corporate strategies appear to be highly determined by a combination of market situation in their home country and of access to alternative technologies. In the automobile industry, the USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible. 100 refs.

  18. Catastrophes and Climate Change. Concerns and Possible Countermeasures of the Insurance Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas such as coastal regions, which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, are showing a change for the worse as many atmospheric extremes are strongly influenced by global warming. In addition to the problems the insurance industry has with regard to pricing, capacity and loss reserves, the assessment of insured liabilities, preventive planning and the proper adjustment of catastrophe losses are gaining importance. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The changing probability distributions of many processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of heat waves, droughts, bush fires, tropical and extratropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance, apart from the consequences of the stratospheric ozone destruction for health and life insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain areas insurance cover will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed, as for example significant deductibles and low liability or loss limits. In areas of high insurance density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level at which the national and international insurance industries will run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is

  19. Spatio-temporal changes of lymphatic contractility and drainage patterns following lymphadenectomy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkuk Kwon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the redirection of lymphatic drainage post-lymphadenectomy using non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging, and to subsequently assess impact on metastasis. BACKGROUND: Cancer-acquired lymphedema arises from dysfunctional fluid transport after lymphadenectomy performed for staging and to disrupt drainage pathways for regional control of disease. However, little is known about the normal regenerative processes of the lymphatics in response to lymphadenectomy and how these responses can be accelerated, delayed, or can impact metastasis. METHODS: Changes in lymphatic "pumping" function and drainage patterns were non-invasively and longitudinally imaged using NIRF lymphatic imaging after popliteal lymphadenectomy in mice. In a cohort of mice, B16F10 melanoma was inoculated on the dorsal aspect of the paw 27 days after lymphadenectomy to assess how drainage patterns affect metastasis. RESULTS: NIRF imaging demonstrates that, although lymphatic function and drainage patterns change significantly in early response to popliteal lymph node (PLN removal in mice, these changes are transient and regress dramatically due to a high regenerative capacity of the lymphatics and co-opting of collateral lymphatic pathways around the site of obstruction. Metastases followed the pattern of collateral pathways and could be detected proximal to the site of lymphadenectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Both lymphatic vessel regeneration and co-opting of contralateral vessels occur following lymphadenectomy, with contractile function restored within 13 days, providing a basis for preclinical and clinical investigations to hasten lymphatic repair and restore contractile lymphatic function after surgery to prevent cancer-acquired lymphedema. Patterns of cancer metastasis after lymphadenectomy were altered, consistent with patterns of re-directed lymphatic drainage.

  20. Spiking patterns of neocortical L5 pyramidal neurons in vitro change with temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan eHedrick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A subset of pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of the mammalian neocortex can fire action potentials in brief, high-frequency bursts while others fire spikes at regularly-spaced intervals. Here we show that individual layer 5 pyramidal neurons in acute slices from mouse primary motor cortex can adopt both regular and burst spiking patterns. During constant current injection at the soma, neurons displayed a regular firing pattern at 36-37 °C, but switched to burst spiking patterns upon cooling the slice to 24-26 °C. This change in firing pattern was reversible and repeatable and was independent of the somatic resting membrane potential. Hence these spiking patterns are not inherent to discrete populations of pyramidal neurons and are more interchangeable than previously thought. Burst spiking in these neurons is the result of electrical interactions between the soma and distal apical dendritic tree. Presumably the interactions between soma and distal dendrite are temperature-sensitive, suggesting that the manner in which layer 5 pyramidal neurons translate synaptic input into an output spiking pattern is fundamentally altered at sub-physiological temperatures.

  1. Changes in newcomer job satisfaction over time: examining the pattern of honeymoons and hangovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Wendy R; Shipp, Abbie J; Payne, Stephanie C; Culbertson, Satoris S

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors contribute insight into the temporal nature of work attitudes, examining how job satisfaction changes across the 1st year of employment for a sample of organizational newcomers. The authors examined factors related to job change (i.e., voluntary turnover, prior job satisfaction) and newcomer experiences (i.e., fulfillment of commitments, extent of socialization) that may strengthen or weaken the job satisfaction pattern. Results of a study of 132 newcomers with data collected at 4 unique time periods show a complex curvilinear pattern of job satisfaction, such that satisfaction reached a peak following organizational entry and decreased thereafter. However, examination of moderating factors revealed that individuals who reported less satisfaction with their prior job and those having more positive experiences on the new job, such as greater fulfilled commitments and a higher degree of socialization, were most likely to experience this pattern. Findings from this study offer important implications for theory and research on changes in newcomer attitudes over time as well as practical insight on key factors that shape the pattern of job attitudes as individuals enter and experience a new workplace. PMID:19594229

  2. STUDY OF PALMAR DERMATOGLYPHICS PATTERN CHANGES IN β-THALASSEMIA MAJOR PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjyoti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Palmar dermatoglyphics pattern in β-Thalassemia major patients and in normal subjects were studied to find out any statistically significant changes if present. SETTING AND DESIGN Qualitative and quantitative changes in the pattern may be present, as these patterns are genetically determined. BACKGROUND β-Thalassemia major is a serious and prevalent form of haemoglobin disorder in these regions with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Study of population by applying different tools is an important aspect of prevention. Dermatoglyphics study may be helpful to know the phenotypic trait of the individual. METHODS AND MATERIALS 50 diagnosed cases of β-thalassemia major and the equal number of matched control group of either sex were included in the investigation. Palmar imprints were taken by traditional paper and ink method. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Chi square test and t- test were used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Arch, loop and whorl’s character, a-b ridge counts and ‘atd’ angles were studied. Significant rise in number of whorls and changes in ‘atd’ angles were detected in the cases. This information may be useful in population genetics study, though more detail research is needed.

  3. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  4. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten;

    2007-01-01

    can be randomly generated on the basis of farm density of the surrounding area of any farm is not correct since the patterns of animal movements have the topology of a scale-free network with a large degree of heterogeneity. This supported the opinion that the disease spread software assuming...... homogeneity in farm-to-farm relationship should only be used for large-scale interpretation and for epidemic preparedness. The network approach, based on graph theory, can be used efficiently to express more precisely, on a local scale (premise), the heterogeneity of animal movements. This approach......, by providing network knowledge to the local veterinarian in charge of controlling disease spread, should also be evaluated as a potential tool to manage epidemics during the crisis. Geographic information systems could also be linked in the approach to produce knowledge about local transmission of disease....

  5. Detection of changes in SEMG signals with myofascial pain using the pattern-classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ching-Fen; Huang, Pao-Tieh

    2013-10-01

    Myofascial pain on the upper back (MFPUB) has been a common occupational hazard associated with consistent computer use. Investigations into any sort neuromuscular functional changes due to myofascial pain are rare. This study aims to differentiate the wavelet energy patterns of the surface electromyography signals measured from 30 normal and 26 patient subjects using the K-means clustering process. The results show that the wavelet energy pattern of patient subjects was different to that of normal subject and reveals a sensitivity of 57.69% at a specificity of 76.67% in the identification of myofascial pain. Therefore, this model could provide a reliable feature for clinical diagnosis of myofascial pain.

  6. Spatial pattern of reference evapotranspiration change and its temporal evolution over Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanlei; Wang, Guojie; Huang, Jin; Mu, Mengyuan; Yan, Guixia; Liu, Chunwei; Gao, Chujie; Li, Xing; Yin, Yixing; Zhang, Fangmin; Zhu, Siguang; Hua, Wenjian

    2016-09-01

    Due to the close relationship of climate change with reference evapotranspiration (ETo), detecting changes in ETo spatial distribution and its temporal evolution at local and regional levels is favorable to comprehensively understand climate change-induced impacts on hydrology and agriculture. In this study, the objective is to identify whether climate change has caused variation of ETo spatial distribution in different analysis periods [i.e., long- (20-year), medium- (10-year), and short-term (5-year)] and to investigate its temporal evolution (namely, when these changes happened) at annual and monthly scales in Southwest China (SWC). First, we estimated ETo values using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Monteith equation, based on historical climate data measured at 269 weather sites during 1973-2012. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that the spatial pattern of annual ETo had significantly changed during the past 40 years, particularly in west SWC for the long-term analysis period, and west and southeast SWC in both medium- and short-term periods, which corresponded to the percent area of significant differences which were 21.9, 58.0, and 48.2 %, respectively. For investigating temporal evolution of spatial patterns of annual ETo, Duncan's multiple range test was used, and we found that the most significant changes appeared during 1988-2002 with the significant area of higher than 25.0 %. In addition, for long-, medium-, and short-term analysis periods, the spatial distribution has significantly changed during March, September, November, and December, especially in the corresponding periods of 1988-1997, 1983-1992, 1973-1977, and 1988-2002. All in all, climate change has resulted in significant ETo changes in SWC since the 1970s. Knowledge of climate change-induced spatial distribution of ETo and its temporal evolution would aid in formulating strategies for water resources and agricultural managements.

  7. Local industry in global networks : changing competitiveness, corporate strategies and pathways of development in Singapore and Malaysia's garment industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, Floortje

    2004-01-01

    The garment industry in Singapore and Malaysia has been incorporated into global production networks and commodity chains - driven by large US and European garment companies - since the 1960s and 1970s respectively. The industry was an intricate part of the export led industrialisation strategies ad

  8. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research. PMID:25997167

  9. Hydrologic Sensitivity to Climate Change of Precipitation Patterns via Integrated Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, B. K.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on water resources is critical to ecosystems and to human well being. Most previous work has involved coupling hydrologic models to global and regional climate models. While there is impressive agreement among climate models on temperature increase, unfortunately precipitation estimates present "wildly diverging pictures" [Schiermeier, Nature 2010]. In the IPCC AR4 WG1 SPM on page 16 one sees for most of the mid-latitudes that more than 1/3 of the models disagree with the majority on even the sign of any precipitation change and significant agreement of 90% is typically only found in the polar reaches [Oreskes, Philosophy of Science 2010]. Since precipitation is the primary driver of hydrology, therefore coupling of these climate models to hydrology can only yield projections that are highly uncertain. This work instead offers basic insight into the connections between all sorts of climate possibilities and hydrology. The observational climate inputs to GSFLOW basin models have been tweaked to compute the sensitivity of hydrological components to change in many climate variables. Impacts were evaluated from individual changes from a precipitation pattern such as total amounts, event intensities, event rates, durations, frequencies, and season lengths. By considering each precipitation pattern separately, we separate the confounding factors when all are changing at the same time and can then observe the impact of each factor by itself. Sensitivities have been computed for some 20 hydrologic flow components, such as runoff, infiltration, soil ET, interflow, recharge, baseflow, and streamflows. This hydrological system is highly non-linear and so a single set of computed hydrologic sensitivity values only describes the hydrologic partitioning for a single environmental condition. For a more complete picture, hydrological sensitivities have been computed over wide ranges of climate variables, such as a warmer to a colder

  10. Changes of wetland landscape patterns in Dadu River catchment from 1985 to 2000, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laibin HUANG; Junhong BAI; Denghua YAN; Bin CHEN; Rong XIAO; Haifeng GAO

    2012-01-01

    Based on the interpretation and vector processing of remote sensing images in 1985 and 2000,the spatial changes of wetland landscape patterns in Dadu River catchment in the last two decades were studied using spatial analysis method.Supported by Apack software,the indices of wetland landscape pattern were calculated,and the information entropy (IE) was also introduced to show the changes of wetland landscape information.Results showed that wetland landscape in this region was characteristic of patch-corridor-matrix configuration and dominantly consisted of natural wetlands.Landscape patterns changed a little with low fragment and showed concentrated distribution with partial scattered distribution during the period from 1985 to 2000.The values of patch density and convergence index kept stable,and the values of diversity,evenness indices and IE showed a slight decrease,while dominance and fractal dimension indices were increased.All types of wetland landscapes had higher adjacency probabilities with grassland landscape in 1985 and 2000,and there was extremely weak hydrological link and large spatial gap among river,glacier,reservoir and pond wetlands due to low adjacency matrix values.Since their cumulative contribution exceeded 81% through the PCA analysis,the agriculture activities would be the main driving force to the landscape changes during the past 15 years.

  11. The Other partner: The changing role of good provider for men's union formation in industrialized countries

    OpenAIRE

    Goldscheider, Frances; Hogan, Dennis; Turcotte, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    EnglishMost studies of union formation behaviors have focused on women and children,with less emphasis on men. Using comparable retrospective survey data, this study looks at the waysCanadian, Italian and Swedish men begin conjugal life (distinguishing between marriage andcohabitation) and at how the effects of their good provider status qualifications have changed in thelast 30 years. Results for Canadian men have shown that the simple patterns that have been assumed toshape separate and sym...

  12. Cognition-emotion interactions: Patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eTrezise

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry unstable across time subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone to account for differences in problem solving abilities.

  13. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  14. Spatial Pattern Change Simulation of Land Use in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riming; WANG; Xingyao; XIONG

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the county scale land use structure during the rapid urbanization and more accurately grasp the dynamic process of land use and cover change,we combine GIS technology with CLUE-S model to research the spatial pattern change of land use in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City. The results show that the forest and farmland were main land use types going through changes in Yongchuan District during 2000-2010,accounting for more than 90% of the total area in each year; during 2000- 2010,the urban area was significantly increased,an increase of 16. 11%,and the urban area during 2005- 2010 was changed more dramatically than during 2000- 2005; forest area was slightly increased and farmland area was reduced by 1660 ha in 10 years. We set three scenarios on land use change in Yongchuan District for simulation and compare the predicted results. It can be concluded that driven by rapid urbanization,the change in land use landscape pattern in Yongchuan District is mainly focused on forest and farmland,the urban area is substantially increased,and the forest area also shows an increasing trend while the farmland area is reduced accordingly. Under ecological protection scenarios,the land use type having a protective effect on the ecological environment achieves better control effect.

  15. How customer satisfaction changes behavior: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vazifedoost

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase on competition industry from one side and the need for customer retention on the other side in banking industry create necessary motivation to learn more about customer behavior. This paper investigated the relationship between seven perspectives of banking services and customers’ attitude towards changing behavior. The seven perspectives included how bank employees’ treat customers, service prices, how to promote and market synergies, place and time to serve customers, products, equipment and process. The proposed study was implemented in two Iranian banks called Mellat and Tejarat in city of Tehran, Iran. The results indicated that all components except one case, which was “how to promote and market synergies” had meaningful and negative relationship with customer behavior.

  16. [Changes in the forms of industrial production and their effects on workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Assunção, Ada Avila; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to identify determinants of health in workers of plastic industries. Production organization, machinery from maintenance and productive areas, and workers' characteristics of 14 plastic industries from Greater Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, were described. Data were collected about development policy of each company; marketing, operational procedures; production and quality requirements, and formal rules of work organization. High strain management techniques for production time reduction have been implemented. The increase of work rhythm, reduction of break time, and a situation of high cognitive demand impose to workers anomalous body positioning for performing tasks that imply repetitive movements. Physical and psychosocial demands (repetitive work, lower control of the worker on his own tasks, time pressure and job dissatisfaction) compose a complex of conditions adverse to workers' health. Changes in production management, personnel and business impose new strains into the development of task by the workers and bringing in new risk factors to workers' health. PMID:20640318

  17. Evolution of stationary wave patterns in mesospheric water vapor due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan Barı, Deniz; Gabriel, Axel; Sezginer Ünal, Yurdanur

    2016-07-01

    The variability in the observed stationary wave patterns of the mesospheric water vapor (H2O) is investigated using CMIP5 RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections. The change in the vertical and meridional wave structure at northern mid- and polar latitudes associated to the zonal and meridional eddy heat fluxes is discussed by analyzing the advection of H2O due to residual wind components. The alteration in the characteristics of the stationary wave-1 pattern of the lower mesospheric H2O (up to about 75km) related to change in the projected radiative forcing is observed for the years from 2006 to 2100. Additionally the remarkable effect of the increase in global temperature on the zonal asymmetries in small-scale transient waves and parameterized gravity waves, which largely contribute to the observed stationary wave patterns of H2O in the upper mesosphere, is analyzed. For validation purposes, the derived stratospheric patterns are verified against the eddy heat fluxes and residual advection terms derived from Aura/MLS satellite data between 2004-2010 and the reference period of the CMIP5 MPI dataset (1976-2005) providing confidence in the applied method.

  18. Lead tolerance capacity of clinical bacterial isolates and change in their antibiotic susceptibility pattern after exposure to a heavy metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Garhwal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metal pollutions of soil and wastewater are a significant environmental problem as they are not degraded or destroyed. Several metal resistance mechanisms have been identified which is responsible for alteration of normal cell physiology leading to development of drug resistance in microorganisms. Heavy metals used in industry and in household products are, along with antibiotics, creating a selective pressure in the environment that leads to the mutations in microorganisms. The present study was carried out to study the heavy metal lead tolerance by bacteria and change in antibiotic-sensitivity pattern after its exposure. Materials and Methods: 30 clinical isolates from various samples received in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Surat, were included in the study. To check the lead tolerance capacity, isolates were exposed to graded concentration of lead nitrate by plate dilution method, starting from 50 up to 1000 μg/ml strength. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. A change in antibiotic susceptibility pattern was studied before and after lead exposure. Result: 30 clinical isolates were included in the study, 25 Gram negative (83.3% and 5 Gram positive (16.7%. MIC to lead was higher in Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. (600-1000 μg/ml as compared to E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. aureus (50-150 μg/ml. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes were changed significantly after lead exposure. Conclusion: Bacteria exposed to high levels of heavy metals in their environment have adapted to this stress by developing various resistance mechanism. Infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms create problem in treatment and management of patients. We should take efforts to prevent environmental pollution with such heavy metals and transmission of antibiotic-resistant microorganism from environment to health care set up.

  19. Binge-pattern alcohol exposure during puberty induces long-term changes in HPA axis reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.

  20. Satellite change detection analysis of deforestation rates and patterns along the Colombia-Ecuador border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, Andrés; Echavarria, Fernando R; Rundquist, Donald C

    2004-05-01

    This study uses Landsat satellite data to document the rates and patterns of land-cover change along a portion of the Colombia-Ecuador border during a 23-yr period (1973-1996). Human colonization has resulted in extensive deforestation in both countries. Satellite change detection analysis showed that the annual rates of deforestation were considerably higher for the Colombian side of the border. In addition, loss of forest cover on the Colombian side for the study period was almost 43%, while only 22% on the Ecuadorian side. The study found that there is no single factor driving deforestation on either side of the border, but concluded that the higher rates on the Colombian side may be due to higher colonization pressures and intensification of illegal coca cultivation. On the Ecuador side of the border the satellite images documented patterns of deforestation that reflected road networks associated with oil exploration and development.

  1. Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women after hormone replacement therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shu-lan; Yu Shan-shan; Cao Zuan-sun

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function in postmenopausal women; and the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and thyroid and adrenal function. Methods:The levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol were measured in 60 postmenopausal women (30 cases in HRT group; 30 cases in control group) before and 12 months after HRT.Results:The serum levels of tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, TSH and cortisol had no significant difference before and 12 months after HRT in postmenopausal women. The values of them were all in normal ranges.Conclusion:Changing pattern of thyroid and adrenal function was not as significant as that of gonads in postmenopausal women and the impact of HRT on it was not so significantly evident.

  2. Genome‐wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Alam, Mohammad T.; Heijne, Wilbert H. M.; van den Berg, Marco A.; Müller, Ulrike; Trefzer, Axel; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-01-01

    Summary To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a β‐lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome‐wide gene expression of an industrial S. clavuligerus strain, obtained through iterative mutagenesis, with that of the wild‐type strain. Intriguingly, we found that the majority of the changes contributed not to a complex rewiring of primary metabolism but consisted of a simple upregulation of various antibiotic biosynthesis gene clusters. A few additional transcriptional changes in primary metabolism at key points seem to divert metabolic fluxes to the biosynthetic precursors for clavulanic acid. In general, the observed changes largely coincide with genes that have been targeted by rational engineering in recent years, yet the presence of a number of previously unexplored genes clearly demonstrates that functional genomic analysis can provide new leads for strain improvement in biotechnology. PMID:21342474

  3. Genome-wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medema, Marnix H; Alam, Mohammad T; Heijne, Wilbert H M; van den Berg, Marco A; Müller, Ulrike; Trefzer, Axel; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-03-01

    To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome-wide gene expression of an industrial S. clavuligerus strain, obtained through iterative mutagenesis, with that of the wild-type strain. Intriguingly, we found that the majority of the changes contributed not to a complex rewiring of primary metabolism but consisted of a simple upregulation of various antibiotic biosynthesis gene clusters. A few additional transcriptional changes in primary metabolism at key points seem to divert metabolic fluxes to the biosynthetic precursors for clavulanic acid. In general, the observed changes largely coincide with genes that have been targeted by rational engineering in recent years, yet the presence of a number of previously unexplored genes clearly demonstrates that functional genomic analysis can provide new leads for strain improvement in biotechnology.

  4. How Open Source Has Changed the Software Industry: Perspectives from Open Source Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Rajala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of F/LOSS (free/libre open source software has triggered several changes in the software industry. F/LOSS has been cited as an archetypal form of open innovation; it consists of the convergence and collaboration of like-minded parties. An increasing number of software firms have taken upon this approach to link outsiders into their service development and product design. Also, software firms have been increasingly grounded their business models on user-centric and service-oriented operations. This article describes a study that investigates these changes from the perspective of F/LOSS entrepreneurs. The findings are summarized into four issues that are critical in managing an F/LOSS business: i dealing with organizational changes in the innovation process; ii mastering user involvement; iii successfully using resources; and iv designing revenue models.

  5. Heterogeneity and Change in the Patterning of Adolescents' Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Parental Authority: A Latent Transition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Darling, Nancy; Flaherty, Brian; Martinez, Maria Loreto

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the patterning of adolescents' beliefs about the legitimate domains of parental authority were modeled in 2,611 Chilean adolescents, 11-16 years old. Transitions in adolescents' belief patterns were studied over 3 years. Latent transition analysis (LTA) revealed 3 distinct patterns of beliefs--"parent control," "shared control," and…

  6. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  7. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  8. Acquisition of changed pattern of injuries in two spaces of time by comparision

    OpenAIRE

    Tischer, Anja

    2010-01-01

    To protect the least of outside traffic participants, the pedestrians, were technological innovations done to expand the passive safety of automobiles in last decades. On the basis of available paper a contribution to the question on changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians that were killed in an accident was made. For this urban frontal collisions of two spaces of time between passenger cars and adult, erectly walking or standing pedestrians were compared. The selection of researched space...

  9. Changing pattern of respiratory tuberculosis in the UK in adult patients from the Indian subcontinent

    OpenAIRE

    Ormerod, L. P.; McCarthy, O. R.; Paul, E. A.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical observations over a 12 year period have suggested a changing pattern of adult respiratory tuberculosis in patients from the Indian subcontinent in two districts of the United Kingdom with a high incidence of tuberculosis. METHODS: Details of all patients for the period 1981-92 residing in the Newham and Blackburn districts aged 15 and over whose ethnic origin was from the Indian subcontinent (n = 1308) were analysed by stepwise logistic regression to determine the r...

  10. Book review: Fractured identities: changing patterns of inequality by Harriet Bradley (2nd Edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciurea, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    With inequality one of the pressing concerns of the contemporary moment, a new edition of Fractured Identities: Changing Patterns of Inequality seeks to contextualise its analyses amidst processes of globalisation, the aftermath of the financial crisis and the widespread implementation of austerity policies. Harriet Bradley uses an intersectional framework to examine inequalities relating to class, gender, ethnicity and age, and also presents a new chapter attending to disability, sexuality a...

  11. Biting patterns and host preference of Anopheles epiroticus in Chang Island, Trat Province, Eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ritthison, W.; Tainchum, K.; Manguin, Sylvie; Bangs, M.J.; Chareonviriyaphap, T.

    2014-01-01

    A study of species diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes, biting patterns, and seasonal abundance of important mosquito vectors was conducted in two villages of Chang Island, Trat Province, in eastern Thailand, one located along the coast and the other in the low hills of the central interior of the island. Of 5,399 captured female anophelines, 70.25% belong to the subgenus Cellia and remaining specimens to the subgenus Anopheles. Five important putative malaria vectors were molecularly identifie...

  12. Impact of nutritional interventions on food consumption pattern changes of workers and staff

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Boshtam; Karim Zare; Shahriar Sadeghi; Firozeh Sajadi; Shahnaz Shahrokhi; Mansoreh Boshtam; Abdoreza Parsa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program aiming at modifying life style of workers and staff in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas), and Arak (reference area) carried out for 5 years. Nutritional interventions are one of the interventions of this project. This research aiming at studying the effect of these interventions on food consumption pattern changes carried out in workers and staff of Isfahan and Najafabad. Materials and Method: Food consump...

  13. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

  14. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales.

  15. Charging Customers or Making Profit? Business Model Change in the Software Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Malmmose Peyton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Advancements in technology, changing customer demands or new market entrants are often seen as a necessary condition to trigger the creation of new Business Models, or disruptive change in existing ones. Yet, the sufficient condition is often determined by pricing and how customers are willing to pay for the technology (Chesbrough and Rosenbloom, 2002. As a consequence, much research on Business Models has focused on innovation and technology management (Rajala et al., 2012; Zott et al., 2011, and software-specific frameworks for Business Models have emerged (Popp, 2011; Rajala et al., 2003; Rajala et al., 2004; Stahl, 2004. This paper attempts to illustrate Business Model change in the software industry. Design: Drawing on Rajala et al. (2003, this case study explores the (1 antecedents and (2 consequences of a Business Model-change in a logistics software company. The company decided to abolish their profitable fee-based licensing for an internet-based version of its core product and to offer it as freeware including unlimited service. Findings: Firstly, we illustrate how external developments in technology and customer demands (pricing, as well as the desire for a sustainable Business Model, have led to this drastic change. Secondly, we initially find that much of the company’s new Business Model is congruent with the company-focused framework of Rajala et al. (2003 [product strategy; distribution model, services and implementation; revenue logic]. Value: The existing frameworks for Business Models in the software industry cannot fully explain the disruptive change in the Business Model. Therefore, we suggest extending the framework by the element of ‘innovation’.

  16. Development and Industrialization of InGaN/GaN LEDs on Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Low Cost Emitter Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemish, Joseph [Lumileds LLC., San Jose, CA (United States); Soer, Wouter [Lumileds LLC., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) technology has proven to be an effective approach to improve efficacy and reduce cost of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The volume emission from the transparent substrate leads to high package efficiency, while the simple and robust architecture of PSS-based LEDs enables low cost. PSS substrates have gained wide use in mid-power LEDs over the past years. In this project, Lumileds has developed and industrialized PSS and epitaxy technology for high- power flip-chip LEDs to bring these benefits to a broader range of applications and accelerate the adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting (SSL). PSS geometries were designed for highly efficient light extraction in a flip-chip architecture and high-volume manufacturability, and corresponding sapphire patterning and epitaxy manufacturing processes were integrally developed. Concurrently, device and package architectures were developed to take advantage of the PSS flip-chip die in different types of products that meet application needs. The developed PSS and epitaxy technology has been fully implemented in manufacturing at Lumileds’ San Jose, CA location, and incorporated in illumination-grade LED products that have been successfully introduced to the market, including LUXEON Q and LUXEON FlipChip White.

  17. Spatial-Temporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Land Use Changes in Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Bin; CHEN Jian-Fei; QIU Hong-Lie; M.J.M.R(O)MKENS; YANG Xiao-Qi; JIANG Shi-Feng; LI Bi-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Using Landsat TM data of 1988, 1998 and 2001, the dynamic process of the spatial-temporal characteristics of land use changes during 13 years from 1988 to 2001 in the special economic zone of Xiamen, China was analyzed to improve understanding and to find the driving forces of land use change so that sustainable land utilization could be practiced.During the 13 years cropland decreased remarkably by nearly 11304.95 ha. The areas of rural-urban construction and water body increased by 10152.24 ha and 848.94 ha, respectively. From 1988 to 2001, 52.5% of the lost cropland was converted into rural-urban industrial land. Rapid urbanization contributed to a great change in the rate of cropland land use during these years. Land-reclamation also contributed to a decrease in water body area as well as marine ecological and environmental destruction. In the study area 1) urbanization and industrialization, 2) infrastructure and agricultural intensification, 3) increased affluence of the farming community, and 4) policy factors have driven the land use changes.Possible sustainable land use measures included construction of a land management system, land planning, development of potential land resources, new technology applications, and marine ecological and environmental protection.

  18. The Patterns of Change in Higher Education Institutions: The Context of the Changing Quality Assurance Mechanisms in England, Japan, and New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify the patterns of change in higher education institutions. It examines the contexts of the changing quality assurance mechanisms used by the different types of higher education institutions in England, Japan, and New York State between 2001 and 2007. The paper argues that there were no clear patterns of…

  19. Change in Pattern of Female Crime in Owerri, Nigeria 1980 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chukuezi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been unprecedented rise as well as sophistication in crime commission in Nigeria of whichwomen are becoming actively involved. The interest in this study was inspired by the observation that womenhave moved from traditional crimes of prostitution and stealing to more heinous crimes. The study examinedthe factors that have led to this shift in pattern. The political economy theory was used as a guide. A case studyapproach was adopted involving one hundred and thirty five (135 women who had been imprisoned in Ow erriFederal Prisons since 1980; out of which seventy three (73 of the inmates who were in the prison in 2000 wereinterviewed. Also three hundred and forty-eight (348 respondents for assessm ent of people’s perception ofthe change in pattern of female crime were interviewed. The data was subjected to both descriptive andinferential statistical analysis. The study observed that the change in pattern of female criminality in Owerriand Nigeria as a whole was not only due to poverty and the worsening economic conditions in Nigeria, but alsoas a result of the change in the traditional roles of bearing and rearing of children to economic occupations.Drug trafficking, armed robbery and fraud were observed to be new crimes among female prisoners within thestudy area. The study suggests that there is the need to encourage women in the form of education, skillsacquisition and employment opportunities to reduce poverty in order to am eliorate female criminality and saveour society from moral decadence.

  20. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators. PMID:27278360

  1. [Land use pattern change in Ejin Delta of Northwest China during 1930-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yan-yun; Wang, Xiao-li; Chen, Lu

    2015-03-01

    The land use and landscape pattern in the lower reaches of the arid inland river basin is meaningful to water resource allocation. Based on the land use data in 1930, 1961, 1990, 2000, 2010, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the change of landscape pattern in the Ejin Delta in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in Northwest China. The results showed that the desert area accounted for 73.4% of the total research area in 2010, and the grassland 20.8%. During the past 80 years, the grassland, farmland and construction land increased. The transformation of land use types were characterized by switching to farmland and construction land. The fragmentation and. diversity of the landscape increased, while the dominance of the landscape decreased. The landscape pattern obviously lied on the water resource and had regional diversity. Land use changes tended to make the landscape well-distributed, diverse and fragmentized. At last, the driving factors and ecological environment effects of land use change were discussed. In a word, to ensure harmonious development between human and eco-hydrology, suggestions such as planning ecological resettlement, limiting farmland area, developing precision agriculture and increasing the proportion of ecological water use should be put forward.

  2. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM CHANGE IN PREPUBERTAL AND AGED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitidi, K.; Frisina, R. D.; Vasilyeva, O. N.; Zhu, X.; Canlon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are important in the development, maintenance and physiology of the CNS. Several studies have shown their effects on the processing of hearing in both males and females, and these effects, in part, are thought to result from regulation of the transcription of genes via their classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes that occur with age, we have studied the expression of ERs in the central auditory pathway in prepubertal and aged CBA mice with immunohistochemistry. In prepubertal mice a clear dichotomy was noted between the expression of ERα and ERβ. ERβ-positive neurons were found in the metencephalon whereas the majority of ERα was found in mesencephalon, diencephalon or the telencephalon. In the aged animals a different pattern of ER expression was found in terms of location and overall intensity. These age-induced changes in the expression pattern were generally not uniform, suggesting that region-specific mechanisms regulate the ERs’ age-related expression. Neither the prepubertal nor the aged animals showed sex differences in any auditory structure. Our results demonstrate different age-dependent spatial and temporal changes in the pattern of expression of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that each ER type may be involved in distinct roles across the central auditory pathway in different periods of maturation. PMID:20736049

  3. The changing pattern of higher education in England and Wales — The end of an era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith

    1989-09-01

    During the past twenty years great changes have taken place in British higher education. During the 1980s these changes have been even more noticeable, so that by the middle of the 1990s the pattern and the ethos of British higher education will be very different from that prevailing in the 1970s. Not only have there been structural changes but there have also been concerns about autonomy and freedom, accountability and appraisal in the face of government demands for improved management efficiency, restrictions on tenure and alternative forms of finance. This paper analyses these changes in universities, polytechnics and teacher education colleges and traces the growing intervention on the part of government. It also seeks to draw out implications for other education systems facing the same pressures. A glossary of abbreviations and acronyms appears on p. 301.

  4. Climate change and air pollution jointly creating nightmare for tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Faiza; Noreen, Umara; Zaman, Khalid

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the long-run and causal relationship between climate change (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride), air pollution (i.e., methane emissions, nitrous oxide emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions), and tourism development indicators (i.e., international tourism receipts, international tourism expenditures, natural resource depletion, and net forest depletion) in the World's largest regions. The aggregate data is used for robust analysis in the South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and the Pacific regions, over a period of 1975-2012. The results show that climatic factors and air pollution have a negative impact on tourism indicators in the form of deforestation and natural resource depletion. The impact is evident, as we have seen the systematic eroding of tourism industry, due to severe changes in climate and increasing strain of air pollution. There are several channels of cause-effect relationship between the climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World's region. The study confirms the unidirectional, bidirectional, and causality independent relationship between climatic factors, air pollution, and tourism indicators in the World. It is conclusive that tourism industry is facing all time bigger challenges of reduce investment, less resources, and minor importance from the government agencies because of the two broad challenges, i.e., climate change and air pollution, putting them in a dismal state.

  5. The impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity has played an important role in the economic development of Korea and, thus, has become a critical factor in sustaining the well-being of the Korean people. This study attempts to investigate the impact of electricity price changes on industrial prices and the general price level using input–output (I–O) analysis. To this end, we apply the I–O price model to the 2011 I–O table recently produced by the Bank of Korea, paying particular attention to the electricity sector by considering it as exogenous and then investigating its impacts. The impacts of the electricity price changes on each industrial sector's prices and the general price level are quantitatively derived. For example, the overall impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean national economy is estimated to be 0.4367%. We also report the results from the model with the electricity sector endogenous and the model with endogenous electricity and labor sectors. This information can be usefully utilized in decision-making regarding price management for electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of electricity price changes on the Korean economy. • We use the input–output (I–O) analysis specifying the electricity sector as exogenous. • We apply the I–O price model to 2010 I–O table produced by the Bank of Korea. • The impact of a 10% increase in electricity price on the Korean economy is 0.2176%

  6. Organizational change, restructuring and downsizing: The experience of employees in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael T.

    This research examines the experience of employees working in the electric utility industry during a time when it was undergoing significant transformation. It was undertaken to examine this phenomenon in the context of how the history and nature of the industry's environment, and specifically regulatory effect of regulation, led to an organizational form characterized by stability, structure and inertial resistance to change. A case study approach was used to examine the effect of deregulation on an organization in the industry, and specifically how their actions impacted employees working there. A phenomenological approach was used to explore employee perceptions of the organizational culture and employment relationship there both prior to and after implementation of a reorganization and downsizing that resulted in the first significant employee layoffs in the history of the organization. Data gathering consisted of conducting semi-structured interviews with current and former employees of the company who experienced the phenomena. Analysis of the data show that employees in this organization perceived an unusually strong psychological contract for stable employment and the expectation that it would continue, despite the prevalence of corporate downsizing and restructuring at the time. This psychological contract and the importance of career employment was found to be particularly significant for women who were hired during a period of time when gender and pregnancy discrimination was prevalent. Findings demonstrate that, given the historical stability and strong inertial resistance in the organization, company leadership did not effectively communicate the need, or prepare employees sufficiently for the significance of the changes or the effect they had on the organization. Findings also revealed that employees perceived the methods used to select individuals for layoff and exit from the company violated principles of organizational justice for distributional

  7. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  8. Using LMDI method to analyze the change of industrial CO2 emission from energy use in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin YANG; Bin CHEN

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbon economy is becoming a new approach to optimize economic development, ensuring energy security and coping with climate change. As one of the important emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), the industrial sector should be prioritized in the development of low-carbon economy. In this study, the carbon emission from industrial energy use of Chongqing is accounted. On basis of industrial carbon emission (ICE)accounting, main factors responsible for industrial CO2emission are identified and quantitatively analyzed using the Log-Mean Divisia Index method. The factors influencing ICE include energy mix, energy intensity, industrial structure and industrial output. It is found that the industrial output is the main driving force of ICE. The energy structure performs as a negative factor in carbon emission growth. By means of decomposing the influencing factors, several policy proposals were suggested for policy makers to build a low carbon city.

  9. A Strategy and Model of Change for SMEs in the Hong Kong Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K; F; Chu

    2002-01-01

    The re-establishment of the Hong Kong manufacturin g industry as a local pillar of economy is vital in the restructuring of the e conomy in Hong Kong. The SMEs should play a key role in such a process. It requi res major changes to take place in the operation of the enterprises in order to enhance their competitiveness and therefore the chance of success in the restruc turing process. It is suggested that the strategy of going for high value-added products and related services together with the practic...

  10. Construction of the Structure Type Models for Identification the Measurement of Strategic Changes Potential of Industrial and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmyla Ladonko

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to defining the nature and content of multicomponent system - industrial capacity; improvement of the structure of industrial capacity; application of complex methodological approach to determine the composition and hierarchy of its elements, which enables optimization of administrative decision-making on development of defined priorities of industrial capacity. The changes, taking place in the national economy, require searching and working out of new approaches and ma...

  11. LOW FREQUENCY VARIABILITY OF INTERANNUAL CHANGE PATTERNS FOR GLOBAL MEAN TEMPERATURE DURING THE RECENT 100 YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶淼; 丁裕国; 等

    2002-01-01

    The TEEOF method that expands temporally is used to conduct a diagnostic study of the variation patterns of 1,3,6and 10 years with regard to mean air temperature over the globe and Southern and Northern Hemispheres over the course of 100 years.The results show that the first mode of TEEOF takes up more than 50%in the total variance,with each of the first mode in the interannual osicllations generally standing for annually varying patterns which are related with climate and reflecting long-term tendency of change in air temperature.It is particularly true for the first mode on the 10-year scale.which shows an obvious ascending ascending trend concerning the temperature in winter and consistently the primary component of time goes in a way that is very close to the sequence of actual temperature,Apart from the first mode of all time sections of TEEOF for the globe and the two hemispheres and the second mode of the 1-year TEEOF.interannual variation described by other characteristic vectors are showing various patterns,with corresponding primary components having relation with longterm variability of specific interannual quasi-periodic oscillation structures.A T2 test applied to the annual variation pattern shows that the abrupt changes for the southern Hemisphere and the globe come close to the result of a uni-element t test for mean temperature than those for the Northern Hemisphere do.It indicates that the T2 test,when carried out with patterns of multiple variables.Seems more reasonable than the t test with single elements.

  12. Dynamic Rainfall Patterns and the Simulation of Changing Scenarios: A behavioral watershed response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M.; Guzman, J.; Steiner, J. L.; Hou, C.; Moriasi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall is one of the fundamental drivers that control hydrologic responses including runoff production and transport phenomena that consequently drive changes in aquatic ecosystems. Quantifying the hydrologic responses to changing scenarios (e.g., climate, land use, and management) using environmental models requires a realistic representation of probable rainfall in its most sensible spatio-temporal dimensions matching that of the phenomenon under investigation. Downscaling projected rainfall from global circulation models (GCMs) is the most common practice in deriving rainfall datasets to be used as main inputs to hydrologic models which in turn are used to assess the impacts of climate changes on ecosystems. Downscaling assumes that local climate is a combination of large-scale climatic/atmospheric conditions and local conditions. However, the representation of the latter is generally beyond the capacity of current GCMs. The main objective of this study was to develop and implement a synthetic rainfall generator to downscale expected rainfall trends to 1 x 1 km rainfall daily patterns that mimic the dynamic propagation of probability distribution functions (pdf) derived from historic rainfall data (rain-gauge or radar estimated). Future projections were determined based on actual and expected changes in the pdf and stochastic processes to account for variability. Watershed responses in terms of streamflow and nutrients loads were evaluated using synthetically generated rainfall patterns and actual data. The framework developed in this study will allow practitioners to generate rainfall datasets that mimic the temporal and spatial patterns exclusive to their study area under full disclosure of the uncertainties involved. This is expected to provide significantly more accurate environmental models than is currently available and would provide practitioners with ways to evaluate the spectrum of systemic responses to changing scenarios.

  13. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidell Jaap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a western country is associated with changes in dietary patterns. This could have unfavourable effects on the risk of CVD. There is limited knowledge on the food patterns, awareness and knowledge about healthy nutrition among Chinese immigrants. The objective for this study is to explore changes in food patterns, and levels of awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition by length of residence among Chinese immigrants to Canada. Methods 120 Chinese individuals born in China but currently living in Canada completed an assessment on socio-demographic characteristics, changes in dietary patterns and variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods. With ordinal logistic regression the associations between the quartiles of length of residence and dietary patterns, variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods were explored, adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index. Results More than 50% of the participants reported increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreasing the use of deep-frying after immigration. Increased awareness and knowledge about healthy foods was reported by more than 50% of the participants. Ordinal regression indicated that Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the longest, compared to Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the shortest, consumed significant greater portion sizes (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 3.11 - 31.15, dined out more frequently (OR: 15.8; 95% CI: 5.0 - 49.85, and consumed convenience foods more often (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.23 - 10.01. Conclusions Chinese immigrants reported some favourable changes in their dietary intake and greater awareness and more knowledge about healthy foods after

  14. The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter temperature changes over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di

    2016-04-01

    Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded temperature dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter temperature changes over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean temperature within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter temperature decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the temperature spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that temperature was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after tropical volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the temperature decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport,therefore winter temperature increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that temperature decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the temperature of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height

  15. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:26156982

  16. The Compilation of Math Pattern for Productivity in Educational Organisations, Service Organisations (Municipalities), and Industrial Organisations Based on Organisational Climate in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah Nazem

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between organisational climate with the productivity of managers' services in educational, service, and industrial organisations, in order to present a suitable management pattern. The population of the research consist of all managers who work in Tehran high schools, municipalities managers, and managers of the National Company Petro-Chemical Industries. Two hundred and forty five High School managers, 52 municipalities mana...

  17. 78 FR 19495 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Scale-Up and Post-Approval Changes: Manufacturing Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Scale-Up and Post-Approval... post-approval changes (SUPAC) draft guidance for industry entitled ``SUPAC: Manufacturing...

  18. How can one explain changes in the monthly pattern of suicide?

    CERN Document Server

    Roehner, Bertrand M

    2014-01-01

    The monthly pattern of suicides has remained a puzzle ever since it was discovered in the second half of the 19th century. In this paper we intend to "explain" not the pattern itself but rather its changes across countries and in the course of time. First, we show that the fairly common idea according to which this pattern is decaying in "modern" societies is not altogether true. For instance, around 2000, in well urbanized countries like South Korea or Spain this pattern was still as strong as it was in France (and other European countries) in the late 19th century. The method that we use in order to make some progress in our understanding is the time-honoured Cartesian approach of breaking up the problem under consideration "into as many parts as might be necessary to solve it". More specifically, we try two decompositions of monthly suicides: (i) according to suicide methods (ii) according to age-groups. The first decomposition points out the key-role of hanging and drowning. The second shows the crucial r...

  19. Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Kerr

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

  20. Neolithic\\Eneolithic settlement patterns and Holocene environmental changes in Bela Krajina (south-eastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Mason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the archaeological settlement pattern and vegetation history of Bela krajina region of Slovenia in order to better understand the interaction of human activities and environmental processes in the landscape. Pollen record of two small palaeoecological sites (Mlaka and Griblje indicates that human impact on the vegetation at circa 4150 calBC was intensive (forest cutting/burning, beech decline and formation of fields, pastures, meadows and can be associated with numerous Neolithic/Eneolithic sites, located in the Lahinja river basin and the Kolpa lowlands. Human pressure on the (lowland/riverine environment slightly decreased between c. 3750–2850 calBC. This coincides with the appearance of a more dispersed settlement pattern, including the formation of short-term settlement/activity areas on the karst plateau. This change to a more extensive Eneolithic settlement pattern can be presumably associated with change in economy (more intensive pastoralism and transhumance, possibly also soil erosion and is partially borne out by evidence from excavated sites in the area.

  1. Patterns of Change in Cognitive Function over Six Months in Adults with Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Riegel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few investigators have studied cognition over time in adults with heart failure (HF. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 279 adults with chronic systolic or diastolic HF at baseline, three and six months. Growth mixture modeling (GMM was used to model the measure anticipated to be most sensitive, the digit symbol substitution task (DSST. We describe how and why the DSST patterns change over time. Other measures of cognition were examined to identify consistency with the DSST patterns. The sample was predominantly male (63.2%, Caucasian (62.7%, mean age 62 years. The best fit GMM revealed two trajectories of DSST scores: Average processing speed group (40.5% and Below Average processing speed (59.9%. Neither group changed significantly over the six month study. Other measures of cognition were consistent with the DSST patterns. Factors significantly associated with increased odds of being in the Below Average processing speed group included older age, male gender, Non-Caucasian race, less education, higher ejection fraction, high comorbid burden, excessive daytime sleepiness, and higher BMI. As some of the factors related to cognitive impairment are modifiable, research is needed to identify interventions to preserve and improve cognition in these patients.

  2. Quantitative analysis on the contribution of industrial structure change to sustainable development: a case study of Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Qing; Wang Ying

    2009-01-01

    Development and sustainability are the core connotation of sustainable development.Sustainahility of economic development and the provision capability of resources and environment ore teo aspects of sustainable development.The former ones are the foundation of the latter ones.Industrial structure has a close relutionship with sustainable development.The optumization of industrial strneture is the important base for the sustainable development of modern economy and also the important ways of the sustainable utilization of resources and environment.The intensive growth effect of industrial structure change has the meaning of sustainable development.This paper reviews and explains the theory on the contribution of industrial structure change to sustainable development,builds the calculation model through introducing the coefficient of industrtal structure change,makes an empirical study on the contribution of indnstrial structure change to sustainable development in Fujian,and puts forward ways and polictes af optimizing industrial structure both among mdustries and inside the industry in the process of industrial structure change.

  3. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES AND JOB SATISFACTION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nedeljkovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to investigate what factors influence a high level of the service customer orientation of hotels employees under the conditions of the transition and a high rate of the unemployment. One of the conclusions of the research is that management of the hotels in Serbia don’t fully recognize the potentials of the knowledge of employees as a possible competitive advantage during organizational changes in a high competitive global environment. Since job satisfaction is one the most important factor which influences readiness for organizational changes of employees we investigate in the study the relationships between job satisfaction, perceptions of organizational customer climate, cultural dimensions and employees customer orientation among front-line employees in the hotel industry in a non-Western country in the transition. Data for the current study were collected through the use of a survey instruments completed by front-line employees in several hotels in the north province of Serbia –Vojvodina. This part of Serbia is one of the most developed part of Serbia and tourism industry is one of the important factors of the economic development of the region.

  4. Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties.

  5. Distinguishing Structure Change of Cells Based on Analysis of Light Scattering Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yong-Long; YANG Fang; WANG Meng; ZHANG Yu; GU Ning

    2008-01-01

    We develop a new method to distinguish structural change of cells based on light scattering and Fourier spectra analysis. The light scattering detection system is composed of a laser source, an optical microscope, a CCD with high resolution and low distortion. After the scattering patterns of cells are recorded by the CCD, the Fourier spectra are obtained by the intensity distribution of scattered light. In the experiment, the change of cell structure is designed by sonication treatment. It is found that different typical peaks can be shown in the Fourier spectra of MCF7 cells with and without sonication treatment, which indicates that this method can be used to distinguish the structural change of cells.

  6. Phase Change Nanodots Patterning using a Self-Assembled Polymer Lithography and Crystallization Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Raoux, S; Krebs, D; Krupp, L; Topuria, T; Caldwell, M; Milliron, D; Kellock, A; Rice, P; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of scalable phase change materials can be studied on nanoscale structures. In this paper, high density ordered phase change nanodot arrays were fabricated using the lift-off technique on a self-assembled diblock copolymer template, polystyrene-poly(methyl-methacrylate). The size of the nanodots was less than 15 nm in diameter with 40 nm spacing. This method is quite flexible regarding the patterned materials and can be used on different substrates. The crystallization behavior of small scale phase change nanodot arrays was studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction, which showed the phase transition for different materials such as Ge15Sb85, Ge2Sb2Te5, and Ag and In doped Sb2Te. The transition temperatures of these nanodot samples were also compared with their corresponding blanket thin films, and it was found that the nanodots had higher crystallization temperatures and crystallized over a broader temperature range.

  7. Visual Scanning Patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in previous literature. The present study explored ASD children’s visual scanning patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS task using eye-tracking technique. ASD and typical developing (TD children completed the standardized DCCS procedure on the computer while their eye movements were tracked. Behavioral results confirmed previous findings on ASD children’s deficits in executive function. ASD children’s visual scanning patterns also showed some specific underlying processes in the DCCS task compared to TD children. For example, ASD children looked shorter at the correct card in the postswitch phase and spent longer time at blank areas than TD children did. ASD children did not show a bias to the color dimension as TD children did. The correlations between the behavioral performance and eye moments were also discussed.

  8. Qualitative Changes in Flow Pattern in the Coating Flow inside a Rotating Cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.

    1996-11-01

    We describe experimental work on the flow patterns in coating flow inside a partially-filled circular cylinder, which is rotated about its horizontally placed axis of symmetry. A prominent front forms at the bottom of the cylinder, associated with a recirculating region. This front is initially straight along the span. For a limited range of parameters, the front develops robust spanwise undulations, named shark teeth (S. T. Thoroddsen & L. Mahadevan, ``Experimental study of coating flows in a partially-filled horizontally rotating cylinder''), Experiments in Fluids (in press).. An intricate three-dimensional flow field is associated with these patterns. We study here the qualitative changes in the flow field associated with the transition of these shark teeth into waves traveling spanwise along the front. The wavelength and speed of these waves is investigated.

  9. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, ORGANIZATIONAL RESILIENCE AND IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE ON THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Idayanti

    2012-01-01

    A research that relates to strategic human resources management has not been conducted extensively, particularly when it is related to the organizational change and organizational resilience on the hospitality industry. Objective of this research is to analyze the influence of strategic human resources management, organizational change, and organizational resilience on the organization performance. The research was conducted o the hospitality industry, which included 234 hot...

  10. Historical Pattern and Future Trajectories of Terrestrial N2O Emission driven by Multi-factor Global Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.; Xu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is among the most important greenhouse gases only next to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to its long life time and high radiative forcing (with a global warming potential 265 times as much as CO2 at 100-year time horizon). The Atmospheric concentration of N2O has increased by 20% since pre-industrial era, and this increase plays a significant role in shaping anthropogenic climate change. However, compared to CO2- and CH4-related research, fewer studies have been performed in assessing and predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of N2O emission from natural and agricultural soils. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model, DLEM, to quantify the historical and future changes in global terrestrial N2O emissions resulting from natural and anthropogenic perturbations including climate variability, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover changes, and agricultural land management practices (i.e., synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use, manure application, and irrigation etc.) over the period 1900-2099. We focused on inter-annual variation and long-term trend of terrestrial N2O emission driven by individual and combined environmental changes during historical and future periods. The sensitivity of N2O emission to climate, atmospheric composition, and human activities has been examined at biome-, latitudinal, continental and global scales. Future projections were conducted to identify the hot spots and hot time periods of global N2O emission under two emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). It provides a modeling perspective for understanding human-induced N2O emission growth and developing potential management strategies to mitigate further atmospheric N2O increase and climate warming.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence for change detection in speech sound patterns by anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astikainen, Piia; Mällo, Tanel; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Näätänen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Human infants are able to detect changes in grammatical rules in a speech sound stream. Here, we tested whether rats have a comparable ability by using an electrophysiological measure that has been shown to reflect higher order auditory cognition even before it becomes manifested in behavioral level. Urethane-anesthetized rats were presented with a stream of sequences consisting of three pseudowords carried out at a fast pace. Frequently presented "standard" sequences had 16 variants which all had the same structure. They were occasionally replaced by acoustically novel "deviant" sequences of two different types: structurally consistent and inconsistent sequences. Two stimulus conditions were presented for separate animal groups. In one stimulus condition, the standard and the pattern-obeying deviant sequences had an AAB structure, while the pattern-violating deviant sequences had an ABB structure. In the other stimulus condition, these assignments were reversed. During the stimulus presentation, local-field potentials were recorded from the dura, above the auditory cortex. Two temporally separate differential brain responses to the deviant sequences reflected the detection of the deviant speech sound sequences. The first response was elicited by both types of deviant sequences and reflected most probably their acoustical novelty. The second response was elicited specifically by the structurally inconsistent deviant sequences (pattern-violating deviant sequences), suggesting that rats were able to detect changes in the pattern of three-syllabic speech sound sequence (i.e., location of the reduplication of an element in the sequence). Since all the deviant sound sequences were constructed of novel items, our findings indicate that, similarly to the human brain, the rat brain has the ability to automatically generalize extracted structural information to new items.

  12. Electrophysiological evidence for change detection in speech sound patterns by anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia eAstikainen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human infants are able to detect changes in grammatical rules in a speech sound stream. Here, we tested whether rats have a comparable ability by using an electrophysiological measure that has been shown to reflect higher order auditory cognition even before it becomes manifested in behavioural level. Urethane-anesthetized rats were presented with a stream of sequences consisting of three pseudowords carried out at a fast pace. Frequently presented ‘standard’ sequences had 16 variants which all had the same structure. They were occasionally replaced by acoustically novel ‘deviant’ sequences of two different types: structurally consistent and inconsistent sequences. Two stimulus conditions were presented for separate animal groups. In one stimulus condition, the standard and the pattern-obeying deviant sequences had an AAB structure, while the pattern-violating deviant sequences had an ABB structure. In the other stimulus condition, these assignments were reversed. During the stimulus presentation, local-field potentials were recorded from the dura, above the auditory cortex. Two temporally separate differential brain responses to the deviant sequences reflected the detection of the deviant speech sound sequences. The first response was elicited by both types of deviant sequences and reflected most probably their acoustical novelty. The second response was elicited specifically by the structurally inconsistent deviant sequences (pattern-violating deviant sequences, suggesting that rats were able to detect changes in the pattern of three-syllabic speech sound sequence (i.e. location of the reduplication of an element in the sequence. Since all the deviant sound sequences were constructed of novel items, our findings indicate that, similarly to the human brain, the rat brain has the ability to automatically generalize extracted structural information to new items.

  13. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D. A. C.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Newby, P. K.; Northstone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects 3911 children with complete data. Results There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd) in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd) in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies. PMID:25018688

  14. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  15. Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åqvist Almlöv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water properties in two different areas, Möja and Ornö parishes within the Stockholm Archipelago, revealed a very diverse pattern of property and user rights, with a large number of water and fishing rights owners. Recreational fisheries, including both sport and household fishing, seem to predominate in both areas, but ownership differs. In Möja, most waters are collectively owned, whereas in Ornö, individual ownership predominates. Very few examples of local influence on fisheries management were found in either area, although the social structure for joint management does exist in Möja. Instead, larger-scale institutions at the regional, national, or international level regulate fisheries, often not addressing local conditions and fish populations. The ongoing shift in resource use has created a heterogeneous user group, and the limitations of centralized management authorities in dealing with the diversity in the coastal ecosystem have created mismatches within the social–ecological system. Combined with a large-scale decline in coastal fish stocks, these mismatches challenge the existing local property rights arrangements as well as the more centralized regulatory management structure. A key issue for fisheries management is how to develop and stimulate appropriate distribution of management functions at different geographical scales and organizational levels. The complexity and diversity in archipelago fisheries call for multilevel arrangements and

  16. Impulsive sounds change European seabass swimming patterns: Influence of pulse repetition interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We exposed impulsive sounds of different repetition intervals to European seabass. • Immediate behavioural changes mirrored previous indoor & outdoor studies. • Repetition intervals influenced the impacts differentially but not the recovery. • Sound temporal patterns may be more important than some standard metrics. - Abstract: Seismic shootings and offshore pile-driving are regularly performed, emitting significant amounts of noise that may negatively affect fish behaviour. The pulse repetition interval (PRI) of these impulsive sounds may vary considerably and influence the behavioural impact and recovery. Here, we tested the effect of four PRIs (0.5–4.0 s) on European seabass swimming patterns in an outdoor basin. At the onset of the sound exposures, the fish swam faster and dived deeper in tighter shoals. PRI affected the immediate and delayed behavioural changes but not the recovery time. Our study highlights that (1) the behavioural changes of captive European seabass were consistent with previous indoor and outdoor studies; (2) PRI could influence behavioural impact differentially, which may have management implications; (3) some acoustic metrics, e.g. SELcum, may have limited predictive power to assess the strength of behavioural impacts of noise. Noise impact assessments need to consider the contribution of sound temporal structure

  17. Analysis of changes in the expression pattern of claudins using salivary acinar cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko

    2011-01-01

    Primary saliva is produced from blood plasma in the acini of salivary glands and is modified by ion adsorption and secretion as the saliva passes through the ducts. In rodents, acinar cells of salivary glands express claudin-3 but not claudin-4, whereas duct cells express both claudins-3 and -4. The distinct claudin expression patterns may reflect differences in the permeability of tight junctions between acinar and duct cells. To analyze the role of claudins in salivary glands, we established a system for the primary culture of parotid acinar cells, where the expression patterns of claudins are remarkably changed. Real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses reveal that the expression levels of claudins-4 and -6 increased, whereas claudins-3 and -10 decreased. We found that the signal to induce those changes is triggered during cell isolation and is mediated by Src and p38 MAP kinase. Here, we introduce the methods used to determine the signal pathway that induces the change in claudin expression.

  18. Minimal evidence for consistent changes in maize DNA methylation patterns following environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Eichten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a chromatin modification that is sometimes associated with epigenetic regulation of gene expression. As DNA methylation can be reversible at some loci, it is possible that methylation patterns may change within an organism that is subjected to environmental stress. In order to assess the effects of abiotic stress on DNA methylation patterns in maize (Zea mays, seeding plants were subjected to heat, cold, and UV stress treatments. Tissue was later collected from individual adult plants that had been subjected to stress or control treatments and used to perform DNA methylation profiling to determine whether there were consistent changes in DNA methylation triggered by specific stress treatments. DNA methylation profiling was performed by immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by microarray hybridization to allow for quantitative estimates of DNA methylation abundance throughout the low-copy portion of the maize genome. By comparing the DNA methylation profiles of each individual plant to the average of the control plants it was possible to identify regions of the genome with variable DNA methylation. However, we did not find evidence of consistent DNA methylation changes resulting from the stress treatments used in this study. Instead, the data suggest that there is a low-rate of stochastic variation that is present in both control and stressed plants.

  19. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-07-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between ‑25 and ‑2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha‑1year‑1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  20. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V.; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33–43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between −25 and −2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha−1year−1 (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971–2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions. PMID:27432777

  1. Climate Change and ENSO Effects on Southeastern US Climate Patterns and Maize Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzinis, Spyridon; Ortiz, Brenda V; Damianidis, Damianos

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has a strong influence on weather patterns and significantly affects crop yields globally. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a strong influence on the U.S. climate and is related to agricultural production variability. ENSO effects are location-specific and in southeastern U.S. strongly connect with climate variability. When combined with climate change, the effects on growing season climate patterns and crop yields might be greater than expected. In our study, historical monthly precipitation and temperature data were coupled with non-irrigated maize yield data (33-43 years depending on the location) to show a potential yield suppression of ~15% for one °C increase in southeastern U.S. growing season maximum temperature. Yield suppression ranged between -25 and -2% among locations suppressing the southeastern U.S. average yield trend since 1981 by 17 kg ha(-1)year(-1) (~25%), mainly due to year-to-year June temperature anomalies. Yields varied among ENSO phases from 1971-2013, with greater yields observed during El Niño phase. During La Niña years, maximum June temperatures were higher than Neutral and El Niño, whereas June precipitation was lower than El Niño years. Our data highlight the importance of developing location-specific adaptation strategies quantifying both, climate change and ENSO effects on month-specific growing season climate conditions.

  2. Frequent changes in subtelomeric DNA methylation patterns and its relevance to telomere regulation during human hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Um, Tae-Hee; Choi, Gi Hong; Park, Young Nyun

    2011-02-15

    Subtelomeric chromatin modifications are important regulators of telomere length. We examined the subtelomeric DNA methylation status of 7q, 8q, 17q, 18p, 21q and XpYp in 32 pairs of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their adjacent non-HCCs via methylation-specific PCR (quantified as methylation ratio). In addition, 10q was subjected to bisulfite-genomic-sequencing. Telomere length was determined by Southern hybridization. In all cases, the relationship between methylation ratio and telomere length was determined. High levels of methylation ratio were found on chromosomes 7q, 18p and XpYp, whereas 8q 17q and 21q were less methylated in both HCCs and non-HCCs. Compared to non-HCCs, HCCs exhibited a higher methylation ratio on 18p and 21q, and a wider distribution of methylation ratio on 7q, 21q and 10q (p telomere length of HCCs, respectively (p HCC to HCC were found at 47 sites and hypomethylation changes at 31 sites. Changes in methylation pattern were observed at three to four sites among six chromosomal sites in 15 patients (47%). There was a tendency toward hypomethylation changes at 7q (p = 0.013) and hypermethylation changes at 21q (p = 0.057) when telomere lengthened from non-HCCs to HCCs. In summary, subtelomeric methylation patterns dynamically changed during hepatocarcinogenesis. Subtelomeric methylation at certain regions was related to telomere lengthening or shortening, suggesting an association between subtelomeric chromatin structure and telomere length regulation in human hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:20473888

  3. Patterns of 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps: The CORDEX RCM ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlarski, Sven; Zubler, Elias; Fischer, Andreas; Winter, Kevin J.-P. M.; Gobiet, Andreas; Liniger, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    The European Alps are a hot spot of climate change and of related impacts on a large variety of natural and socioeconomic systems. Due to their physiographic complexity and their location between distinct climatic zones, climate change and climate impact assessments in this region are challenging and often associated with substantial uncertainties. In particular, previous studies have highlighted the added value of high-resolution climate models to capture fine scale spatio-temporal Alpine climate variability and to assess climate change impacts for high elevation regions. Against this background, we here exploit the currently available CORDEX multi-GHG-multi-model ensembles to assess 21st century climate change over the European Alps. We focus on the spatial change pattern, explicitly including elevation dependencies, and on the uncertainties of the projections. For this purpose we analyze the available EURO-CORDEX and Med-CORDEX ensembles carried out at resolutions of 12 km and 50 km. The results largely confirm the findings of previous studies based on the ENSEMBLES experiments, but also yield a number of new insights. The projected increase of winter precipitation, for instance, appears to be stronger and more robust while the model agreement on summer drying is less pronounced. Elevation dependencies of the near-surface temperature change can be substantial. In springtime, strongest warming occurs at medium elevations where snow cover changes are largest, indicating a contribution of the snow albedo feedback to the vertical profile of near-surface warming confirming previous works. These elevation dependencies, however, can differ between the high and the low resolution RCM ensemble. Obvious model deficiencies in the Alpine area were identified. For instance, several high-resolution RCM versions (12 km runs) tend to constantly accumulate snow cover at some isolated grid cells resulting in a distortion of the temperature change signal.

  4. Spatial pattern of land use change and its driving force in Jiangsu Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xindong; Jin, Xiaobin; Yang, Xilian; Yang, Xuhong; Zhou, Yinkang

    2014-03-18

    Scientific interpretation of the mechanism of land use change is important for government planning and management activities. This study analyzes the land use change in Jiangsu Province using three land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2008. The study results show that there was a significant change in land use. The change was mainly characterized by a continuous built-up land expansion primarily at the expense of cropland loss, and the trend became increasingly rapid. There was an obvious regional difference, as most of the cropland loss or built-up land expansion took place in southern Jiangsu, where the rate of built-up land expansion was faster than in central and northern Jiangsu. Meanwhile, the spatial pattern changed remarkably; in general, the number of patches (NumP) showed a declining trend, and the mean patch size (MPS) and patch size standard deviation (PSSD) displayed increase trends. Furthermore, the relative importance of selected driven factors was identified by principal component analysis (PCA) and general linear model (GLM). The results showed that not only the relative importance of a specific driving factor may vary, but the driven factors may as well. The most important driven factor changed from urban population (UP), secondary gross domestic product (SGDP) and gross domestic product (GDP) during 2000-2005 to resident population (RP), population density (POD) and UP during 2005-2008, and the deviance explained (DE) decreased from 91.60% to 81.04%. Policies also had significant impacts on land use change, which can be divided into direct and indirect impacts. Development policies usually had indirect impacts, particularly economic development policies, which promote the economic development to cause land use change, while land management policies had direct impacts. We suggest that the government should think comprehensively and cautiously when proposing a new development strategy or plan.

  5. Diverging business strategies towards climate change : a USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, van der K.F.; Wit, de C.M.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The research project has investigated what strategies specific sectors of industry develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In an USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the bank and insu

  6. The Impacts of Climate Change Negotiation on Domestic Industrial Structure and International Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The world community adopted the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 at the third Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC). The main achievement was agreement by developed(Annex I) countries to reduce or limit their greenhouse gas emissions. To assist parties in meeting their emission targets the Protocol sanctions the use of economic instruments such as the clean development mechanism(CDM), joint implementation(JI) and emissions trading(ET). However, there is still significant uncertainty surrounding the Kyoto Protocol for much of the details in the Protocol remains to be negotiated. The challenge now facing those negotiating the Kyoto Protocol is to remove the uncertainty and secure ratification of the Protocol. After the negotiation reaches an agreement in near future, the next main issue to be addressed is the way of involvement of developing countries in emission abatement commitments. The analysis presented in this report is based on the application of a global computable general equilibrium(CGE) model - GTEM-KOR. According to the analysis, compliance with Kyoto Protocol commitments, regardless of the emissions trading, is projected to impose economic costs on Annex I regions in the aggregate. Despite having no emission abatement commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, non-Annex I economies would be affected by emission abatement in Annex I regions undertaken as a result of entry into force of the Protocol. These effects would arise through trade and investment linkages between economies. Although the net impact for non-Annex I regions in aggregate is projected to be positive, there is a range of effects and the net impact for any one non-Annex I country will depend on its particular production and trade structure. As industrialized countries reduce their fossil fuel consumption to meet their emission reduction targets, their demand for fossil fuel imports from non-Annex I countries will decline, leading to lower fossil

  7. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Elnesr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%; the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10% and the WUE (~14%, but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability.

  8. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO2, soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist's choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change

  9. Changes of Urban Wetland Landscape Pattern and Impacts of Urbanization on Wetland in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuelei; NING Longmei; YU Jing; XIAO Rui; LI Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, remote sensing data of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in 1996-2001 were selected to ex-tract wetland landscape information. Several landscape indices were used to evaluate the changes of landscape patternwithin the five years, including patch number, patch density, patch fractal dimension, landscape diversity, dominance,evenness, and fragmentation indexes. Then, transformation probabilities of wetland landscapes into non-wetland land-scapes were calculated based on Markov Model, and on these grounds the relationship between changes of wetlandlandscape pattern and urban construction was analyzed. The results showed that fragmentation degree of all wetlandtypes increased, lake area declined, and dominance of natural wetland decreased. The reasons for these results weremainly because of urban construction. According to the features of abundant wetland in Wuhan City, we suggested thatprotection of wetland landscape should cooperate with urban construction, which means wetland should become im-portant part of urban landscape.

  10. Shoreline change patterns in sandy coasts. A case study in SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Laura; Gracia, F. Javier; Benavente, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Coastal changes on sandy shorelines are continuous and occur at diverse spatial and temporal scales. Gaining knowledge on beach change processes increases our capability to manage risks, especially shoreline erosion, affecting the increasing population living in coastal areas. Processes and factors involved in medium- and short-term beach changes depend on the morphological and dynamic characteristics of the coast. In this work, the decadal behaviour of 58 sandy beaches along the 150 km long South-Atlantic coast of Spain, between the Guadalquivir river mouth and the Strait of Gibraltar, is analysed in order to investigate the relationships between shoreline change patterns and the diverse morphological and dynamic factors controlling beach evolution in the area. For this purpose, georectified aerial photographs spanning the period 1956-2008 were compared in a GIS environment to calculate rates of shoreline change. Short-term evolution of beach profiles was also analysed in selected areas of interest. Results show that the study area exhibits a great variety of shoreline evolution trends, with erosion prevailing in the northern and central sectors and stability or even accretion in the southern sector. In general, sediment availability is the main factor determining coastal erodibility in the area, largely conditioned by the reduction in fluvial sediment supply caused by river basin regulation. Nearshore bathymetry also has a great significance, as it controls wave refraction-diffraction patterns and wave energy concentration on certain zones. Human interventions on the coast also represent a major influence on beach erodibility in the study area. Severe detrimental effects are caused at certain points by shore-normal engineering structures blocking longshore drift. Additionally extensive urban development in backbeach environments has a significant influence on the sediment budget at certain areas. On the basis of these results, a morphological and evolutionary

  11. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  12. Rewetted industrial cutaway peatlands in western Ireland: a prime location for climate change mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rewetting of drained industrial peatlands may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and promote recolonisation by peat forming plant species. We investigated carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O dynamics over a three-year period in a rewetted industrial peatland in Ireland. Sample plots were established in bare peat, Juncus effusus-Sphagnum cuspidatum, Sphagnum cuspidatum and Eriophorum angustifolium dominated microsites. The relationships between fluxes and environmental variables were examined and regression models were used to provide an estimate of the annual GHG balance for each microsite. All the vegetated microsites were carbon sinks for the duration of the study. Highest uptake occurred in the Eriophorum microsite (146–583 g C m-2 yr-1, followed by Juncus-Sphagnum (35–204 g C m-2 yr-1 and Sphagnum (5–140 g C m-2 yr-1. The bare peat microsite was a source of 37–82 g C m-2 yr-1. No N2O fluxes were detected. Strong inter-annual variation was observed in all microsites, driven by variation in precipitation and subsequent changes in the position of the water table. In terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP, the microsites had either a cooling effect (Eriophorum, a close to neutral effect (Juncus-Sphagnum, Sphagnum or a warming effect (bare peat on the climate.

  13. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hisatomi

    Full Text Available In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  14. Effects of changes in level and pattern of breathing on the sensation of dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Mulholland, M B; Altose, M D; Cherniack, N S

    1990-10-01

    Breathing during hypercapnia is determined by reflex mechanisms but may also be influenced by respiratory sensations. The present study examined the effects of voluntary changes in level and pattern of breathing on the sensation of dyspnea at a constant level of chemical drive. Studies were carried out in 15 normal male subjects during steady-state hypercapnia at an end-tidal PCO2 of 50 Torr. The intensity of dyspnea was rated on a Borg category scale. In one experiment (n = 8), the level of ventilation was increased or decreased from the spontaneously adopted level (Vspont). In another experiment (n = 9), the minute ventilation was maintained at the level spontaneously adopted at PCO2 of 50 Torr and breathing frequency was increased or decreased from the spontaneously adopted level (fspont) with reciprocal changes in tidal volume. The intensity of dyspnea (expressed as percentage of the spontaneous breathing level) correlated with ventilation (% Vspont) negatively at levels below Vspont (r = -0.70, P less than 0.001) and positively above Vspont (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001). At a constant level of ventilation, the intensity of dyspnea correlated with breathing frequency (% fspont) negatively at levels below fspont (r = -0.69, P less than 0.001) and positively at levels above fspont (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001). These results indicate that dyspnea intensifies when the level or pattern of breathing is voluntarily changed from the spontaneously adopted level. This is consistent with the possibility that ventilatory responses to changes in chemical drive may be regulated in part to minimize the sensations of respiratory effort and discomfort.

  15. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  16. Changes in Brain Tissue and Behavior Patterns Induced by Single Short-Term Fasting in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Yuko; Asakura, Kyo; Kugino, Kenji; Kurokawa, Mamoru; Asakura, Tomiko; Nakata, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis. PMID:24224039

  17. Structural change by reorganisation in the coal mining industry; Strukturwandel durch Neuordnung im Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimann, W. [Montan-Grundstuecksgesellschaft mbH (MGG), Essen (Germany)

    1998-06-10

    The renewed retrenchment of the German coal mining industry on the basis of the decisions in March 1977 is changing the image of the former coal mining companies and regions. The RAG group counteracted this change at an early stage by diversification and internationalisation of its activities. However, the structural change in the area is also assisted in various ways: By investments, training in occupations with a promising future and by preparing and making available the former colliery sites. With the `Flaeche Plus` concept of MGG the RAG group is intensifying its efforts in the marketing, development and utilisation of the areas. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Die erneute Rueckfuehrung des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus aufgrund der Beschluesse vom Maerz 1997 veraendert das Bild der Steinkohlenunternehmen und -regionen. Der RAG-Konzern begegnete diesem Wandel fruehzeitig durch eine Diversifizierung und Internationalisierung der Aktivitaeten. Aber auch der Strukturwandel im Revier wird vielfaeltig unterstuetzt: Durch Investitionen, die Ausbildung in zukunftstraechtigen Berufen und durch Aufbereitung und Zurverfuegungstellung der ehemaligen Bergbauflaechen. Mit dem Konzept `Flaeche Plus` der MGG bemueht sich der RAG-Konzern auch intensiv um die Vermarktung, Entwicklung und Nutzung der Flaechen. (orig./MSK)

  18. Industrially induced changes in Earth structure at the geysers geothermal area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.; Grant, C.C.; Ross, A.; Julian, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial exploitation is causing clearly-measurable changes in Earth structure at The Geysers geothermal area, California. Production at The Geysers peaked in the late 1980s at ???3.5 ?? 103 kg s-1 of steam and 1800 MW of electricity. It subsequently decreased by about 10% per year [Barker et al., 1992] because of declining reservoir pressure. The steam reservoir coincides with a strong negative anomaly (???0.16, ???9%) in the compressional-to-shear seismic wave speed ratio vP/vS, consistent with the expected effects of low-pressure vapor-phase pore fluid [Julian et al., 1996]. Between 1991 and 1994 this anomaly increased in amplitude by up to about 0.07 (???4%). This is consistent with the expected effects of continued pressure reduction and conversion of pore water to steam as a result of exploitation. These unique results show that vP/vS tomography can easily detect saturation changes caused by exploitation of reservoirs, and is a potentially valuable technique for monitoring environmental change. They also provide geophysical observational evidence that geothermal energy is not a renewable energy source.

  19. Progressive changes in detrusor function and micturition patterns with chroinc bladder ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuohui; Azad, Roya; Yang, Jing-Hua; Siroky, Mike B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are bothersome constellation of voiding symptoms in men and women as they age. Multiple factors and comorbidities are attributed to this problem but underlying mechanisms of nonobstructive nonneurogenic detrusor overactivity, detrusor underactivity and LUTS remain largely unknown. Our goal was to characterize detrusor function and voiding patterns in relation to muscarinic receptors expression, nerve fiber density, and neural ultrastructure in chronic bladder ischemia. Materials and Methods Iliac artery atherosclerosis and bladder ischemia were produced in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At 8 and 16 weeks after ischemia, micturition patterns and cystometrograms were recorded in conscious rats then bladder blood flow and nonvoiding spontaneous contractions were measured under general anesthesia. Bladder tissues were processed for Western blotting, immunostaining, and transmission electron microscopy. Results Bladder responses to ischemic insult depended on the duration of ischemia. Micturition patterns and cystometric changes at 8-week ischemia suggested detrusor overactivity, while voiding behavior and cystometrograms at 16-week ischemia implied abnormal detrusor function resembling underactivity. Upregulation of muscarinic M2 receptor was found after 8- and 16 weeks of ischemia. Downregulation of M3 and upregulation of M1 were detected at 16-week ischemia. Neural structural damage and marked neurodegeneration were found after 8 and 16 weeks of ischemia, respectively. Conclusions Prolonged ischemia may be a mediating variable in progression of overactive bladder to dysfunctional patterns similar to detrusor underactivity. The mechanism appears to involve differential expression of M1, M2, and M3 receptors, neural structural injury, and progressive loss of nerve fibers. PMID:27437534

  20. The effect of changes in shift patterns on the risk of pneumoconiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang Tran, L.; Loizou, G.

    2006-07-01

    The study investigated how the risks of pneumoconiosis vary for different patterns of exposure in coalminers. Five exposure scenarios were investigated in shift patterns on the risk of category 2 pneumoconiosis by means of a mathematical model. This model describes the exposure-dose relationship, where the dose is the burden of coalmine dust in the human lungs. For humans, the pulmonary adverse effect of coal dust is the impairment of normal functions of the alveolar region (i.e. the blood-air barrier). This region is normally kept clean and sterile by scavenging cells, the macrophages, which ingest foreign matters and clear them from the lung. However, coal dust is predominantly retained in the interstitial space, i.e. the matrix of supporting tissue of the lung and therefore is prevented from being removed by macrophages. The accumulation of coal dust in the interstitial space eventually impairs normal lung functions. Calculations indicate that: in all cases, a reduction in the level of airborne concentration with respect to the different shift patterns would lead to a reduction in pneumoconiosis in comparison to the pneumoconiosis level obtained when the airborne concentration is at 3 mg.m{sup -3} while allowing for the shift pattern to change correspondingly. Model simulations also indicated that the clearance of coal dust from the lungs is also a sensitive factor affecting the risk of pneumoconiosis. It is recommended that the coal mine dust concentration in the air in coal mines should be reduced according to the proposed time-weighting model in order to reduce pneumoconiosis risk or maintain the level of or maintain the level of risk at the baseline level. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs., 1 app.

  1. Climate change and grazing interact to alter flowering patterns in the Mongolian steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2014-05-01

    Socio-economic changes threaten nomadic pastoralism across the world, changing traditional grazing patterns. Such land-use changes will co-occur with climate change, and while both are potentially important determinants of future ecosystem functioning, interactions between them remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of grazing by large herbivores and climate manipulation using open-top chambers (OTCs) on flower number and flowering species richness in mountain steppe of northern Mongolia. In this region, sedentary pastoralism is replacing nomadic pastoralism, and temperature is predicted to increase. Grazing and OTCs interacted to affect forb flowering richness, which was reduced following grazing removal, and reduced by OTCs in grazed plots only. This interaction was directly linked to the soil moisture and temperature environments created by the experimental treatments: most species flowered when both soil moisture and temperature levels were high (i.e. in grazed plots without OTCs), while fewer species flowered when either temperature, or moisture, or both, were low. Removal of grazing increased the average number of graminoid flowers produced at peak flowering in Year 1, but otherwise grazing removal and OTCs did not affect community-level flower composition. Of four abundant graminoid species examined individually, three showed increased flower number with grazing removal, while one showed the reverse. Four abundant forb species showed no significant response to either treatment. Our results highlight how climate change effects on mountain steppe could be contingent on land-use, and that studies designed to understand ecosystem response to climate change should incorporate co-occurring drivers of change, such as altered grazing regimes.

  2. Climate change and grazing interact to alter flowering patterns in the Mongolian steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S; Casper, Brenda B

    2014-05-01

    Socio-economic changes threaten nomadic pastoralism across the world, changing traditional grazing patterns. Such land-use changes will co-occur with climate change, and while both are potentially important determinants of future ecosystem functioning, interactions between them remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of grazing by large herbivores and climate manipulation using open-top chambers (OTCs) on flower number and flowering species richness in mountain steppe of northern Mongolia. In this region, sedentary pastoralism is replacing nomadic pastoralism, and temperature is predicted to increase. Grazing and OTCs interacted to affect forb flowering richness, which was reduced following grazing removal, and reduced by OTCs in grazed plots only. This interaction was directly linked to the soil moisture and temperature environments created by the experimental treatments: most species flowered when both soil moisture and temperature levels were high (i.e. in grazed plots without OTCs), while fewer species flowered when either temperature, or moisture, or both, were low. Removal of grazing increased the average number of graminoid flowers produced at peak flowering in Year 1, but otherwise grazing removal and OTCs did not affect community-level flower composition. Of four abundant graminoid species examined individually, three showed increased flower number with grazing removal, while one showed the reverse. Four abundant forb species showed no significant response to either treatment. Our results highlight how climate change effects on mountain steppe could be contingent on land-use, and that studies designed to understand ecosystem response to climate change should incorporate co-occurring drivers of change, such as altered grazing regimes. PMID:24453007

  3. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053

  4. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns. PMID:26553093

  5. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1) better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2) help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  6. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns.

  7. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Castel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  8. Changing patterns of traumatic bile duct injuries: a review of forty years experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Huang; Xiao-Qiang Huang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the experiences of treating bile ductinjuries in 40 years of clinical practice.METHODS: Based on the experience of more than 40 yearsof clinical work, 122 cases including a series of 61 bile ductinjuries of the Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, and 42cases (1989-1997) and 19 cases (1998-2001) of the GeneralHospital of PLA, Beijing, cases were reviewed with specialreference to the pattern of injury. A series of cases of theliver and the biliary tract injuries following interventionaltherapy for hepatic tumors, most often hemangioma of theliver, were collected. Chinese medical literature from 1995 to1999 dealing with 2742 traumatic bile duct strictures werereviewed.RESULTS: There was a changing pattern of the bile ductinjury. Although most of the cases of bile duct injuriesresulted from open cholecystectomy. Other types of traumasuch as laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and hepaticsurgery were increased in recent years. Moreover, serioushepato-biliary injuries following HAE using sclerotic agentssuch as sodium morrhuate and absolute ethanol for thetreatment of hepatic hemangiomas were encountered inrecent years. Experiences in how to avoid bile duct injuryand to treat traumatic biliary strictures were presented.CONCLUSION: Traumatic bile duct stricture is one of theserious complications of hepato-biliary surgery, itsprevalence seemed to be increased in recent years. Thepattern of bile duct injury was also changed and has becomemore complicated. Interventional therapy with sclerosingagents may cause serious hepatobiliary complications andshould be avoided.

  9. Spatiotemporal changes in neural response patterns to faces varying in visual familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natu, Vaidehi S; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-03-01

    Increasing experience with a previously unfamiliar face improves human ability to recognize it in challenging and novel viewing conditions. Differential neural responses to familiar versus unfamiliar faces in multiple regions of the ventral-temporal and parietal cortex have been reported in previous work, but with limited attention to how behavioral and neural measures change with increasing familiarity. We examined changes in the spatial and temporal characteristics of neural response patterns elicited by faces that vary in their degree of visual familiarity. First, we developed a behavioral paradigm to familiarize participants to low-, medium-, and high-levels of familiarity with faces. Recognition of novel, naturalistic images of the learned individuals improved with increasing familiarity with faces. Next, a new set of participants learned faces using the behavioral paradigm, outside the fMRI scanner, and subsequently viewed blocks of whole-body images of the learned and novel people, inside the scanner. We found that the face-selective FFA and OFA, and a combination of the ventral-temporal areas (e.g., fusiform gyrus) and parietal areas (e.g., precuneus) contained patterns useful for classifying highly familiar versus unfamiliar faces. Classification along the temporal-sequence of the face blocks revealed an early separation of neural patterns elicited in response to highly familiar versus unfamiliar faces in the FFA and OFA, but not in other regions of interest. This indicates the potential for a rapid assessment of the "known versus unknown" status of faces in core face-selective regions of the brain. The present study provides a first look at the perceptual and neural correlates underlying experience gains with faces as they become familiar. PMID:25524650

  10. Industry Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  11. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Wallace, Carden C.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D.; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry. PMID:27302371

  12. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R; Wallace, Carden C; Gothmann, Anne M; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry. PMID:27302371

  13. Parabolic flight induces changes in gene expression patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Manak, Michael S; Mayfield, John D; Reyes, Matthew F; Gurley, William B; Ferl, Robert J

    2011-10-01

    Our primary objective was to evaluate gene expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to parabolic flight as part of a comprehensive approach to the molecular biology of spaceflight-related adaptations. In addition, we wished to establish parabolic flight as a tractable operations platform for molecular biology studies. In a succession of experiments on NASA's KC-135 and C-9 parabolic aircraft, Arabidopsis plants were presented with replicated exposure to parabolic flight. Transcriptome profiling revealed that parabolic flight caused changes in gene expression patterns that stood the statistical tests of replication on three different flight days. The earliest response, after 20 parabolas, was characterized by a prominence of genes associated with signal transduction. After 40 parabolas, this prominence was largely replaced by genes associated with biotic and abiotic stimuli and stress. Among these responses, three metabolic processes stand out in particular: the induction of auxin metabolism and signaling, the differential expression of genes associated with calcium-mediated signaling, and the repression of genes associated with disease resistance and cell wall biochemistry. Many, but not all, of these responses are known to be involved in gravity sensing in plants. Changes in auxin-related gene expression were also recorded by reporter genes tuned to auxin signal pathways. These data demonstrate that the parabolic flight environment is appropriate for molecular biology research involving the transition to microgravity, in that with replication, proper controls, and analyses, gene expression changes can be observed in the time frames of typical parabolic flight experiments.

  14. Coastal change rates and patterns: Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Gmirkin, Rick; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative project between the U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the National Park Service (NPS) has been developed to create an inventory of geologic resources for National Park Service lands on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The NPS Geologic Resources Inventories are recognized as essential for the effective management, interpretation, and understanding of vital park resources. In general, there are three principal components of the inventories: geologic bibliographies, digital geologic maps, and geologic reports. The geologic reports are specific to each individual park and include information on the geologic features and processes that are important to the management of park resources, including ecological, cultural and recreational resources. This report summarizes a component of the geologic inventory concerned specifically with characterizing the coastal geomorphology of the beach system within Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (NHP) and describes an analysis that utilizes georeferenced and orthorectified aerial photography to understand the spatial and temporal trends in shoreline change from 1950 to 2002. In addition, spatial patterns of beach change were examined and a beach stability map was developed. Both the shoreline change rates and the beach stability map are designed to help Park personnel effectively manage the valuable park resources within the context of understanding natural changes to the KAHO beach system.

  15. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis. PMID:27595001

  16. A unique coral biomineralization pattern has resisted 40 million years of major ocean chemistry change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Jarosław; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Wallace, Carden C.; Gothmann, Anne M.; Mazur, Maciej; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Neuser, Rolf D.; Levy, Oren; Shemesh, Aldo; Meibom, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Today coral reefs are threatened by changes to seawater conditions associated with rapid anthropogenic global climate change. Yet, since the Cenozoic, these organisms have experienced major fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 levels (from greenhouse conditions of high pCO2 in the Eocene to low pCO2 ice-house conditions in the Oligocene-Miocene) and a dramatically changing ocean Mg/Ca ratio. Here we show that the most diverse, widespread, and abundant reef-building coral genus Acropora (20 morphological groups and 150 living species) has not only survived these environmental changes, but has maintained its distinct skeletal biomineralization pattern for at least 40 My: Well-preserved fossil Acropora skeletons from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene show ultra-structures indistinguishable from those of extant representatives of the genus and their aragonitic skeleton Mg/Ca ratios trace the inferred ocean Mg/Ca ratio precisely since the Eocene. Therefore, among marine biogenic carbonate fossils, well-preserved acroporid skeletons represent material with very high potential for reconstruction of ancient ocean chemistry.

  17. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis.

  18. Changing Pattern of Clinical Epidemiology on Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Yan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The changing pattern of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection could have a significant impact on future medical prevention practices and therapies.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the changing pattern of HCV infection in southwest China using clinical epidemiology, and to assess the association between the genotypes distribution and certain potential risk factors.Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis which included 1 208 subjects with chronic HCV registered at the Southwest Hospital (Chongqing, Southwest China was performed. The information was reviewed and the data collected from clinical records and short telephone interviews when necessary. HCV genotypes were determined by nucleotide sequencing of the CE1 regions followed by phylogenic analysis with the published HCV genotype. HCV genotype distribution was analyzed according to the patients' age, gender, risk exposure, and the initial risk exposure.Results: Among the 1 208 patients, the HCV subtype 1b was the most prevalent (32.9%, followed by subtype 3b (18.9%, 6a (18.0%, 3a (12.8% and 2a (10.4%, while subtypes 1a and 6k accounted for cases of HCV infection in only 9 and 3 cases respectively. Individuals older than 40 years were mainly infected with subtypes 1b and 2a, whereas younger patients were predominantly infected with genotypes 3 and 6. Subtypes 1b and 2a were observed more frequently among 44.4% and 16.0% patients respectively, with a history of invasive operations. Subtypes 3b and 6a constituted the majority of HCV infections among intravenous drug users (IDUs (28.7% and 34.9%, respectively. A significant difference (P < 0.001 was observed between the HCV genotype distributions, according to the potential route of infection.Conclusion: In southwest China, the most common remaining subtype is the 1b genotype, but this has declined significantly among young patients. This is followed by subtype 3b and 6a which has increased significantly

  19. A comparative study of changes across the lifecycle of complex products in a variant and a customised industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2012-01-01

    selected and change documentation analysed. The two cases selected were: 1) a variant design product, an aeroengine and 2) a customised product, a drilling equipment for the oil industry. The change requests were analysed to understand their distribution and motivation across the lifecycle of the two...

  20. Globalisation, Crisis and Industrial Relations in the Indian Auto Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    of the global industry is reeling under the financial crisis, India's industry has been expanding. However, the power of workers has been declining in conflict-ridden states just as globalisation and deregulation have hastened capital flight to more pro-business regions. The paper draws some policy implications......This paper examines how the pattern of investment in the Indian auto industry has changed. The author argues that the industrial relations climate has been an important determinant of that pattern. Industrial relations climate is politically and institutionally determined hence any shift...... in the broader capital-labour relation in the wider global economy due to globalisation is argued to be tempered by India's particular national and local institutions governing industrial relations, unionisation, the specific trajectory of the Indian auto industry, and economic development strategies. When much...

  1. Seasonal changes in 24-h patterns of suicide rates : a study on train suicides in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houwelingen, CAJ; Beersma, DGM; Houwelingen, Cornelis A.J. van

    2001-01-01

    Background: Annual patterns in suicide rates, peaking near the summer solstice, are well documented. It has been suggested that day length or total hours of sunshine has an impact on suicide rates. If these environmental factors are involved, we would expect changes in the daily pattern of suicide r

  2. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  3. Environmental Change in the Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone, Northern China: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Wang, Fei

    2016-02-01

    Chengde city is located in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in northern China near the capital city of Beijing, which has experienced large-scale ecological construction in the past three decades. This study quantitatively assessed the environmental changes in Chengde through observation records of water resources, water environment, atmospheric environment, and vegetation activity and investigated the possible causes. From the late 1950s to 2002, the streamflow presented a downward trend induced by climate variability and human activities, with contribution ratios of 33.2% and 66.8%, respectively. During 2001-2012, the days of levels I and II air quality presented clear upward trends. Moreover, the air pollutant concentration was relatively low compared with that in the adjacent areas, which means the air quality has improved more than that in the neighboring areas. The water quality, which deteriorated during 1993-2000, began to improve in 2002. The air and water quality changes were closely related to pollutant emissions induced by anthropogenic activities. During 1982-2012, the vegetation in the southeastern and central regions presented restoration trends, whereas that in the northwestern area showed degradation trends. The pixels with obvious degradation trends correlated significantly with annual mean temperature and annual precipitation. Ecological engineering also played a positive role in vegetation restoration. This analysis can be beneficial to environment managers in the active response and adaptation to the possible effects of future climate change, population growth, and industrial development and can be used to ensure sustainable development and environmental safety.

  4. Is "Warm Arctic, Cold Continent" A Fingerprint Pattern of Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerling, M. P.; Sun, L.; Perlwitz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Cold winters and cold waves have recently occurred in Europe, central Asia and the Midwest to eastern United States, even as global mean temperatures set record highs and Arctic amplification of surface warming continued. Since 1979, Central Asia winter temperatures have in fact declined. Conjecture has it that more cold extremes over the mid-latitude continents should occur due to global warming and the impacts of Arctic sea ice loss. A Northern Hemisphere temperature signal termed the "Warm Arctic, Cold Continent" pattern has thus been surmised. Here we use a multi-model approach to test the hypothesis that such a pattern is indeed symptomatic of climate change. Diagnosis of a large model ensemble of historical climate simulations shows some individual realizations to yield cooling trends over Central Asia, but importantly the vast majority show warming. The observed cooling has thus likely been a low probability state of internal variability, not a fingerprint of forced climate change. We show that daily temperature variations over continents decline in winter due to global warming, and cold waves become less likely. This is partly related to diminution of Arctic cold air reservoirs due to warming-induced sea ice loss. Nonetheless, we find some evidence and present a physical basis that Arctic sea ice loss alone can induce a winter cooling over Central Asia, though with a magnitude that is appreciably smaller than the overall radiative-forced warming signal. Our results support the argument that recent cooling trends over central Asia, and cold extreme events over the winter continents, have principally resulted from atmospheric internal variability and have been neither a forced response to Arctic seas ice loss nor a symptom of global warming. The paradigm of climate change is thus better expressed as "Warm Arctic, Warm Continent" for the NH winter.

  5. The changing pattern of upper gastro-intestinal lesions in southern Saudi Arabia: An endoscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Humayed Sulieman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Dyspepsia is a common gastrointestinal disorder and is the most common indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE. In recent years, it has been observed in several centers that there is a change in the causes of dyspepsia as revealed by UGIE. Our main objectives were: (1 To study the pattern of upper gastrointestinal pathology in patients with dyspepsia undergoing upper endoscopy; (2 Compare that with the pattern seen 10-15 years earlier in different areas of KSA. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of all UGI endoscopies performed at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Southern Saudi Arabia during the years 2005-2007 on patients above 13 years of age. Patients who underwent UGIE for reasons other than dyspepsia were excluded. The analysis was performed using the SPSS 14 statistical package. Results: A total of 1,607 patients underwent UGI endoscopy during the three-year study period (age range, 15-100. There were 907 males (56.4% and 700 female (43.6%. Normal findings were reported on 215 patients (14% and the majority had gastritis (676 = 42%, of whom 344 had gastritis with ulcer disease. Moreover, 242 patients (15% had gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD, with or without esophagitis or hiatus hernia. Also, a total of 243 patients had duodenal ulcer (DU (15% while only 12 had gastric ulcer (0.7%. Discussion and Conclusion: There is clear change in the frequency of UGIE lesions detected recently compared to a decade ago with an increasing prevalence of reflux esophagitis and hiatus hernia. This could be attributed to changes in lifestyle and dietary habits such as more consumption of fat and fast food, increased prevalence of obesity, and smoking. These problems should be addressed in order to minimize the serious complications of esophageal diseases.

  6. Disturbance-driven changes to landscape patterns and responses of waterbirds at West Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhu Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand human impact on a wetland ecosystem, we analyzed the land-use and land-cover change (LUCC and also changes to landscape pattern between 1996 and 2013, at West Dongting Lake (WDL, China. For this purpose, we examined remote sensing data and conducted field studies to compare community structure and diversity of waterbirds in three typical habitats: restored wetland, fragmented natural wetland and poplar plantation. Our results showed that the area used for poplar plantation increased 9 times from 1996 to 2013, while the area occupied by reed marsh increased by 30.6%. In contrast, areas of natural wetland, open water, and wet meadow/mudflat, were reduced by 46.4%, 49.8%, and 39.8%, respectively. The WDL wetland ecosystem was significantly fragmented and degraded over the same period as shown by an increase in landscape fragmentation index from 1.239 in 1996 to 2.897 in 2013. Comparisons of populations, species and distribution of waterbirds among three habitats showed. (1 Restored wetland provided habitat for several wintering waterbirds allowing a broader population distribution, but at the same time a simpler community structure with lower biodiversity (H'=1.866. (2 Fragmented natural wetland provided habitat for diverse wintering birds, including rare and endangered black stork (Ciconia nigra and Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus, thus rising the Shannon-Wiener index (H'=2.118 for the bird community in this type of habitat, although waterbird population numbers remained low. (3 Poplar plantation was, in general, not suitable for waterbirds with only two individuals of one species observed in this habitat during the field survey period. In conclusion, landscape pattern change and habitat fragmentation reduced biodiversity at WDL with the planting of poplar trees being the key driver of wetland ecosystem degradation. For future management, forestation should be restricted while restoration of natural wetland should be a high

  7. Meta-analysis of Unit and Industry Level Scaling Dynamics in Energy Technologies and Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C.

    2009-01-01

    Historical patterns of growth across a range of energy technologies are used to explore 'scaling'. The term scaling is used to describe a particular form of growth that is (i) both rapid and substantive, and (ii) occurs at multiple levels from the technical unit to the industry as a whole (e.g., from a wind turbine to total installed wind capacity). Unit and industry scaling dynamics are assessed in historical time series data on refineries, power plants (nuclear, coal, gas, wind), jet aircr...

  8. ASSESSING CHANGES IN THE U.S. HARDWOOD SAWMILL INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Espinoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. hardwood sawmilling industry has experienced significant changes over the past decade. A slowing housing industry, competition from imported products, higher transportation costs, and high stumpage prices have changed the business of manufacturing and marketing hardwood lumber. Also, hardwood lumber buyers are changing their business practices by shortening lead times, requiring a more customized product, and buying smaller lumber quantities to cut costs and increase operational flexibility. A survey of hardwood lumber manufacturers was conducted in the fall of 2009 to assess changes and adaptations within the industry. Among respondents, average hardwood lumber sales decreased by 13.2 percent during the study's focus period from 2004 to 2008. Respondents also identified a change in customer demand with smaller, more frequent orders becoming more common. Moreover, the species mix shifted, with red oak losing considerable market share. Intermediaries, such as hardwood lumber distributors, were able to capture more of the industry's business. Respondents identified the slowing housing market and high energy costs as major factors affecting their businesses. While the survey's responses reflected the extremely challenging economic conditions, industry participants are aggressively adapting their businesses and pursuing new opportunities with the understanding that markets will eventually recover.

  9. Changes in blast zone albedo patterns around new martian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubar, I. J.; Dundas, C. M.; Byrne, S.; Geissler, P.; Bart, G. D.; McEwen, A. S.; Russell, P. S.; Chojnacki, M.; Golombek, M. P.

    2016-03-01

    "Blast zones" (BZs) around new martian craters comprise various albedo features caused by the initial impact, including diffuse halos, extended linear and arcuate rays, secondary craters, ejecta patterns, and dust avalanches. We examined these features for changes in repeat images separated by up to four Mars years. Here we present the first comprehensive survey of the qualitative and quantitative changes observed in impact blast zones over time. Such changes are most likely due to airfall of high-albedo dust restoring darkened areas to their original albedo, the albedo of adjacent non-impacted surfaces. Although some sites show drastic changes over short timescales, nearly half of the sites show no obvious changes over several Mars years. Albedo changes are more likely to occur at higher-latitude sites, lower-elevation sites, and at sites with smaller central craters. No correlation was seen between amount of change and Dust Cover Index, relative halo size, or historical regional albedo changes. Quantitative albedo measurements of the diffuse dark halos relative to their surroundings yielded estimates of fading lifetimes for these features. The average lifetime among sites with measurable fading is ∼15 Mars years; the median is ∼8 Mars years for a linear brightening. However, at approximately half of sites with three or more repeat images, a nonlinear function with rapid initial fading followed by a slow increase in albedo provides a better fit to the fading behavior; this would predict even longer lifetimes. The predicted lifetimes of BZs are comparable to those of slope streaks, and considered representative of fading by global atmospheric dust deposition; they last significantly longer than dust devil or rover tracks, albedo features that are erased by different processes. These relatively long lifetimes indicate that the measurement of the current impact rate by Daubar et al. (Daubar, I.J. et al. [2013]. Icarus 225, 506-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j

  10. The Changing Shape of the Defense Industry and Implications for Defense Acquisitions and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria A. Greenfield; Ryan R. Brady

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) In the mid-1990s, the US defense industry experienced a dramatic wave of consolidation. This paper seeks to establish the statistical facts of defense industry consolidation, including the ways in which it reshaped the industry in the 1990s; the ways in which it may continue to reshape the industry; and the forces that promote or discourage it. It also seeks to consider the implications of consolidation for defense acquisitions and poli...

  11. Estimation of future levels and changes in profitability: The effect of the relative position of the firm in its industry and the operating-financing disaggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Amor-Tapia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine how the relative position of a firm's Return on Equity (ROE in industries affects the predictability of the next-year ROE levels, and the ROE changes from year to year. Using Nissim and Penman breakdown into operating and financing drivers, the significant role of the industry factor is established, although changes in signs suggest subtle non-linear relations in the drivers. Our study avoids problems originating from negative signs by analyzing sorts and by making new regressions with disaggregated second-order drivers by signs. This way, our results provide evidence of some different patterns in the influence of the first-level drivers of ROE (the operating factor and the financing factor, and the second-level drivers (profit margin, asset turnover, leverage and return spread on future profitability, depending on the industry spread. The results on the role of contextual factors to improve the estimation of future profitability remain consistent for small and large firms, although adding some nuances.

  12. 78 FR 71869 - Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Industrial Designs; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 230 / Friday, November 29, 2013... Registration of Industrial Designs AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice... Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs (``Hague Agreement'') and is to...

  13. Changes of local agricultural landscape patterns induced by land consolidation in hilly and mountainous Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen; WEI Chao-fu; ZHANG Wei-hua; XIE De-ti

    2009-01-01

    Land consolidation (LC), as a type of human disturbance, improves land production efficiency and changes landscape distribution through land parcel reallocation. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze the changes of landscape patches before and after a land consolidation project (LCP) and the effects of land levelling, irrigation and drainage work and road engineering on the landscape structure. FRAGSTAT3.3 and buffer zone analysis were used to investigate those changes. The results suggest that the heterogeneity of landscape depressed, and tended to simplification after LC. Dry land was the most highly variable land use pattern, and the change of forestland was least due to its locations at a gradient larger than 25°. LC resulted in a more rational use of land, and could be an important step in promoting rural development in depressed and fragmented agricultural areas through unused land exploitation, small-patch combination, irrigation and water conservancy, and road construction. Land levelling leveled off the gradient field surface and decreased the slope. The fragmentized patches were much more incorporated with increasing slope. On the other hand, the ridge of a field became longer so that the length of field surface and area of patch were increased. Land levelling regulated, simplified and combined patches, so that the complexity degree was reduced. It is found that the buffer distance of 35 m was a turning point of human disturbance by irrigation and drainage systems, and patches presented flaky distribution when the buffer distance was smaller than 35 m. Meanwhile, the distance range between 25 m to 50 m was an impressible area for road engineering, which was sensitive to human actions, and the changes of all landscape metrics were larger than those in other buffer zones. In general, LC not only reallocated fragmented parcels, but also improved agricultural conditions.

  14. Predicting Climate Change Using Response Theory: Global Averages and Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Ragone, Francesco; Lunkeit, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The provision of accurate methods for predicting the climate response to anthropogenic and natural forcings is a key contemporary scientific challenge. Using a simplified and efficient open-source general circulation model of the atmosphere featuring O(10^5 ) degrees of freedom, we show how it is possible to approach such a problem using nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Response theory allows one to practically compute the time-dependent measure supported on the pullback attractor of the climate system, whose dynamics is non-autonomous as a result of time-dependent forcings. We propose a simple yet efficient method for predicting—at any lead time and in an ensemble sense—the change in climate properties resulting from increase in the concentration of CO_2 using test perturbation model runs. We assess strengths and limitations of the response theory in predicting the changes in the globally averaged values of surface temperature and of the yearly total precipitation, as well as in their spatial patterns. The quality of the predictions obtained for the surface temperature fields is rather good, while in the case of precipitation a good skill is observed only for the global average. We also show how it is possible to define accurately concepts like the inertia of the climate system or to predict when climate change is detectable given a scenario of forcing. Our analysis can be extended for dealing with more complex portfolios of forcings and can be adapted to treat, in principle, any climate observable. Our conclusion is that climate change is indeed a problem that can be effectively seen through a statistical mechanical lens, and that there is great potential for optimizing the current coordinated modelling exercises run for the preparation of the subsequent reports of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  15. Quantifying Future Changes in Extreme Precipitation Events Based on Resolved Synoptic Atmospheric Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.; Monier, E.; Entekhabi, D.

    2012-12-01

    An important question for climate change science is possible shifts in the extremes of regional water cycle, especially changes in patterns, intensity and/or frequency of extreme precipitation events. In this study, an analogue method is developed to help detect extreme precipitation events and their potential changes under future climate regimes without relying on the highly uncertain modeled precipitation. Our approach is based on the use of composite maps to identify the distinct synoptic and large-scale atmospheric conditions that lead to extreme precipitation events at local scales. The analysis of extreme daily precipitation events, exemplified in the south-central United States, is carried out using 62-yr (1948-2010) CPC gridded station data and NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). Various aspects of the daily extremes are examined, including their historical ranking, associated common circulation features at upper and lower levels of the atmosphere, and moisture plumes. The scheme is first evaluated for the multiple climate model simulations of the 20th century from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) archive to determine whether the statistical nature of modeled precipitation events (i.e. the numbers of occurrences over each season) could well correspond to that of the observed. Further, the approach will be applied to the CMIP5 multi-model projections of various climate change scenarios (i.e. Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios) in the next century to assess the potential changes in the probability of extreme precipitation events. The research results from this study should be of particular significance to help society develop adaptive strategies and prevent catastrophic losses.

  16. Changes in Nuclear Orientation Patterns of Chromosome 11 during Mouse Plasmacytoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Schmälter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying changes in nuclear architecture is a unique approach toward the understanding of nuclear remodeling during tumor development. One aspect of nuclear architecture is the orientation of chromosomes in the three-dimensional nuclear space. We studied mouse chromosome 11 in lymphocytes of [T38HxBALB/c]N mice with a reciprocal translocation between chromosome X and 11 (T38HT(X;11 exhibiting a long chromosome T(11;X and a short chromosome T(X;11 and in fast-onset plasmacytomas (PCTs induced in the same strain. We determined the three-dimensional orientation of chromosome 11 using a mouse chromosome 11 specific multicolor banding probe. We also examined the nuclear position of the small translocation chromosome T(X;11 which contains cytoband 11E2 and parts of E1. Chromosomes can point either with their centromeric or with their telomeric end toward the nuclear center or periphery, or their position is found in parallel to the nuclear border. In T38HT(X;11 nuclei, the most frequently observed orientation pattern was with both chromosomes 11 in parallel to the nuclear border (“PP”. PCT cells showed nuclei with two or more copies of chromosome 11. In PCTs, the most frequent orientation pattern was with one chromosome in parallel and the other pointing with its centromeric end toward the nuclear periphery (“CP”. There is a significant difference between the orientation patterns observed in T38HT(X;11 and in PCT nuclei (P < .0001.

  17. Lateralization patterns of covert but not overt movements change with age: An EEG neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten; Frerichs, Stella; Maurer, Stefanie; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    The mental practice of movements has been suggested as a promising add-on therapy to facilitate motor recovery after stroke. In the case of mentally practised movements, electroencephalogram (EEG) can be utilized to provide feedback about an otherwise covert act. The main target group for such an intervention are elderly patients, though research so far is largely focused on young populations (neurofeedback framework. CM-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) was studied in young (mean age: 23.6 years) and elderly (mean age: 62.7 years) healthy adults. Participants performed covert and overt hand movements. CMs were based on kinesthetic motor imagery (MI) or quasi-movements (QM). Based on previous studies investigating QM in the mu frequency range (8-13Hz) QM were expected to result in more lateralized ERD% patterns and accordingly higher classification accuracies. Independent of CM strategy the elderly were characterized by a significantly reduced lateralization of ERD%, due to stronger ipsilateral ERD%, and in consequence, reduced classification accuracies. QM were generally perceived as more vivid, but no differences were evident between MI and QM in ERD% or classification accuracies. EEG feedback enhanced task-related activity independently of strategy and age. ERD% measures of overt and covert movements were strongly related in young adults, whereas in the elderly ERD% lateralization is dissociated. In summary, we did not find evidence in support of more pronounced ERD% lateralization patterns in QM. Our finding of a less lateralized activation pattern in the elderly is in accordance to previous research and with the idea that compensatory processes help to overcome neurodegenerative changes related to normal ageing. Importantly, it indicates that EEG neurofeedback studies should place more emphasis on the age of the potential end-users.

  18. Diversity of substance use in eastern Arnhem Land (Australia): patterns and recent changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Alan R; Guyula, Terrence; Yunupingu, Maymuna; Burns, Christopher B

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe patterns of substance use among remote Aboriginal community populations. The setting was the eastern Arnhem Land ('Miwatj') region of the Northern Territory's (NT) 'Top End', with a population of 4217 Aboriginal people over 15 years of age using a cross-sectional description and comparison. Sample 1 (n = 689) from the region used data from health-worker consensus classification of kava, alcohol, tobacco, petrol and cannabis use. Sample 2 (n = 101) from one community used self-reported use, age at commencement, duration, amounts consumed and expenditure. In 1999 (sample 1), 46% of males and 18% of females were kava users, alcohol: 53% males, 12% females, tobacco: 68% males, 65% females, and cannabis: 31% males, 8% females. Less than 5% sniffed petrol. In one community in 2000, 39% males and 20% females reported using cannabis during the previous month. In this community between 1999 and 2000, the proportion of current kava users among men declined (77-52%, p = 0.015) with a tendency in women for a decrease in the proportion of tobacco users (87-69%, p = 0.096). The increase in the proportion of cannabis users in men (21-39%, p = 0.068) was not statistically significant. However, in women the increase was significant (0-20%, p = 0.013). Gross expenditure on tobacco and kava were similar in 2000: both greater than cannabis and alcohol. Median years used ranged from 4 years for cannabis and 20 years for tobacco. The data supported anecdotes of a recent rise in cannabis use, especially in women. Kava use declined in men. Tobacco use patterns in women may have been changing. Average per capita consumption of alcohol was low compared with other 'Top End' areas. Such varied and dynamic substance use patterns pose challenges for research and policy. PMID:12537704

  19. Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, A.

    2012-05-01

    Scientists and public administrators are devoting increasing attention to the Po River, in Italy, in view of concerns related to the impact of increasing urbanisation and exploitation of water resources. A better understanding of the hydrological regime of the river is necessary to improve water resources management and flood protection. In particular, the analysis of the effects of hydrological and climatic change is crucial for planning sustainable development and economic growth. An extremely interesting issue is to inspect to what extent river flows can be naturally affected by the occurrence of long periods of water abundance or scarcity, which can be erroneously interpreted as irreversible changes due to human impact. In fact, drought and flood periods alternatively occurred in the recent past in the form of long term cycles. This paper presents advanced graphical and analytical methods to gain a better understanding of the temporal distribution of the Po River discharge. In particular, we present an analysis of river flow variability and memory properties to better understand natural patterns and in particular long term changes, which may affect the future flood risk and availability of water resources.

  20. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.