WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing global essential

  1. Prioritizing Global Observations Along Essential Climate Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojinski, Stephan; Richter, Carolin

    2010-12-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Secretariat, housed within the World Meteorological Organization, released in August 2010 updated guidance for priority actions worldwide in support of observations of GCOS Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). This guidance states that full achievement of the recommendations in the 2010 Implementation Plan for the Global Observing System for Climate in Support of the UNFCCC (http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/Publications/gcos­138.pdf) is required to ensure that countries are able to understand and predict climate change and its impacts and manage their response throughout the 21st century and beyond. GCOS is sponsored by the United Nations and the International Council for Science (ICSU) and is an internationally coordinated network of observing systems and a program of activities that support and improve the network, which is designed to meet evolving national and international requirements for climate observations. One of the main objectives of GCOS is to sustain observations into the future to allow evaluation of how climate is changing, so that informed decisions can be made on prevention, mitigation, and adaptation strategies. GCOS priorities are based on the belief that observations are crucial to supporting the research needed to refine understanding of the climate system and its changes, to initialize predictions on time scales out to decades, and to develop the models used to make these predictions and longer­term scenario-based projections. Observations are also needed to assess social and economic vulnerabilities and to support related actions needed across a broad range of societal sectors by underpinning emerging climate services.

  2. Foreign Direct Investments Expansion – Essential Globalization Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Emilian HUIDUMAC PETRESCU; JOIA Radu-Marcel; Gheorghe HURDUZEU; Liviu Bogdan VLAD

    2011-01-01

    We live in a time when the world economy is constantly changing. Foreign direct investments is one of the most dynamic part of the world economy and in a continuous globalization, those international financial flows determining the traders to know their defining elements and to adopt a specific management in the international affairs field.    We are viewers of an unprecedented expansion of foreign direct investments, essential factor of the globalization developm...

  3. Climate and Global Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains the lessons delivered at the course held in Arles, France, on the subject Climate and Global Change: natural variability of the geosphere and biosphere systems, biogeochemical cycles and their perturbation by human activities, monitoring and forecasting global changes (satellite observations, modelling,...). Short presentations of students' own research activities are also proposed (climatic fluctuation in the Mediterranean area, climate/vegetation relations, etc.)

  4. Technology and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübler, Arnulf

    2003-10-01

    Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

  5. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  6. NPOESS, Essential Climates Variables and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe-Newell, S. P.; Bates, J. J.; Barkstrom, B. R.; Privette, J. L.; Kearns, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    Advancement in understanding, predicting and mitigating against climate change implies collaboration, close monitoring of Essential Climate Variable (ECV)s through development of Climate Data Record (CDR)s and effective action with specific thematic focus on human and environmental impacts. Towards this end, NCDC's Scientific Data Stewardship (SDS) Program Office developed Climate Long-term Information and Observation system (CLIO) for satellite data identification, characterization and use interrogation. This "proof-of-concept" online tool provides the ability to visualize global CDR information gaps and overlaps with options to temporally zoom-in from satellite instruments to climate products, data sets, data set versions and files. CLIO provides an intuitive one-stop web site that displays past, current and planned launches of environmental satellites in conjunction with associated imagery and detailed information. This tool is also capable of accepting and displaying Web-based input from Subject Matter Expert (SME)s providing a global to sub-regional scale perspective of all ECV's and their impacts upon climate studies. SME's can access and interact with temporal data from the past and present, or for future planning of products, datasets/dataset versions, instruments, platforms and networks. CLIO offers quantifiable prioritization of ECV/CDR impacts that effectively deal with climate change issues, their associated impacts upon climate, and this offers an intuitively objective collaboration and consensus building tool. NCDC's latest tool empowers decision makers and the scientific community to rapidly identify weaknesses and strengths in climate change monitoring strategies and significantly enhances climate change collaboration and awareness.

  7. Amazonia and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  8. Global vs climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various agents of global change that will affect the state of natural resources 50-100 years from now are discussed. These include economic and population growth, technological progress, and climatic change. The importance of climatic change lies in its effects on natural resources and on human activities that depend on those resources. Other factors affecting those resources include the demand on those resources from an increasing population and from a growing economy, and a more efficient use of those resources that comes from technological changes and from the consequences of economic growth itself. It is shown that there is a considerable ability to adapt to climatic change, since humans already have an intrinsic ability to adapt to the wide variations in climates that already exist and since technological developments can make it easier to cope with climatic variability. It appears that agents other than climatic change are more significant to the future state of natural resources than climatic change. Criteria for selecting options for addressing climatic change are outlined. Technological change and economic growth are seen to be key response options, since the vulnerability to climatic change depends on economic resources and technological progress. Specific options to stimulate sustainable economic growth and technological progress are listed. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Changing global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  10. Potential global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global economic integration and growth contribute much to the construction of energy plants, vehicles and other industrial products that produces carbon emission and in effect cause the destruction of the environment. A coordinated policy and response worldwide to curb emissions and to effect global climate change must be introduced. Improvement in scientific understanding is required to monitor how much emission reduction is necessary. In the near term, especially in the next seven years, sustained research and development for low carbon or carbon-free energy is necessary. Other measures must also be introduced, such as limiting the use of vehicles, closing down inefficient power plants, etc. In the long term, the use of the electric car, use solar energy, etc. is required. Reforestation must also be considered to absorb large amounts of carbon in the atmosphere

  11. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade marked changes of climatic factors have been observed, such as increases in average global earth temperatures, the amount of precipitation and the number of extreme weather events. Green house gases influence the energy flow in the atmosphere by absorbing infra-red radiation. An overview of the Austrian greenhouse gas emissions is given, including statistical data and their major sources. In 1999 the emissions of all six Kyoto greenhouse gases ( CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6) amounted to 79.2 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents . A comparison between the EC Members states is also presented. Finally the climate change strategy prepared by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management together with other ministries and the federal provinces is discussed, which main aim is to lead to an annual emission reduction of 16 million tonnes of CO2. Figs. 2, Tables 1. (nevyjel)

  12. Designing Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

    2012-12-01

    In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

  13. CHANGE MANAGEMENT ESSENTIALS TO MANAGE BUSINESS FLEXIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cãtãlin Cristian BABALÂC; Mihaela UDÃ

    2014-01-01

    The present paper has as objective to introduce essential concepts that stand as basis for change and risk management, having a direct influence on flexibility. The competitive advantage represented by the company flexibility either if it is achieved by technology or with the help of human factor follows a path characterized by risk and possible resistance to what is the normal state.

  14. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  15. Foreign Direct Investments Expansion – Essential Globalization Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian HUIDUMAC PETRESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in a time when the world economy is constantly changing. Foreign direct investments is one of the most dynamic part of the world economy and in a continuous globalization, those international financial flows determining the traders to know their defining elements and to adopt a specific management in the international affairs field. We are viewers of an unprecedented expansion of foreign direct investments, essential factor of the globalization development process. The paper analyzes the evolution of FDI so far, along with a brief illustration as the main trends of international financial flows for 2010 and 2011. In the context of economic globalization, it is absolutely necessary to clear out a study on the various economic activities, especially on the differences between countries. The analysis of these differences is particularly important as it helps improve and optimize the strategies adopted by foreign transnational companies. In the past 15 years, one observes that most companies in emerging countries, characterized by a great expansion, have adopted in the first phase of their existence, corporate strategies that gave them the opportunity to become global companies. According to surveys, after reaching the first goal, becoming a multinational or a transnational company, they have developed new business models beyond the classical principles and strategies. It is anticipated that in the coming decades, the strategies of emerging companies will be influenced by functional specialization, which, according to experts, influence the process of globalization. The analysis of strategies adopted by companies in emerging countries is absolutely necessary because the results cannot be overlooked. For example, until 2004, only five Asian companies were part of the top 100 transnational companies. The study was carried out by UNCTAD and the identification criterion was the size of foreign assets. In 2006, 14% of world total FDI came from

  16. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Austria the CO2 emissions increased by 5.9 % from 1990 to 1999, the other greenhouse gases by 2.6 %. The Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Environment and Water Management, in cooperation with other ministries and the countries, has worked out an action plan for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to meet the targets of the Kyoto protocol. This study analyzes the greenhouse gas emissions in Austria, in the European Union and globally. The measured emission values throughout Austria and in the other European countries are given in tables, the environmental impact for Austria and globally is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental emission control in Austria, the European Union and worldwide are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the greenhouse gas emissions is analysed. (a.n.)

  17. Global warming and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A panel discussion was held to discuss climate change. Six panelists made presentations that summarized ozone depletion and climate change, discussed global responses, argued against the conventional scientific and policy dogmas concerning climate change, examined the effects of ultraviolet radiation on phytoplankton, examined the effects of carbon taxes on Canadian industry and its emissions, and examined the political and strategic aspects of global warming. A question session followed the presentations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the six presentations

  18. Change points of global temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Niamh; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Andrew C Parnell

    2015-01-01

    We aim to address the question of whether or not there is a significant recent 'hiatus', 'pause' or 'slowdown' of global temperature rise. Using a statistical technique known as change point (CP) analysis we identify the changes in four global temperature records and estimate the rates of temperature rise before and after these changes occur. For each record the results indicate that three CPs are enough to accurately capture the variability in the data with no evidence of any detectable chan...

  19. Soil bacterial community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmark, Lasse

    Soil bacteria and archaea are essential for ecosystem functioning and plant growth through their degradation of organic matter and turnover of nutrients. But since the majority of soil bacteria and archaea are unclassified and “nonculturable” the functionality of the microbial community and its o...... different fertilizer treatments were found, demonstrating a high robustness of the soil microbiota.......Soil bacteria and archaea are essential for ecosystem functioning and plant growth through their degradation of organic matter and turnover of nutrients. But since the majority of soil bacteria and archaea are unclassified and “nonculturable” the functionality of the microbial community and its...... overall importance for ecosystem function in soil is poorly understood. Global change factors may affect the diversity and functioning of soil prokaryotes and thereby ecosystem functioning. To gain a better understanding of the effects of global changes it is of fundamental importance to classify the...

  20. Perspectives on global change theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human-caused global changes in ecological drivers, such as carbon dioxide concentrations, climate, and nitrogen deposition, as well as direct human impacts (land use change, species movements and extinctions, etc.) are increasingly recognized as key to understanding contemporary ecosystem dynamics, ...

  1. Teaching about Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

    2011-01-01

    Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

  2. Future Global Change and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The 11 articles in this issue explore how people respond to climate change and other global challenges. The articles pursue three broad strands of enquiry that relate (1) to the effects and causes of "skepticism" about climate change, (2) the purely cognitive challenges that are posed by a complex scientific issue, and (3) the ways in which climate change can be communicated to a wider audience. Cognitive science can contribute to understanding people's responses to global challenges in many ways, and it may also contribute to implementing solutions to those problems. PMID:26749304

  3. Global change research budget frozen

    Science.gov (United States)

    For FY 1996, the interagency budget request for the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) totals $2.156 billion, or a 1.8% ($39 million) increase over FY 1995. President Clinton has broadened the scope of the program to include another $358 million in reprogrammed activities in keeping with a push by the National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Environment and Natural Resources Research (CENR) to more closely link costs and objectives. In essence, the increase for what could be considered the “traditional” global change budget would be only 1.4%, or $24 million over the FY 1995 appropriation. USGCRP now embraces the Department of Energy (DoE) research on environmental technologies, NASA launch vehicle charges, and additional Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) research for environmental issues other than global change.

  4. Asia's changing role in global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Toufiq A

    2008-10-01

    Asia's role in global climate change has evolved significantly from the time when the Kyoto Protocol was being negotiated. Emissions of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas, from energy use in Asian countries now exceed those from the European Union or North America. Three of the top five emitters-China, India, and Japan, are Asian countries. Any meaningful global effort to address global climate change requires the active cooperation of these and other large Asian countries, if it is to succeed. Issues of equity between countries, within countries, and between generations, need to be tackled. Some quantitative current and historic data to illustrate the difficulties involved are provided, and one approach to making progress is suggested. PMID:18991898

  5. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  6. Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) is dedicated to understanding the problems of global climate change and their potential solutions. The Institute...

  7. Symposium on Global Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Schmalensee

    1993-01-01

    Global climate change, and policies to slow it or adapt to it, may be among the primary forces shaping the world's economy throughout the next century and beyond. Nonetheless, popular treatments of this issue commonly ignore economics. This introductory essay sketches some of the uncertainties and research questions.

  8. Global climate change : greenhouse effect

    OpenAIRE

    Attard, David

    1992-01-01

    One of the main problems caused by climate change is the greenhouse effect. Human activities emit so-called greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide which is produced through fossil fuel burning. These gases absorb the earth‘s radiation, forcing the earth‘s temperature, like that of in greenhouse, to rise. Global warming would lead to a rise in the global mean sea-level due to thermal expansion of the waters, and glaciers will melt at a fast rate, as will the Greenland ice...

  9. Global climate change and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 1988 the University of California organized a new public-service initiative on global climate change in response to inquiries and requests from members of Congress and the Department of Energy (DOE). This new systemwide initiative involved all of the University of California campuses and the University's three national laboratories at Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Livermore. The goal of this Greenhouse Initiative was to focus the multidisciplinary resources of the UC campuses and the team-oriented research capabilities of the laboratories on the prospect of global warming and its associated effects on the planet and its nations. In consultation with the DOE, the organizers proposed a series of workshops to focus University of California research resources on the issue of global warming, to contribute to the congressionally mandated DOE studies on options for the US to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20% by the year 2000, and to begin building a long-term research base contributing to an improved understanding of global change in all of its complexity and diverse discipline implications. This volume contains papers from the first of these workshops. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  10. Human response to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alertness of the global climate and environment change triggered by the effects of the economy of waste of industrial modern society has been raised to governments and populations. World-wide agreements and protocols have been established; they will be improved for action in two major issues: limitation (elimination of CFC's use, reductions of CO2 emissions, increasing energy efficiency, etc.) and adaptation (socio economic impacts, human behaviour, enhancement of predictive models, etc.)

  11. Global change and Canadians: A teacher's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report called Global Change and Canadians has been produced by the Royal Society of Canada to answer basic questions being asked about global change issues. A teacher's guide is presented to help teachers make effective use of the report in developing programs with students concerning global change. A basic set of teaching and learning activities related to the major topics in the report is provided, curricular connections between global change topics and school programs are suggested, and some additional resources on global change are listed. The guide is divided into six chapters, each corresponding to the chapters of the global change report. Each chapter contains a summary of the major concepts from the report, some of the learning outcomes that occur when those concepts are addressed, a series of suggested activities or ideas, and a guide for assessing students' abilities relative to the concepts of the chapter. The topics of the chapters cover the nature of global change, the importance of global change to Canada, the causes of global change, the consequences of global change (including climate change and the greenhouse effect), the effects of global change on society, and Canadian responses to global change. 64 refs., 3 figs

  12. Global climate change -- taking action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commitment of the Canadian Mining Association (MAC), on behalf of its member companies, to play a global leadership role in eco-efficiency and environmental stewardship and participate fully in Canada's efforts to reduce emissions that contribute to climate change, are outlined. The principles underlying the MAC's commitment include: prudent action to reduce GHG emissions; the greatest possible efficiency in using energy; use of best practices and technologies; support for the development of balanced climate change policies; cooperation with all stakeholders in achieving the maximum feasible reduction in GHG emissions; support for research and analysis of the social, economic and environmental implications of GHG reduction strategies; and active support for a balanced and effective public outreach and education program. A brief review of how the mining sector has already made giant strides in cutting energy consumption and in reducing carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per unit of output during the past decade is supplemented by summaries of GHG reduction success stories from member companies such as Cominco, Teck Corporation, Falconbridge and Syncrude Canada Limited

  13. What are the Essential Success Strategies for Global CIOs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jay Crotts

    2010-01-01

    @@ As a CIO in the global environment,my biggest challenge is to understand the dynamics of how my company operates in each country.Acquiring an understanding of how market maturity affects business strategy helps me develop an IT strategy that supports local markets while enhancing them with the global resources,processes and efficiencies at our disposal.

  14. Essential Web Sites to Research the Globalization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Thomas J.; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, brought a stark reality to social studies classrooms throughout the United States. Globalism and the expansion of world trade relations created optimism about enhanced cultural understanding, peace, and economic prosperity. However, it is clear that globalization also has a dark side. Suddenly…

  15. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  16. Global change research: Science and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  17. Global Environmental change: Understanding the Human Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is from the National Research Council's Committee on the Human dimensions of Global Change. The object is to examine what is known about human dimensions of global environmental change, identify the major immediate needs for knowledge, and recommend a strategy over the next 5-10 years. Case studies are used in human causes of global change. issues related to theory, methods, and data are covered, as well as institutional needs for interdicipinary approaches

  18. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  19. Changing ideas of global limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddy, D

    1984-03-01

    In this discussion of changing ideas of global limits, attention is directed to world trade, moral restraint, and the "green revolution." A fresh look at the work of those who first considered population problems, e.gg., Malthur, can help make some sense of the population problems the world faces today. Malthus, writing in the late 1700s, concluded that population multiplies with each generation. He saw that food production was limited by the amount of available cropland and that the more people there are, the less food they will have to eat -- assuming that all available cropland is planted. This grim view of the future led Malthus to oppose government aid to the poor maintaining that such assistance would only encourage poor people to have large families. His solution was "moral restratin," seeing it as the duty of each individual to refrain from marriage until he was able to support his children. At the time this advice seemed cruel and Malthus was bitterly attacked by writers everywhere in Europe. Karl Marx and other ctitics of Malthus believed that poverty was caused by unjust governments and the selfishness of the rich. Marx clamied that the problem was too few jobs rather than too many people. The dire predictions of Malthus were soon forgotten as manufacturing industries began to transform the economies of Western Europe in the 1800s. Along with soaring economic growth came a host of developments that improved people's lives, e.g., better transportation, better sanitiation and nutrition, and better medicine. New inventions helped farmers fo produce more food. Next came the "demographic transition." Population grew quickly in Europe and North America as people became healthier and lived longer. Gradually, people in the industrial nations began deciding to have smaller families to enable them to afford an even higher living standard. By the late 1920s birthrates in Europe and the US had dropped so low that mention of the "population problem" usually referred

  20. How Will Climate Change Affect Globalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilyard, John Raymond; Bals, Lydia; Zhuplev, Anatoly;

    2011-01-01

    effect globalization. Businesses, if they want to be sustained, will have to adjust to climate change. This panel will examine two topics within which the relationship between climate change and globalization can be assessed - the sourcing of resources and services when the location of those resources is...

  1. Global change and terrestrial plant community dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Janet; Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Regan, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic drivers of global change include rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses and resulting changes in the climate, as well as nitrogen deposition, biotic invasions, altered disturbance regimes, and land-use change. Predicting the effects of global change on terrestrial plant communities is crucial because of the ecosystem services vegetation provides, from climate regulation to forest products. In this paper, we present a framework for detecting vegetation changes and attributing them to global change drivers that incorporates multiple lines of evidence from spatially extensive monitoring networks, distributed experiments, remotely sensed data, and historical records. Based on a literature review, we summarize observed changes and then describe modeling tools that can forecast the impacts of multiple drivers on plant communities in an era of rapid change. Observed responses to changes in temperature, water, nutrients, land use, and disturbance show strong sensitivity of ecosystem productivity and plant population dynamics to water balance and long-lasting effects of disturbance on plant community dynamics. Persistent effects of land-use change and human-altered fire regimes on vegetation can overshadow or interact with climate change impacts. Models forecasting plant community responses to global change incorporate shifting ecological niches, population dynamics, species interactions, spatially explicit disturbance, ecosystem processes, and plant functional responses. Monitoring, experiments, and models evaluating multiple change drivers are needed to detect and predict vegetation changes in response to 21st century global change. PMID:26929338

  2. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  3. Biodiversity: Interacting global change drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settele, Josef; Wiemers, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Climate change impacts on species do not occur in isolation. Now research on drought-sensitive British butterflies uses citizen science to attribute the drivers of population changes and shows landscape management to be a key part of the solution.

  4. Global Monsoon Dynamics and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhisheng, An; Guoxiong, Wu; Jianping, Li; Youbin, Sun; Yimin, Liu; Weijian, Zhou; Yanjun, Cai; Anmin, Duan; Li, Li; Jiangyu, Mao; Hai, Cheng; Zhengguo, Shi; Liangcheng, Tan; Hong, Yan; Hong, Ao; Hong, Chang; Juan, Feng

    2015-05-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the global monsoon that encompasses findings from studies of both modern monsoons and paleomonsoons. We introduce a definition for the global monsoon that incorporates its three-dimensional distribution and ultimate causes, emphasizing the direct drive of seasonal pressure system changes on monsoon circulation and depicting the intensity in terms of both circulation and precipitation. We explore the global monsoon climate changes across a wide range of timescales from tectonic to intraseasonal. Common features of the global monsoon are global homogeneity, regional diversity, seasonality, quasi-periodicity, irregularity, instability, and asynchroneity. We emphasize the importance of solar insolation, Earth orbital parameters, underlying surface properties, and land-air-sea interactions for global monsoon dynamics. We discuss the primary driving force of monsoon variability on each timescale and the relationships among dynamics on multiple timescales. Natural processes and anthropogenic impacts are of great significance to the understanding of future global monsoon behavior.

  5. Integrated risk analysis of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses several factors that should be considered in integrated risk analyses of global climate change. We begin by describing how the problem of global climate change can be subdivided into largely independent parts that can be linked together in an analytically tractable fashion. Uncertainty plays a central role in integrated risk analyses of global climate change. Accordingly, we consider various aspects of uncertainty as they relate to the climate change problem. We also consider the impacts of these uncertainties on various risk management issues, such as sequential decision strategies, value of information, and problems of interregional and intergenerational equity. (author)

  6. Global monopoles can change Universe's topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2016-05-01

    If the Universe undergoes a phase transition, at which global monopoles are created or destroyed, topology of its spatial sections can change. More specifically, by making use of Myers' theorem, we show that, after a transition in which global monopoles form, spatial sections of a spatially flat, infinite Universe becomes finite and closed. This implies that global monopoles can change the topology of Universe's spatial sections (from infinite and open to finite and closed). Global monopoles cannot alter the topology of the space-time manifold.

  7. Interfacing remote sensing and geographic information systems for global environmental change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae K.; Randolph, J. C.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.

  8. Global perceptions of local temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Peter D.; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Lee, Tien Ming; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult to detect global warming directly because most people experience changes only in local weather patterns, which are highly variable and may not reflect long-term global climate trends. However, local climate-change experience may play an important role in adaptation and mitigation behaviour and policy support. Previous research indicates that people can perceive and adapt to aspects of climate variability and change based on personal observations. Experience with local weather may also influence global warming beliefs. Here we examine the extent to which respondents in 89 countries detect recent changes in average local temperatures. We demonstrate that public perceptions correspond with patterns of observed temperature change from climate records: individuals who live in places with rising average temperatures are more likely than others to perceive local warming. As global climate change intensifies, changes in local temperatures and weather patterns may be increasingly detected by the global public. These findings also suggest that public opinion of climate change may shift, at least in part, in response to the personal experience of climate change.

  9. Editorial—Global Climate Change and Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Sanderson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health focuses on the inter-linkage between the global distribution of contaminants and climate change. [...

  10. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    EK Shuman

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengu...

  11. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  12. Uncertainty and global climate change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Weiher, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Workshop on Uncertainty and Global Climate Change Research March 22--23, 1994, in Knoxville, Tennessee. This report summarizes the results and recommendations of the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to examine in-depth the concept of uncertainty. From an analytical point of view, uncertainty is a central feature of global climate science, economics and decision making. The magnitude and complexity of uncertainty surrounding global climate change has made it quite difficult to answer even the most simple and important of questions-whether potentially costly action is required now to ameliorate adverse consequences of global climate change or whether delay is warranted to gain better information to reduce uncertainties. A major conclusion of the workshop is that multidisciplinary integrated assessments using decision analytic techniques as a foundation is key to addressing global change policy concerns. First, uncertainty must be dealt with explicitly and rigorously since it is and will continue to be a key feature of analysis and recommendations on policy questions for years to come. Second, key policy questions and variables need to be explicitly identified, prioritized, and their uncertainty characterized to guide the entire scientific, modeling, and policy analysis process. Multidisciplinary integrated assessment techniques and value of information methodologies are best suited for this task. In terms of timeliness and relevance of developing and applying decision analytic techniques, the global change research and policy communities are moving rapidly toward integrated approaches to research design and policy analysis.

  13. U.S. Global Change Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Do Agencies Global search Enter your keywords Climate Change a Growing Threat to Human Health New USGCRP Report available now, "The Impacts of ... News & Updates Engage Connect & Participate Latest News Update Climate Change a Growing Threat to Human Health: New USGCRP Report Read more Join the USGCRP ...

  14. International business and global climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pinkse; A. Kolk

    2008-01-01

    Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and clima

  15. Global climate change and international security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-11-01

    This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

  16. Psychological research and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Stern, Paul C.; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda; Steg, Linda; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2015-07-01

    Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research.

  17. The observed sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle to changes in surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate models project large changes in global surface temperature in coming decades that are expected to be accompanied by significant changes in the global hydrological cycle. Validation of model simulations is essential to support their use in decision making, but observing the elements of the hydrological cycle is challenging, and model-independent global data sets exist only for precipitation. We compute the sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle to changes in surface temperature using available global precipitation data sets and compare the results against the sensitivities derived from model simulations of 20th century climate. The implications of the results for the global climate observing system are discussed.

  18. Modeling Global Change in Local Places: Capturing Global Change and Local Impacts in a Global Land System Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, P.; Eitelberg, D.; Ornetsmueller, C.; van Vliet, J.

    2015-12-01

    Global land use models are driven by demands for food and urban space. However, at the same time many transitions in land use and land cover are driven by societal changes and the demand for a wide range of landscape functions or ecosystem services, including the conservation of biodiversity, regulation of climate and floods, and recreation. Some of these demands lead to tele-connected land use change through the transport of good and services, others are place-based and shape the local realities of land system change. Most current land use change models focus on land cover changes alone and ignore the importance of changes in land management and landscape configuration that affect climate, biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services. This talk will present an alternative approach to global land use modelling based on the simulation of changes in land systems in response to a wide set of ecosystem service demands. Simulations at global scale illustrate that accounting for demands for livestock products, carbon sequestration and biological conservation (following the Aichi targets) leads to different outcomes of land change models and allows the identification of synergies between carbon and biodiversity targets. An application in Laos indicates the complex transitions in land systems and landscapes that occur upon the transition from shifting cultivation to permanent agriculture and tree-crop plantations. We discuss the implications of such land system representations for Earth system modelling.

  19. Global climate change and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  20. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Global Hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    Aanund Killingtveit; Byman Hamududu

    2012-01-01

    Currently, hydropower accounts for close to 16% of the world’s total power supply and is the world’s most dominant (86%) source of renewable electrical energy. The key resource for hydropower generation is runoff, which is dependent on precipitation. The future global climate is uncertain and thus poses some risk for the hydropower generation sector. The crucial question and challenge then is what will be the impact of climate change on global hydropower generation and what are the resulting ...

  1. Climate change and global warming potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and the global budgets of the two main energy consumption related greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, are discussed. The global warming potential (GWP) of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is defined and the large range of GWPs of CH4 in the literature is discussed. GWPs are expected to play an important role in energy policies and negotiations concerning lowering greenhouse gas emissions. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Asian Change in the Context of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, James N.; Melillo, Jerry M.

    1998-09-01

    Nearly two-thirds of the world's population live in Asia, and many countries in that region are currently undergoing very rapid industrial, agricultural and economic development. The Framework Convention on Climate Change constrains developed countries with regard to their future emissions of greenhouse gases, but recognizes the special needs of developing countries. There is growing appreciation of the ways in which developing countries in the Asian region both contribute to global changes (by altering biogeochemical pathways and cycles) and are themselves affected by those changes. This volume uses the intellectual efforts and findings of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) community to provide the first integrated analysis of the interactions between global change and Asian change, giving particular attention to China's role. The book will be of interest to readers in a wide range of academic disciplines (natural sciences and socio-economic) and for those involved in national and international policy development relevant to global change.

  3. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... storage in both a shorter and longer term global change experiment. Extended drought at the dry, temperate heath showed that soil fungi were well adapted to dry conditions. Furthermore, soil fungal communities responded significantly to seasonal fluctuations at the temperate heath, but despite large...... composition of fungi, but the effects were generally limited to the litter layer and the uppermost humus layer (0-5 cm), which was unexpected considering the ecosystem had been manipulated for 18 years. Taken together the global change experiments altered the soil fungal communities and thereby highlight...

  4. Global change integrating factors: Tropical tropopause trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research proposes new criteria, shifts in the height and temperature of the tropical tropopause, as measures of global climate change. The search for signs of global warming in the temperature signal near the earth's surface is extremely difficult, largely because numerous factors contribute to surface temperature forcing with only a small signal-to-noise ratio relative to long-term effects. In the long term, no part of the atmosphere can be considered individually because the evolution will be a function of all states of all portions. A large surface greenhouse signal might ultimately be expected, but the analysis of surface temperature may not be particularly useful for early detection. What is suggested here is not an analysis of trends in the surface temperature field or any of its spatial averages, but rather an integrating factor or integrator, a single measure of global change that could be considered a test of significant change for the entire global system. Preferably, this global change integrator would vary slowly and would take into account many of the causes of climate change, with a relatively large signal-to-noise ratio. Such an integrator could be monitored, and abrupt or accelerated changes could serve as an early warning signal for policy makers and the public. Earlier work has suggested that temperature has much less short-term and small-scale noise in the lower stratosphere, and thus the global warming signal at that level might be more easily deconvoluted, because the cooling rate near the 200-mb level is almost constant with latitude. A study of the temperature signal at this pressure level might show a clearer trend due to increased levels of greenhouse gases, but it would yield information about the troposphere only by inference

  5. Priority Medicines for Maternal and Child Health: A Global Survey of National Essential Medicines Lists

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Suzanne; Yang, Annie; Bero, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a list of “priority medicines” for maternal and child health based on 1) the global burden of disease and 2) evidence of efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of these priority medicines on national essential medicines lists. Methods and Findings All essential medicines lists published since 1999 were selected from the WHO website collection. The most-up-to date list for each count...

  6. Global climate change and California's natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If projections of global climate models are correct, the natural ecosystems of California might undergo major changes during the next century. Such changes might include large economic losses in timber, fisheries, and recreation; major changes in our national and state parks and forests and in our nature preserves and conservation areas; increase in extinction of endangered species; loss of large areas of existing habitats; and development of new habitats whose location and areal extent can only be surmised. Many areas currently set aside for the conservation of specific ecosystems might no longer be suitable to them. Yet, in spite of the potential seriousness of these problems, which could dwarf all other environmental changes, California is at present in a poor situation to project what the effects of global change on its natural ecosystems might be

  7. Global change technology architecture trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. Bernard (Editor); Hypes, Warren D. (Editor); Wright, Robert L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture trade study conducted by the Langley Research Center to develop a representative mix of advanced space science instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission orbits to assist in the technology selection processes. The analyses concentrated on the highest priority classes of global change measurements which are the global climate changes. Issues addressed in the tradeoffs includes assessments of the economics of scale of large platforms with multiple instruments relative to smaller spacecraft; the influences of current and possible future launch vehicles on payload sizes, and on-orbit assembly decisions; and the respective roles of low-Earth versus geostationary Earth orbiting systems.

  8. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hady, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue. PMID:25685420

  9. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Hady

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

  10. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Hady

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the trop...

  11. Global climate change and California's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter records the deliberations of a group of California water experts about answers to these and other questions related to the impact of global warming on California's water resources. For the most part, those participating in the deliberations believe that the current state of scientific knowledge about global warming and its impacts on water resources is insufficient to permit hard distinctions to be made between short- and long-term changes. consequently, the ideas discussed here are based on a number of assumptions about specific climatic manifestations of global warming in California, as described earlier in this volume. Ultimately, however, effective public responses to forestall the potentially costly impacts of global climate change will probably depend upon the credible validation of the prospects of global climate warming. This chapter contains several sections. First, the likely effects of global warming on California's water resources and water-supply systems are identified and analyzed. Second, possible responses to mitigate these effects are enumerated and discussed. Third, the major policy issues are identified. A final section lists recommendations for action and major needs for information

  12. A global change policy for Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alaska Science and Engineering Advisory Committee attempted to formulate a suitable state policy for global climate change. The main elements and rationale for this policy are described, along with lessons learned from the Montreal protocol on global ozone and the policy itself. A discussion of issues relating to public presentation and reaction to a climate change policy indicates that elements necessary for a strategy presenting a case for global change needs to be credible, simple, and unambiguous, with risks clearly defined. Society and business must see themselves as stakeholders in the issue, and policies must be formulated accordingly. The Montreal protocol provides an example of success in advanced planning on a major global issue. The six main components of the Alaskan policy relate to fossil fuel production and marketing, the economic mix of energy production for in-state use, the efficiency and effectiveness of energy end-use services, the impact of climatic change on Alaska as a geographic unit, Alaska as a high-latitude site for climate change monitoring and analysis, and Alaskan participation with other countries in research and policy development. 7 refs

  13. Pedosphere and Its Effect on Global Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With development of modern geoscience, particularly development of environmental sciences, the con temporary soil science is undergoing great changes in both research contents and scope. Soil is not only a certain substance or a certain independent natural historical body but also a spheric layer with peculiar structure and functions in the earth system. From the viewpoint of the geo-biosphere system of earth, soil science does deal not only with the soil substances per se but also more importantly with the relationships among soil, the other spheres and the human survival environment in view of the “pedosphere”. This is the new orientation of soil science today and will affect profoundly the studies on the human survival environment and global changes. To throw more light on this subject, the present paper intends to address the conception of pedosphere and its role in global changes. Also addressed are series of environmental issues in China and their relations to the global changes. Moreover, research orientation and priorities are indicated, including exploitation and protection of the soil resources, soil fertility and sustainable agricultural development, con struction of the ecological environment, and the material cycling in pedosphere and its relation to global changes.

  14. Baseline scenarios of global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents three baseline scenarios of no policy action computed by the IMAGE2 model. These scenarios cover a wide range of coupled global change indicators, including: energy demand and consumption; food demand, consumption, and production; changes in land cover including changes in extent of agricultural land and forest; emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors; and climate change and its impacts on sea level rise, crop productivity and natural vegetation. Scenario information is available for the entire world with regional and grid scale detail, and covers from 1970 to 2100. (author)

  15. A dissenting view on global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming alarmists are vastly overstating the risks of climate change, often to further other agendas. The science of global warming simply does not support their claims of impending doom - as policy makers would be wise to note. There is scientific consensus on the existence of a benign natural greenhouse effect that keeps the Earth habitable by raising its average surface temperature by about 33 degrees C. Global warming alarmists, however, have falsely claimed that this consensus also extends to the belief that human activity is significantly enhancing this effect. This is simply untrue. Based on a wealth of new information, there is now strong and rapidly growing scientific dissent on the inevitability of catastrophic and even mildly detrimental anthropogenic climate change. This casts serious doubts on the need for binding international agreements to curtail emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion, or to limit conversion of tropical forests to agricultural uses in areas where increased food supply is a critical issue

  16. Biological diversity, ecology and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide climate change and loss of biodiversity are issues of global scope and importance that have recently become subjects of considerable public concern. Their perceived threat lies in their potential to disrupt ecological functioning and stability rather than from any direct threat they may pose to human health. Over the last 5 years, the international scientific community and the general public have become aware of the implications that atmospheric warming might have for world climate patterns and the resulting changes in the persistence, location, and composition of ecosystems worldwide. Human activities are currently responsible for a species loss rate that is the most extreme in millions of years, and an alarmingly increasing rate of transformation and fragmentation of natural landscapes. In the case of both global warming and reduction of biological diversity, man is affecting nature in an unprecedented fashion, on a global scale, and with unpredictable and frequently irreversible results

  17. Global Change Factors on Ecosystem Invasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Raj; Dukes, Jeffrey; Schuster, Michael J; Smith, Nick G.

    2013-01-01

    Current climate and human-induced changes are projected to alter many regimes of ecosystem functioning. It is projected that invasive species, nonnative species that can be of great detriment to an ecosystem, will benefit under these conditions. The Prairie Invasion and Climate Experiment (PRICLE) studies the effects of two global change factors – N addition and altered precipitation – on invasive species success and the traits that are selected for in a mixed-grass prairie ecosystem. PRICLE ...

  18. Global change: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuebbles, D J; Jain, A; Edmonds, J; Harvey, D; Hayhoe, K

    1999-01-01

    Only recently, within a few decades, have we realized that humanity significantly influences the global environment. In the early 1980s, atmospheric measurements confirmed basic concepts developed a decade earlier. These basic concepts showed that human activities were affecting the ozone layer. Later measurements and theoretical analyses have clearly connected observed changes in ozone to human-related increases of chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. As a result of prompt international policy agreements, the combined abundances of ozone-depleting compounds peaked in 1994 and ozone is already beginning a slow path to recovery. A much more difficult problem confronting humanity is the impact of increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases on global climate. The processes that connect greenhouse gas emissions to climate are very complex. This complexity has limited our ability to make a definitive projection of future climate change. Nevertheless, the range of projected climate change shows that global warming has the potential to severely impact human welfare and our planet as a whole. This paper evaluates the state of the scientific understanding of the global change issues, their potential impacts, and the relationships of scientific understanding to policy considerations. PMID:15093113

  19. The global land rush and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Climate change poses a serious global challenge in the face of rapidly increasing human demand for energy and food. A recent phenomenon in which climate change may play an important role is the acquisition of large tracts of land in the developing world by governments and corporations. In the target countries, where land is relatively inexpensive, the potential to increase crop yields is generally high and property rights are often poorly defined. By acquiring land, investors can realize large profits and countries can substantially alter the land and water resources under their control, thereby changing their outlook for meeting future demand. While the drivers, actors, and impacts involved with land deals have received substantial attention in the literature, we propose that climate change plays an important yet underappreciated role, both through its direct effects on agricultural production and through its influence on mitigative or adaptive policy decisions. Drawing from various literature sources as well as a new global database on reported land deals, we trace the evolution of the global land rush and highlight prominent examples in which the role of climate change is evident. We find that climate change—both historical and anticipated—interacts substantially with drivers of land acquisitions, having important implications for the resilience of communities in targeted areas. As a result of this synthesis, we ultimately contend that considerations of climate change should be integrated into future policy decisions relating to the large-scale land acquisitions.

  20. Global warming and climate change: control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aimed at finding causes of global warming and ways to bring it under control. Data based on scientific opinion as given by synthesis reports of news, articles, web sites, and books. global warming is the observed and projected increases in average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Burning fossil fuels is the main factor of pollution. As average temperature increases, habitats, species and people are threatened by drought, changes in rainfall, altered seasons, and more violent storms and floods. Indeed the life cycle of nuclear power results in relatively little pollution. Energy efficiency, solar, wind and other renewable fuels are other weapons against global warming . Human activity, primarily burning fossil fuels, is the major driving factor in global warming . Curtailing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by reducing use of oil, gasoline, coal and employment of alternate energy, sources are the tools for keeping global warming under control. global warming can be slowed and stopped, with practical actions thal yield a cleaner, healthier atmosphere

  1. Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need

  2. Attribution of Global Precipitation Change over the Past 1000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Wang, B.; Yim, S.

    2010-12-01

    Precipitation is essential to human life and sustainable civilization. Attribution of climate change of global precipitation is far more challenge than attributing temperature change. So far little has been known about the global precipitation change in the past. Using millennial simulations with a coupled climate model (ECHO-G), here we show that the global precipitation over the past millennium exhibits three major modes of variability. The largest portion of variability is associated with an internal mode which fluctuates irregularly and intermittently on multi-decadal time scale. More importantly, two salient forced modes that display distinct dynamic structures and origins are found, which together account for more variances than the internal mode. The first dominates the preanthropogenic change (pre-1850 AD) and is associated with solar-volcanic radiative variations. This natural forced mode shows a bicentennial oscillation superposed on a contrast between Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA). The enhanced (suppressed) precipitation during MWP (LIA) is coupled with a La Nina (El Nino) type global warming pattern. The second forced mode closely follows variation of greenhouse gas concentration and concentrates its variance in the industrial era (post-1850 AD). This anthropogenic mode is characterized by enhanced precipitation in western Pacific coupled with a central Pacific warming. The post-1850 trend in precipitation can be faithfully reconstructed by the two forced modes.

  3. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  4. International Business and Global Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and climate change policy. Embedded in relevant management literature, this book gives a concise treatment of developments in policy and business activity on global, regional and national levels, using examples and systematic data from a large number of international companies. The first part outlines the international climate policy landscape and voluntary initiatives taken by companies, both alone and together with others. The second part examines companies' strategies, covering innovation for climate change, as well as compensation via emissions trading and carbon offsetting. Written by well-known experts in the field, International Business and Global Climate Change illustrates how an environmental topic becomes strategically important in a mainstream sense, affecting corporate decision-making, business processes, products, reputation, advertising, communication, accounting and finance

  5. International Business and Global Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2008-11-15

    Climate change has become an important topic on the business agenda with strong pressure being placed on companies to respond and contribute to finding solutions to this urgent problem. This text provides a comprehensive analysis of international business responses to global climate change and climate change policy. Embedded in relevant management literature, this book gives a concise treatment of developments in policy and business activity on global, regional and national levels, using examples and systematic data from a large number of international companies. The first part outlines the international climate policy landscape and voluntary initiatives taken by companies, both alone and together with others. The second part examines companies' strategies, covering innovation for climate change, as well as compensation via emissions trading and carbon offsetting. Written by well-known experts in the field, International Business and Global Climate Change illustrates how an environmental topic becomes strategically important in a mainstream sense, affecting corporate decision-making, business processes, products, reputation, advertising, communication, accounting and finance.

  6. Changing Foundations for Global Business Systems Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    the operations configurations have been changing over time and affecting the overall business system. The paper identifies the key determinants and outcomes of this change. Moreover, it proposes how the design of operations configurations can be improved through the development of a distinct systemic approach......Companies are actively seeking new competitive advantages by changing the location and ownership of their manufacturing processes. This process results in increasing fragmentation and dispersion of global business systems of companies. The purpose of this paper is to identify how companies may...... improve the integration of such business systems. The paper draws on a case study of a Danish industrial equipment firm. The paper describes and analyzes the company’s operations network configurations, which lay at the foundations of the company’s global business system. It is demonstrated how...

  7. The changing global context of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-01

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments. PMID:10981904

  8. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative

  9. Global Climate Change and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdoot, Samantha; Pacheco, Susan E

    2015-11-01

    Rising global temperature is causing major physical, chemical, and ecological changes across the planet. There is wide consensus among scientific organizations and climatologists that these broad effects, known as climate change, are the result of contemporary human activity. Climate change poses threats to human health, safety, and security. Children are uniquely vulnerable to these threats. The effects of climate change on child health include physical and psychological sequelae of weather disasters, increased heat stress, decreased air quality, altered disease patterns of some climate-sensitive infections, and food, water, and nutrient insecurity in vulnerable regions. Prompt implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies will protect children against worsening of the problem and its associated health effects. This technical report reviews the nature of climate change and its associated child health effects and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health. PMID:26504134

  10. Energy and global climate change issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the policy questions associated with global warming and with the fact that such policies will lead to future differences in the use of energy sources. Also discussed are the causes and the evidence of the greenhouse effect, as well as the human activities that have contributed to the growth in the concentrations of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane and nitrous oxide, as well as to ozone changes. The responses of the Earth-atmosphere system to these increases in greenhouse gases are surface warming, increased water vapour, changes in the reflecting properties of ice-snow and alterations to the ecosystem. For calculating such climate changes, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has developed four scenarios for the future emissions of greenhouse gases and suggests that options for managing predicted climate change are likely to be combinations of slowing down as well as adapting to that change. (author). 1 ref., 10 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Changing recruitment capacity in global fish stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans. PMID:26668368

  12. Global climate change: Is global warming a health warning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainham, D.

    1999-12-01

    Consequences to the health of human populations of ignoring various signs that global climate change is a large and qualitatively distinct environmental health hazard are discussed. Evidence is cited to illustrate how even low ambient concentrations of air pollution can have deleterious and harmful impacts on human health, and a warning is issued about the dangers of conducting an unpredictable rather massive experiment with the earth's atmosphere. Opportunities for adaptation such as conservation of freshwater and agricultural land, combined with education, technological development and individual behavioral change, and drastic reduction of anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases to lessen the effects of impending climatic change have been much talked about, but action has been non-existent, or tentative at best. Part of the reason for the apparent lack of willingness to act is largely economic, aided by the many remaining uncertainties regarding the impact of climate change, especially in so far as human health is concerned. However, this author's view is that our limited understanding of the relationship among the growing list of atmospheric pollutants and their effect on the ecosystems on which we depend, is no reason not to take action until it becomes too late.

  13. Global change and climate-vegetation classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three phrases of the quantitative study of climate-vegetation classification and their characteristics are presented based on the review of advance in climate-vegetation interaction, a key issue of "global change and terrestrial ecosystems (GCTE)" which is the core project of International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP): (ⅰ) characterized by the correlation between natural vegetation types and climate; (ⅱ) characterized by climatic indices which have obviously been restricted to plant ecophysiology; (ⅲ) characterized by coupling both structure and function of vegetation. Thus, the prospective of climate-vegetation classification for global change study in China was proposed, especially the study coupling climate-vegetation classification models with atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) was emphasized.

  14. A Pioneer of Global Change Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ One summer's day in 1984, a meteorologist came all the way from the United States to Prof. Ye Duzheng, a CAS atmospheric scientist in Beijing, in the hope of establishing cooperative research into global climate change, a field unfamiliar to most scientists in the world at that time. His proposal immediately caught the interest of Ye, who was then president of the Chinese Meteorological Society and vice-president of CAS. Prof. Ye believed it to be an extremely important issue requiring sustained and collaborative attention. Already in his seventies, he found some young researchers to work with him in the field. Two decades later, global change is now recognized as a major science branch. As a pioneer of this branch, Prof. Ye was awarded the prestigious Prize of the World Meteorological Organization in 2003, and honored with China's National Supreme S&T Award in 2005.

  15. New ecology, global change, and forest politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecosystems constantly change. Some changes are caused by natural conditions that evolve at a very slow pace including climate change, species evolution and migration, and soil formation. Forests don't always respond to gradual changes in gradual ways, though gradual change may be hidden for years within the normal variation in the ecosystem. The industrial age has resulted in a rapid and continuing buildup of atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons which trap heat in the greenhouse effect. Industrial processes also emit oxides of nitrogen and sulfur that change atmospheric chemistry and alter the nutrient input into ecosystems. Natural forests face a hard time adjusting to a rate of climatic change that is 3 to 10 times faster than species can migrate and that increases the occurrence of major windstorms. In the forest ecosystem where trees are removed or destroyed under rapid climatic change, conditions may not return to their original state, even if we try to restore it. When the ecosystem changes faster than the bureaucracy of the management agency, a serious problem exists. New understandings of ecology and global change may force new ways of thinking in these situations

  16. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  17. Technologies for global change earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in the areas of space-based observations, data/information analysis, and spacecraft/operations for the studying of global changes are discussed. Research involving systems analysis, observation technologies, information technologies, and spacecraft technologies is examined. Consideration is given to cryogenic coolers, IR arrays, laser and submillimeter sensing, large array CCD, information visualization, design knowledge capture, optical communications, multiinstrument pointing, propulsion, space environmental effects, and platform thermal systems.

  18. Biological diversity, ecology, and global climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Jutro, P R

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide climate change and loss of biodiversity are issues of global scope and importance that have recently become subjects of considerable public concern. Unlike classical public health issues and many environmental issues, their perceived threat lies in their potential to disrupt ecological functioning and stability rather than from any direct threat that may pose to human health. Over the last 5 years, the international scientific community and the general public have become aware of th...

  19. Health effects of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies potential health problems that may arise from global climates changes caused by increasing green house gases and depletion in the ozone layer. The mankind is responsible for saving or destroying the environment. There are many forms which can pollute the environment like greenhouse activities. The greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane and ozone etc. cause pollutants in the environment. (A.B.)

  20. Global environmental change and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Buendía, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    The UC3M group of “Global environmental change and sustainable development: social trends and emerging policies” offers its experience on the following fields: • Sustainable Development. • Environmental Education. • Agenda 21. • Sustainable Cities and Sustainable Land Planning. • Environmental Impact Evaluation. • Sustainable Transport and Mobility. • Social Management and Saving Policies (energy, waste, water, noise). Within this framework, the work of this research g...

  1. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    OpenAIRE

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the ...

  2. AGRICULTURAL COMPETITIVENESS AND CHANGE UNDER GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Koo, Won W.

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Won W. Koo, Professor and Director of the Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, North Dakota State University, and Dr. G. Edward Schuh, Professor and Director of the Freeman Center for International Economic Policy, University of Minnesota, organized a conference, Agricultural Competitiveness and Change under Globalization, held October 11-12, 2004, at the Ramada Plaza Suites and Conference Center in Fargo, North Dakota. Speakers included Senators Byron Dorgan and Kent Conrad ...

  3. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves

  4. CHANGING ROLE OF EDUCATION WITH REFERENCE TO GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    KIRAN DAMMANI; MANISHA INDANI

    2012-01-01

    The present paper gives an insight on the role of education in future with special reference to global perspectives. The present era is known as a Digital Age, this era has drastically changed the methods, techniques and content of Education. Future classroom learning involves a great deal beyond the use of technology and digital media. Living in a digital world as we do, students certainly need to learn to use the tools that have become essential to life and work. Future Class-rooms may prov...

  5. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  6. Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, L.; Solomon, S. C.; Lastovicka, J.; Roble, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic increases of greenhouse gases warm the troposphere but have a cooling effect in the middle and upper atmosphere. The steady increase of CO2 is the dominant cause of upper atmosphere trends. Long-term changes of other radiatively active trace gases such as CH4, O3, and H2O, long-term changes of geomagnetic and solar activity, and other possible drivers also play a role. Observational and model studies have confirmed that in the past several decades, global cooling has occurred in the mesosphere and thermosphere; the cooling and contraction of the upper atmosphere has lowered the ionosphere, increased electron density in the lower ionosphere, but slightly decreased electron density in the upper ionosphere. Limited observations have suggested long-term changes in the occurrence rate of major stratospheric warming, mesosphere and lower thermosphere dynamics, wave activities and turbulence in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and occurrence of noctilucent clouds or polar mesospheric clouds. However, possible long-term changes of these parameters remain to be open questions due to lack of measurements. We will review recent progress in observations and simulations of global change in the upper atmosphere, and discuss future investigations with a focus on how measurements by commercial reusable suborbital vehicles can help resolve the open questions.

  7. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  8. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade

  9. Projected change in global fisheries revenues under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Cheung, William W. L.; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Sumaila, U. Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies highlight the winners and losers in fisheries under climate change based on shifts in biomass, species composition and potential catches. Understanding how climate change is likely to alter the fisheries revenues of maritime countries is a crucial next step towards the development of effective socio-economic policy and food sustainability strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Particularly, fish prices and cross-oceans connections through distant water fishing operations may largely modify the projected climate change impacts on fisheries revenues. However, these factors have not formally been considered in global studies. Here, using climate-living marine resources simulation models, we show that global fisheries revenues could drop by 35% more than the projected decrease in catches by the 2050 s under high CO2 emission scenarios. Regionally, the projected increases in fish catch in high latitudes may not translate into increases in revenues because of the increasing dominance of low value fish, and the decrease in catches by these countries’ vessels operating in more severely impacted distant waters. Also, we find that developing countries with high fisheries dependency are negatively impacted. Our results suggest the need to conduct full-fledged economic analyses of the potential economic effects of climate change on global marine fisheries. PMID:27600330

  10. Projected change in global fisheries revenues under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vicky W Y; Cheung, William W L; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Sumaila, U Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies highlight the winners and losers in fisheries under climate change based on shifts in biomass, species composition and potential catches. Understanding how climate change is likely to alter the fisheries revenues of maritime countries is a crucial next step towards the development of effective socio-economic policy and food sustainability strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Particularly, fish prices and cross-oceans connections through distant water fishing operations may largely modify the projected climate change impacts on fisheries revenues. However, these factors have not formally been considered in global studies. Here, using climate-living marine resources simulation models, we show that global fisheries revenues could drop by 35% more than the projected decrease in catches by the 2050 s under high CO2 emission scenarios. Regionally, the projected increases in fish catch in high latitudes may not translate into increases in revenues because of the increasing dominance of low value fish, and the decrease in catches by these countries' vessels operating in more severely impacted distant waters. Also, we find that developing countries with high fisheries dependency are negatively impacted. Our results suggest the need to conduct full-fledged economic analyses of the potential economic effects of climate change on global marine fisheries. PMID:27600330

  11. Predictive modeling of effects under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickert, R N; Tonella, G; Simonov, A; Krupa, S V

    1999-01-01

    The status of computer simulation models from around the world for evaluating the possible ecological, environmental, and societal consequences of global change is presented in this paper. In addition, a brief synopsis of the state of the science of these impacts is included. Issues considered include future changes in climate and patterns of land use for societal needs. Models discussed relate to vegetation (e.g. crop), soil, bio-geochemistry, water, and wildlife responses to conventional, forecasted changes in temperature and precipitation. Also described are models of these responses, alone and interactively, to increased CO(2), other air pollutants and UV-B radiation, as the state of the science allows. Further, models of land-use change are included. Additionally, global multiple sector models of environment, natural resources, human population dynamics, economics, energy, and political relations are reviewed for integrated impact assessment. To the extent available, information on computer software and hardware requirements is presented for the various models. The paper concludes with comments about using these technologies as they relate to ecological risk assessment for policy decision analysis. Such an effort is hampered by considerable uncertainties with the output of existing models, because of the uncertainties associated with input data and the definitions of their dose-response relationships. The concluding suggestions point the direction for new developments in modeling and analyses that are needed for the 21st century. PMID:15093114

  12. Global climate change and children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    There is broad scientific consensus that Earth's climate is warming rapidly and at an accelerating rate. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, are very likely (>90% probability) to be the main cause of this warming. Climate-sensitive changes in ecosystems are already being observed, and fundamental, potentially irreversible, ecological changes may occur in the coming decades. Conservative environmental estimates of the impact of climate changes that are already in process indicate that they will result in numerous health effects to children. The nature and extent of these changes will be greatly affected by actions taken or not taken now at the global level. Physicians have written on the projected effects of climate change on public health, but little has been written specifically on anticipated effects of climate change on children's health. Children represent a particularly vulnerable group that is likely to suffer disproportionately from both direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change. Pediatric health care professionals should understand these threats, anticipate their effects on children's health, and participate as children's advocates for strong mitigation and adaptation strategies now. Any solutions that address climate change must be developed within the context of overall sustainability (the use of resources by the current generation to meet current needs while ensuring that future generations will be able to meet their needs). Pediatric health care professionals can be leaders in a move away from a traditional focus on disease prevention to a broad, integrated focus on sustainability as synonymous with health. This policy statement is supported by a technical report that examines in some depth the nature of the problem of climate change, likely effects on children's health as a result of climate change, and the critical importance of responding promptly and aggressively to reduce activities that are contributing to

  13. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  14. Global Climate Change: Role of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Naqvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is seen as a major threat to the survival of many species, ecosystems and the sustainability of livestock production systems in many parts of the world. Green house gases (GHG are released in the atmosphere both by natural sources and anthropogenic (human related activities. An attempt has been made in this article to understand the contribution of ruminant livestock to climate change and to identify the mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emission in livestock. The GHG emissions from the agriculture sector account for about 25.5% of total global radiative forcing and over 60% of anthropogenic sources. Animal husbandry accounts for 18% of GHG emissions that cause global warming. Reducing the increase of GHG emissions from agriculture, especially livestock production should therefore be a top priority, because it could curb warming fairly rapidly. Among the GHGs, CH4 is considered to be the largest potential contributor to the global warming phenomenon. Ruminant livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane. Indian livestock system is a large contributor to GHGs and therefore also to the global warming phenomenon. Methane emission from enteric fermentation from Indian livestock ranged from 7.26 to 10.4 MT/year. In India more than 90% of the total methane emission from enteric fermentation is being contributed by the large ruminants (cattle and buffalo and rest from small ruminants and others. Generally CH4 reduction strategies can be grouped under two broad categories such as management and nutritional strategies. Although the reduction in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises if they are to find industry acceptability.

  15. Global Changes of the Water Cycle Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Walker, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate numerical simulations of the twentieth century climate, focusing on the changes in the intensity of the global water cycle. A new diagnostic of atmospheric water vapor cycling rate is developed and employed, that relies on constituent tracers predicted at the model time step. This diagnostic is compared to a simplified traditional calculation of cycling rate, based on monthly averages of precipitation and total water content. The mean sensitivity of both diagnostics to variations in climate forcing is comparable. However, the new diagnostic produces systematically larger values and more variability than the traditional average approach. Climate simulations were performed using SSTs of the early (1902-1921) and late (1979- 1998) twentieth century along with the appropriate C02 forcing. In general, the increase of global precipitation with the increases in SST that occurred between the early and late twentieth century is small. However, an increase of atmospheric temperature leads to a systematic increase in total precipitable water. As a result, the residence time of water in the atmosphere increased, indicating a reduction of the global cycling rate. This result was explored further using a number of 50-year climate simulations from different models forced with observed SST. The anomalies and trends in the cycling rate and hydrologic variables of different GCMs are remarkably similar. The global annual anomalies of precipitation show a significant upward trend related to the upward trend of surface temperature, during the latter half of the twentieth century. While this implies an increase in the hydrologic cycle intensity, a concomitant increase of total precipitable water again leads to a decrease in the calculated global cycling rate. An analysis of the land/sea differences shows that the simulated precipitation over land has a decreasing trend while the oceanic precipitation has an upward trend consistent with previous studies and the

  16. Somali Jet Changes under the Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Meijing; FAN Ke; WANG Huijun

    2008-01-01

    Somali Jet changes will influence the variability of Asian monsoon and climate. How would Somali Jet changes respond to the global warming in the future climate? To address this question, we first evaluate the ability of IPCC-AR4 climate models and perform the 20th century climate in coupled models (20C3M) experiments to reproduce the observational features of the low level Somali Jet in JJA (June-July-August) for the period 1976-1999. Then, we project and discuss the changes of Somali Jet under the climate change of Scenario A2 (SRESA2) for the period 2005-2099. The results show that 18 IPCC-AR4 models have performed better in describing the climatological features of Somali Jet in the present climate simulations. Analysis of Somali Jet intensity changes from the multi-model ensemble results for the period 2005-2099 shows a weakened Somali Jet in the early 21st century (2010-2040), the strongest Somali Jet in the middle 21st century (2050-2060), as well as the weakest Somali Jet at the end of the 21st century (2070-2090). Compared with the period 1976-1999, the intensity of Somali Jet is weakening in general, and it becomes the weakest at the end of the 21st century. The results also suggest that the relationship between the intensity of Somali Jet in JJA and the increment of global mean surface air temperature is nonlinear, which is reflected differently among the models, suggesting the uncertainty of the IPCC-AR4 models. Considering the important role of Somali Jet in the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon and climate of China, the variability of Somali Jet and its evolvement under the present climate or future climate changes need to be further clarified.

  17. Assessing and managing freshwater ecosystems vulnerable to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Drakare, Stina; McKie, Brendan G.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are important for global biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services. There is consensus in the scientific literature that freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change, which may trigger irreversible regime shifts upon which biodiversity and ecosystem services may be lost. There are profound uncertainties regarding the management and assessment of the vulnerability of freshwater ecosystems to environmental change. Quantitative approaches are needed to reduce this uncertainty. We describe available statistical and modeling approaches along with case studies that demonstrate how resilience theory can be applied to aid decision-making in natural resources management. We highlight especially how long-term monitoring efforts combined with ecological theory can provide a novel nexus between ecological impact assessment and management, and the quantification of systemic vulnerability and thus the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

  18. Dynamics of energy technologies and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological choices largely determine the long-term characteristics of industrial society, including impacts on the natural environment. However, the treatment of technology in existing models that are used to project economic and environmental futures remains highly stylized. Based on work over two decades at IIASA, we present a useful typology for technology analysis and discuss methods that can be used to analyze the impact of technological changes on the global environment, especially global warming. Our focus is energy technologies, the main source of many atmospheric environmental problems. We show that much improved treatment of technology is possible with a combination of historical analysis and new modeling techniques. In the historical record, we identify characteristic 'learning rates' that allow simple quantified characterization of the improvement in cost and performance due to cumulative experience and investments. We also identify patterns, processes and timescales that typify the diffusion of new technologies in competitive markets. Technologies that are long-lived and are components of interlocking networks typically require the longest time to diffuse and co-evolve with other technologies in the network; such network effects yield high barriers to entry even for superior competitors. These simple observations allow three improvements to modeling of technological change and its consequences for global environmental change. One is that the replacement of long-lived infrastructures over time has also replaced the fuels that power the economy to yield progressively more energy per unit of carbon pollution - from coal to oil to gas. Such replacement has 'decarbonized' the global primary energy supply 0.3% per year. In contrast, most baseline projections for emissions of carbon, the chief cause of global warming, ignore this robust historical trend and show Iittle or no decarbonization. A second improvement is that by incorporating learning curves and

  19. Cave temperatures and global climatic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badino Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical processes that establish the cave temperature are briefly discussed, showing that cave temperature is generally strictly connected with the external climate. The Global Climatic changes can then influence also the underground climate. It is shown that the mountain thermal inertia causes a delay between the two climates and then a thermal unbalance between the cave and the atmosphere. As a consequence there is a net energy flux from the atmosphere to the mountain, larger than the geothermal one, which is deposited mainly in the epidermal parts of caves.

  20. Fostering Civic Science Literacy with NASA's Global Climate Change Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, L. F.; Jackson, R.; Greene, W. M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change science is a complicated subject that can be both confusing and intimidating to non-scientists. Nevertheless, fostering public understanding of the science and the evidence for an anthropogenic cause is essential to motivating behavioral change. In response to the need for engaging and accessible materials in the area of climate science, NASA launched the Global Climate Change website http://climate.nasa.gov/ in 2008. The site makes extensive use of interactive media, immersive visualizations, ground-based and remote images, narrated and time lapse videos, time series animations, and real-time scientific data, plus maps and user friendly graphics that make the scientific content both accessible and engaging to the public. NASA's Global Climate Change Website has become a top search result for "climate change" for all major search engines and has won two consecutive Webby Awards for Best Science Website. The website's interactive and visually exciting style enhances public engagement, scientific curiosity and interest in Earth and climate science across diverse populations, thus promoting broader civic science literacy.

  1. Global coccolithophore diversity: Drivers and future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colleen J.; Vogt, Meike; Gruber, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We use the MAREDAT global compilation of coccolithophore species distribution and combine them with observations of climatological environmental conditions to determine the global-scale distribution of coccolithophore species diversity, its underlying drivers, and potential future changes. To this end, we developed a feed-forward neural network, which predicts 78% of the observed variance in coccolithophore diversity from environmental input variables (temperature, PAR, nitrate, silicic acid, mixed layer depth, excess phosphate (P∗) and chlorophyll). Light and temperature are the strongest predictors of coccolithophore diversity. Coccolithophore diversity is highest in the low latitudes, where coccolithophores are a relatively dominant component of the total phytoplankton community. Particularly high diversity is predicted in the western equatorial Pacific and the southern Indian Ocean, with additional peaks at approximately 30°N and 30°S. The global, zonal mean pattern is dominated by the Pacific Ocean, which shows a clear latitudinal gradient with diversity peaking at the equator, whereas in the Atlantic Ocean diversity is highest in the subtropics. We find a unimodal relationship between coccolithophore diversity and biomass, as has previously been observed for total phytoplankton assemblages. In contrast, diversity shows a negative relationship with total chlorophyll. Applying our diversity model to projections from the CMIP5 climate models, we project an increase in the diversity of coccolithophore assemblages by the end of this century.

  2. Global change and its implications for Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1980s versions of climate models, the Arctic and Antarctic regions were considered crucial in understanding and predicting climate change, and there is also agreement that climate change will have large impacts in the Arctic since the climate signal is amplified at high latitudes. The earlier climate change scenarios are re-examined for the case of Alaska, in light of more recent information. Observational evidence in the Arctic over the last few decades agrees well with predictions of a current global climate model, including temperature increase over land masses of up to 1 degree C per decade in winter, with smaller changes in summer. Other indirect evidence of a warmer Arctic climate includes receding glaciers and warmer permafrost temperatures. It is predicted that after the CO2 content of the atmosphere doubles, winter temperatures in Alaska will increase 6-8 degree C. In much of the interior, mean annual temperature will rise above freezing, leading to disappearance of discontinuous permafrost. The growing season would be lengthened by about three weeks, vegetation types and the abundance and distribution of mammals will change, and there will be less sea ice along coastal areas. Impacts on human activities will be both adverse and favorable; for example, in the petroleum industry, maintenance of pipelines and roads will be more difficult but offshore exploration and marine supply operations will be made easier. 6 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Dawn of astronomy and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tsuko

    2007-12-01

    The author proposes that the birth of astronomy in ancient civilizations, which took place nearly simultaneously (4000 - 5000 years ago) around the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, and the Yellow River, was caused by the global climate change (cooling and drying) that started about 5000 years ago after the hypsithermal (high-temperature) period. It is also pointed out that a few names of Twenty-Four Qi's appearing in old Chinese calendars are remnants of the calm climate in the hypsithermal period. It is discussed that numerous meteorological records seen in divination inscriptions on bones and tortoise-shells excavated at the capital of the ancient Yin (Shang) dynasty suggest occurrence of the climatic cooling and drying at that time and this change triggered spawning the early Chinese astronomy.

  4. Stable isotopes in global change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a globally changing world the composition of the atmosphere, in particular the abundance of the trace gases plays an important role for life on earth as a whole. All organic matter is synthesized from water and CO2, which contributes only 0.037 % to the gas volume of the atmosphere. This quantity, while seemingly small, is at the heart of our concern because the earth has seen an unprecedented rise of CO2 in the last 200 years. An important property of CO2 and other trace gases in the atmosphere is the ability to absorb infrared photons and thus retain some of the heat of the sun scattered at the surface of the earth that would otherwise be lost to open space. As a consequence the earth has become warmer in the past. For mankind and life on earth as a whole the question is, how much more the average global temperature can increase before the consequences my become unbearable. High precision concentration measurements of CO2 were started in 1958 by C.D. Keeling in Hawaii and shortly after the South Pole. These measurements have proven to be an invaluable tool, almost like an earth clinical thermometer, by tightly monitoring the continuous increase and inter- and intraannual variability of CO2 as well as the phase difference of these properties between the hemispheres. Other trace gases like CH4 and N2O have since proven their importance as greenhouse gases or in connection with the ozone chemistry and today are closely observed in a large number of stations around the globe. Because of the small differences from year to year or inside functioning ecosystems quantification of the trace gases must be made with utmost precision, stretching the physical limits of existing analytical instrumentation. CO2 in the atmosphere is only a small fraction of the global CO2 (most of it is dissolved in the world oceans) and carbon in CO2 is only a small fraction of the global carbon cycle. In order to quantitatively understand the processes involved in the rise (and possible

  5. The Sea Level Fingerprints of Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Hay, C.; Kopp, R. E., III; Morrow, E.

    2014-12-01

    It may be difficult to persuade those living in northern Europe that the sea level changes that their coastal communities face depends less on the total melting of polar ice sheets and glaciers than on the individual contributions to this total. In particular, melting of a specific ice sheet or mountain glacier drives deformational, gravitational and rotational perturbations to the Earth system that are manifest in a unique geometry, or fingerprint, of global sea level change. For example, melting from the Greenland Ice Sheet equivalent to 1 mm/yr of global mean sea level (GMSL) rise will lead to sea level rise of ~0 mm/yr in Dublin, ~0.2 mm/yr in Amsterdam, ~0.4 mm/yr in Boston and ~1.2 mm/yr in Cape Town. In contrast, if the same volume of ice melted from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, all of the above sites would experience a sea level rise in the range 1.1-1.2 mm/yr. These fingerprints of modern ice melting, together with ocean thermal expansion and dynamic effects, and the ongoing signal from glacial isostatic adjustment in response to the last ice age, combine to produce a sea level field with significant geographic variability. In this talk I will highlight an analysis of global tide gauge records that takes full advantage of this variability to estimate both GMSL and the sources of meltwater over the last century, and to project GMSL to the end of the current century.

  6. NASA NDATC Global Climate Change Education Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B.; Wood, E.; Meyer, D.; Maynard, N.; Pandya, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    This project aligns with NASA’s Strategic Goal 3A - “Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs and focuses on funding from the GCCE Funding Category 2: Strengthen the Teaching and Learning About Global Climate Change Within Formal Education Systems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (2007) those communities with the least amount of resources will be most vulnerable, and least likely to adapt to the impacts brought on by a changing climate. Further, the level of vulnerability of these communities is directly correlated with their ability to implement short, medium and long range mitigation measures. The North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges (NDATC) has established a climate change education initiative among its six member Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs). The goal of this project is to enhance the TCUs capacity to educate their constituents on the science of climate change and mitigation strategies specifically as they apply to Indian Country. NDATC is comprised of six American Indian tribally chartered colleges (TCUs) which include: Cankdeska Cikana Community College, serving the Spirit Lake Dakota Nation; Fort Berthold Community College, serving the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara Nation; Sitting Bull College, serving the Hunkpapa Lakota and Dakota Nation; Turtle Mountain Community College, serving the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa; Sisseton Wahpeton College serving the Sisseton and Wahpeton Dakota Nation, and United Tribes Technical College, serving over 70 Tribal groups from across the United States. The purpose of this project is to (1) increase awareness of climate change and its potential impacts in Indian Country through education for students, faculty and presidents of the TCUs as well as Tribal leadership; (2) increase the capacity of TCUs to respond to this global threat on behalf of tribal people; (3) develop climate change mitigation strategies relevant to Indian

  7. Global Environmental Change: An integrated modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major global environmental problems are dealt with: climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion (and their mutual interactions), briefly surveyed in part 1. In Part 2 a brief description of the integrated modelling framework IMAGE 1.6 is given. Some specific parts of the model are described in more detail in other Chapters, e.g. the carbon cycle model, the atmospheric chemistry model, the halocarbon model, and the UV-B impact model. In Part 3 an uncertainty analysis of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion is presented (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 briefly reviews the social and economic uncertainties implied by future greenhouse gas emissions. Chapters 6 and 7 describe a model and sensitivity analysis pertaining to the scientific uncertainties and/or lacunae in the sources and sinks of methane and carbon dioxide, and their biogeochemical feedback processes. Chapter 8 presents an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the carbon cycle model, the halocarbon model, and the IMAGE model 1.6 as a whole. Part 4 presents the risk assessment methodology as applied to the problems of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion more specifically. In Chapter 10, this methodology is used as a means with which to asses current ozone policy and a wide range of halocarbon policies. Chapter 11 presents and evaluates the simulated globally-averaged temperature and sea level rise (indicators) for the IPCC-1990 and 1992 scenarios, concluding with a Low Risk scenario, which would meet the climate targets. Chapter 12 discusses the impact of sea level rise on the frequency of the Dutch coastal defence system (indicator) for the IPCC-1990 scenarios. Chapter 13 presents projections of mortality rates due to stratospheric ozone depletion based on model simulations employing the UV-B chain model for a number of halocarbon policies. Chapter 14 presents an approach for allocating future emissions of CO2 among regions. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Malaysia's contributions towards global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns about Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and global climate change were voiced by the scientific community as far back as the International Geophysical year in 1957 when climate changes scenarios and impacts were analysed. More recently, the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1992, renewing a global acknowledgement and commitment towards curbing GHG emissions. Little progress was made until the adoption of Kyoto Protocol in December 1997, over 5 years later. Basically, developed countries would not commit to strong measures if there were no global effort (i. e. corresponding efforts by developing countries) while developing countries are waiting for developed countries to show concrete results first. Since 1950, developed countries cumulatively produced more than 80% of worldwide GHG emissions. Between 1950 and 1990, North America alone contributed 40 billion tons of carbon while Western and Eastern Europe contributed 57 billion tons. Developing countries produced only 24 billion tons of carbon emissions during the same period. At present, per capita emission in developed countries are also about ten times higher than those of developing countries. This imbalance has caused most developing countries to adopt a wait till others do it stance and justifiably so. Nonetheless, curbing GHG emissions should be a larger community effort (which includes business and the public) and not just the efforts of Governments and officials. Thus, the deciding factors should make more business or economic sense. It is likely that business and the general public would listen and contribute positively if they are made aware of potential cost savings and international competitiveness to be derived from these efforts. During the current economic slowdown, especially in East Asia, it makes business sense to defer the capital investment in new electricity generating capacity and related energy supply infrastructure. Pusat Tenaga Malaysia

  9. Global Sea Level Change and Thermal Contribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; ZHANG Jianli; DU Ling; LI Peiliang; LI Lei

    2009-01-01

    The global long-term sea level trend is obtained from the analysis of tide gauge data and TOPEX/Poseidon data. The linear trend of global mean sea level is highly non-umiform spatially, with an average rate of 2.2 mm year-1 in T/P sea-level rise from October 1992 to September 2002. Sea level change duc to temperature vanation (the thermosteric sea level) is discussed. The results are compared with TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data in the same temporal span at different spatial scales. It is indicated that the ther-mal effect accounts for 86% and 73% of the observed seasonal variability in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. The TOPEX/Poseidon observed sea level lags behind the TSI, by 2 months in the zonal band of 40°-60° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Systematic differences of about 1-2cm between TOPEX/Poseidon observations and thermosteric sea level data are obtained. The potential causes for these differences include water exchange among the atmosphere, land, and oceans, and some pos-sible deviations in thermosteric contribution estimates and geophysical corrections to the TOPEX/Poseidon data.

  10. White House Conference on Global Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    President Clinton has directed the White House office on Environmental Policy to coordinate an interagency process to develop a plan to fulfill the commitment he made in his Earth Day address on April 21, 1993. This plan will become the cornerstone of the Climate Change Plan that will be completed shortly after the Rio Accord enters into force. The Office on Environmental Policy established the Interagency Climate Change Mitigation Group to draw on the expertise of federal agencies including the National Economic Council; the Council of Economic Advisors; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of Management and Budget; the National Security Council; the Domestic Policy Council; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, Commerce, and State. Working groups have been established to examine six key policy areas: energy demand, energy supply, joint implementation, methane and other gases, sinks, and transportation. The purpose of the White House Conference on Global Climate Change was to ``tap the real-world experiences`` of diverse participants and seek ideas and information for meeting the President`s goals. During the opening session, senior administration officials defined the challenge ahead and encouraged open and frank conversation about the best possible ways to meet it.

  11. National action to mitigate global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 170 participants from 60 countries met for three days in Copenhagen from 7 to 9 June 1994 to discuss howe the aims of the United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change can be translated into practical action. The Conference was organised by the UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE), with financial support from the Danish International Development Agency (Danida), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. The main objective of the conference was to identify common approaches to national mitigation analysis for countries to use in meeting their commitments under the FCCC, and in setting priorities for national actions. Although addressing a broader theme, the conference marked the completion and publication of the second phase on UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study. (au)

  12. The Changing Global Context of Virtual Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Ejiwale

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technological revolution occurring in today’s market place has made it possible for many companies to be innovative about the way and where work is done. To get the job done, due to digital revolution, companies have turned to virtual workforce to harness the benefits of connectivity and effective information sharing among stakeholders to get the job done. More important, the success of coordinating work among a virtual workforce for profitability in a rapidly changing global environment depends on “effective indirect communication” between the leadership and the virtual workforce. This article will address the importance of effective communication as a necessary tool for the success of e-leadership, productivity improvement in virtual work environment.

  13. Tectonic Movement and Global Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuexiang; Chen Dianyou

    2000-01-01

    Glaciation between northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere were synchronous, the ice age occurred not in high but in low value of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. Such facts went against the precession principle of the astronomical theory of ice age. The inhomogeneous distribution of climate consisted with the inhomogeneous distribution of ocean and continent. The north/south antisymmetry may be attributed to southward deviation of the thermal center and northward deviation of the mass center within the mantle demonstrated by seismic tomography. The core - mantle angular momentum makes rotational energy into thermal energy and mantle plumes erupt in the ocean bottom. The earth's deformation by tidal force makes the eruption of mantle plumes strong. They are the reason that glaciation between the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere are synchronous and the ice age occurred in low value of the eccentricity of the earth' s orbit. The tectonic movement is playing a most important part in global climate change.

  14. Global precipitations and climate change. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbois, M. (ed.) (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique); Desalmand, F. (ed.) (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique)

    1994-01-01

    The workshop reviewed the present status of knowledge concerning the past and present evolution of the distribution of precipitations at global scale, related to climate evolution at different time scales. This review was intended to assess the availability and quality of data which could help, through validation and initialization of model studies, to improve our understanding of the processes determining these precipitation changes. On another hand, the modelling specialists presented their actual use of precipitation data. Exchanges of views between the modelling and observing communities were thus made possible, leading to a set of recommendations for future studies. Sessions were then devoted to specific themes: (1) Paleoclimatology, (2) data collection, history and statistics, programmes, (3) methodologies and accuracy of large scale estimation of precipitation from conventional data, (4) estimation of precipitation from satellite data, (5) modelling studies. (orig.)

  15. Global precipitations and climate change. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop reviewed the present status of knowledge concerning the past and present evolution of the distribution of precipitations at global scale, related to climate evolution at different time scales. This review was intended to assess the availability and quality of data which could help, through validation and initialization of model studies, to improve our understanding of the processes determining these precipitation changes. On another hand, the modelling specialists presented their actual use of precipitation data. Exchanges of views between the modelling and observing communities were thus made possible, leading to a set of recommendations for future studies. Sessions were then devoted to specific themes: 1) Paleoclimatology, 2) data collection, history and statistics, programmes, 3) methodologies and accuracy of large scale estimation of precipitation from conventional data, 4) estimation of precipitation from satellite data, 5) modelling studies. (orig.)

  16. Global change and marine communities: Alien species and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic influences on the biosphere since the advent of the industrial age are increasingly causing global changes. Climatic change and the rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are ranking high in scientific and public agendas, and other components of global change are also frequently addressed, among which are the introductions of non indigenous species (NIS) in biogeographic regions well separated from the donor region, often followed by spectacular invasions. In the marine environment, both climatic change and spread of alien species have been studied extensively; this review is aimed at examining the main responses of ecosystems to climatic change, taking into account the increasing importance of biological invasions. Some general principles on NIS introductions in the marine environment are recalled, such as the importance of propagule pressure and of development stages during the time course of an invasion. Climatic change is known to affect many ecological properties; it interacts also with NIS in many possible ways. Direct (proximate) effects on individuals and populations of altered physical-chemical conditions are distinguished from indirect effects on emergent properties (species distribution, diversity, and production). Climatically driven changes may affect both local dispersal mechanisms, due to the alteration of current patterns, and competitive interactions between NIS and native species, due to the onset of new thermal optima and/or different carbonate chemistry. As well as latitudinal range expansions of species correlated with changing temperature conditions, and effects on species richness and the correlated extinction of native species, some invasions may provoke multiple effects which involve overall ecosystem functioning (material flow between trophic groups, primary production, relative extent of organic material decomposition, extent of benthic-pelagic coupling). Some examples are given, including a special

  17. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land

  18. Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Antipas T. S. Massawe

    2012-01-01

    Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

  19. The greenhouse effect and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ongoing increase in the concentration of infrared-absorbing gases in the atmosphere is already causing and will continue to cause a growing unbalance in the radiation budget of the earth, and consequent warming of the lower atmosphere and earth surface. This climate phenomenon is the manifestation of the greenhouse or blanketing effect of absorbing gases (also known as ''greenhouse gases'') in the earth atmosphere. The main chemical species responsible for the build-up of the greenhouse effect are carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or freons. Despite new regulatory efforts made by governments to slow down the emission of these gases, the combined atmospheric burden could be equivalent to doubling the pre-industrial concentration of carbon dioxide (2xCO2) by the middle of next century. The global warming of the earth surface would eventually reach about 4 deg. C if the 2xCO2 concentration then was maintained constant for a long period. As it is, the transient response of climate to an increasing greenhouse effect is delayed by 50 to 100 years. For this reason, we observe now a much smaller climate warming than would occur for climate equilibrium with the present atmospheric composition, i.e. 125% the pre-industrial concentration of CO2. Impacts of this phenomenon will range from disturbances of the existing hydrological regime of the planet to rise of the global mean sea-level. A warmer atmosphere means more rain but also faster evaporation: consequences in terms of the availability of water resources are unclear at temperate and high latitudes, but an aggravation of aridity in sub-tropical latitudes is probable. Sea-level rise may reach 50 cm by 2100. In general, the rate of climate warming when the climate system starts responding to the greenhouse effect could be 0.3 deg. C per decade, far exceeding the ability of natural ecosystems to adapt effectively to the change. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  20. Trends and responses to global change of China's arid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixi YANG

    2009-01-01

    Ⅰ analyzed and elaborated the trends in and responses to global change in arid regions of China, from the perspective of nine variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation, river runoff, melting glaciers, water level of lakes, wind power and evaporation, vegetation, oases, and desertification. The climate and hydrology data Ⅰ citedrepresent many years of observations. Ⅰ conclude that, since the 1980s, the climate in arid regions of China has clearly changed with rising temperatures and precipitation in most areas. Wind power and the number of galestorm days have continuously decreased, which resulted in an improvement of humid conditions and increases in river discharge and water levels of lakes. Simultaneously, vegetation also has improved and the process of deserti-fication has essentially been arrested. Although there are some unfavorable developments, such as decreased river flows or flow interruptions and downstream oases have suffered from degradation, these incidental cases should not distract our attention from the generally favorable trends during the middle and late 20th century. These discordant phenomena are not consequences of climate change but rather of unsuitable human activities. Despitea substantial increase in precipitation, the level of the original precipitation was so small that any increase in precipitation was still small. As a result, none of the fundamental conditions such as a scarcity of water resources and precipitation nor the landscape of drought-ridden deserts in the arid regions will change. The vulnerability of the eco-environmental system in the arid regions will not change fundamentally either in the near future.

  1. Environmental health implications of global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

  2. Global change and the groundwater management challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Steven M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-05-01

    With rivers in critical regions already exploited to capacity throughout the world and groundwater overdraft as well as large-scale contamination occurring in many areas, we have entered an era in which multiple simultaneous stresses will drive water management. Increasingly, groundwater resources are taking a more prominent role in providing freshwater supplies. We discuss the competing fresh groundwater needs for human consumption, food production, energy, and the environment, as well as physical hazards, and conflicts due to transboundary overexploitation. During the past 50 years, groundwater management modeling has focused on combining simulation with optimization methods to inspect important problems ranging from contaminant remediation to agricultural irrigation management. The compound challenges now faced by water planners require a new generation of aquifer management models that address the broad impacts of global change on aquifer storage and depletion trajectory management, land subsidence, groundwater-dependent ecosystems, seawater intrusion, anthropogenic and geogenic contamination, supply vulnerability, and long-term sustainability. The scope of research efforts is only beginning to address complex interactions using multiagent system models that are not readily formulated as optimization problems and that consider a suite of human behavioral responses.

  3. Educational Marketing: An Essential Tool for Managing Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimun, Bonnie

    This paper focuses on the changes affecting the management, leadership, and effectiveness of community colleges. In order to create a comprehensive plan that avoids complacency and demonstrates a new vision for administering higher education, institutions must develop an entrepreneurial spirit in its mission, research the marketplace, and manage…

  4. Managing Labor Market Changes: Essential Skills for Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…

  5. Priority medicines for maternal and child health: a global survey of national essential medicines lists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Hill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In April 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO published a list of "priority medicines" for maternal and child health based on 1 the global burden of disease and 2 evidence of efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of these priority medicines on national essential medicines lists. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All essential medicines lists published since 1999 were selected from the WHO website collection. The most-up-to date list for each country was then selected, resulting in 89 unique country lists. Each list was evaluated for inclusion of medicines (chemical entity, concentration, and dosage form on the Priority Medicines List. There was global variation in the listing of the Priority Medicines. The most frequently listed medicine was paracetamol, on 94% (84/89 of lists. Sodium chloride, gentamicin and oral rehydration solution were on 93% (83/89 of lists. The least frequently listed medicine was the children's antimalarial rectal artesunate, on 8% of lists (7/89; artesunate injection was on 16% (14/89 of lists. Pediatric artemisinin combination therapy, as dispersible tablets or flexible oral solid dosage form, appeared on 36% (32/89 of lists. Procaine benzylpenicillin, for treatment of pediatric pneumonia and neonatal sepsis, was on 50% (45/89 of the lists. Zinc, for treatment of diarrhoea in children, was included on only 15% (13/89 of lists. For prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage in women, oxytocin was more prevalent on the lists than misoprostol; they were included on 55 (62% and 31 (35% of lists, respectively. Cefixime, for treatment of uncomplicated anogenital gonococcal infection in woman was on 26% (23/89 of lists. Magnesium sulfate injection for treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia was on 50% (45/89 of the lists. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that countries need to urgently amend their lists to provide all priority medicines as part of the efforts to

  6. Science priorities for the human dimensions of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: defining research needs; understanding land use change; improving policy analysis -- research on the decision-making process; designing policy instruments and institutions to address energy-related environmental problems; assessing impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation to global changes; and understanding population dynamics and global change.

  7. Effect of global change on orchid diversity: A metaanalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Traxmandlová, Iva; Kindlmann, Pavel

    Volume 1. 1. Brno: Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2015 - (Urban, O.; Klem, K.), s. 176-185 ISBN 978-80-87902-14-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : ecosystems * climate change * orchid diversity * metaanalysis study * global change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Climate change and global crop yield: impacts, uncertainties and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Deryng, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    As global mean temperature continues to rise steadily, agricultural systems are projected to face unprecedented challenges to cope with climate change. However, understanding of climate change impacts on global crop yield, and of farmers’ adaptive capacity, remains incomplete as previous global assessments: (1) inadequately evaluated the role of extreme weather events; (2) focused on a small subset of the full range of climate change predictions; (3) overlooked uncertainties related to the ch...

  9. Regional to global changes in drought and implications for future changes under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Kam, J.

    2012-12-01

    Drought can have large impacts on multiple sectors, including agriculture, water resources, ecosystems, transport, industry and tourism. In extreme cases, regional drought can lead to food insecurity and famine, and in intensive agricultural regions, extend to global economic impacts in a connected world. Recent droughts globally have been severe and costly but whether they are becoming more frequent and severe, and the attribution of this, is a key question. Observational evidence at large scales, such as satellite remote sensing are often subject to short-term records and inhomogeneities, and ground based data are sparse in many regions. Reliance on model output is also subject to error and simplifications in the model physics that can, for example, amplify the impact of global warming on drought. This presentation will show the observational and model evidence for changes in drought, with a focus on the interplay between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand and its impact on the terrestrial water cycle and drought. We discuss the fidelity of climate models to reproduce our best estimates of drought variability and its drivers historically, and the implications of this on uncertainties in future projections of drought from CMIP5 models, and how this has changed since CMIP3.

  10. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth's atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO2 emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage

  11. Global climate change: Implications, challenges, and mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents a perspective of the potential problem of global climate change induced by human activity. The editors have presented viewpoints of experts (advocates and skeptics) representing the issues of climate change. Possible results from long-term global change discussed in this book include mass migrations of plants and animals; changes in crop yields; flood and drought; and economic, political, and cultural changes. The text contains 20 chapters on the impact of global climate change and 10 chapters on the mitigation of effects and policy development

  12. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R.

    2009-12-01

    Adaptation measures improve our ability to cope with or avoid harmful climate impacts and take advantage of beneficial ones, now and as climate varies and changes. Adaptation and mitigation are necessary elements of an effective response to climate change. Adaptation options also have the potential to moderate harmful impacts of current and future climate variability and change. The Global Climate Change Impacts Report identifies examples of adaptation-related actions currently being pursued in various sectors and regions to address climate change, as well as other environmental problems that could be exacerbated by climate change such as urban air pollution and heat waves. Some adaptation options that are currently being pursued in various regions and sectors to deal with climate change and/or other environmental issues are identified in this report. A range of adaptation responses can be employed to reduce risks through redesign or relocation of infrastructure, sustainability of ecosystem services, increased redundancy of critical social services, and operational improvements. Adapting to climate change is an evolutionary process and requires both analytic and deliberative decision support. Many of the climate change impacts described in the report have economic consequences. A significant part of these consequences flow through public and private insurance markets, which essentially aggregate and distribute society's risk. However, in most cases, there is currently insufficient robust information to evaluate the practicality, efficiency, effectiveness, costs, or benefits of adaptation measures, highlighting a need for research. Adaptation planning efforts such as that being conducted in New York City and the Colorado River will be described. Climate will be continually changing, moving at a relatively rapid rate, outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. The precise amounts and timing of these changes will not be known with certainty. The

  13. International Terrestrial Reference Frame for Global Change Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Altamimi, Zuheir; Chin, T. Mike; Gross, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Most geodetic and many geophysical quantities measured and used depend on the definition, realization and stability of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). These include geocentric site coordinates and motions, satellite orbits, geocenter motion, Earth orientation and its variations, mean sea level rise, and polar ice mass changes. In some cases, the dependences may be implicit and not obvious. As we are approaching the stage of millimeter-precision geodesy and near real time global change monitoring with a multitude of space and time scales, it is critical to have a modern and stable infrastructure for the maintenance and improvement of the ITRF. It is also essential to improve the concepts, understanding, methodology, and products of ITRF to be consistent with the higher precision and ever-changing nature of the Earth. With these in mind and from the viewpoint of users interested in studying surface mass load, we will review and discuss certain limitations and difficulties of the current ITRF status and approach, including the sparseness of data, linear motion model, and multi-yearly updates. New perspectives on reference frame research and progress on our new experimental approach to a weekly ITRF realization will also be reported.

  14. U.S. Global Change Research Program Budget Crosscut

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President — U.S. Global Change Research Program budget authority for Agency activities in which the primary focus is on:Observations, research, and analysis of climate change...

  15. Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations

    CERN Document Server

    Magliocca, N R; Oates, T; Schmill, M

    2013-01-01

    To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goal...

  16. Atmospheric General Circulation Changes under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipane, Erool

    The work in this thesis is mainly two-fold. First we study the internal variability of the general circulation and focus our study on the annular modes and how important it is to simulate the subsynoptic scales in the circulation. In the next major section we will try to understand the mechanisms of the forced response and the mechanisms leading towards the jet shift from transient evolution in Atmospheric general circulation models. In the first part, in an attempt to assess the benefit of resolving the sub-synoptic to mesoscale processes, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Annular Modes (AMs), in particular those related to the troposphere-stratosphere interaction, are evaluated for moderate- and high-horizontal resolution simulations with a global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), in comparison with the ERA40 re- analysis. Relative to the CMIP-type climate models, the IFS AGCM demonstrates notable improvement in capturing the key characteristics of the AMs. Notably, the performance with the high horizontal resolution version of the model is systematically superior to the moderate resolution on all metrics examined, including the variance of the AMs at different seasons of the year, the intrinsic e-folding time scales of the AMs, and the downward influence from the stratosphere to troposphere in the AMs. Moreover, the high-resolution simulation with a greater persistence in the intrinsic variability of the SAM projects an appreciably larger shift of the surface westerly wind during the Southern Hemisphere summer under climate change. In the second part, the response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation

  17. Inadvertent weather modification urban areas - lessons for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the USA's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multidisciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioural implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally

  18. Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherst, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes ar...

  19. Changing global capitalism and the growth of the Indian economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Dige

    The paper argues that one of the reasons for India's continued growth is that India's economy increasingly fall in line with recent global economic changes.......The paper argues that one of the reasons for India's continued growth is that India's economy increasingly fall in line with recent global economic changes....

  20. Predicting plant invasion in an era of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have indicated that ongoing global change will promote the spread of invasive plants. Recent research points to a more complex response. The components of global change that increase plant resources (e.g., rising CO2, N deposition) most consistently favor invasive species, but, chan...

  1. The US Global Change Data and Information Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) requires massive quantities of highly diverse data and information to improve our understanding of global change processes. The Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) comprises Federal agencies that need to provide reliable data and information for this purpose from existing programs and archives and from new activities designed to improve upon the data and information. This US Global Change Data and Information Management Program Plan commits the participating Federal agencies to work with each other, with academia, and with the international community to make it as easy as possible for researchers and others to access and use global change data and information. Toward this end, the agencies are organizing a Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS), which takes advantage of the mission resources and responsibilities of each agency. Sources for global change data and information are national and international agency programs, including those focused on the USGCRP, such as NASA's Earth Observing System [EOS] and other agency global change initiatives and those contributing to the USGCRP from other agency programs not focused on global change. Data and information include raw data from observation systems, value-added data from data assembly activities, and derived data and information from models and other investigations. Additional data and information are identified from appropriate sources including academia and the international community

  2. Botany and a changing world: introduction to the special issue on global biological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Stephen G; Suding, Katharine; Sakai, Ann K

    2013-07-01

    The impacts of global change have heightened the need to understand how organisms respond to and influence these changes. Can we forecast how change at the global scale may lead to biological change? Can we identify systems, processes, and organisms that are most vulnerable to global changes? Can we use this understanding to enhance resilience to global changes? This special issue on global biological change emphasizes the integration of botanical information at different biological levels to gain perspective on the direct and indirect effects of global change. Contributions span a range of spatial scales and include both ecological and evolutionary timescales and highlight work across levels of organization, including cellular and physiological processes, individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Integrative botanical approaches to global change are critical for the ecological and evolutionary insights they provide and for the implications these studies have for species conservation and ecosystem management. PMID:23825138

  3. Ecological response to global climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, G.P.; Butler, D.R.; Walsh, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Climate change and ecological change go hand in hand. Because we value our ecological environment, any change has the potential to be a problem. Geographers have been drawn to this challenge, and have been successful in addressing it, because the primary ecological response to climate changes in the past — the waxing and waning of the great ice sheets over the past 2 million years – was the changing geographic range of the biota. Plants and animals changed their location. Geographers have been deeply involved in documenting the changing biota of the past, and today we are called upon to help assess the possible responses to ongoing and future climatic change and, thus, their impacts. Assessing the potential responses is important for policy makers to judge the outcomes of action or inaction and also sets the stage for preparation for and mitigation of change.

  4. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE--THE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations which are at least partly responsible for the roughly 0.7% degree C global warming earth has experienced since the industrial revolution. With industrial activit...

  5. Changing environments: Coping with diversity and globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not surprising that the nuclear community as we know it is becoming more globalized, given that nuclear power has its roots in international cooperation. One only has to go back to the early days, when just over 50 years ago the 'Atoms for Peace' programme was first announced at a plenary meeting of the United Nations General Assembly, to realize that nuclear power really was always a global community. In the years since 1953, we have witnessed the growth of the nuclear industry, which brought with it, among other things: competition between manufacturers from different countries with different design and operating philosophies; individual national cultures and regulatory practices and unique legal systems; and different safety and industrial standards and approaches to technology transfer. Today, the stagnation, or slowdown in construction programmes for nuclear facilities in many countries, combined with the rising costs of R and D, has provided new impetus for the nuclear community to return to a more global outlook. But this new global outlook must grapple with the diversity that grew out of the competition, the individual national cultures, and the unique legal requirements, as well as with the needs of national nuclear industries with different levels of maturity and means. This session will address the new challenges for governments, regulatory authorities, operators, nuclear suppliers, and contractors in facing these and other issues

  6. Biodiversity and global change. Adaptative responses to global change: results and prospective. IFB-GICC restitution colloquium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global change is the consequence of the worldwide human print on ecology. The uncontrolled use of fossil fuels, the urbanization, the intensifying of agriculture, the homogenization of life styles and cultures, the homogenization of fauna and vegetation, the commercial trades, the bio-invasions, the over-exploitation of resources and the emergence of new economic powers (China, India, Brazil..) represent an adaptative dynamics of interactions which affects the overall biosphere and the adaptative capacities and the future of all species. Biodiversity is an ecological and societal insurance against the risks and uncertainties linked with global change. The French institute of biodiversity (IFB) has created a working group in charge of a study on global change and biodiversity, in particular in terms of: speed and acceleration of processes, interaction between the different organization levels of the world of living, scale changes, and adaptative capacities. 38 projects with an interdisciplinary approach have been retained by the IFB and the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development. The conclusion of these projects were presented at this restitution colloquium and are summarized in this document. The presentations are organized in 7 sessions dealing with: global changes and adaptation mechanisms; functional responses to global changes; spatial responses to global changes; temporal responses to global changes; selective answers to global changes; available tools and ecological services; scenarios and projections. (J.S.)

  7. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    Full Text Available In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria.

  8. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Andrés; Bes, M. Teresa; Peleato, M. Luisa; Fillat, María F.

    2016-01-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria. PMID:26967347

  9. Oceans, microbes, and global climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Sea-surface warming, sea-ice melting and related freshening, changes in circulation and mixing regimes, and ocean acidification induced by the present climate changes are modifying marine ecosystem structure and function and have the potential to alter the cycling of carbon and nutrients in surface oceans. Changing climate has direct and indirect consequences on marine life and on microbial components. Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), viruses and other microbial life forms are impacted by ...

  10. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Peter H.; Ellis, Erle C.; Letourneau, Aurelien

    2011-07-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  11. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Peter H [Institute for Environmental Studies, Amsterdam Global Change Institute, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ellis, Erle C [Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Letourneau, Aurelien, E-mail: Peter.Verburg@ivm.vu.nl [UMR 5175 Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle and Evolutive, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  12. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here we present the first high spatial resolution gridded data depicting market influence globally. The data jointly represent variations in both market strength and accessibility based on three market influence indices derived from an index of accessibility to market locations and national level gross domestic product (purchasing power parity). These indices show strong correspondence with human population density while also revealing several distinct and useful relationships with other global environmental patterns. As market influence grows, the need for high resolution global data on market influence and its dynamics will become increasingly important to understanding and forecasting global environmental change.

  13. Climate Change and Expected Impacts on the Global Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    How the elements of the global hydrologic cycle may respond to climate change is reviewed, first from a discussion of the physical sensitivity of these elements to changes in temperature, and then from a comparison of observations of hydrologic changes over the past 100 million years. Observations of current changes in the hydrologic cycle are then compared with projected future changes given the prospect of global warming. It is shown that some of the projections come close to matching the estimated hydrologic changes that occurred long ago when the earth was very warm.

  14. Global Change Research Program releases new strategic plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Global Change Research Program releases new strategic plan A new 10-year strategic plan released by the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) on 27 April calls for the federal interagency program to focus on four key goals during 2012-2021 to coordinate federal research efforts related to global change. The goals include advancing scientific knowledge of the integrated natural and human components of the Earth system; providing the scientific basis to inform and enable timely decisions on adaptation and mitigation; building sustained assessment capacity that improves the nation's ability to understand, anticipate, and respond to global change impacts and vulnerabilities; and advancing communications and education to broaden understanding of global change and develop the scientific workforce of the future. The goals and related objectives “recognize that to respond effectively to global change will require a deep understanding of the integrated Earth system—an understanding that incorporates physical, chemical, biological and behavioral information,” the plan states. “It is no longer enough to study the isolated physical, chemical, and biological factors affecting global change,” said USGCRP executive director Tom Armstrong.

  15. Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, K.; Steffen, W.; Liverman, D.; Barker, T.; Jotzo, F.; Kammen, D.M.; Leemans, R.; Lenton, T.M.; Munasinghe, M.; Osman-Elasha, B.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Stern, N.; Vogel, C.; Waever, O.

    2011-01-01

    Providing an up-to-date synthesis of knowledge relevant to the climate change issue, this book ranges from the basic science documenting the need for policy action to the technologies, economic instruments and political strategies that can be employed in response to climate change. Ethical and cultu

  16. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  17. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    own research to develop a library of immersive visualization stories and templates that explore ecological relationships across time at cosmic, global, and bioregional scales, with learning goals aligned to climate and earth science literacy principles. These experiential narratives are used to increase participants' awareness of global change issues as well as to engage them in dialogues and design processes focused on steps they can take within their own communities to systemically address these interconnected challenges. More than 600 digital planetariums in the U.S. collectively represent a pioneering opportunity for distributing Earth systems messages over large geographic areas. By placing the viewer-and Earth itself-within the context of the rest of the universe, digital planetariums can uniquely provide essential transcalar perspectives on the complex interdependencies of Earth's interacting physical and biological systems. The Worldviews Network is creating innovative, data-driven approaches for engaging the American public in dialogues about human-induced global changes.

  18. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  19. Applying Historic Science Communication Lessons to Today's Global Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    As global population surges towards seven billion and anthropogenic impacts ricochet throughout Earth’s environment, effective science communication has become essential. In today’s digital world where science communication must contend with stiff competition for audience attention, it is crucial to understand the lessons gleaned from a century worth of science communication research. Starting in the early part of the twentieth century a cadre of American scientists began to advocate for better public understanding of science, arguing that better understanding of science meant a better quality of life, better public affairs deliberations, and the elevation of democracy and culture. To improve science communication, many models of the communication process have been developed since then. Starting in the 1940s, science communication researchers adopted the linear communication model of electrical engineering. Over time, the one-way scientific communication of the linear model came to be identified with the deficit model approach—which assumes little prior scientific knowledge on the part of the receiver. A major failure of the deficit model was witnessed during the Mad Cow Disease outbreak in the UK: beef safety was over-simplified in the communication process, people were given a false sense of security, many ended up sick, and public trust in government plummeted. Of the many lessons learned from failures of the deficit model, arguably, the most significant lesson is that the public’s prior knowledge and life experience is always brought to bear on the message, i.e. the message must be contextualized. Here, we examine the major science communication lessons of the past century and discuss how they can inform more effective global change communication.

  20. Treeline shift under global change - ectomycorrhizas as a limiting factor?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašutová, Martina; Holub, Filip; Čermák, Martin; Cudlín, Pavel

    Brno: Global change research centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2013 - (Stojanov, R.; Žalud, Z.; Cudlín, P.; Farda, A.; Urban, O.; Trnka, M.), s. 223-226 ISBN 978-80-904351-8-6. [Global Change and Resilience. Brno (CZ), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : global change * ectomycorrhizas * treeline shift Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Meta-analysis and its application in global change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI XiangDong; PENG ChangHui; TIAN DaLun; SUN JianFeng

    2007-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a quantitative synthetic research method that statistically integrates results from individual studies to find common trends and differences. With increasing concern over global change, meta-analysis has been rapidly adopted in global change research. Here, we introduce the methodologies, advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis, and review its application in global climate change research, including the responses of ecosystems to global warming and rising CO2 and O3 concentrations, the effects of land use and management on climate change and the effects of disturbances on biogeochemistry cycles of ecosystem. Despite limitation and potential misapplication, meta-analysis has been demonstrated to be a much better tool than traditional narrative review in synthesizing results from multiple studies. Several methodological developments for research synthesis have not yet been widely used in global climate change researches such as cumulative meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis. It is necessary to update the results of meta-analysis on a given topic at regular intervals by including newly published studies. Emphasis should be put on multi-factor interaction and long-term experiments. There is great potential to apply meta-analysis to global climate change research in China because research and observation networks have been established (e.g. ChinaFlux and CERN), which create the need for combining these data and results to provide support for governments' decision making on climate change. It is expected that meta-analysis will be widely adopted in future climate change research.

  2. Global and Regional Sea Level Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Manfred; Schröter, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Sea level variations prior to the launch of satellite altimeters are estimated by analysing historic tide gauge records. Recently, a number of groups have reconstructed sea level by applying EOF techniques to gappy data. We complement this study with alternativemethods. In a first step gaps in 178 records of sea level change are filled using the pattern recognition capabilities of artificial neural networks. Afterwards satellite altimetry is used to extrapolate local sea level change to globa...

  3. International business and global climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Sarianna M. Lundan

    2011-01-01

    Approaches to climate change: Technology and institutionsClimate change represents the ultimate trade-off between human wellbeing and the burden placed on the natural environment. The criticality of this trade-off appears in stark relief when the UN's Human Development Index is graphed against the earth's current bio-capacity. The earth's bio-capacity is characterized by the ecological footprint, the ratio of the demand for products divided by the availability of resources. In 1980, a few cou...

  4. Global food security under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidhuber, J.; Tubiello, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on food security. It is found that of the four main elements of food security, i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access, only the first is routinely addressed in simulation studies. To this end, published results indicate that the impacts of climate change are significant, however, with a wide projected range (between 5 million and 170 million additional people at risk of hunger by 2080) strongly depending on assumed s...

  5. Proceedings of the Conference on Space Monitoring of Global Change

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy, John H; Macauley, Mary K; Williamson, Ray A; Uhlir, Paul F.

    1992-01-01

    Taken from the content of the October 1992 meeting on Space Monitoring and Global Change, the contents of this IGCC paper range from means of assuring global cooperation in earth observation, potential systems and the practical difficulties of assembling and managing such systems.

  6. GEOLAND2 global LAI, FAPAR Essential Climate Variables for terrestrial carbon modeling: principles and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Lacaze, R.; Camacho, F.; Smets, B.; Pacholczyk, P.; Makhmara, H.

    2010-12-01

    LAI and fAPAR are recognized as Essential Climate Variables providing key information for the understanding and modeling of canopy functioning. Global remote sensing observations at medium resolution are routinely acquired since the 80’s mainly with AVHRR, SEAWIFS, VEGETATION, MODIS and MERIS sensors. Several operational products have been derived and provide global maps of LAI and fAPAR at daily to monthly time steps. Inter-comparison between MODIS, CYCLOPES, GLOBCARBON and JRC-FAPAR products showed generally consistent seasonality, while large differences in magnitude and smoothness may be observed. One of the objectives of the GEOLAND2 European project is to develop such core products to be used in a range of application services including the carbon monitoring. Rather than generating an additional product from scratch, the version 1 of GEOLAND2 products was capitalizing on the existing products by combining them to retain their pros and limit their cons. For these reasons, MODIS and CYCLOPES products were selected since they both include LAI and fAPAR while having relatively close temporal sampling intervals (8 to 10 days). GLOBCARBON products were not used here because of the too long monthly time step inducing large uncertainties in the seasonality description. JRC-FAPAR was not selected as well to preserve better consistency between LAI and fAPAR products. MODIS and CYCLOPES products were then linearly combined to take advantage of the good performances of CYCLOPES products for low to medium values of LAI and fAPAR while benefiting from the better MODIS performances for the highest LAI values. A training database representative of the global variability of vegetation type and conditions was thus built. A back-propagation neural network was then calibrated to estimate the new LAI and fAPAR products from VEGETATION preprocessed observations. Similarly, the vegetation cover fraction (fCover) was also derived by scaling the original CYCLOPES fCover products

  7. Climate Change - Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Steffen, Will; Schellnhuber, Hans J.;

    negotiations is the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 2007. The IPCC report has already been instrumental in increasing both public and political awareness of the societal risks associated with unchecked emission of greenhouse gases. Since the...... effective control measures, an understanding of how human activities are changing the climate, and of the implications of unchecked climate change, needs to be widespread among world and national leaders, as well as in the public. The purpose of this report is to provide, for a broad range of audiences, an......, many of whom have also been contributors to the IPCC reports. Participants came from nearly 80 different countries and contributed with more than 1400 scientific presentations. Abstracts for all of the scientific presentations made can be found at www.iop.org/EJ/volume/1755-1315/6 , and a transcript of...

  8. Illinois task force on global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, B.S. [Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document progress in the areas of national policy development, emissions reduction, research and education, and adaptation, and to identify specific actions that will be undertaken to implement the Illinois state action plan. The task force has been tracking national and international climate change policy, and helping shape national policy agenda. Identification and implementation of cost-effective mitigation measures has been performed for emissions reduction. In the area of research and education, the task force is developing the capacity to measure climate change indicators, maintaining and enhancing Illinois relevant research, and strengthening climate change education. Activities relevant to adaptation to new policy include strengthening water laws and planning for adaptation. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Global warming: China’s contribution to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use in China have grown dramatically in the past few decades, yet it emerges that the country's relative contribution to global climate change has remained surprisingly constant. See Letter p.357

  10. Joint science academies' statement:Global response to climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Climate change is real There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world's climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring1.

  11. Twenty-Five Years of Interdisciplinary Global Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Moss, Richard

    2014-12-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to global change research is required for scientific advances that are both fundamental and relevant to real-world problems. The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI), under the leadership of director John Katzenberger, has provided global leadership for such interdisciplinary science over the past 25 years. From its first workshop, AGCI has brought together physical and social scientists researching the drivers of change, Earth system response, natural and human system impacts, and options for risk management. The sessions are small (usually around 30 participants), held in a retreat-like setting (recently in a tent near a stream), and long enough (a week or more) to allow communication, reflection, and planning. Landmark AGCI science sessions have frequently set the course of future global change research.

  12. Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goals of Digital Earth, GLOBE has the capability to assess the global relevance of local case-study findings within the context of over 50 global biophysical, land-use, climate, and socio-economic datasets. We demonstrate the implementation of one such assessment – a representativeness analysis – with a recently published meta-study of changes in swidden agriculture in tropical forests. The analysis provides a standardized indicator to judge the global representativeness of the trends reported in the meta-study, and a geovisualization is presented that highlights areas for which sampling efforts can be reduced and those in need of further study. GLOBE will enable researchers and institutions to rapidly share, compare, and synthesize local and regional studies within the global context, as well as contributing to the larger goal of creating a Digital Earth

  13. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR WORLD AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tobey, James A.; John M. Reilly; Kane, Sally

    1992-01-01

    This paper challenges the hypothesis that negative yield effects in key temperate grain producing regions of the world resulting from global climate change would have a serious impact on world food production. Model results demonstrate that even with concurrent productivity losses in the major grain producing regions of the world, global warming will not seriously disrupt world agricultural markets. Country/regional crop yield changes induce interregional adjustments in production and consump...

  14. Natural resources management in an era of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, W.T. [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The international science community has issued a series of predictions of global atmospheric change that, if they verify, will have heretofore unexperienced impact on our forests. Convincing the public and their natural resource managers to respond to these effects must be high on the agenda of the science community. Mitigative and adapative responses we examine and propose, however, should stem from an understanding of the evolving role of the natural resource manager and how that role might be affected by global change.

  15. Ecosystem stations – a tool for global change observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránková, Kateřina; Šigut, Ladislav; Macálková, Lenka; Dušek, Jiří; Sedlák, Pavel; Pavelka, Marian

    Volume 1. 1. Brno: Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2015 - (Urban, O.; Klem, K.), s. 58-67 ISBN 978-80-87902-14-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : global change * ecosystem stations * CzeCOS * eddy covariance * network * footprint analysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Energy strategies for mitigating global change. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working paper of the International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg (AT) deals with the 'Energy Strategies for Mitigating Global Changes'. The content of this report is: 1. Energy consumption and global warming; 2. Global energy needs; 3. Carbon dioxide emissions as a global 'resource'; 4. Equity issues implicit in reduction schemes; 5. Efficiency improvement and conservation; 6. Less carbon intensive energy options; 7. Carbon-free energy options; 8. Carbon scrubbing and removal; 9. Photosynthesis and afforestation; 9. Inventory of mitigating technologies. Some tabulations and graphics illustrate the investigation and results

  17. Global climate change and vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming will have different effects on different diseases because of the complex and idiosynchratic interactions between vectors, hosts, and pathogens that influence transmission dynamics of each pathogen. Human activities, including urbanization, rapid global travel, and vector management, have profound effects on disease transmission that can operate on more rapid time scales than does global climate change. The general concern about global warming encouraging the spread of tropical diseases is legitimate, but the effects vary among diseases, and the ecological implications are difficult to predict.

  18. Sensitivity of global wildfire occurrences to various factors in the context of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxian; Wu, Shiliang; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of wildfires is very sensitive to fire meteorology, vegetation type and coverage. We investigate the potential impacts of global change (including changes in climate, land use/land cover, and population density) on wildfire frequencies over the period of 2000-2050. We account for the impacts associated with the changes in fire meteorology (such as temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), vegetation density, as well as lightning and anthropogenic ignitions. Fire frequencies under the 2050 conditions are projected to increase by approximately 27% globally relative to the 2000 levels. Significant increases in fire occurrence are calculated over the Amazon area, Australia and Central Russia, while Southeast Africa shows a large decreasing trend due to significant increases in land use and population. Changes in fire meteorology driven by 2000-2050 climate change are found to increase the global annual total fires by around 19%. Modest increases (∼4%) in fire frequency at tropical regions are calculated in response to climate-driven changes in lightning activities, relative to the present-day levels. Changes in land cover by 2050 driven by climate change and increasing CO2 fertilization are expected to increase the global wildfire occurrences by 15% relative to the 2000 conditions while the 2000-2050 anthropogenic land use changes show little effects on global wildfire frequency. The 2000-2050 changes in global population are projected to reduce the total wildfires by about 7%. In general, changes in future fire meteorology plays the most important role in enhancing the future global wildfires, followed by land cover, lightning activities and land use while changes in population density exhibits the opposite effects during the period of 2000-2050.

  19. Global Change and the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Henry N.

    2004-08-01

    The Earth system in recent years has come to mean the complex interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere, through an intricate network of feedback loops. This system has operated over geologic time, driven principally by processes with long time scales. Over the lifetime of the solar system, the Sun has slowly become more radiant, and the geography of continents and oceans basins has evolved via plate tectonics. This geography has placed a first-order constraint on the circulation of ocean waters, and thus has strongly influenced regional and global climate. At shorter time scales, the Earth system has been influenced by Milankovitch orbital factors and occasional exogenous events such as bolide impacts. Under these influences the system chugged along for eons, until some few hundred thousand years ago, when one remarkable species evolved: Homo sapiens. As individuals, humans are of course insignificant in shaping the Earth system, but collectively the six billion human occupants of the planet now rival ``natural'' processes in modifying the Earth system. This profound human influence underlies the dubbing of the present epoch of geologic history as the ``Anthropocene.''

  20. Global Climate Change and Ocean Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The New England Aquarium, collaborating with other aquariums across the country, is leading a national effort to enable aquariums and related informal science education institutions to effectively communicate the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine animals, habitats and ecosystems. Our goal is to build on visitors' emotional connection with ocean animals, connect to their deeply held values, help them understand causes and effects of climate change and motivate them to embrace effective solutions. Our objectives are to: (1) Build a national coalition of aquariums and related informal education institutions collaborating on climate change education; (2) Develop an interpretive framework for climate change and the ocean that is scientifically sound, research-based, field tested and evaluated; and (3) Build capacity of aquariums to interpret climate change via training for interpreters, interactive exhibits and activities and communities of practice for ongoing support. Centers of informal learning have the potential to bring important environmental issues to the public by presenting the facts, explaining the science, connecting with existing values and interests, and motivating concern and action. Centers that work with live animals (including aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, national marine sanctuaries, etc.) are unique in that they attract large numbers of people of all ages (over 140 million in the US), have strong connections to the natural, and engage many visitors who may not come with a primary interest in science. Recent research indicates that that the public expects and trusts aquariums, zoos, and museums to communicate solutions to environmental and ocean issues, and to advance ocean conservation, and that climate change is the environmental issue of most concern to the public; Ironically, however, most people do not associate climate change with ocean health, or understand the critical role that the ocean plays in

  1. Changes in the global oil market

    OpenAIRE

    Bataa, Erdenebat; Izzeldin, Marwan; Osborn, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Using a new iterative algorithm that tests for possible breaks in the coefficients and residual variances of recursively identified structural equations, we examine changes in the parameters of the oil market model of Kilian (2009). Our analysis reveals breaks in the coefficients of the oil production and price equations, together with volatility shifts in all equations. In particular, the medium term response of production to aggregate demand shocks increases after 1980 and the price respons...

  2. Purkinje cell axonal anatomy: quantifying morphometric changes in essential tremor versus control brains

    OpenAIRE

    Babij, Rachel; Lee, Michelle; Cortés, Etty; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G.; Faust, Phyllis L.; Louis, Elan D.

    2013-01-01

    Growing clinical, neuro-imaging and post-mortem data have implicated the cerebellum as playing an important role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Aside from a modest reduction of Purkinje cells in some post-mortem studies, Purkinje cell axonal swellings (torpedoes) are present to a greater degree in essential tremor cases than controls. Yet a detailed study of more subtle morphometric changes in the Purkinje cell axonal compartment has not been undertaken. We performed a detailed morp...

  3. Is This Global Warming? Communicating the Intangibles of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, L.; Henson, R.

    2004-05-01

    Unlike weather, which is immediate, tangible, and relevant on a daily basis, climate change is long-term, slow to evolve, and often difficult to relate to the public's daily concerns. By explaining global-change research to wide and diverse audiences through a variety of vehicles, including publications, exhibits, Web sites, and television B-roll, UCAR has gained experience and perspective on the challenges involved. This talk will explore some of the lessons learned and some of the key difficulties that face global-change communicators, including: --The lack of definitive findings on regional effects of global change -- The long time frame in which global change plays out, versus the short attention span of media, the public, and policy makers --The use of weather events as news pegs (they pique interest, but they may not be good exemplars of global change and are difficult to relate directly to changes in greenhouse-gas emissions) --The perils of the traditional journalistic technique of point-counterpoint in discussing climate change --The presence of strong personal/political convictions among various interest groups and how these affect the message(s) conveyed

  4. Global Connectedness and Global Migration: Insights from the International Changing Academic Profession Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Michelle K.; Ratkovic, Snežana; Wolhunter, Charl C.

    2013-01-01

    The Changing Academic Profession (CAP) international survey was designed in part to consider the effects of globalization on the work context and activities of academics in 19 countries or regions around the world. This paper draws from a subset of these data to explore the extent to which academics are globally connected in their research and…

  5. Global Change and Regional Landscape Response and Desertification in Siberia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.M. PLYUSNIN; L.V. DANKO

    2011-01-01

    Climate changes and associated natural and anthropogenic processes have manifested themselves particularly clearly during the last two decades.The study of consequences of these changes has become one of the central scientific,social and political issues of our time (Pilot 2000;UNEP 2007).The study of the regional response of landscapes of Siberia to global changes is one of the fundamental tasks,aimed at ensuring the sustainable development of Siberian regions both at present time and in the future.Because in the 21 st century we should expect strong changes the humidity regime,accompanying the global warming (CCD 1994).

  6. Gardening and urban landscaping: significant players in global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Global warming leads to shifts in vegetation types in given temperate environments. The fastest species movement is due to the globalized supply and use of exotic plants in gardening and urban landscaping. These standard practices circumvent dispersal limitations and biological and environmental stresses; they have three major global impacts: (i) the enhancement of biological invasions, (ii) the elevation of volatile organic compound emissions and the resulting increase in photochemical smog formation, and (iii) the enhancement of CO(2) fixation and water use by gardened plants. These global effects, none of which are currently considered in global-change scenarios, are increasingly amplified with further warming and urbanization. We urge for quantitative assessment of the global effects of gardening and urban landscaping. PMID:18262823

  7. Global warming: a changing climate for hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper quantifies the benefits attributable to hydroelectric power generation in preventing carbon dioxide emissions from the use of thermal plants. It proposes that utilities and funding agencies consider the societal costs associated with the emission of CO2 in power system planning. It also suggests that the industrialized countries should consider changing their funding practice and give more appropriate credits for the construction of hydro plants in developing countries, with a view to avoiding the construction and operation of fossil fuelled powerplants. (author)

  8. Large-river delta-front estuaries as natural "recorders" of global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S; Allison, Mead A

    2009-05-19

    Large-river delta-front estuaries (LDE) are important interfaces between continents and the oceans for material fluxes that have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. In this article, we propose that more emphasis should be placed on LDE in future global climate change research. We will use some of the most anthropogenically altered LDE systems in the world, the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River and the Chinese rivers that enter the Yellow Sea (e.g., Huanghe and Changjiang) as case-studies, to posit that these systems are both "drivers" and "recorders" of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. Specifically, the processes in the LDE can influence ("drive") the flux of particulate and dissolved materials from the continents to the global ocean that can have profound impact on issues such as coastal eutrophication and the development of hypoxic zones. LDE also record in their rapidly accumulating subaerial and subaqueous deltaic sediment deposits environmental changes such as continental-scale trends in climate and land-use in watersheds, frequency and magnitude of cyclonic storms, and sea-level change. The processes that control the transport and transformation of carbon in the active LDE and in the deltaic sediment deposit are also essential to our understanding of carbon sequestration and exchange with the world ocean--an important objective in global change research. U.S. efforts in global change science including the vital role of deltaic systems are emphasized in the North American Carbon Plan (www.carboncyclescience.gov). PMID:19435849

  9. Space-based Observation for sensitive Factors of Global Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huadong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global change refers to anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, pedosphere and lithosphere over the past century. It is a long process with large dimensions. Factors sensitive to these changes mainly include performance factors (such as temperature and precipitation), response factors (such as eco-system, natural disasters, water resources, variations in snow and ice), and driving factors (greenhouse gases and reflection rates). Global change has caught the attention of the world. China is one of the countries exerting a profound impact on this process. In addition, it has typical and unique zones vulnerable to global change: high-altitude regions (such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau), arid and semi-arid areas (such as farming-grazing transitional zones), long coastal zones and regions for intensive human activities.

  10. The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somero, George N

    2012-01-01

    Global change includes alterations in ocean temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and pH, abiotic variables with strong and interacting influences on the physiology of all taxa. Physiological stresses resulting from changes in these four variables may cause broad biogeographic shifts as well as localized changes in distribution in mosaic habitats. To elucidate these causal linkages, I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges--and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to global change, notably in the case of species that have evolved in highly stable habitats? How fully can phenotypic acclimatization offset abiotic stress? Can physiological measurements, including new molecular ("-omic") approaches, provide indices of the degree of sublethal stress an organism experiences? And can physiological evolution keep pace with global change? PMID:22457968

  11. Anthropogenic influence on multidecadal changes in reconstructed global evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, H.; Ribes, A.; Decharme, B.; Alkama, R.; Sheffield, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is expected to intensify the global hydrological cycle, with an increase of both evapotranspiration (EVT) and precipitation. Yet, the magnitude and spatial distribution of this global and annual mean response remains highly uncertain. Better constraining land EVT in twenty-first-century climate scenarios is critical for predicting changes in surface climate, including heatwaves and droughts, evaluating impacts on ecosystems and water resources, and designing adaptation policies. Continental scale EVT changes may already be underway, but have never been attributed to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Here we provide global gridded estimates of annual EVT and demonstrate that the latitudinal and decadal differentiation of recent EVT variations cannot be understood without invoking the anthropogenic radiative forcings. In the mid-latitudes, the emerging picture of enhanced EVT confirms the end of the dimming decades and highlights the possible threat posed by increasing drought frequency to managing water resources and achieving food security in a changing climate.

  12. Fingerprinting the impacts of global change on tropical forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent observations of widespread changes in mature tropical forests such as increasing tree growth, recruitment and mortality rates and increasing above-ground biomass suggest that 'global change' agents may be causing predictable changes in tropical forests. However, consensus over both the robustness of these changes and the environmental drivers that may be causing them is yet to emerge. This paper focuses on the second part of this debate. We review (i) the evidence that the physical, ch...

  13. Useful global-change scenarios: current issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios are increasingly used to inform global-change debates, but their connection to decisions has been weak and indirect. This reflects the greater number and variety of potential users and scenario needs, relative to other decision domains where scenario use is more established. Global-change scenario needs include common elements, e.g., model-generated projections of emissions and climate change, needed by many users but in different ways and with different assumptions. For these common elements, the limited ability to engage diverse global-change users in scenario development requires extreme transparency in communicating underlying reasoning and assumptions, including probability judgments. Other scenario needs are specific to users, requiring a decentralized network of scenario and assessment organizations to disseminate and interpret common elements and add elements requiring local context or expertise. Such an approach will make global-change scenarios more useful for decisions, but not less controversial. Despite predictable attacks, scenario-based reasoning is necessary for responsible global-change decisions because decision-relevant uncertainties cannot be specified scientifically. The purpose of scenarios is not to avoid speculation, but to make the required speculation more disciplined, more anchored in relevant scientific knowledge when available, and more transparent.

  14. Global imprint of climate change on marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Brown, Christopher J.; Sydeman, William J.;

    2013-01-01

    Past meta-analyses of the response of marine organisms to climate change have examined a limited range of locations1,2, taxonomic groups2–4 and/or biological responses5,6. This has precluded a robust overview of the effect of climate change in the global ocean. Here, we synthesized all available...... change. Of the species responding to climate change, rates of distribution shiftswere, on average, consistent with those required to track ocean surface temperature changes. Conversely, we did not find a relationship between regional shifts in spring phenology and the seasonality of temperature. Rates of...... studies of the consistency of marine ecological observations with expectations under climate change. This yielded a metadatabase of 1,735 marine biological responses for which either regional or global climate change was considered as a driver. Included were instances of marine taxa responding as expected...

  15. Climate Cases: Learning about Student Conceptualizations of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    The complex topic of global climate change continues to be a challenging yet important topic among science educators and researchers. This mixed methods study adds to the growing research by investigating student conceptions of climate change from a system theory perspective (Von Bertalanffy, 1968) by asking the question, "How do differences…

  16. Global inter-annual gravity changes from GRACE: Early results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    storage. The Global Land Data Assimilation System model has a spatial correlation coefficient with GRACE observations of 0.65 over the northern hemisphere. This demonstrates that the observed gravity field changes on these scales are largely related to changes in continental water storage....

  17. Global Change Effects on Plant-Soil Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie

    positive CO2 effects. Furthermore, the plant functional type (shrub or grass) is more strongly determining the rhizosphere community structure than any global change factor. Frequent burning of prairie vegetation changes the soil community to an extent that alters the decomposition rate. Together, these...

  18. Changing environments: Coping with diversity and globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nuclear industry representatives such as WANO and the OECD/NEA should develop a strategic plan to correct this issue. How regulatory authorities should be informed and/or responsible for approving significant organizational change in utilities should be considered by the IAEA and other nuclear organizations to provide consensus guidance in this area

  19. Hot house global climate change and the human condition

    CERN Document Server

    Strom, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Global warming is addressed by almost all sciences including many aspects of geosciences, atmospheric, the biological sciences, and even astronomy. It has recently become the concern of other diverse disciplines such as economics, agriculture, demographics and population statistics, medicine, engineering, and political science. This book addresses these complex interactions, integrates them, and derives meaningful conclusions and possible solutions. The text provides an easy-to-read explanation of past and present global climate change, causes and possible solutions to the problem, including t

  20. The hybrid outcome of urban change: global city, polarized city?

    OpenAIRE

    Ayat Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of studies supports the assumption that levels of socio-spatial polarization, segregation, and exclusion are rising in global cities over the past decades as a direct outcome of certain global processes, such as the deindustrialization process, its associated changes in division of labor, and declined redistributive power of the welfare state. However, that assumption – known as the polarization thesis – is criticized based on several contentions, including the oversimplification...

  1. Globalization at Risk: The Changing Preferences of States and Societies

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Quirk

    2008-01-01

    After long, wide trends toward freer and more integratedmarkets, peoples and ideas, reluctance to subordinate the ideals of globalization to state interests shows signs of serious erosion. Recent examples include the breakdown of international institutions, the rise in state control over energy resources and their use as diplomatic leverage, and US abandonment of the principles of globalization. The sources of these changing preferences are both ideological and utilitarian. The result i...

  2. Remote sensing for global change, climate change and atmosphere and ocean forecasting. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is separated in three sessions. First part is on remote sensing for global change (with global modelling, land cover change on global scale, ocean colour studies of marine biosphere, biological and hydrological interactions and large scale experiments). Second part is on remote sensing for climate change (with earth radiation and clouds, sea ice, global climate research programme). Third part is on remote sensing for atmosphere and ocean forecasting (with temperatures and humidity, winds, data assimilation, cloud imagery, sea surface temperature, ocean waves and topography). (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  3. Global Monsoon and Long-Term climate Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pinxian

    2009-01-01

    @@ The core in the current "Global Warming" debate is how to discriminate the anthropogenic from natural warming. To answer this question, we have to know the natural trend of climate changes, an issue on which scientists' opinions diverge incredibly. Some scientists tell us that the next ice age will not come in some 50 thousands years (Berger & Loutre, 2002), but others believe that new glaciation would have been upon us several thousands years ago, should it be not postponed by early human impact (Ruddiman, 2003). Climatologists now talking on "global warming" warned about "global cooling" over 30 years ago.

  4. Globalization at Risk: The Changing Preferences of States and Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Quirk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After long, wide trends toward freer and more integratedmarkets, peoples and ideas, reluctance to subordinate the ideals of globalization to state interests shows signs of serious erosion. Recent examples include the breakdown of international institutions, the rise in state control over energy resources and their use as diplomatic leverage, and US abandonment of the principles of globalization. The sources of these changing preferences are both ideological and utilitarian. The result is that key elements of globalization are at risk, but with unpredictable consequences.

  5. Linked Open Data in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will centralize access to data and information related to global change across the U.S. federal government. The first implementation will focus on the 2013 National Climate Assessment (NCA) . (http://assessment.globalchange.gov) The NCA integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the USGCRP; analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The NCA has received over 500 distinct technical inputs to the process, many of which are reports distilling and synthesizing even more information, coming from thousands of individuals around the federal, state and local governments, academic institutions and non-governmental organizations. The GCIS will present a web-based version of the NCA including annotations linking the findings and content of the NCA with the scientific research, datasets, models, observations, etc. that led to its conclusions. It will use semantic tagging and a linked data approach, assigning globally unique, persistent, resolvable identifiers to all of the related entities and capturing and presenting the relationships between them, both internally and referencing out to other linked data sources and back to agency data centers. The developing W3C PROV Data Model and ontology will be used to capture the provenance trail and present it in both human readable web pages and machine readable formats such as RDF and SPARQL. This will improve visibility into the assessment process, increase

  6. Global change and biodiversity loss: Some impediments to response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Karen; Jamieson, Dale

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are the effects of anthropogenic global climate change on biodiversity. The focus is on human responses to the problem. Greenhouse warming-induced climate change may shift agricultural growing belts, reduce forests of the Northern Hemisphere and drive many species to extinction, among other effects. If these changes occur together with the mass extinctions already occurring, we may suffer a profound loss of biological diversity.

  7. Climatic change controls productivity variation in global grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Qingzhu Gao; Wenquan Zhu; Schwartz, Mark W.; Hasbagan Ganjurjav; Yunfan Wan; Xiaobo Qin; Xin Ma; Williamson, Matthew A.; Yue Li

    2016-01-01

    Detection and identification of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems have been core issues in climate change research in recent years. In this study, we compared average annual values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with theoretical net primary productivity (NPP) values based on temperature and precipitation to determine the effect of historic climate change on global grassland productivity from 1982 to 2011. Comparison of trends in actual productivity (NDVI) with ...

  8. Global climate change will affect air, water in California

    OpenAIRE

    WEARE, BRYAN C.

    2002-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, it is possible to reach beyond the headlines to describe what is now known about climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change evaluated the scientific aspects of global climate change; the current consensus is described in a recent series of reports. Since the 19th century, concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol dust have increased significantly. While there is scientific agreement that warming is...

  9. Institutional investor influence on global climate change disclosure practices

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Cotter; Muftah M Najah

    2012-01-01

    Using a stakeholder engagement perspective, we investigate the collective influence of institutional investors on a comprehensive set of climate change disclosures for a global sample of large companies. The proposition tested in this paper is that the influence of these powerful stakeholders is positively associated with climate change disclosure via corporate communications channels. We find the extent and quality of climate change disclosures to be associated with three indicators of corpo...

  10. Global environmental change and extreme weathers. How much does the change cost?; Globale Umweltveraenderungen und Wetterextreme. Was kostet der Wandel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, B.; Lange, M.A. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    Global environmental changes and extreme weathers are a challenge of the 21st century. The climatic change only can be described insufficiently with respect to extent, timeframe and consequences. First consequences of climatic changes are extreme weather events with storms, continuous drynesses or heavy rainfalls and the drop of snow and ice in polar regions. The extent and the consequences of global environmental changes as well as strategies for avoidance and adjustment to the change are discussed extensively and controversially in science, politics and society. Within the 16th ZUFO environmental symposium, held at 6th and 7th November, 2006, at the Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung (Muenster, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Global environmental changes and extreme weathers - How much does the change cost? (Bettina Hiller, Manfred A. Lange); (b) the global climatic change (Stefan Rahmstorf); (c) Does the climate become more extreme? Definitions and findings from the global to the regional level (Christian-D. Schoenwiese); (d) Climate models and climate simulations (Ulrich Cubasch and Heike Huebener); (e) Ecosystem consequences of climate change in aquatic environments: pelagic systems of the temperature zones (Ulrich Sommer, Kathrin Lengfellner); (f) Climatic changes in polar regions: State of the art and perspectives for the future (Manfred A. Lange); (g) Emissions trading - review and outlook (Walter Frenz); (h) Climatic change in Europe: Effects on the availability of water (Daniela Jacob); (i) Katrina, Michaela and the hockey stick - Why do journalists use icons in order to report on the climatic change (Christopher Schader); (j) Is there any ethical obligation to act? The climatic change as a question of justice (Andreas Lienkamp); (k) The human being influences the climate - What does one have to pay for it? The economic costs of climatic change (Claudia Kemfert); (l) Adjustment strategies to the pretended climatic change

  11. The essential role of expertise on natural resources in climate change Master's education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P.; Kroeze, C.; Löhr, A.

    2012-01-01

    Future climate change may critically affect natural resources that are essential for basic human needs. Water resources are undoubtedly among the most important resources in this respect. Moreover, water plays an important role in the climate system. These examples illustrate why it is important to

  12. Global climate change: an unequivocal reality; Cambio climatico global: una realidad inequivoca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal-Villasenor, J.A. [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: josea.raynal@udlap.mx

    2011-10-15

    During several years, a long discussion has taken place over the reality of global climate change phenomenon and, if there is one, what could be its cause. Once the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC, 2007) - IPCC is part the United Nations Organization (UN) - was published, it was stated that there is a developing global climatic change and that the cause is unequivocally related with the human activity in the planet Earth. In this paper, relevant information is given about the development of global climatic change issues and some actions are mentioned that each human being of this planet can implement to mitigate it, since it has been accepted that it's impossible to stop it. [Spanish] Durante varios anos se ha discutido si existe un cambio climatico global y, si lo hay, cual es su causa. Una vez publicado el 4o. Reporte de Valoracion del Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climatico (IPCC, 2007) - el IPCC es parte de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas (ONU) - se preciso que hay un cambio climatico global en desarrollo y la causa inequivoca que lo esta produciendo es la actividad humana en el planeta Tierra, tambien se hablo en el IPCC de las causas naturales por las cuales el planeta se esta calentando. En el presente articulo, se da informacion relevante al cambio climatico global en desarrollo y se mencionan algunas acciones que cada ser humano de este planeta puede implementar para mitigarlo, ya que es imposible detenerlo.

  13. Global flood risks under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide major flood events result in both economic losses and large numbers of casualties. Recent global scale studies indicate that in many regions of the world discharge extremes are likely to increase under changing climate conditions. However, few studies have so far examined how these changes in climate conditions may affect flood risk (defined here as the probability of a flood multiplied by the consequences). In the current study we investigate the impacts of changing climate and socioeconomic conditions on flood extents and depths, and also assess the potential impacts on flood risk. The study is conducted on a global scale, thereby indicating in which regions of the world flood risk is likely to change most. To assess global food risk under changing conditions, we combined socio-economic data from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) framework of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) with high resolution maps of inundation depth (1 km). To this end, projections from a number of GCMs were bias-corrected and used to force the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB which simulates (amongst other variables) global maps with daily flood volumes on a 0.5 degree resolution. These time series were used to derive flood volume maps for multiple return periods, which were downscaled to inundation depth maps at 1 km resolution using a 1 km resolution DEM. Finally, these high resolution flood maps were combined with spatial datasets on future GDP and population density from the IMAGE model. Results are presented on both the global scale and at the country level. We believe that the obtained flood extend and flood risk maps can assist development agencies in planning climate adaptation investments that aim to reduce flood risks.

  14. Agile Data Management with the Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe experiences applying agile software development techniques to the realm of data management during the development of the Global Change Information System (GCIS), a web service and API for authoritative global change information under development by the US Global Change Research Program. Some of the challenges during system design and implementation have been : (1) balancing the need for a rigorous mechanism for ensuring information quality with the realities of large data sets whose contents are often in flux, (2) utilizing existing data to inform decisions about the scope and nature of new data, and (3) continuously incorporating new knowledge and concepts into a relational data model. The workflow for managing the content of the system has much in common with the development of the system itself. We examine various aspects of agile software development and discuss whether or how we have been able to use them for data curation as well as software development.

  15. Global climate change: A strategic issue facing Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womeldorff, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses global climate change, summarizes activities related to climate change, and identifies possible outcomes of the current debate on the subject. Aspects of climate change related to economic issues are very briefly summarized; it is suggested that the end result will be a change in lifestyle in developed countries. International activities, with an emphasis on the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and U.S. activities are outlined. It is recommended that the minimum action required is to work to understand the issue and prepare for possible action.

  16. Global climate change: A strategic issue facing Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses global climate change, summarizes activities related to climate change, and identifies possible outcomes of the current debate on the subject. Aspects of climate change related to economic issues are very briefly summarized; it is suggested that the end result will be a change in lifestyle in developed countries. International activities, with an emphasis on the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and U.S. activities are outlined. It is recommended that the minimum action required is to work to understand the issue and prepare for possible action

  17. Climate Change, Globalization and Geopolitics in the New Maritime Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Early in the 21st century a confluence of climate change, globalization and geopolitics is shaping the future of the maritime Arctic. This nexus is also fostering greater linkage of the Arctic to the rest of the planet. Arctic sea ice is undergoing a historic transformation of thinning, extent reduction in all seasons, and reduction in the area of multiyear ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Global Climate Model simulations of Arctic sea ice indicate multiyear ice could disappear by 2030 for a short period of time each summer. These physical changes invite greater marine access, longer seasons of navigation, and potential, summer trans-Arctic voyages. As a result, enhanced marine safety, environmental protection, and maritime security measures are under development. Coupled with climate change as a key driver of regional change is the current and future integration of the Arctic's natural wealth with global markets (oil, gas and hard minerals). Abundant freshwater in the Arctic could also be a future commodity of value. Recent events such as drilling for hydrocarbons off Greenland's west coast and the summer marine transport of natural resources from the Russian Arctic to China across the top of Eurasia are indicators of greater global economic ties to the Arctic. Plausible Arctic futures indicate continued integration with global issues and increased complexity of a range of regional economic, security and environmental challenges.

  18. Clinical significance of changes in β-adrenoreceptors in peripheral lymphocytes in patients with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Methods In the present study, 69 male patients with essential hypertension at different stages were compared with a group of age-matched normotensive controls. β-adrenoreceptor maximum bound volume (Bmax) in pedpheml lymphocytes was measured by 3H-dihydroalprenolol(3 H-DHA) radio ligand binding.β-adrenoreoeptor responsiveness was determined by Salbutamol(injection). Results In patients with essential hypertension at stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ, Bmax was significantly higher (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) and the chronotropic doses of Salbutamol reqaired to increase the heart rate by 30 beats/min (CD30) were significantly lower(P<0.01 and P<0.001,respectively) than in age-matched normotensive control subjects.In patients with essential hypertension at stage Ⅲ, Bmax was significantly lower and CD30 was significantly higher (both P<0.01) than those in the age-matched normotensive control subjects.Bmax was significantly higher and CD30 was significantly lower (both P<0.001) in patients with essential hypertension and with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) than that in patients with essential hypertension but without LVH. In patients with essential hypertension and heart failure, Bmax was significantly lower and CD30 was significantly higher (both P<0.001) than those in patients with essential hypertension without heart failure.Conclusions The changes of β-adrenoreceptor density and function were related to hypertension,hypertension complicated with ventricular hypertrophy,and heart failure. They may be viewed as indexes of the condition in the patients with essential hypertension.

  19. The hybrid outcome of urban change: global city, polarized city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of studies supports the assumption that levels of socio-spatial polarization, segregation, and exclusion are rising in global cities over the past decades as a direct outcome of certain global processes, such as the deindustrialization process, its associated changes in division of labor, and declined redistributive power of the welfare state. However, that assumption – known as the polarization thesis – is criticized based on several contentions, including the oversimplification of the global/local interplay by overlooking the role of local contingent factors that may modify, intensify, or reverse the expected socio-spatial outcome in individual cities. This study aims to capture the hybrid nature of the socio-spatial outcomes of global cities by proving that the complex process of restructuring of cities is a form of structural and chronological hybridity. Through providing a solid empirical ground for investigating the general applicability of the socio-spatial polarization thesis, as well as evaluating the influence of local contexts of cities on the outcomes of urban change. The research offers a theoretical review of the multifaceted restructuring of global cities. Then, the macro trends of global economy are linked to their micro outcomes (segregation patterns within cities, through understanding the implications of cities’ economic functions on local urban policies and housing markets. Finally, the changes in socioeconomic segregation over the past decades are calculated for a large dataset of 66 global cities. The collective result of the analysis shows the downfalls of the generalized hypothesis. While the discussion of individual cities highlights certain contextual particularities, that are contributing to the production of unique socio-spatial configurations in different global cities.

  20. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...... the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces...

  1. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Riedy; Jade Herriman

    2011-01-01

    On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews). WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) in December 2009. In this paper, we examine t...

  2. Integrating scientific, economic, and ecological aspects of global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change is conducting research on methods for integrating the science of potential global change with economic analysis of litigation policies and quantification of economic and environmental impacts. The paper describes this work, with a focus on the way that research within the various contributing disciplines, and the design of their associated models, are influenced by the process of inclusion in an integrated framework for policy analysis. The results should contribute new insight into the relative importance of key feedbacks within the economy-climate-ecology system

  3. Global changes in marine systems: A social-ecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R. Ian; Barange, Manuel; Ommer, Rosemary E.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the case for the adoption of a social-ecological approach to marine systems, which recognises the interdependence of biophysical and human social components. It discusses the management and governance challenges that arise when biophysical marine systems and fishing-dependent human communities, considered as interdependent marine social-ecological systems, are stressed by global changes. Drivers of change in marine biophysical systems include processes such as climate variability and change, human processes such as fishing, habitat degradation, and contaminants, and their interactions. Fishing makes marine populations, marine communities, and ecosystems more sensitive to climate forcing. Human communities’ responses to marine ecosystem variability can ameliorate or exacerbate these changes. Drivers of change in fishing-dependent human communities include environmental and resource changes, human social changes relating to demographics, health issues, and shifting societal values, and their interactions at local and global scales. This multi-faceted interdependence means that fisheries management needs to develop approaches which maintain the capacities of both fish and fishing communities, acting as interactive social-ecological systems, to adapt to the impacts of globalization and environmental change. In general, a less-heavily fished marine system managed on an ecosystem basis is likely to provide more stable catches under normal conditions than would a heavily fished system. However, under climate change the whole ecosystem may alter in ways that cannot yet be predicted. Issues of scale are crucial, and fisheries governance needs a concerted effort to contrast and compare multiple local management ‘experiments’, since the exposure, susceptibility, and adaptive capacities of biophysical and human social marine systems varies immensely. These ‘experiments’ should be conducted in developed and developing nations so as to understand

  4. Migration and global environmental change: methodological lessons from mountain areas of the global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, A.; Gioli, G.; Afifi, T.

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources, and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empirical case studies, the literature on migration and global environmental change has not yet moved beyond case study results to address and explain global patterns and specificities of migration in mountain areas of the global South. After an introduction to the topic, the authors present a new synthesis of three field studies combining household surveys, participatory research approach (PRA) tools and key informant interviews in Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This article suggests that the systematic use of transdisciplinary approaches, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, is the key to understanding global migration patterns in rural mountain areas of the global South. The results of our synthesis suggests that survey data should be triangulated with PRA results as well as secondary data in order to build household profiles connecting vulnerability (measured through a multidimensional index) with human mobility patterns. Such profiles can be conducive to better understand the feedback processes between livelihoods and mobility patterns both within each case study and across case studies, helping researchers to draw general lessons.

  5. Migration and global environmental change: methodological lessons from mountain areas of the global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Milan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between migration and environmental and climatic changes is a crucial yet understudied factor influencing mountain livelihoods in the global South. These livelihoods are often characterized by high prevalence of family farming, widespread dependence on natural resources and high sensitivity to climatic changes. Except for a limited number of empirical case studies, the literature on migration and global environmental change has not yet moved beyond case study results to address and explain global patterns and specificities of migration in mountain areas of the global South. After an introduction to the topic, the authors present their empirical approach combining household surveys, Participatory Research Approach (PRA tools and key informant interviews through its application in three case studies in Pakistan, Peru and Tanzania. This article suggests that the systematic use of transdisciplinary approaches, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative empirical methods, is the key to understanding global migration patterns in rural mountain areas of the global South. In the future, survey data should be triangulated with PRA results as well as secondary data in order to build household profiles connecting vulnerability (measured through a multidimensional index with human mobility patterns. Such profiles can be conducive to better understand the feedback processes between livelihoods and mobility patterns both within each case study and across case studies, helping researchers to draw general lessons.

  6. Voicing as an Essential Problem of Communication: Language and Education of Chinese Immigrant Children in Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Dong, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article explores voicing processes of identity construction among labor immigrants both inside China and in the Dutch Chinese Diaspora. We provide ethnographically grounded data oriented toward a theoretical point: voicing is an essential problem in communication. Whether one is able to achieve his voice--an outcome of a communicative…

  7. The evolution of global disaster risk assessments: from hazard to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The perception of disaster risk as a dynamic process interlinked with global change is a fairly recent concept. It gradually emerged as an evolution from new scientific theories, currents of thinking and lessons learned from large disasters since the 1970s. The interest was further heighten, in the mid-1980s, by the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the discovery of the ozone layer hole, both bringing awareness that dangerous hazards can generate global impacts. The creation of the UN International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) and the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990 reinforced the interest for global risk assessment. First global risk models including hazard, exposure and vulnerability components were available since mid-2000s. Since then increased computation power and more refined datasets resolution, led to more numerous and sophisticated global risk models. This article presents a recent history of global disaster risk models, the current status of researches for the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR 2013) and future challenges and limitations for the development of next generation global disaster risk models.

  8. Global Stream Temperatures and Flows under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will affect thermal and hydrologic regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on human water use and freshwater ecosystems. Here we assess the impact of climate change on stream temperature and streamflow globally. We used a physically-based stream temperature river basin model (RBM) linked to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The modelling framework was adapted for global application including impacts of reservoirs and thermal heat discharges, and was validated using observed water temperature and river discharge records in large river basins globally. VIC-RBM was forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected Global Climate Model (GCM) output resulting in global projections of daily streamflow and water temperature for the 21st century. Global mean and high (95th percentile) stream temperatures are projected to increase on average by 0.8-1.6 (1.0-2.2)°C for the SRES B1-A2 scenario for 2071-2100 relative to 1971-2000. The largest water temperature increases are projected for Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Africa and parts of Australia. In these regions, the sensitivities for warming are exacerbated by projected decreases in summer low flows. Large increases in water temperature combined with decreases in low flows are found for the southeastern U.S., Europe and eastern China. These regions could potentially be affected by increased deterioration of water quality and freshwater habitats, and reduced water available for beneficial uses such as thermoelectric power production.

  9. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  10. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  11. Global Governance for Health: how to motivate political change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, D; Ottersen, O P

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we address a central theme that was discussed at the Durham Health Summit: how can politics be brought back into global health governance and figure much more prominently in discussions around policy? We begin by briefly summarizing the report of the Lancet - University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health: 'The Political Origins of Health Inequity' Ottersen et al. In order to provide compelling evidence of the central argument, the Commission selected seven case studies relating to, inter alia, economic and fiscal policy, food security, and foreign trade and investment agreements. Based on an analysis of these studies, the report concludes that the problems identified are often due to political choices: an unwillingness to change the global system of governance. This raises the question: what is the most effective way that a report of this kind can be used to motivate policy-makers, and the public at large, to demand change? What kind of moral or rational argument is most likely to lead to action? In this paper we assess the merits of various alternative perspectives: health as an investment; health as a global public good; health and human security; health and human development; health as a human right; health and global justice. We conclude that what is required in order to motivate change is a more explicitly political and moral perspective - favouring the later rather than the earlier alternatives just listed. PMID:26112127

  12. Global climate change impacts on forests and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohui; Sohngen, Brent; Kim, John B.; Ohrel, Sara; Cole, Jefferson

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops an economic analysis of climate change impacts in the global forest sector. It illustrates how potential future climate change impacts can be integrated into a dynamic forestry economics model using data from a global dynamic vegetation model, the MC2 model. The results suggest that climate change will cause forest outputs (such as timber) to increase by approximately 30% over the century. Aboveground forest carbon storage also is projected to increase, by approximately 26 Pg C by 2115, as a result of climate change, potentially providing an offset to emissions from other sectors. The effects of climate mitigation policies in the energy sector are then examined. When climate mitigation in the energy sector reduces warming, we project a smaller increase in forest outputs over the timeframe of the analysis, and we project a reduction in the sink capacity of forests of around 12 Pg C by 2115.

  13. Global climate change adaptation priorities for biodiversity and food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hannah

    Full Text Available International policy is placing increasing emphasis on adaptation to climate change, including the allocation of new funds to assist adaptation efforts. Climate change adaptation funding may be most effective where it meets integrated goals, but global geographic priorities based on multiple development and ecological criteria are not well characterized. Here we show that human and natural adaptation needs related to maintaining agricultural productivity and ecosystem integrity intersect in ten major areas globally, providing a coherent set of international priorities for adaptation funding. An additional seven regional areas are identified as worthy of additional study. The priority areas are locations where changes in crop suitability affecting impoverished farmers intersect with changes in ranges of restricted-range species. Agreement among multiple climate models and emissions scenarios suggests that these priorities are robust. Adaptation funding directed to these areas could simultaneously address multiple international policy goals, including poverty reduction, protecting agricultural production and safeguarding ecosystem services.

  14. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available

  15. Global climate change. A petroleum industry perspective. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of a symposium organised by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) in 1992 are presented. The topics covered include: the science and environmental impacts of global climate change; future greenhouse gas emissions and reduction prospects; the role of energy in development; international and regional processes relating to climate change; the scale and timing of options in response to climate change; cutting carbon emissions; implementation strategies, mechanisms and institution; long and short term energy planning; North Sea oil and gas development; Indonesian oil and gas development; Italian experience of the role of natural gas in reducing greenhouse gas emissions; opportunities for improving energy efficiency and the environment in power generation; issues to consider in the economic analysis of global climate change policies; economic assessment of CO2 control policies; developing economic responses; the impact of response measures by industrialized countries on the world economy; reducing US CO2 emissions - the value of flexibility in timing; criteria for policy analysis. (UK)

  16. Salt Marshes as Potential Indicatore of Global Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairens, David; Jung, S.H.;

    2011-01-01

    Coastal scientists postulate that salt marshes are significantly affected by dynamics of global climate. However, few studies have explicitly proposed a perspective that regards salt marshes as potential indicators of climate change. This review article evaluates the possibility of salt marshes...... as indicators of global climate change, focusing upon three major aspects: sedimentary, vegetation, and biogeochemical dynamics. The previous literature concerned with these aspects commonly argues that the primary impact of climate change on salt marshes occurs via sea-level variations, because hydrologic...... fluctuations regulate the frequency, duration, and depth of over-marsh flooding events. Sedimentary, floristic, and biogeochemical dynamics prove to be significantly influenced by sealevel changes regardless of climate zones, and hence, undoubtedly possess a potential for indicating climate signatures. However...

  17. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  18. From global change to Future Earth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Wen-Ling; JIN; Nan; LIN; Zheng; WU; Guo-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Here we review the activities and recent accomplishments resulting from the global change and Future Earth initiative studies in China.As a new international research initiative,Future Earth will develop comprehensive knowledge for responding to global change risks and create transformative opportunities toward future global sustainability.The Chinese National Committee for Future Earth,the consultation project Develop ‘Future Earth in China’ for Promoting Social Sustainability and the cooperative international project Co-design of Implementation Plan for Future Earth in China were developed to help foster a culture of sustainability and conservation in China.To help promote the sustainability movement in China,Chinese scientists from both the natural and social sciences,policymakers,and stakeholders are encouraged to join the future activities following the Future Earth model co-design,co-produce,and co-delivery.

  19. The role of lidars in global change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has solidified a view of the Earth as a global scale interactive system with complex chemical, physical, biological, and dynamical processes that link the ocean, atmosphere, land, and marine terrestrial living organisms. An important aspect of Earth System Science studies in the future is the need to observe simultaneously the physical, chemical, biological, and dynamical processes involved in highly coupled phenomena such as those mentioned. Lidars operating from the surface, aircraft, and satellites provide a powerful observational technique to study the processes and observe trends important to global change. Lidar observations have already played important roles in helping understand processes controlling stratospheric ozone and aerosols, tropospheric clouds, water vapor, ozone, gaseous pollutants, and aerosols, and winds and temperatures throughout the atmosphere. In this paper the author reviews the science of global change and highlights the potential roles for lidar in studying the Earth system

  20. Guiding Science and Policy Through the Global Climate Change Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silson, J.; Bullock, M. A.; Frodeman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Facing the possibility of global climate change, policy makers are forced to make decisions about the research and application of science and technology to mitigate both the causes and effects of an evolving global climate. In the past, when deciding what kinds of research to fund, policy makers have relied on the criteria of feasibility and possible effectiveness in choosing areas to support. However, given both the complexity of the climate and its sensitivity to human decisions, future policy makers will need to develop a variety of criteria for choosing which subjects are worth pursuing. One issue that policy makers are likely to consider is the restriction of some areas of research based on the possible dangers that they may entail. This talk considers the question of whether and how policy makers should make such decisions within the context of global climate change.

  1. Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is rife with uncertainties. Yet, we can expect to resolve much of this uncertainty in the next 100 years or so. Therefore, current actions should reflect the value of flexibility. Nevertheless, most models of climate change, particularly game-theoretic models, abstract from uncertainty. A model of the impacts of uncertainty and learning in a non-cooperative game shows that the level of correlation of damages across countries is crucial for determining optimal policy

  2. Modify and Adapt: Global Higher Education in a Changing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth E. Lane; Pamela Lemoine; Tina M. Tinney; Michael D. Richardson

    2014-01-01

    The combinations of global networking and digital delivery have intense repercussions for higher education administrators who confront a magnitude of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. Much of the reaction to technological change comes from those with a vested interest in either wholesale change or maintaining the status quo. Taking the resilience metaphor from ecology, the authors propose a framework for analyzing an institution's ability to adapt to digita...

  3. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Humans alter the water cycle by constructing dams and through water withdrawals. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, model analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented. The results indicate that the impact of man-made reservoirs and water withdrawals on the long-term global terrestrial water balance is small. However, in some river basins, impacts of human interventions are significant. In parts o...

  4. Structural Changes and Global Trends in European Union Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2009-01-01

    The article aims at researching and presenting structural changes and global trends in distributive trade of European Union, resulted from liberalization of economic activities within the EU. During the last decades, EU trade went through deep transformation and structural changes. Traditional distributive trade has been replaced by organized and concentrated distribution. Even though, there are many developing trends which unify the EU trade, still there are some differences specific for par...

  5. INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an

  6. The influence of greenhouse gases on global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to influence of greenhouse gases on global climate change. Thus, the impacts associated with increasing of CO2 concentration are considered. The impacts associated with decreasing of ozone layer are considered as well. The influence of air temperature on agriculture is studied.

  7. Impact of Global Changes on Mountains: Responses and Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Harrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Impact of Global Changes on Mountains: Responses and Adaptation. Edited by Velma I. Grover, Axel Borsdorf, Jürgen Breuste, Prakash Chandra Tiwari, Flavia Witkowski Frangetto, . Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2015. ix + 517 pp. £ 103.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-1-4822-0890-0.

  8. Do global change experiments overestimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Luo, Yiqi; Beier, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, many climate manipulation experiments have investigated biosphere responses to global change. These experiments typically examined effects of elevated atmospheric CO2, warming or drought (driver variables) on ecosystem processes such as the carbon and water cycle (response vari...

  9. Global climate change--The technology challenge: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population growth and developmental pressures, spawned by an increasing demand for resource intensive goods, foods and services, are altering the planet in ways that threaten the long-term well-being of humans and other species. Global climate change and its associated impacts is...

  10. Seventh Grade Students' Conceptions of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Choi, Soyoung; Charusombat, Umarporn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was…

  11. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CHANGE ON CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corals and coral reefs of the Caribbean and through the world are deteriorating at an accelerated rate. Several stressors are believed to contrbute to this decline, including global changes in atmospheric gases and land use patterns. In particular, warmer water temperatures and...

  12. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim;

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....

  13. National inventory of Global Change relevant research in Norway; Nasjonal kartlegging av global change-relevant forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The Norwegian Global Change Committee has made an inventory of global change research (GCR) projects funded by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) in 2001. In lack of a rigid definition, GCR was defined as research that can be considered relevant to the science agenda of the four major international global change programmes DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP. Relevance was judged based on the objectives stated for each of the international programmes and their core projects. It was not attempted to check whether the projects had any kind of link to the programmes they were considered relevant for. The grants provided by the RCN in 2001 to GCR as defined above amounts to about 77 mill. NOK. Based on a recent survey on climate change research it is reasonable to estimate that the RCN finances between 30 and 40 % of all GCR in Norway. Accordingly, the total value of Norwegian research relevant to the four international global change programmes in 2001 can be estimated to 192 - 254 mill. NOK.

  14. Global change pressures on soils from land use and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; House, Joanna I; Bustamante, Mercedes; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Harper, Richard; Pan, Genxing; West, Paul C; Clark, Joanna M; Adhya, Tapan; Rumpel, Cornelia; Paustian, Keith; Kuikman, Peter; Cotrufo, M Francesca; Elliott, Jane A; McDowell, Richard; Griffiths, Robert I; Asakawa, Susumu; Bondeau, Alberte; Jain, Atul K; Meersmans, Jeroen; Pugh, Thomas A M

    2016-03-01

    Soils are subject to varying degrees of direct or indirect human disturbance, constituting a major global change driver. Factoring out natural from direct and indirect human influence is not always straightforward, but some human activities have clear impacts. These include land-use change, land management and land degradation (erosion, compaction, sealing and salinization). The intensity of land use also exerts a great impact on soils, and soils are also subject to indirect impacts arising from human activity, such as acid deposition (sulphur and nitrogen) and heavy metal pollution. In this critical review, we report the state-of-the-art understanding of these global change pressures on soils, identify knowledge gaps and research challenges and highlight actions and policies to minimize adverse environmental impacts arising from these global change drivers. Soils are central to considerations of what constitutes sustainable intensification. Therefore, ensuring that vulnerable and high environmental value soils are considered when protecting important habitats and ecosystems, will help to reduce the pressure on land from global change drivers. To ensure that soils are protected as part of wider environmental efforts, a global soil resilience programme should be considered, to monitor, recover or sustain soil fertility and function, and to enhance the ecosystem services provided by soils. Soils cannot, and should not, be considered in isolation of the ecosystems that they underpin and vice versa. The role of soils in supporting ecosystems and natural capital needs greater recognition. The lasting legacy of the International Year of Soils in 2015 should be to put soils at the centre of policy supporting environmental protection and sustainable development. PMID:26301476

  15. Monitoring for global change in Alaska research natural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospect of a significant shift in climatic equilibria and changes in atmospheric composition raises concerns about the potential decline of important natural resources and threats to the survival of the complete range of natural diversity. Three elements are needed in any program with a focus on such concerns: (1) a network of sites containing examples of all or most of the diversity; (2) testable hypotheses of mechanisms by which global change effects will occur in real ecosystems; and (3) a monitoring program robust enough to detect the changes at the sites. With such a program, hypotheses of global change effects can be accepted, rejected, or modified. The Alaska Research Natural Area (RNA) network has been selected to encompass natural diversity. It contains sites and some modest data sets that offer insights into possible effects and outcomes of global warming. Geothermally heated soils at Clear Creek Hot Springs and Big Windy Hot Springs RNAs offer a possible model of forest growth under a warmer climate. On the other hand, a warmer climate may allow greater winter survival of forest insects and increase in forest mortality, similar to that which killed 19% of the trees in a forest reference monitoring plot in 1989 in a mature white spruce stand in the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research site. Even if global warming proves to be modest, the program of selecting and monitoring natural diversity according to global change hypotheses is justified because it will contribute greatly to an improved understanding of functioning and linkages among earth systems and because widespread, human-caused reductions in biological diversity have already occurred and are accelerating

  16. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D; Marti, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream-terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream-riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream-terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  17. Conceptual design of a measurement network of the global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, P.; Petäjä, T.; Bäck, J.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Vihma, T.; Laurila, T.; Viisanen, Y.; Vesala, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2016-01-01

    The global environment is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions and actions. Such activities modify aerosol and greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, leading to regional and global climate change and affecting, e.g., food and fresh-water security, sustainable use of natural resources and even demography. Here we present a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network that can provide tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. The philosophy behind the conceptual design relies on physical conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum, as well as on concentration gradients that act as driving forces for the atmosphere-biosphere exchange. The network is composed of standard, flux and/or advanced and flagship stations, each of which having specific and identified tasks. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that have to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network as a whole is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity. The most comprehensive observations are envisioned to occur in flagship stations, with which the process-level understanding can be expanded to continental and global scales together with advanced data analysis, Earth system modelling and satellite remote sensing. The denser network of the flux and standard stations allows application and up-scaling of the results obtained from flagship stations to the global level.

  18. The Treaty of Lisbon and Essential Changes in the Institutional System of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Hruskovic

    2011-01-01

    Following the unsuccessful Treaty on the Constitution for Europe project, European Union member states adopted the Treaty of Lisbon. The Treaty of Lisbon brought about certain amendments in the institutional framework of the European Union, targeted at increasing the efficiency of the Union’s activities. Considering the wide-ranging scale of the topic, the author, rather than deliberating on all of the relevant changes, is primarily focusing on an analysis of those of essential significance.

  19. Climate change at the coast: from global to local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPCC has recently documented substantial changes in the global heat content of the oceans, salinity, sea level, thermal expansion and biogeochemistry. Over the 21. century anticipated climate related changes include: a rise in sea level of up to 0.6 m or more; increases in sea surface temperatures up to 3 deg. C; an intensification of tropical and extra tropical cyclones; larger extreme waves and storm surges; altered precipitation/ run-off; and ocean acidification. The Tyndall Centre has been exploring how to down-scale the global analysis to the local level within the framework of a coastal simulator. The simulator provides information on possible future states of the coast through the 21. Century under a range of climate and socio-economic futures and shoreline management options. It links models within a nested framework, recognizing three scales: (1) global, (2) regional, and (3) local. The linked models describe a range of processes, including marine climate (waves, surges and mean sea level), sand bank morpho-dynamics, wave transformation, shoreline morpho-dynamics, built environment scenarios, ecosystem change, and erosion and flood risk. Analyses from the simulator reinforce conclusions from IPCC WG2: coasts will be exposed to increasing risks over coming decades due to many compounding climate-change factors; the impact of climate change on coasts will be exacerbated by increasing human induced pressures; the unavoidability of sea-level rise even in the longer-term frequently conflicts with present day human development patterns and trends. (author)

  20. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An a...

  1. Speculative Fictions for Understanding Global Change Environments: Two Thought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Gough

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a thought experiment, as the term was used by quantum and relativity physicists in the early part of the twentieth century, was not prediction (as is the goal of classical experimental science, but more defensible representations of present ‘realities’. Speculative fictions, from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to the Star Wars cinema saga, can be read as sociotechnical thought experiments that produce alternative representations of present circumstances and uncertainties, and anticipate and critique possible futures. In this essay I demonstrate how two examples of popular speculative fictions, Frank Herbert's Dune (1965 and Ursula Le Guin's The Telling (2000, function as thought experiments that problematise global transitions in their respective eras. I argue that critical readings of such stories can help us to anticipate, critique, and respond constructively to social and cultural changes and change environments within nation-states that constitute, and are constituted by, global change processes and their effects.

  2. A global optimization paradigm based on change of measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saikat; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2015-07-01

    A global optimization framework, COMBEO (Change Of Measure Based Evolutionary Optimization), is proposed. An important aspect in the development is a set of derivative-free additive directional terms, obtainable through a change of measures en route to the imposition of any stipulated conditions aimed at driving the realized design variables (particles) to the global optimum. The generalized setting offered by the new approach also enables several basic ideas, used with other global search methods such as the particle swarm or the differential evolution, to be rationally incorporated in the proposed set-up via a change of measures. The global search may be further aided by imparting to the directional update terms additional layers of random perturbations such as 'scrambling' and 'selection'. Depending on the precise choice of the optimality conditions and the extent of random perturbation, the search can be readily rendered either greedy or more exploratory. As numerically demonstrated, the new proposal appears to provide for a more rational, more accurate and, in some cases, a faster alternative to many available evolutionary optimization schemes. PMID:26587268

  3. Global precipitation response to changing external forcings since 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bichet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Predicting and adapting to changes in the hydrological cycle is one of the major challenges for the twenty-first century. To better estimate how it will respond to future changes in climate forcings, it is crucial to understand how it has evolved in the past and why. In our study, we use an atmospheric global climate model with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs to investigate how changing external climate forcings have affected global land temperature and precipitation in the period 1870–2005. We show that prescribed SSTs (encapsulating other forcings are the dominant forcing driving the decadal variability of land temperature and precipitation since 1870. On top of this SSTs forcing, we also find that the atmosphere-only response to increasing aerosol emissions is a reduction in global land temperature and precipitation by up to 0.4 °C and 30 mm year−1, respectively, between about 1930 and 2000. Similarly, the atmosphere-only response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations is an increase in global land temperature and precipitation by up to 0.25 °C and 10 mm year−1, respectively, between about 1950 and 2000. Finally, our results also suggest that between about 1950 and 1970, increasing aerosol emissions had a larger impact on the hydrological cycle than increasing greenhouse gases concentrations.

  4. Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

  5. Oceans-land-atmosphere interactions and global change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    the global climate under pressure. This has become a cause for concern internationally, but should be more to us since our monsoons could be threatened. In order to appreciate the interactions among the Earth’s surface reservoirs in relation to climate... Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 94 Oceans-Land-Atmosphere interactions and Global Change M. Dileep Kumar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004. dileep@nio.org We live on land, feel the breeze and enjoy...

  6. TRENDS '90: A compendium of data on global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.); Boden, T.A.; Kanciruk, P.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-08-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global change data. This first issue includes estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and from the production of cement, historical and modern records of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and methane concentrations, and several long-term temperature records. Included are tabular and graphical presentations of the data, discussions of trends in the data, and references to publications that provide further information. Data are presented in a two-page format, each dealing with a different data set. All data are available in digital form from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  7. Assessing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers knowledge base about global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G. H.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is a crucial environmental issue that is challenging all Americans. With an effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks and methods can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. In this paper, we describe how teachers' conceptualize and understand global climate change. The information generated by this study can further be used to develop theme based, structured curricula to enhance teachers' understanding of the phenomenon of global climate change. Recent national documents concerning science education have focused on an Earth System approach and concentrate on the fundamental concepts and big ideas in earth science and climate change (e.g., The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (National Science Foundation (NSF), 2009) and Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009)). Unfortunately, research related to teachers' earth science content knowledge has not focused on an earth systems approach rather researchers have examined teachers' misconceptions about isolated earth science concepts, such as moon phases and plate tectonics. While such research implies teachers' lack of knowledge and awareness of earth as a system, it does not provide direct information about teachers' earth system knowledge. Similarly, research on teachers' and students' knowledge of climate change has focused on isolated topics, such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. Our study focused on eliciting secondary school science teachers' understanding of global climate change using a multifaceted and integrated approach. We do so in the context of a 3-year teacher professional development program where the climate science content provided to the teachers was aligned with essential principles of climate science (EPCS-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009). Our study was guided

  8. The effects of global change upon United States air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Abraham, R.; Chung, S. H.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E. P., Jr.; Nolte, C. G.; Loughlin, D.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Duhl, T.; Zhang, Y.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-11-01

    To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the United States (US), we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of changes in climate, biogenic emissions, land use and global/regional anthropogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Results from the ECHAM5 global climate model driven with the A1B emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to provide regional meteorological fields. We developed air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) chemical transport model for two nested domains with 220 and 36 km horizontal grid cell resolution for a semi-hemispheric domain and a continental United States (US) domain, respectively. The semi-hemispheric domain was used to evaluate the impact of projected global emissions changes on US air quality. WRF meteorological fields were used to calculate current (2000s) and future (2050s) biogenic emissions using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). For the semi-hemispheric domain CMAQ simulations, present-day global emissions inventories were used and projected to the 2050s based on the IPCC A1B scenario. Regional anthropogenic emissions were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency National Emission Inventory 2002 (EPA NEI2002) and projected to the future using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model assuming a business as usual scenario that extends current decade emission regulations through 2050. Our results suggest that daily maximum 8 h average ozone (DM8O) concentrations will increase in a range between 2 to 12 parts per billion (ppb) across most of the continental US. The highest increase occurs in the South, Central and Midwest regions of the US due to

  9. ASM Lecture Series: Global Warming and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melting of ice and permafrost in the north polar region and the shrinking of the tropical glaciers are signals that global warming is no longer solely a warning about the future, but changes which have already arrived. The initial effects of this warming are noticeably present, and the concerns are now of substantial climate change in the near future. Modeling of the consequences on the future atmosphere from increased release of greenhouse gases and some of the possible consequences of climate change, such as rising sea levels and melting of the north polar ice, are discussed. (author)

  10. How essential are Argo observations to constrain a global ocean data assimilation system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, V.; Remy, E.; Le Traon, P. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Observing system experiments (OSEs) are carried out over a 1-year period to quantify the impact of Argo observations on the Mercator Ocean 0.25° global ocean analysis and forecasting system. The reference simulation assimilates sea surface temperature (SST), SSALTO/DUACS (Segment Sol multi-missions dALTimetrie, d'orbitographie et de localisation précise/Data unification and Altimeter combination system) altimeter data and Argo and other in situ observations from the Coriolis data center. Two other simulations are carried out where all Argo and half of the Argo data are withheld. Assimilating Argo observations has a significant impact on analyzed and forecast temperature and salinity fields at different depths. Without Argo data assimilation, large errors occur in analyzed fields as estimated from the differences when compared with in situ observations. For example, in the 0-300 m layer RMS (root mean square) differences between analyzed fields and observations reach 0.25 psu and 1.25 °C in the western boundary currents and 0.1 psu and 0.75 °C in the open ocean. The impact of the Argo data in reducing observation-model forecast differences is also significant from the surface down to a depth of 2000 m. Differences between in situ observations and forecast fields are thus reduced by 20 % in the upper layers and by up to 40 % at a depth of 2000 m when Argo data are assimilated. At depth, the most impacted regions in the global ocean are the Mediterranean outflow, the Gulf Stream region and the Labrador Sea. A significant degradation can be observed when only half of the data are assimilated. Therefore, Argo observations matter to constrain the model solution, even for an eddy-permitting model configuration. The impact of the Argo floats' data assimilation on other model variables is briefly assessed: the improvement of the fit to Argo profiles do not lead globally to unphysical corrections on the sea surface temperature and sea surface height. The main conclusion

  11. Groundwater and climate change: mitigating the global groundwater crisis and adapting to climate change model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects of climate change on global groundwater resources, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Programme (IHP) initiated the GRAPHIC (Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Cl...

  12. Comparing Forecasts of the Global Impacts of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper utilizes the predictions of several Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models and the Global Impact Model to create forecasts of the global market impacts from climate change. The forecasts of market impacts in 2100 vary considerably depending on climate scenarios and climate impact sensitivity. The models do concur that tropical nations will be hurt, temperate nations will be barely affected, and high latitude nations will benefit. Although the size of these effects varies a great deal across models, the beneficial and harmful effects are offsetting, so that the net impact on the globe is relatively small in almost all outcomes. Looking only at market impacts, the forecasts suggest that while the global net benefits of abatement are small, the distribution of damages suggests a large equity problem that could be addressed through a compensation program. The large uncertainty surrounding these forecasts further suggests that continued monitoring of both the climate and impacts is worthwhile

  13. Addressing Pre-service Teachers Ideas About Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, R. V.; Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Lindgren, J.; Edwards, A.; Soden, B.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the scientific consensus about global climate change (GCC) and the potential risk, the media often portrays the science as controversial and as a debate (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). According to a recent report, young adults are divided on the issue of global warming (Feldman, Nisbet, Leiserowitz, & Maibach, 2010). Understanding both the science and the nature of this issue is especially important for future teachers. Also, given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. This study examines undergraduate science methods students' views of GCC, the relationship between students' views and their knowledge of GCC, and the impact of the course instructional approach. Students' views of GCC were assessed using the Views of Global Climate Change instrument (VGCC), a survey developed by the authors of this study (Lambert et al., 2010). The survey was developed to specifically measure students' views on: 1) their knowledge of GCC, 2) causes of GCC, 3) evidence (or indicators) of GCC, 4) impacts of GCC, 5) actions or solutions, 6) influence of politics on the issue of GCC, 7) scientific consensus, 8) trust of sources of information, and 9) concern about GCC. The Knowledge of Global Climate Change instrument (KGCC) (Lambert, Bleicher, & Lindgren, 2011) was employed to measure students' understanding of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and consequences of GCC. Pre-surveys indicated that 49% of the students felt that human activity was the main cause of climate change. At the conclusion of the course, 72% of the students thought that humans were causing climate change, and students' overall views about global warming significantly shifted toward being more concerned. Students' knowledge of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and impacts also increased significantly

  14. Shifting global invasive potential of European plants with climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Townsend Peterson

    Full Text Available Global climate change and invasions by nonnative species rank among the top concerns for agents of biological loss in coming decades. Although each of these themes has seen considerable attention in the modeling and forecasting communities, their joint effects remain little explored and poorly understood. We developed ecological niche models for 1804 species from the European flora, which we projected globally to identify areas of potential distribution, both at present and across 4 scenarios of future (2055 climates. As expected from previous studies, projections based on the CGCM1 climate model were more extreme than those based on the HadCM3 model, and projections based on the a2 emissions scenario were more extreme than those based on the b2 emissions scenario. However, less expected were the highly nonlinear and contrasting projected changes in distributional areas among continents: increases in distributional potential in Europe often corresponded with decreases on other continents, and species seeing expanding potential on one continent often saw contracting potential on others. In conclusion, global climate change will have complex effects on invasive potential of plant species. The shifts and changes identified in this study suggest strongly that biological communities will see dramatic reorganizations in coming decades owing to shifting invasive potential by nonnative species.

  15. Structural Change, Globalization and Economic Growth in China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Valli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In their period of rapid economic growth China and India have experienced profound structural transformations. The aim of the paper is to analyze the relation between structural change, the process of globalization and economic growth in the two great Asian countries, using a highly disaggregated dataset for the 1987-2009 period. While China had a longer and more intensive productivity growth than India, the latter had a somewhat more balanced growth. Both countries registered higher within-sectors gains in productivity than between-sectors ones. Our analysis also shows that there exist important feedbacks between structural change, globalization and economic growth over time. When the reallocation of labor is large, it may positively impact on the future rates of economic growth. At the same time, however, it seems that a too rapid economic growth may hinder a smooth reallocation of labor. In both countries, new policies should be designed to favor labor movement across sectors and areas, to reduce the wage-productivity differentials and to integrate the informal sector in formal markets in India, in order to foster structural changes and enhance economic growth. If a too unbalanced economic growth has somewhat limited the extent of structural change, globalization has on the contrary promoted it. High level of export, import and FDI not only has been related to higher rates of economic growth, but also to a deeper reallocation of resources across sectors, modifying the comparative advantage and reorganizing the production.

  16. Global climate change adaptation: examples from Russian boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian Federation contains approximately 20% of the world's timber resources and more than half of all boreal forests. These forests play a prominent role in environmental protection and economic development at global, national, and local levels, as well as, provide commodities for indigenous people and habitat for a variety of plant and animal species. The response and feedbacks of Russian boreal forests to projected global climate change are expected to be profound. Current understanding of the vulnerability of Russian forest resources to projected climate change is discussed and examples of possible adaptation measures for Russian forests are presented including: (1) artificial forestation techniques that can be applied with the advent of failed natural regeneration and to facilitate forest migration northward; (2) silvicultural measures that can influence the species mix to maintain productivity under future climates; (3) identifying forests at risk and developing special management adaption measures for them: (4) alternative processing and uses of wood and non-wood products from future forests; and (5) potential future infrastructure and transport systems that can be employed as boreal forests shift northward into melting permafrost zones. Current infrastructure and technology can be employed to help Russian boreal forests adapt to projected global environmental change, however many current forest management practices may have to be modified. Application of this technical knowledge can help policymakers identify priorities for climate change adaptation

  17. Global Change Effects on Plant Chemical Defenses against Insect Herbivores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Gabriela Bidart-Bouzat; Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on individual effects of major global change factors, such as elevated CO2, Oa, UV light and temperature,on plant secondary chemistry. These secondary metabolites are well-known for their role in plant defense against insect herbivory. Global change effects on secondary chemicals appear to be plant species-specific and dependent on the chemical type. Even though plant chemical responses induced by these factors are highly variable, there seems to be some specificity in the response to different environmental stressors. For example, even though the production of phenolic compounds is enhanced by both elevated CO2 and UV light levels, the latter appears to primarily increase the concentrations of fiavonoids. Likewise, specific phenolic metabolites seem to be induced by O3 but not by other factors, and an increase in volatile organic compounds has been particularly detected under elevated temperature. More information is needed regarding how global change factors influence inducibility of plant chemical defenses as well as how their indirect and direct effects impact insect performance and behavior, herbivory rates and pathogen attack. This knowledge is crucial to better understand how plants and their associated natural enemies will be affected in future changing environments.

  18. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  19. The economics of long-term global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report is intended to provide an overview of economic issues and research relevant to possible, long-term global climate change. It is primarily a critical survey, not a statement of Administration or Department policy. This report should serve to indicate that economic analysis of global change is in its infancy few assertions about costs or benefits can be made with confidence. The state of the literature precludes any attempt to produce anything like a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis. Moreover, almost all the quantitative estimates regarding physical and economic effects in this report, as well as many of the qualitative assertions, are controversial. Section I provides background on greenhouse gas emissions and their likely climatic effects and on available policy instruments. Section II considers the costs of living with global change, assuming no substantial efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Section III considers costs of reducing these emissions, though the available literature does not contain estimates of the costs of policies that would, on the assumptions of current climate models, prevent climate change altogether. The individual sections are not entirely compartmentalized, but can be read independently if necessary.

  20. Adaptable Information Models in the Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, B.; Buddenberg, A.; Aulenbach, S.; Wolfe, R.; Goldstein, J.

    2014-12-01

    The US Global Change Research Program has sponsored the creation of the Global Change Information System () to provide a web based source of accessible, usable, and timely information about climate and global change for use by scientists, decision makers, and the public. The GCIS played multiple roles during the assembly and release of the Third National Climate Assessment. It provided human and programmable interfaces, relational and semantic representations of information, and discrete identifiers for various types of resources, which could then be manipulated by a distributed team with a wide range of specialties. The GCIS also served as a scalable backend for the web based version of the report. In this talk, we discuss the infrastructure decisions made during the design and deployment of the GCIS, as well as ongoing work to adapt to new types of information. Both a constrained relational database and an open ended triple store are used to ensure data integrity while maintaining fluidity. Using natural primary keys allows identifiers to propagate through both models. Changing identifiers are accomodated through fine grained auditing and explicit mappings to external lexicons. A practical RESTful API is used whose endpoints are also URIs in an ontology. Both the relational schema and the ontology are maleable, and stability is ensured through test driven development and continuous integration testing using modern open source techniques. Content is also validated through continuous testing techniques. A high degres of scalability is achieved through caching.

  1. Coastline degradation as an indicator of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Finding a climate change signal on coasts is more problematic than often assumed. Coasts undergo natural dynamics at many scales, with erosion and recovery in response to climate variability such as El Niño, or extreme events such as storms and infrequent tsunamis. Additionally, humans have had enormous impacts on most coasts, overshadowing most changes that one can presently attribute directly to climate change. Each area of coast is experiencing its own pattern of relative sea-level change and climate change, making discrimination of the component of degradation that results from climate change problems. The best examples of a climate influence are related to temperature rise at low and high latitudes, as seen by the impacts on coral reefs and polar coasts, respectively. Observations through the twentieth century demonstrate the importance of understanding the impacts of sea-level rise and climate change in the context of multiple drivers of change; this will remain a challenge under a more rapidly changing climate. Nevertheless, there are emerging signs that climate change provides a global threat—sea ice is retreating, permafrost in coastal areas is widely melting. Reefs are bleaching more often, and the sea is rising—amplifying widespread trends of subsidence and threatening low-lying areas. To enhance the sustainability of coastal systems, management strategies will also need to address this challenge, focusing on the drivers that are dominant at each section of coast. Global warming through the twentieth century has caused a series of changes with important implications for coastal areas. These include rising temperatures, rising sea level, increasing CO2 concentrations with an associated reduction in seawater pH, and more intense precipitation on average.

  2. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B and control experiment 20C3M are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. This reveals in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that have a high likelihood and are consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1 the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2 the quantification of notable consistent changes calculated relative to the GCM specific natural variability. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions the likelihood of hydrological change is large.

    Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases strongly for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube while discharge of monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  3. Global changes and the air-sea exchange of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present and potential future changes to the global environment have important implications for marine pollution and for the air-sea exchange of both anthropogenic and natural substances. This report addresses three issues related to the potential impact of global change on the air-sea exchange of chemicals: Global change and the air-sea transfer of the nutrients nitrogen and iron. Global change and the air-sea exchange of gases. Oceanic responses to radiative and oxidative changes in the atmosphere. The deposition of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen has probably increased biological productivity in coastal regions along many continental margins. Atmospheric deposition of new nitrogen may also have increased productivity somewhat in mid-ocean regions. The projected future increases of nitrogen oxide emissions from Asia, Africa and South America will provide significant increases in the rate of deposition of oxidized nitrogen to the central North Pacific, the equatorial Atlantic, and the equatorial and central South Indian Oceans. Atmospheric iron may be an important nutrient in certain open regions. Future changes will likely occur if there are changing patterns of aridity and wind speed as a result of climate change. The most important future effects on surface ocean pCO2 will likely be caused by changes in ocean circulation. The pH of the ocean would decrease by ∼0.3 units for a doubling of pCO2, reducing the capacity of the ocean to take up CO2. There is increasing evidence that dimethyl sulfide from the ocean is a source of cloud condensation nuclei and thus a factor controlling cloud albedo. By 2060 in the southern hemisphere reduction in total column stratospheric ozone from recent levels could reach 2 to 5% in the tropics, 10% at mid latitudes, and over 20% at 60 deg C. S. In this same time frame increases in ground-level effective UV-B radiation could reach 5%, 26% and 66%, at low, mid, and high latitudes in the southern hemisphere. Changes in

  4. Stormy weather: 101 solutions to global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to energy efficiency measures that would rid the world of the threat of global warming caused by the wasteful use of hydrocarbon fuels and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions. The actions to be taken are not directed to governments and industry alone; indeed, the change must involve every segment of society to be effective. Accordingly, the book recommends actions that could be taken by individuals, citizen organizations, municipalities, businesses and organizations, energy companies, automobile companies, states and provinces, national governments, developing nations and global solutions. The recommendations range from choosing energy efficient appliances and buying green power, through increased recycling, reuse and reduced consumption, building solar and other renewable energy capacity, using sustainable fuels in automobiles, introducing tax measures favouring energy efficiency and sustainable development, to launching macro-level plans for a global green deal, establishing a global climate fund, accelerating the phase-out of CHCs, HCFCs and HFCs, forming a global ecological alliance and declaring a century of ecological restoration. Bibliographic notes, illustrations

  5. Preparing for Change: Challenges and Opportunities in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2009-03-01

    Our world is becoming increasingly global. This may sound like a clich'e, yet it is true nonetheless, and poses unprecedented challenges for graduate education. For the new generation of researchers, teachers and professionals to be successful they must be prepared in more than the content area of their chosen field. They must also acquire proficiency in global awareness, cultural literacy, multicultural teamwork and language facility. These global skill sets form the basis for effective multicultural collaboration and will become increasingly important even for those who do not intend to study or work abroad. Knowledge has become more portable in the internet age; large data bases and reports can be accessed in real time from various locations around the globe; information is exchanged in multifaceted knowledge networks; collaborative research takes place within and outside of the traditional venue of the research university in the private sector, research institutes, and associations; research networks span multiple disciplines as progress invariably occurs at the intersection of previously discrete fields of inquiry. Global collaboration thus is no longer dependent on the physical proximity of collaborators but can take place anywhere any time. This then requires yet another set of skills, namely the ability to adapt to change, exhibit flexibility and transfer skills to a range of contexts and applications. Effective graduate education must address these realities and expose students to learning opportunities that will enable them to acquire these much needed global skills sets.

  6. Effectiveness of electron beam microbial decontamination and change of essential oil components in fennel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of electron beam (EB) disinfection and sterilization technology and the changes of essential oil components in fennel were investigated. The absorbed dose was maximal at a depth of 0.9-1.0 g/cm2, which was 130% of the surface dose of 15 kGy in packed fennel irradiated with 5 MeV EB in a downward direction, and decreased in the deepest layer. As a result, in a fennel bacterial count of 105 cfu/g, a microbial contamination level below 1.0x103 cfu/g was obtained at a packing depth of 2.3 g/cm2 and at the absorbed dose of more than 3 kGy. The bacteria in fennel were highly sensitive to EB irradiation. Furthermore, EB irradiation had no effect on the essential oil content of fennel, and no change of the essential oil components was found at the irradiation level necessary for decontamination. (author)

  7. Science requirements for a global change technology architecture trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttles, John T.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    Science requirements for a global change technology initiative (GCTI) Architecture Trade Study were established by reviewing and synthesizing results from recent studies. A scientific rationale was adopted and used to identify a comprehensive set of measureables and their priorities. Spatial and temporal requirements for a number of measurement parameters were evaluated based on results from several working group studies. Science requirements were defined using these study results in conjunction with the guidelines for investigating global changes over a time scale of decades to centuries. Requirements are given separately for global studies and regional process studies. For global studies, temporal requirements are for sampling every 1 to 12 hours for atmospheric and radiation parameters and 1 day or more for most earth surface measurements. Therefore, the atmospheric measureables provide the most critical drivers for temporal sampling. Spatial sampling requirements vary from 1 km for land and ocean surface characteristics to 50 km for some atmospheric parameters. Thus, the land and ocean surface parameters have the more significant spatial variations and provide the most challenging spatial sampling requirements.

  8. Coping with global environmental change -- role of science and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, M G

    The world's population increased form about 3 billion in 1960 to 4 billion in 1974, to 5 billion in 1987, and it is projected to grow to 6 billion by 1991 and to 8 billion by 1992. Finite, nonrenewable resources have to satisfy the increased need for sustenance of this population excess in a sustainable economic development mold. Human activity has upset natural processes with negative environmental effects: Minamata disease in Japan caused by heavy metal pollution, global deforestation, and acid rain. The 1972 Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm dealt with industrial pollution. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) was established subsequently. The theory of global warming caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and halogens as predicted by a Swedish scientist decades ago is accumulating a body of evidence. The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions attempt to explore the Earth's physical, chemical, and biological processes to predict global environmental changes. Success mandates data availability. Paleoclimatic evidence indicates previous cataclysms caused by climate change, thus agriculture could be affected massively by global warming. Improved scientific analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and crop simulation models for major agricultural areas are needed. The North-South dialogue in UN forums has been acrimonious without much success, although international cooperation has been fruitful with the adoption of the Montreal Protocol on phasing out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. Such cooperation is needed on energy consumption and sources. PMID:12285904

  9. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  10. Global energy scenarios, climate change and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy scenarios provide a framework for exploring future energy perspectives, including various combinations of technology options and their implications. Many scenarios in the literature illustrate how energy system developments may affect global change. Examples are the new emissions scenarios by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the energy scenarios by the World Energy Assessment (WEA). Some of these scenarios describe energy futures that are compatible with sustainable development goals; such as improved energy efficiencies and the adoption of advanced energy supply technologies. Sustainable development scenarios are also characterized by low environmental impacts (at local, regional and global scales) and equitable allocation of resources and wealth. They can help explore different transitions toward sustainable development paths and alternative energy perspectives in general. The considerable differences in expected total energy requirements among the scenarios reflect the varying approaches used to address the need for energy services in the future and demonstrate effects of different policy frameworks, changes in human behavior and investments in the future, as well as alternative unfolding of the main scenario driving forces such as demographic transitions, economic development and technological change. Increases in research, development and deployment efforts for new energy technologies are a prerequisite for achieving further social and economic development in the world. Significant technological advances will be required, as well as incremental improvements in conventional energy technologies. In general, significant policy and behavioral changes will be needed during the next few decades to achieve more sustainable development paths and mitigate climate change toward the end of the century. (au)

  11. Global climate changes, natural disasters, and travel health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2006-01-01

    Whether the result of cyclical atmospheric changes, anthropogenic activities, or combinations of both, authorities now agree that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities. To date, most reports of the public health outcomes of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on heat stroke deaths following heat waves, drowning deaths in floods and tsunamis, and mosquito-borne infectious disease outbreaks following tropical storms and cyclones. Accurate predictions of the true public health outcomes of global climate change are confounded by several effect modifiers including human acclimatization and adaptation, the contributions of natural climatic changes, and many conflicting atmospheric models of climate change. Nevertheless, temporal relationships between environmental factors and human health outcomes have been identified and may be used as criteria to judge the causality of associations between the human health outcomes of climate changes and climate-driven natural disasters. Travel medicine physicians are obligated to educate their patients about the known public health outcomes of climate changes, about the disease and injury risk factors their patients may face from climate-spawned natural disasters, and about the best preventive measures to reduce infectious diseases and injuries following natural disasters throughout the world. PMID:17107430

  12. Biophysical climate impacts of recent changes in global forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Changes in forest cover affect the local climate by modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water. The magnitude of this biophysical effect is still debated in the scientific community and currently ignored in climate treaties. Here we present an observation-driven assessment of the climate impacts of recent forest losses and gains, based on Earth observations of global forest cover and land surface temperatures. Our results show that forest losses amplify the diurnal temperature variation and increase the mean and maximum air temperature, with the largest signal in arid zones, followed by temperate, tropical, and boreal zones. In the decade 2003-2012, variations of forest cover generated a mean biophysical warming on land corresponding to about 18% of the global biogeochemical signal due to CO2 emission from land-use change.

  13. Global DNA methylation changes in Cucurbitaceae inter-species grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Avramidou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has been used to improve yield, fruit quality and disease resistance in a range of tree and vegetable species. The molecular mechanisms underpinning grafting responses have only recently started to be delineated. One of those mechanisms involves long distance transfer of genetic material from rootstock to scion alluding to an epigenetic component to the grafting process. In the research presented herein we extended published work on heritable changes in the DNA methylation pattern of Solanaceae scion genomes, in Cucurbitaceae inter-species grafting. Specifically, we examined global DNA methylation changes in scions of cucumber, melon and watermelon heterografted onto pumpkin rootstocks using MSAP analysis. We observed a significant increase of global DNA methylation in cucumber and melon scions pointing to an epigenetic effect in Cucurbitaceae heterografting. Exploitation of differential epigenetic marking in different rootstock-scion combinations could lead to development of epi-molecular markers for generation and selection of superior quality grafted vegetables.

  14. Impact of global seismicity on sea level change assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Melini, D

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the effect of seismic activity on sealevel variations, by computing the time-dependent vertical crustal movement and geoid change due to coseismic deformations and postseismic relaxation effects. Seismic activity can affect both the absolute sealevel, by changing the Earth gravity field and hence the geoid height, and the relative sealevel, i.e. the radial distance between seafloor and geoid level. By using comprehensive seismic catalogues we assess the net effect of seismicity on tidal relative sealevel measurements as well as on the global oceanic surfaces, and we obtain an estimate of absolute sealevel variations of seismic origin. Our results confirm that, on a global scale, most of the signal is associated with few giant thrust events, and that RSL estimates obtained using tide-gauge data can be sensibly affected by the seismic driven sealevel signal. The recent measures of sealevel obtained by satellite altimetry show a wide regional variation of sealevel trends over the oceanic surfaces, wit...

  15. Global Environments through the Quaternary – Exploring Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Rose Mills

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Born from a series of volumes titled Environmental Change, first printed in 1976, this book is the second edition of a revised history of the global environment published in 2013. It is the collaborative work of David Anderson, Andrew Goudie, and Adrian Parker, all experts in the field of geography, with Parker also having a background in anthropology. Global Environments through the Quaternary provides a general scientific guide to interpreting environmental change. It is aimed at a wide audience and has a full glossary of less well known terms for added clarity. It would be a good accompaniment to a geoarchaeology course or for those interested in the history of environmental fluctuation, with its particular strengths lying in the concise and accessible presentation of scientific data. This enables it to work well as a reference guide that can be used alongside more in-depth research as it provides a key knowledge base with which to formulate personal theories.

  16. Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. But trace amounts of SO2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed sulfuric acid aerosols in the lower stratosphere that cooled the earth's surface ∼ 0.5 oC for typically three years. While such events are currently happening once every 80 years, there are times in geologic history when they occurred every few to a dozen years. These were times when the earth was cooled incrementally into major ice ages. There have also been two dozen times during the past 46,000 years when major volcanic eruptions occurred every year or two or even several times per year for decades. Each of these times was contemporaneous with very rapid global warming. Large volumes of SO2 erupted frequently appear to overdrive the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere resulting in very rapid warming. Such warming and associated acid rain becomes extreme when millions of cubic kilometers of basalt are erupted in much less than one million years. These are the times of the greatest mass extinctions. When major volcanic eruptions do not occur for decades to hundreds of years, the atmosphere can oxidize all pollutants, leading to a very thin atmosphere, global cooling and decadal drought. Prior to the 20th century, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) followed increases in temperature initiated by changes in SO2. By 1962, man burning fossil fuels was adding SO2 to the atmosphere at a rate equivalent to one 'large' volcanic eruption each 1.7 years. Global temperatures increased slowly from 1890 to 1950 as anthropogenic sulfur increased slowly. Global temperatures increased more rapidly after 1950 as the rate of anthropogenic sulfur emissions increased. By 1980

  17. Glacier fluctuations, global temperature and sea-level change

    OpenAIRE

    P. W. Leclercq

    2012-01-01

    The current world-wide glacier retreat is a clear sign of global warming. In addition, glaciers contribute to sea-level rise as a consequence of the current retreat. In this thesis we use records of past glacier fluctuations to reconstruct past climate variations and the glacier contribution to sea-level change. Firstly, a coherent data set of world-wide glacier fluctuations over the past centuries is compiled. Most available information of glacier fluctuations concerns glacier length fluctua...

  18. Joint sciences academies statement: global response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account that there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring, the Joint Science Academies, urge, by this statement, all nations in the line with the UNFCCC principles, to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change, adapt to its impacts and ensure that the issue is included in all relevant national and international strategies. Some recommendations are also given. (A.L.B.)

  19. Plant responses to soil heterogeneity and global environmental change

    OpenAIRE

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bardgett, Richard D.; de Kroon, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that soil nutrient heterogeneity, a ubiquitous feature of terrestrial ecosystems, modulates plant responses to ongoing global change (GC). However, we know little about the overall trends of such responses, the GC drivers involved, and the plant attributes affected.We synthesized literature to answer the question: Does soil heterogeneity significantly affect plant responses to main GC drivers, such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), nitrogen (...

  20. The effects of global change upon United States air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gonzalez-Abraham

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand more fully the effects of global changes on ambient concentrations of ozone and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 in the US, we conducted a comprehensive modeling effort to evaluate explicitly the effects of changes in climate, biogenic emissions, land use, and global/regional anthropogenic emissions on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Results from the ECHAM5 global climate model driven with the A1B emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC were downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to provide regional meteorological fields. We developed air quality simulations using the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ chemical transport model for two nested domains with 220 and 36 km horizontal grid cell resolution for a semi-hemispheric domain and a continental United States (US domain, respectively. The semi-hemispheric domain was used to evaluate the impact of projected Asian emissions changes on US air quality. WRF meteorological fields were used to calculate current (2000s and future (2050s biogenic emissions using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN. For the semi-hemispheric domain CMAQ simulations, present-day global emissions inventories were used and projected to the 2050s based on the IPCC A1B scenario. Regional anthropogenic emissions were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency National Emission Inventory 2002 (EPA NEI2002 and projected to the future using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL energy system model assuming a business as usual scenario that extends current decade emission regulations through 2050. Our results suggest that daily maximum 8 h average ozone (DM8O concentrations will increase in a range between 2 to 12 ppb across most of the continental US, with the highest increase in the South, Central, and Midwest regions of the US, due to increases in temperature

  1. Global climate change and cryospheric evolution in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin D.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Major outcomes of Working Group I, IPCC AR4 (2007, as well as the recent understandings from our regional climatic assessments in China were summarized. Changes of cryosphere in China, one of the major components in regional climate system, is specifically reviewed. Under the global/regional warming, all components of cryosphere in China (Tibetan Plateau and surroundings including glaciers, frozen ground (including permafrost and snow cover show rapid decay in the last decades. These changes have big socioeconomic impacts in west China, thus encourages both government and scientists pay more and more attention to this field.

  2. Ecotourism and Climates changes: the ecolodge contribution in global warming mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lukman Hakim; Nobukazu Nakagoshi

    2014-01-01

    Global attention to the global warming reduction has invite numerous strategy implemented with the objectives is mitigating greenhouse gasses emission which threats to the future of living in biosphere. Essentially, absorbing CO2 from atmosphere and sequestering in terrestrial ecosystem is one of the significant strategy. While in developing countries it is become essential, support for forest conservation, afforestation and effort to increase te...

  3. Global Connectedness and Global Migration: Insights from the International Changing Academic Profession Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K McGinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Changing Academic Profession (CAP international survey was designed in part to consider the effects of globalization on the work context and activities of academics in 19 countries or regions around the world. This paper draws from a subset of these data to explore the extent to which academics are globally connected in their research and teaching, and the ways this connectedness relates to global migration. Across multiple measures, immigrant academics (i.e., academics working in countries where they were not born and did not receive their first degree were more globally connected than national academics (i.e., those working in the countries of their birth and first degree. Global migration by academic staff is clearly a major contributor to the internationalization of higher education institutions, yet there was no evidence these contributions led to enhanced career progress or job satisfaction for immigrant academics relative to national academics. The international expertise and experience of immigrant academics may not be sufficiently recognized and valued by their institutions.

  4. USDA forest service global change research: Monitored ecosystems, northern linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foresters and natural resource managers have traditionally based long-term plans (i.e., 100+ year harvest cycles) on the assumption of stable landscapes and climate. Global climate change undercuts these assumptions and may alter or invalidate some accepted natural resource management practices and paradigms. Possible changes in biomass productivity, shifting of forest species' latitudinal or elevational limits, and rapid changes in forest community species and age class composition, all have major implications for management of the nation's forests. The USDA Forest Service is undertaking a national research program to assess rates, significant processes, and management implications of possible climatic change for the nation's forests and related resources. Pacific Region Forest Service global change research places major emphasis on understanding and monitoring forest processes in the northern boreal forest and the sub-arctic taiga of Alaska, which is potentially sensitive to climatic warming and to shifts in precipitation regime. A major terrestrial carbon pool, taiga forests and organic soils may also be important in the flux of greenhouse gases between landscape and atmosphere. Forest Service research emphasizes an ecosystem approach, incorporating landscape- and watershed-level field research with smaller-scale studies of forest ecosystem response mechanisms. Ecological monitoring is critical, and includes establishment of a monitoring mega-transect from northern latitudinal tree line to mediterranean/dry temperate forest/shrublands. Emphasis is placed on the most critical Pacific Region ecosystems: northern boreal forest (taiga), moist temperate forest, and mediterranean/dry temperate forest (chaparral/southern Ponderosa pine)

  5. The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV data record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Coldewey-Egbers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the new GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV data record which has been created within the framework of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI. Total ozone column observations – based on the GOME-type Direct Fitting version 3 algorithm – from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY, and GOME-2 have been combined into one homogeneous time series, thereby taking advantage of the high inter-sensor consistency. The data record spans the 15-year period from March 1996 to June 2011 and it contains global monthly mean total ozone columns on a 1° × 1° grid. Geophysical ground-based validation using Brewer, Dobson, and UV-visible instruments has shown that the GTO-ECV level 3 data record is of the same high quality as the equivalent individual level 2 data products that constitute it. Both absolute agreement and long-term stability are excellent with respect to the ground-based data, for almost all latitudes apart from a few outliers which are mostly due to sampling differences between the level 2 and level 3 data. We conclude that the GTO-ECV data record is valuable for a variety of climate applications such as the long-term monitoring of the past evolution of the ozone layer, trend analysis and the evaluation of Chemistry–Climate Model simulations.

  6. The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D. G.; Koukouli, M.; Balis, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Spurr, R.; Frith, S. M.; Zehner, C.

    2015-09-01

    We present the new GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record which has been created within the framework of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI). Total ozone column observations - based on the GOME-type Direct Fitting version 3 algorithm - from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY), and GOME-2 have been combined into one homogeneous time series, thereby taking advantage of the high inter-sensor consistency. The data record spans the 15-year period from March 1996 to June 2011 and it contains global monthly mean total ozone columns on a 1°× 1° grid. Geophysical ground-based validation using Brewer, Dobson, and UV-visible instruments has shown that the GTO-ECV level 3 data record is of the same high quality as the equivalent individual level 2 data products that constitute it. Both absolute agreement and long-term stability are excellent with respect to the ground-based data, for almost all latitudes apart from a few outliers which are mostly due to sampling differences between the level 2 and level 3 data. We conclude that the GTO-ECV data record is valuable for a variety of climate applications such as the long-term monitoring of the past evolution of the ozone layer, trend analysis and the evaluation of chemistry-climate model simulations.

  7. Engaging Undergraduates in Methods of Communicating Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Colgan, M. W.; Humphreys, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Global Climate Change has become a politically contentious issue in large part because of the failure of scientists to effectively communicate this complex subject to the general public. In a Global Change class, offered within a science department and therefore focused primarily on the underlying science, we have incorporated a citizen science module into the course to raise awareness among future scientists to the importance of communicating information to a broad and diverse audience. The citizen science component of this course focuses on how the predicted climate changes will alter the ecologic and economic landscape of the southeastern region. Helping potential scientists to learn to effectively communicate with the general public is particularly poignant for this predominate southern student body. A Pew Research Center for the People and the Press study found that less than 50% of Southerners surveyed felt that global warming is a very serious problem and over 30% of Southerners did not believe that there was any credible evidence that the Earth is warming. This interdisciplinary and topical nature of the course attracts student from a variety of disciplines, which provides the class with a cross section of students not typically found in most geology classes. This mixture provides a diversity of skills and interest that leads to success of the Citizen Science component. This learning approach was adapted from an education module developed through the Earth System Science Education Alliance and a newly developed component to that program on citizen science. Student teams developed several citizen science-related public service announcements concerning projected global change effects on Charleston and the South Carolina area. The scenario concerned the development of an information campaign for the City of Charleston, culminating with the student presentations on their findings to City officials. Through this real-life process, the students developed new

  8. Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

  9. Including Cities in Projections of Global Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M.; Best, M.; Betts, R.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of land use change through urbanisation has long been recognised as an important driver of localised climate change, resulting from the thermal and aerodynamic properties of the built environment that impact heat, moisture and momentum exchange at the atmosphere-surface interface. Urban areas contain a majority of the global population, and account for approximately 70% of primary energy demand. Therefore urban areas are focal points of vulnerability and exposure to climate change, but also potentially powerful focal points for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Urban areas occupy only a tiny fraction of the available land surface of the globe, and therefore have generally been ignored in the context of global climate change simulation. Rapid advances in recent decades have lead to the development of numerical urban models suitable for coupling to weather prediction and climate models. While the urban micro-climate and greenhouse gas induced climate change operate over very different space and time-scales we should not assume that their evolution will be independent. In this paper we demonstrate the use of an urban land surface exchange scheme nested in Hadley Centre climate models contributing to the fifth assessment report of the IPCC. This has been used to quantify the development of urban heat islands in response to both radiatively forced climate change from greenhouse gas emissions, and local forcing from anthropogenic heat release associated with energy use within the urban environment. Urban citizens will be exposed to the cumulative impacts of urbanisation and climate change trends through the 21st Century, and here we demonstrate that these would be much greater than climate change alone. We also find that those areas of the world expected to undergo large urbanisation over the 21st Century are within climate zones that are among those most sensitive to the nocturnal urban heat island effect.

  10. Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO2, CH4 and N2O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO2 is influenced by climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, and atmospheric residence times of CH4 and N2O also depend on ambient temperature and other environmental changes. We calculated the currently foreseeable future changes in the absolute GWP of CO2, which acts as the denominator for the calculation of all GWPs, and specifically the GWPs of CH4 and N2O, along four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) up to the year 2100. We find that the absolute GWP of CO2 decreases under all RCPs, although for longer time horizons this decrease is smaller than for short time horizons due to increased climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. The 100-year GWP of CH4 would increase up to 20% under the lowest RCP by 2100 but would decrease by up to 10% by mid-century under the highest RCP. The 100-year GWP of N2O would increase by more than 30% by 2100 under the highest RCP but would vary by less than 10% under other scenarios. These changes are not negligible but are mostly smaller than the changes that would result from choosing a different time horizon for GWPs, or from choosing altogether different metrics for comparing greenhouse gas emissions, such as global temperature change potentials.

  11. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  12. Changes in tropospheric and stratospheric global temperatures, 1958-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a network of 63 radiosonde stations distributed fairly evenly around the world, the global tropospheric temperature in 1988 was the maximum observed since the beginning of the record in 1958, 0.02 C warmer than 1983, 0.06 C warmer than 1987, and about 0.16 C warmer than 1980 and 1981. The global tropospheric temperature is indicated to have increased by a significant 0.2 C between 1958-72 and 1974-88, but with most of the warming in the Southern hemisphere and the north temperate zone even cooling slightly. Between these two intervals there was cooling in all climatic zones in the tropopause layer, the cooling of 0.2-0.3 C being significant in both hemispheres. The global low stratosphere cooled by more than 1.5 C following the 0.5 C warming occasioned by the El Chichon volcanic eruption, with most of the cooling in the Southern hemisphere and, in particular, in the south polar zone (Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon). Emphasized is the strong influence of El Nino on global tropospheric temperatures about two seasons later, and because of the El Nino in 1987, the need for caution in relating the record warmth of 1988 to any greenhouse effect. Discussed is the extent to which these tropospheric and stratospheric temperature changes support the presumption that a greenhouse effect is already being observed. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Changes in tropospheric and stratospheric global temperatures, 1958-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a network of 63 radiosonde stations distributed fairly evenly around the world, the global tropospheric temperature in 1988 was the maximum observed since the beginning of the record in 1958, 0.02 C warmer than 1983, 0.06 C warmer than 1987, and about 0.16 C warmer than 1980 and 1981. The global tropospheric temperature is indicated to have increased by a significant 0.2 C between 1958-72 and 1974-88, but with most of the warming in the Southern hemisphere and the north temperate zone even cooling slightly. Between these two intervals there was cooling in all climatic zones in the tropopause layer, the cooling of 0.2-0.3 C being significant in both hemispheres. The global low stratosphere cooled by more than 1.5 C following the 0.5 C warming occasioned by the El Chichon volcanic eruption, with most of the cooling in the Southern hemisphere and, in particular, in the south polar zone (Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon). Emphasized is the strong influence of El Nino on global tropospheric temperatures about two seasons later, and because of the El Nino in 1987, the need for caution in relating the record warmth of 1988 to any greenhouse effect. Discussed is the extent to which these tropospheric and stratospheric temperature changes support the presumption that a greenhouse effect is already being observed

  14. Global climate change: An environmental group's perspective -- The science, economics, and politics of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good deal of the debate concerning global climate change is about change itself. Climate change can be focused on as a set of effects in terms of temperature, precipitation, extreme events, but how well does one do in characterizing what will undoubtedly be a set of cumulative changes and stresses? Stratospheric ozone depletion, tropospheric ozone enhancement, acidification, resource exhaustion, salinization, deforestation, and the greenhouse-induced climate change as an added stress. What will be the synergies and antagonisms in this complex real time system? Institutionalizing change to harness its productive force is the challenge

  15. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

  16. Global Climate Change and Society: Scientific, Policy, and Philosophic Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, R.; Bullock, M. A.

    2001-12-01

    The summer of 2001 saw the inauguration of the Global Climate Change and Society Program (GCCS), an eight week, NSF-funded experiment in undergraduate pedagogy held at the University of Colorado and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Acknowledging from the start that climate change is more than a scientific problem, GCCS began with the simultaneous study of basic atmospheric physics, classical and environmental philosophy, and public policy. In addition to lectures and discussions on these subjects, our twelve undergraduates (majoring in the physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities) also participated in internships with scholars and researchers at NCAR, University of Colorado's Center of the American West, and the Colorado School of Mines, on specific issues in atmospheric science, science policy, and ethics and values. This talk will discuss the outcomes of GCCS: specifically, new insights into interdisciplinary pedagogy and the student creation of an extraordinary "deliverable," a group summary assessment of the global climate change debate. The student assessment called for an integrated discussion of both the science of climate change and the human values related to how we inhabit the world. The problems facing society today cannot be addressed through the single-minded adherence to science and technology; instead, society must develop new means of integrating the humanities and science in a meaningful dialogue about our common future.

  17. Application of transition metal isotope tracers in global change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jinming; Thomas F. Pedersen

    2005-01-01

    High-precision isotope composition determinations using multicollector, magnetic-sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) have recently revealed that some transition metal isotopes such as those of Mo, Fe, Cu, Zn etc. can be used as biogeochemical tracers in global change research.The Mo isotope system may be useful in paleoredox investigations indicating that δ 97/95Mo in seawater may co-vary with changes in the relative proportions of anoxic and oxic sedimentation in the ocean, and that this variation may be recorded in δ 97/95Mo of anoxic sediments. The Mo continental flux into the oceans and the global Mo isotope budget can be estimated fromδ 97/95MO values. The Fe isotope composition in seawater is an important issue because Fe plays a controlling role in biological productivity in the oceans and its abundance in seawater may have substantial effect on climate changes. Iron isotope fractionations could result from bio- and abio-processes and have about 0.1% variation (δ 56/54Fe), so Fe isotopes considered alone cannot be used to distinguish the products of abiotic and biotic Fe processing in geological records. Cu and Zn isotopes are also used as biogeochemical tracers, but the researches are relatively less. This review mainly focuses on the methods for preparation, purification and determination of new isotope tracer samples, and on isotope applications in marine environmental changes.

  18. Teaching global and local environmental change through Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Emanuela Paola; Rossi, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Human beings perceive the world primarily through their sense of sight. This can explain why the use of images is so important and common in educational materials, in particular for scientific subjects. The development of modern technologies for visualizing the scientific features of the Earth has provided new opportunities for communicating the increasing complexity of science both to the public and in school education. In particular, the use of Earth observation satellites for civil purposes, which started in the 70s, has opened new perspectives in the study of natural phenomena and human impact on the environment; this is particularly relevant for those processes developing on a long term period and on a global scale. Instruments for Remote Sensing increase the power of human sight, giving access to additional information about the physical world, which the human eye could not otherwise perceive. The possibility to observe from a remote perspective significant processes like climate change, ozone depletion, desertification, urban development, makes it possible for observers to better appreciate and experience the complexity of environment. Remote Sensing reveals the impact of human activities on ecosystems: this allows students to understand important concepts like global and local change in much more depth. This poster describes the role and effectiveness of Remote Sensing imagery in scientific education, and its importance towards a better global environmental awareness.

  19. International regime formation: Ozone depletion and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two theoretical perspectives, neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, dominate in international relations. An assessment is made of whether these perspectives provide compelling explanations of why a regime with specific targets and timetables was formed for ozone depletion, while a regime with such specificity was not formed for global climate change. In so doing, the assumptions underlying neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are examined. A preliminary assessment is offered of the policymaking and institutional bargaining process. Patterns of interstate behavior are evolving toward broader forms of cooperation, at least with regard to global environmental issues, although this process is both slow and cautious. State coalitions on specific issues are not yet powerful enough to create a strong community of states in which states are willing to devolve power to international institutions. It is shown that regime analysis is a useful analytic framework, but it should not be mistaken for theory. Regime analysis provides an organizational framework offering a set of questions regarding the principles and norms that govern cooperation and conflict in an issue area, and whether forces independent of states exist which affect the scope of state behavior. An examination of both neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, embodied by four approaches to regime formation, demonstrates that neither has sufficient scope to account for contextual dynamics in either the ozone depletion or global climate change regime formation processes. 261 refs

  20. Spatial modeling of agricultural land use change at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, P.; Dalton, M.; O'Neill, B. C.; Jain, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Long-term modeling of agricultural land use is central in global scale assessments of climate change, food security, biodiversity, and climate adaptation and mitigation policies. We present a global-scale dynamic land use allocation model and show that it can reproduce the broad spatial features of the past 100 years of evolution of cropland and pastureland patterns. The modeling approach integrates economic theory, observed land use history, and data on both socioeconomic and biophysical determinants of land use change, and estimates relationships using long-term historical data, thereby making it suitable for long-term projections. The underlying economic motivation is maximization of expected profits by hypothesized landowners within each grid cell. The model predicts fractional land use for cropland and pastureland within each grid cell based on socioeconomic and biophysical driving factors that change with time. The model explicitly incorporates the following key features: (1) land use competition, (2) spatial heterogeneity in the nature of driving factors across geographic regions, (3) spatial heterogeneity in the relative importance of driving factors and previous land use patterns in determining land use allocation, and (4) spatial and temporal autocorrelation in land use patterns. We show that land use allocation approaches based solely on previous land use history (but disregarding the impact of driving factors), or those accounting for both land use history and driving factors by mechanistically fitting models for the spatial processes of land use change do not reproduce well long-term historical land use patterns. With an example application to the terrestrial carbon cycle, we show that such inaccuracies in land use allocation can translate into significant implications for global environmental assessments. The modeling approach and its evaluation provide an example that can be useful to the land use, Integrated Assessment, and the Earth system modeling

  1. Change In Strategy - The Answer To Overcome Global Downturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Ghosh

    Full Text Available In terms of overcoming the global downturn, innovative business strategy has three major dimensions namely, ‘Innovative Promotional Practices’, ‘Social and Organizational welfare’, and ‘Ethical behavior’. Fortunately most strategic dimensions in business and management are measurable so as to facilitate development ratings in order to compare and highlight the different levels of overcoming the global downturn. My research paper on the role of innovativebusiness strategy in overcoming the recession and succeeding in the postrecessionary period basically focus on the different categorical elements of business strategies and its direct or indirect impact on the medium and small scale organizations. For the better understanding of the term ‘INNOVATION’ I have carried out a letter by letter scrutinization of this golden term. It goes like this:I-IdeasN-New Plan or DesignN-Noticeable changesO-Optimum change valuationV-VarietyA-Adaptation to the New Environment/New BusinessT-Thought Process for Planned ChangesI-Ideological Developments in BusinessO-Optimization of the changesN-Numero Uno (How Innovation helps in Securing the topmostposition.In order to understand the impact of innovative business strategies n combating the downturn I have formulated four important and innovative strategies. Thesestrategies are:1. HBS Strategy (Holistic Business Strategy.2. PBS Strategy (Polymorphic Business Strategy.3. GBS Strategy (Green Business Strategy.4. CCBS Strategy. (Country-club Business Strategy.By following these innovative strategies an enterprise can reach the zeniths of success and successfully combat the global downturn.

  2. Cloud physics considerations in global climate change studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, S.

    1995-09-01

    In predicting the global warming due to a doubling of CO{sub 2} it is important not to only evaluate the net effect of all the known feedback mechanisms, but to estimate the sensitivity to each. In other words, the partial derivatives as well as the total derivatives should be estimated. In order for relative humidity to remain constant, the liquid water content must be proportional to the cube root of the saturation vapor pressure and it is difficult to explain why this should be true. The point is that sensitivities to particles are as big as the direct carbon dioxide doubling effect, so that our uncertainty about which scenario is most realistic has important implications for our global change predictions. 2 figs.

  3. The Effect of Tide on the Global Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuexiang; CHEN Zhen; CHEN Dianyou; Qiao Qiyuan

    2002-01-01

    The differential rotation between the solid and fluid spheres caused by tidal force could explain the 1500 to 1800-year cycle of the world's temperature. Strong tide increases the vertical and horizontal mixing of water in the oceans, drawing the cold Pacific water from the depths to the surface and the warm water from the west to the east, where it cools or warms the atmosphere above, absorbs or releases CO2 to decrease or increase greenhouse effect and to make La Nina or El Nino occur in the global. The moon's declination and obliquity of the ecliptic affect the tidal intensity. The exchange of tidal energy and tide-generating force caused by the sun, moon and major planets makes the earth's layers rotate in different speeds. The differenti-al rotation between solid and fluid of the earth is the basic reason for El Nino and global climate change.

  4. Microwave sensing technology issues related to a global change technology architecture trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Thomas G.; Shiue, Jim; Connolly, Denis; Woo, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are to enable the development of lighter and less power consuming, high resolution microwave sensors which will operate at frequencies from 1 to 200 GHz. These systems will use large aperture antenna systems (both reflector and phased arrays) capable of wide scan angle, high polarization purity, and utilize sidelobe suppression techniques as required. Essentially, the success of this technology program will enable high resolution microwave radiometers from geostationary orbit, lightweight and more efficient radar systems from low Earth orbit, and eliminate mechanical scanning methods to the fullest extent possible; a main source of platform instability in large space systems. The Global Change Technology Initiative (GCTI) will develop technology which will enable the use of satellite systems for Earth observations on a global scale.

  5. The New Phase of the Global Policy on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Calanter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, a phenomenon that occurs worldwide, is one of the great challenges of our times.The scientific community has repeatedly drawn policy makers attention to the imperative need to adopt ofpreventive, mitigation and adaptation measures to what constitutes a threat to the normal course of life onEarth. Adoption and entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, with its ratification by Russia, in February 2005represented a major step forward in the global struggle against climate change. In this moment, however, theconclusion in 2012 of the commitment period for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases provided by theProtocol, and the brokenness of this period, put in front of the international community the need for furtherpolicy measures to prevent and combating climate change and its effects.

  6. Studying the human dimensions of global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent scientific interest in climate change has come a need to address substantive issues over very long periods of time and over virtually the entire globe. There is also a growing recognition not only of the links between physical and biological systems but also of the key roles played by human activities and institutions in interaction with the physical and biological world. Hence, the study of climate change presents a host of important questions to social scientists, for which they are not fully prepared. The problems inherent in studying the human dimensions of global climate change do not occur in a scientific vacuum. Rather, they are in part created by, and in part reflect, important gaps in scientific understanding of the physical and biological dimensions. To set the stage, therefore, the general nature of these gaps needs to be briefly reviewed

  7. Assessing historical rate changes in global tsunami occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2011-10-01

    The global catalogue of tsunami events is examined to determine if transient variations in tsunami rates are consistent with a Poisson process commonly assumed for tsunami hazard assessments. The primary data analyzed are tsunamis with maximum sizes >1 m. The record of these tsunamis appears to be complete since approximately 1890. A secondary data set of tsunamis >0.1 m is also analyzed that appears to be complete since approximately 1960. Various kernel density estimates used to determine the rate distribution with time indicate a prominent rate change in global tsunamis during the mid-1990s. Less prominent rate changes occur in the early- and mid-20th century. To determine whether these rate fluctuations are anomalous, the distribution of annual event numbers for the tsunami catalogue is compared to Poisson and negative binomial distributions, the latter of which includes the effects of temporal clustering. Compared to a Poisson distribution, the negative binomial distribution model provides a consistent fit to tsunami event numbers for the >1 m data set, but the Poisson null hypothesis cannot be falsified for the shorter duration >0.1 m data set. Temporal clustering of tsunami sources is also indicated by the distribution of interevent times for both data sets. Tsunami event clusters consist only of two to four events, in contrast to protracted sequences of earthquakes that make up foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequences. From past studies of seismicity, it is likely that there is a physical triggering mechanism responsible for events within the tsunami source 'mini-clusters'. In conclusion, prominent transient rate increases in the occurrence of global tsunamis appear to be caused by temporal grouping of geographically distinct mini-clusters, in addition to the random preferential location of global M >7 earthquakes along offshore fault zones.

  8. Impact of climate change on global malaria distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Kovats, Sari; Rocklov, Joacim; Tompkins, Adrian M.; Morse, Andrew P.; Colón-González, Felipe J.; Stenlund, Hans; Martens, Pim; Lloyd, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is an important disease that has a global distribution and significant health burden. The spatial limits of its distribution and seasonal activity are sensitive to climate factors, as well as the local capacity to control the disease. Malaria is also one of the few health outcomes that has been modeled by more than one research group and can therefore facilitate the first model intercomparison for health impacts under a future with climate change. We used bias-corrected temperature and rainfall simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate models to compare the metrics of five statistical and dynamical malaria impact models for three future time periods (2030s, 2050s, and 2080s). We evaluated three malaria outcome metrics at global and regional levels: climate suitability, additional population at risk and additional person-months at risk across the model outputs. The malaria projections were based on five different global climate models, each run under four emission scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways, RCPs) and a single population projection. We also investigated the modeling uncertainty associated with future projections of populations at risk for malaria owing to climate change. Our findings show an overall global net increase in climate suitability and a net increase in the population at risk, but with large uncertainties. The model outputs indicate a net increase in the annual person-months at risk when comparing from RCP2.6 to RCP8.5 from the 2050s to the 2080s. The malaria outcome metrics were highly sensitive to the choice of malaria impact model, especially over the epidemic fringes of the malaria distribution. PMID:24596427

  9. Biodiversity and global change. Adaptative responses to global change: results and prospective. IFB-GICC restitution colloquium; Biodiversite et changement global. Reponses adaptatives au changement global: resultats et prospective. Colloque de restitution IFB-GICC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despres, L.; Hossaert-Mckey, M.; Martin, J.F.; Pont, D.; Valero, M.; Chave, J.; Benizri, E.; Amiaud, B.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Fritz, H.; Lavelle, P.; Martin, F.; Poulet, S.; Blanchard, F.; Cheddadi, R.; Dupouey, J.L.; Hulle, M.; Michaux, J.; Souissi, S.; Bridault, A.; Dambrine, E.; Gomez, B.; Thevenard, F.; Legendre, S.; Suc, J.P.; Zeitoun, V.; Bezancon, G.; Frascaria-Lacoste, N.; Ponsard, S.; Bourguet, D.; Vigne, J.D.; Doyen, L.; Joly, P.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Garnier, E.; Lebaron, Ph.; Boulinier, Th.; Chuine, I.; Jiguet, F.; Couvet, D.; Soussana, J.F.; Weimerskirsch, H.; Grosbois, V.; Bretagnolle, V

    2006-07-01

    Global change is the consequence of the worldwide human print on ecology. The uncontrolled use of fossil fuels, the urbanization, the intensifying of agriculture, the homogenization of life styles and cultures, the homogenization of fauna and vegetation, the commercial trades, the bio-invasions, the over-exploitation of resources and the emergence of new economic powers (China, India, Brazil..) represent an adaptative dynamics of interactions which affects the overall biosphere and the adaptative capacities and the future of all species. Biodiversity is an ecological and societal insurance against the risks and uncertainties linked with global change. The French institute of biodiversity (IFB) has created a working group in charge of a study on global change and biodiversity, in particular in terms of: speed and acceleration of processes, interaction between the different organization levels of the world of living, scale changes, and adaptative capacities. 38 projects with an interdisciplinary approach have been retained by the IFB and the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development. The conclusion of these projects were presented at this restitution colloquium and are summarized in this document. The presentations are organized in 7 sessions dealing with: global changes and adaptation mechanisms; functional responses to global changes; spatial responses to global changes; temporal responses to global changes; selective answers to global changes; available tools and ecological services; scenarios and projections. (J.S.)

  10. Global emission trading. A solution to the challenges of global climate change?; Globaler Emissionshandel. Loesung fuer die Herausforderungen des Klimawandels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Friedemann [Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The international climate policy has reached a dead end, and a solution is difficult. Since the 15th climate conference in Copenhagen, pessimism prevails. Hardly anyone believes that a common solution can be found before the next conference at Cancun. On the other hand, time is running out as the validity time of the Kyoto Protocol will end in 2012, and the need for slowing down global climate change is calling for fast action. To find a solution, it will be necessary not only to bridge the deep gap between industrialized countries and threshold countries, but also, within each society, to bridge the deep gap between climate activists on the one hand and the public opinion on the other hand. Global emission trading may offer a way out of the current dilemma. (orig.)

  11. Global Water Resources Under Future Changes: Toward an Improved Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M.; Agata, Y.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2005-05-01

    Global water resources availability in the 21st century is going to be an important concern. Despite its international recognition, however, until now there are very limited global estimates of water resources, which considered the geographical linkage between water supply and demand, defined by runoff and its passage through river network. The available studies are again insufficient due to reasons like different approaches in defining water scarcity, simply based on annual average figures without considering the inter-annual or seasonal variability, absence of the inclusion of virtual water trading, etc. In this study, global water resources under future climate change associated with several socio-economic factors were estimated varying over both temporal and spatial scale. Global runoff data was derived from several land surface models under the GSWP2 (Global Soil Wetness Project) project, which was further processed through TRIP (Total Runoff Integrated Pathways) river routing model to produce a 0.5x0.5 degree grid based figure. Water abstraction was estimated for the same spatial resolution for three sectors as domestic, industrial and agriculture. GCM outputs from CCSR and MRI were collected to predict the runoff changes. Socio-economic factors like population and GDP growth, affected mostly the demand part. Instead of simply looking at annual figures, monthly figures for both supply and demand was considered. For an average year, such a seasonal variability can affect the crop yield significantly. In other case, inter-annual variability of runoff can cause for an absolute drought condition. To account for vulnerabilities of a region to future changes, both inter-annual and seasonal effects were thus considered. At present, the study assumed the future agricultural water uses to be unchanged under climatic changes. In this connection, EPIC model is underway to use for estimating future agricultural water demand under climatic changes on a monthly basis. From

  12. Outcome and value uncertainties in global-change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choices among environmental policies can be informed by analysis of the potential physical, biological, and social outcomes of alternative choices, and analysis of social preferences among these outcomes. Frequently, however, the consequences of alternative policies cannot be accurately predicted because of substantial outcome uncertainties concerning physical, chemical, biological, and social processes linking policy choices to consequences. Similarly, assessments of social preferences among alternative outcomes are limited by value uncertainties arising from limitations of moral principles, the absence of economic markets for many environmental attributes, and other factors. Outcome and value uncertainties relevant to global-change policy are described and their magnitudes are examined for two cases: stratospheric-ozone depletion and global climate change. Analysis of information available in the mid 1980s, when international ozone regulations were adopted, suggests that contemporary uncertainties surrounding CFC emissions and the atmospheric response were so large that plausible ozone depletion, absent regulation, ranged from negligible to catastrophic, a range that exceeded the plausible effect of the regulations considered. Analysis of climate change suggests that, important as outcome uncertainties are, uncertainties about values may be even more important for policy choice. 53 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Implications for human health of global atmospheric changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible impacts of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and ultraviolet irradiation, acid precipitation, and resulting demographic changes are reviewed, along with the implications of global ecological changes on society and sustainable development. Some manifestations of global warming caused by the greenhouse effect could include more frequently extreme weather conditions, rises in sea level, disruption of ocean currents, and changes in composition and distribution of vegetation. Consequences of these manifestations on human health include an increase in the frequency of droughts and heat waves, migration of disease carrying vectors to other areas, submergence of coastal areas and disruption of water supplies, destruction of tropical species potentially useful for medicinal purposes, and impaired production of crops leading to food shortages. Consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion due to chlorofluorocarbon pollution are thought to be a direct result of increased exposure to ultraviolet light; these consequences include higher risks of non-melanoma skin cancer. The effects of acid precipitation are thought to be primarily ecological and indirect. 61 refs,

  14. European network for research in global change (ENRICH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium). DG XII/JRC

    1995-12-31

    While approaching the beginning of the twenty first century, the scientific community is faced with the formidable tasks of monitoring and detecting, understanding and predicting changes in the Earth System and its interactions with human beings. A crucial challenge is to make scientific research results accessible and usable for those involved in the decision making process related to the concept of Sustainable Development. Major international scientific programmes under the umbrella of ICSU, such as the IGBP and WCRP, are dealing with these issues. Although there exist many well developed global change research programmes in several European countries and effective collaboration networks between research institutes, there is an urgent need for overall communication with a view to promoting wider international links ensuring complementarity, synergy and coherence. Recognizing the importance of promoting coherence in research and utilising research results for various European Union (EU) policies, the European Commissioner responsible for Science, Research and Development wrote in March 1992 to all the EU Research Ministers to propose an initiative in this domain. In a rapid response, a group of Senior Experts from the EU Member States was set up in April 1992. This Group established a Task Force to develop the concept of the European Network for Research In Global CHange (ENRICH) which was approved in July 1993

  15. Changes in observed climate extremes in global urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate extremes have profound implications for urban infrastructure and human society, but studies of observed changes in climate extremes over the global urban areas are few, even though more than half of the global population now resides in urban areas. Here, using observed station data for 217 urban areas across the globe, we show that these urban areas have experienced significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the number of heat waves during the period 1973–2012, while the frequency of cold waves has declined. Almost half of the urban areas experienced significant increases in the number of extreme hot days, while almost 2/3 showed significant increases in the frequency of extreme hot nights. Extreme windy days declined substantially during the last four decades with statistically significant declines in about 60% in the urban areas. Significant increases (p-value <0.05) in the frequency of daily precipitation extremes and in annual maximum precipitation occurred at smaller fractions (17 and 10% respectively) of the total urban areas, with about half as many urban areas showing statistically significant downtrends as uptrends. Changes in temperature and wind extremes, estimated as the result of a 40 year linear trend, differed for urban and non-urban pairs, while changes in indices of extreme precipitation showed no clear differentiation for urban and selected non-urban stations. (letter)

  16. Global priorities for national carnivore conservation under land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke T B; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Toivonen, Tuuli; Verburg, Peter H; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Petracca, Lisanne; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores have suffered the biggest range contraction among all biodiversity and are particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Therefore, we identified priority areas for the conservation of mammalian carnivores, while accounting for species-specific requirements for connectivity and expected agricultural and urban expansion. While prioritizing for carnivores only, we were also able to test their effectiveness as surrogates for 23,110 species of amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles and 867 terrestrial ecoregions. We then assessed the risks to carnivore conservation within each country that makes a contribution to global carnivore conservation. We found that land use change will potentially lead to important range losses, particularly amongst already threatened carnivore species. In addition, the 17% of land targeted for protection under the Aichi Target 11 was found to be inadequate to conserve carnivores under expected land use change. Our results also highlight that land use change will decrease the effectiveness of carnivores to protect other threatened species, especially threatened amphibians. In addition, the risk of human-carnivore conflict is potentially high in countries where we identified spatial priorities for their conservation. As meeting the global biodiversity target will be inadequate for carnivore protection, innovative interventions are needed to conserve carnivores outside protected areas to compliment any proposed expansion of the protected area network. PMID:27034197

  17. E-Infrastructure and Data Management for Global Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Gurney, R. J.; Cesar, R.; Cossu, R.; Gemeinholzer, B.; Koike, T.; Mokrane, M.; Peters, D.; Nativi, S.; Samors, R.; Treloar, A.; Vilotte, J. P.; Visbeck, M.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum, a coalition of science funding agencies from 15 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to assess the state of international of e-infrastructures and data management so that global change data and information can be more easily and efficiently exchanged internationally and across domains. Ultimately, this project aims to address the Belmont "Challenge" to deliver knowledge needed for action to avoid and adapt to detrimental environmental change, including extreme hazardous events. This effort emerged from conclusions by the Belmont Forum that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields, and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. The project will deliver a Community Strategy and Implementation Plan to prioritize international funding opportunities and long-term policy recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to funding and supporting global change research. The Plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum funding calls for proposals in support of research science goals as well as to establish long term e-infrastructure. More than 120 scientists, technologists, legal experts, social scientists, and other experts are participating in six Work Packages to develop the Plan by spring, 2015, under the broad rubrics of Architecture/Interoperability and Governance: Data Integration for Multidisciplinary Research; Improved Interface between Computation & Data Infrastructures; Harmonization of Global Data Infrastructure; Data Sharing; Open Data; and Capacity Building. Recommendations could lead to a more coordinated approach to policies, procedures and funding mechanisms to support e-infrastructures in a more sustainable way.

  18. Collaborative decision process support tools from global change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, D.G. [Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station; Faber, B.G. [CIESIN/TERRA, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Global change research attempts to develop a predictive understanding of ecosystems, especially their response to a host of anthropogenic stressors. In particular, the forest Service component of this program is concerned with how forest and related ecosystems should be managed in view of this understanding. Collaboration among scientists, managers and resource stakeholders is a key requirement for achieving improved management. This paper discusses a set of tools currently under development, that are capable of assisting people in conducting collaborative decision processes. It reviews recent advances in collaborative GIS techniques, describes an application of collaborative GIS with the Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, and discusses future development efforts.

  19. A Decade on the Global Change EPO Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, J. W.; Somerville, R. C.

    2002-12-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) offers a variety of approaches to enhance K-12 Earth systems science education through pre- and in-service educator professional development workshops, materials development, and experiences for scientists on roles they can play in education and outreach. Partnering institutions have included the Space Science Institute, NASA Earth Science Enterprise, and NSF Geosciences. Here we review approaches and lessons learned from three projects. 1) The Ground Truth Studies teacher workshops and the development of the Ground Truth Studies Teacher Handbook, funded as a cooperative agreement with NASA and other sources. This project was developed with Earth system scientists, environmental education curriculum developers, K-12 teachers and was piloted in several states. The project culminated in the development of the teacher handbook which includes primers on global change, remote sensing, elementary and secondary level hands-on activities, and resources. This publication has been utilized in conjunction with other teacher training programs or as a stand-alone resource for teachers. 2) PESTO (Pre- and In-Service Earth Science Training Opportunity) funded by NASA, a residential week-long intensive experience for pre- and in-service teachers offered for graduate and undergraduate credit. The PESTO faculty included a senior research scientist, an environmental educator/curriculum developer, and an EPO specialist. Content included an overview of global environmental change with an emphasis on climate and atmospheric chemistry and a review of online and CD resources relevant to elementary and secondary Earth systems topics. Visiting scientists engaged the group in the process of science and issues associated with science in society. 3) Workshop on K-12 Education for Geoscientists, a NSF/Geosciences sponsored project was a mini-workshop embedded within one of AGCI's interdisciplinary science meetings on a topic in global change. The

  20. Global Climate Change and China's Green Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Angang

    2011-01-01

    For China, green industrial revolution induced by global climate change poses not only the greatest challenge, but also the greatest opportunity. In the perspective of China's basic national conditions, and especially its natural conditions, China's green development is the inevitable path of choice for the realization of sustainable development and scientific development. The essence of China's modernization 2050 is green modernization, taking the three-step strategy towards China's own green development and energy conservation and emission reduction. In combination with the 12th Five Year Plan, its innovative positioning is "green development plan".

  1. The indirect global warming potential and global temperature change potential due to methane oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere next to carbon dioxide. Its global warming potential (GWP) for a time horizon of 100 years is 25, which makes it an attractive target for climate mitigation policies. Although the methane GWP traditionally includes the methane indirect effects on the concentrations of ozone and stratospheric water vapour, it does not take into account the production of carbon dioxide from methane oxidation. We argue here that this CO2-induced effect should be included for fossil sources of methane, which results in slightly larger GWP values for all time horizons. If the global temperature change potential is used as an alternative climate metric, then the impact of the CO2-induced effect is proportionally much larger. We also discuss what the correction term should be for methane from anthropogenic biogenic sources.

  2. Global Energy Transitions and the Challenge of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global emissions of greenhouse-gases have increased markedly as a result of human activities since pre-industrial times. This increase in emissions has lead to unequivocal global warming, which is evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Reducing the risk of irreversible climate impacts requires thus the mitigation of global GHG emissions aiming at the long-term stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations. Achieving this goal translates into the need of reducing emissions to virtually zero over long time-frames. Yet international agreement on a long-term climate policy target remains a distant prospect, due to both scientific uncertainty and political disagreement on the appropriate balance between mitigation costs and reduced risks of dangerous impacts. At the same time, growing emissions of greenhouse gases continue to increase the amount of climate change we are committed to over the long term. Over the next few decades, these growing emissions may make some potentially desirable long term goals unattainable. Recent analysis conducted at IIASA indicates the need of major energy transitions over the next few decades. For example, staying below the target suggested by the European Union of 2 C warming (with just a 50% likelihood) will require the massive deployment of zero-carbon energy by 2050, and a tippling of the contribution of zero-carbon energy globally to more than 60% by that time. Although there are large uncertainties with respect to the deployment of individual future technologies, there is strong evidence that no single mitigation measure alone would be sufficient for achieving the stabilization of GHG concentrations at low levels. A wide portfolio of technologies across all GHG-intensive sectors is needed for cost-effective emissions reductions. The bulk of these emissions reductions would need to come from the energy sector, with

  3. PERSPECTIVE: Climate change, biofuels, and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2007-03-01

    There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops. Soon the price of these commodities will be determined by their value as feedstock for biofuel rather than their importance as human food or livestock feed [1]. The expectation that petroleum prices will remain high and supportive government policies in several major crop producing countries are providing strong momentum for continued expansion of biofuel production capacity and the associated pressures on global food supply. Farmers in countries that account for a majority of the world's biofuel crop production will enjoy the promise of markedly higher commodity prices and incomesNote1. In contrast, urban and rural poor in food-importing countries will pay much higher prices for basic food staples and there will be less grain available for humanitarian aid. For example, the developing countries of Africa import about 10 MMt of maize each year; another 3 5 MMt of cereal grains are provided as humanitarian aid (figure 1). In a world where more than 800 million are already undernourished and the demand for crop commodities may soon exceed supply, alleviating hunger will no longer be solely a matter of poverty alleviation and more equitable food distribution, which has been the situation for the past thirty years. Instead, food security will also depend on accelerating the rate of gain in crop yields and food production capacity at both local and global scales. Maize imports and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa Figure 1. Maize imports (yellow bar) and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa, 2001 2003. MMT = million metric tons. Data

  4. Our changing planet: The FY 1994 US Global Change Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach of the US Global Change Research Program recognizes the profound economic and social implications of responding to global envirorunental changes and advances US leadership on this issue. The report outlines a careful blend of ground- and space-based efforts in research, data gathering, and modeling activities, as well as economic research, with both near- and long-term scientific and public policy benefits. In FY 1994, the Program will add an explicit focus on assessment, seeking to improve our understanding of the state of scientific knowledge and the implications of that knowledge for national and international policymaking activities

  5. Our changing planet: The FY 1994 US Global Change Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The approach of the US Global Change Research Program recognizes the profound economic and social implications of responding to global envirorunental changes and advances US leadership on this issue. The report outlines a careful blend of ground- and space-based efforts in research, data gathering, and modeling activities, as well as economic research, with both near- and long-term scientific and public policy benefits. In FY 1994, the Program will add an explicit focus on assessment, seeking to improve our understanding of the state of scientific knowledge and the implications of that knowledge for national and international policymaking activities.

  6. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N2) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N2O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO2 emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

  7. Global Change Research: Summaries of research in FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Global Research Program in FY 1993. This publication describes all of the projects funded by the Environmental Sciences Division of DOE under annual contracts, grants, and interagency agreements in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; its 3-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than 1 year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: climate modeling, quantitative links, global carbon cycle, vegetation research, ocean research, economics of global climate change, education, information and integration, and NIGEC. Within these categories, the descriptions are grouped alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers.

  8. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.)

    1991-12-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  9. Hurricanes and Climate Change: Global Systems and Local Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, J.

    2011-12-01

    With funding from NOAA, the Miami Science Museum has been working with exhibit software developer Ideum to create an interactive exhibit exploring the global dimensions and local impacts of climate change. A particular focus is on climate-related impacts on coastal communities, including the potential effects on South Florida of ocean acidification, rising sea level, and the possibility of more intense hurricanes. The exhibit is using a 4-foot spherical display system in conjunction with a series of touchscreen kiosks and accompanying flat screens to create a user-controlled, multi-user interface that lets visitors control the sphere and choose from a range of global and local content they wish to explore. The exhibit has been designed to promote engagement of diverse, multigenerational audiences through development of a fully bilingual user interface that promotes social interaction and conversation among visitors as they trade off control of global content on the sphere and related local content on the flat screens. The open-source learning module will be adaptable by other museums, to explore climate impacts specific to their region.

  10. Scenario and modelling uncertainty in global mean temperature change derived from emission driven Global Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. B. Booth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare future changes in global mean temperature in response to different future scenarios which, for the first time, arise from emission driven rather than concentration driven perturbed parameter ensemble of a Global Climate Model (GCM. These new GCM simulations sample uncertainties in atmospheric feedbacks, land carbon cycle, ocean physics and aerosol sulphur cycle processes. We find broader ranges of projected temperature responses arising when considering emission rather than concentration driven simulations (with 10–90 percentile ranges of 1.7 K for the aggressive mitigation scenario up to 3.9 K for the high end business as usual scenario. A small minority of simulations resulting from combinations of strong atmospheric feedbacks and carbon cycle responses show temperature increases in excess of 9 degrees (RCP8.5 and even under aggressive mitigation (RCP2.6 temperatures in excess of 4 K. While the simulations point to much larger temperature ranges for emission driven experiments, they do not change existing expectations (based on previous concentration driven experiments on the timescale that different sources of uncertainty are important. The new simulations sample a range of future atmospheric concentrations for each emission scenario. Both in case of SRES A1B and the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, the concentration pathways used to drive GCM ensembles lies towards the lower end of our simulated distribution. This design decision (a legecy of previous assessments is likely to lead concentration driven experiments to under-sample strong feedback responses in concentration driven projections. Our ensemble of emission driven simulations span the global temperature response of other multi-model frameworks except at the low end, where combinations of low climate sensitivity and low carbon cycle feedbacks lead to responses outside our ensemble range. The ensemble simulates a number of high end responses which lie above the

  11. Τhe attitude of nurses on global climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrianopoulos Τ.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has had and will have considerable effects on human health.Νursing must become more centrally involved in mitigation, reducing the acidity and response efforts of the problem. Aim The presentation based on international literature review, of a framework for nursing action on climate change. Material and Methods Method was used is to search electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL for a review of international literature to 2009 and became selection of books, articles and studies from libraries. Results Given the climate change, developed a working framework for serious professional thinking and action on community nursing. Like many other professions, so the nursing world should now raise the question of how it could contribute, and that could perhaps be better focused individual and collective efforts. The four main components of the framework for action are: the usual tactics, to maximize the skills, the right of priority sites and public grants. Conclusions The nursing should be linked closely with other professions and sectors in order to maximize national and international efforts to mitigate and combat climate change. The profession's response to climate change should be as varied and as the sector itself, and from all countries.

  12. The changing role of museums in the global scientific landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thed van Leeuwen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a combined study to the research performance of the Dutch Leiden-based National Museum of Natural History Naturalis, in the context of the global changing position of museums in the open scientific literature. In the Netherlands, the museums are stimulated to create a research portfolio, an initiative which has many consequences. One of the consequences is the assessment of the research conducted within the walls of the Dutch Museums. The study of Naturalis′ research performance consists of two parts, one based on publications in the Web of Science (WoS and one part of documents not covered as source material in the WoS, but cited in the WoS. The results of the present study for Naturalis are put in the context of the world-wide changing pattern of publication output of museums in the open scientific journal literature.

  13. The role of natural gas hydrates in global changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of gas hydrates which produce global changes are: structure and composition of hydrates, heat of the phase transition and of accumulation and decomposition (about 420 kJ kg-1), the change of the water specific volume (26-32%) under its transition to the hydrate state, and the electric impulse formation between the two phases during the phase transitions of systems. One volume of water contains 70-200 volumes of gas in hydrate state. Gas pressure in the crystal lattice of hydrate is hundreds, even thousands MPa. The hydrate formation zone is associated with frigid areas of Earth sedimentary rocks; on the land, near the polar regions, in the sea, at any latitude at depths >200-500 m. Methane hydrate resources make up about 104 Gt, 99% of them under the sea. The explored resources are 500 Gt. Hydrate methane is, undoubtedly, the energy potential of mankind for the next century, but the rates of the free methane outflow into the atmosphere and their influence on the global climate, ecology, geography, etc. need to be taken into account. The current amount of methane in the atmosphere is about 4.8 Gt. Thus, the average Earth surface temperature is increased by 1.3 K. The annual increase of methane in the atmosphere is 1%. Natural gas hydrates, their spreading and features may cause blowouts of free methane to the atmosphere, much greater than the current biochemical and technogenic sources. Methane may flow from the top and from the bottom of the layer as well under changing thermodynamic conditions, such as decreasing pressure, increase of the geothermal gradient, neotectonic shifts, changing of the hydrate deposits, electric potential. The free methane provides for an increase of CO2, H2O, O3 concentration. The heating effect of methane can be equal to or exceed that of CO2

  14. Global-Change research in Norway. National inventory of Global Change research in Norway i 2011; Global Change-forskning i Norge. En kartlegging av norsk Global change-forskning i 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    From the preface: The Norwegian Global Change (GC) Committee is appointed by the Research Council and works to strengthen the association of Norwegian researchers and research to the international GC programs and IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis). As part of this effort, the Committee wanted a survey of Norwegian research activities linked to these programs. CICERO was engaged to carry out survey work in dialogue with the Research and GC Committee. The results of the survey are presented in this report. The GC programs are: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International geosphere-biosphere program (IGBP), International program of biodiversity science (DIVERSITAS), International Human Dimension Programme Wed Global Environmental Change (IHDP). In addition to IIASA. The results of the survey will be, and is, used as a basis for further activities of the Committee in terms of incentives that can increase the internationalization of Norwegian research. Furthermore, it help to ensure good coupling to these programs in their transition to a common platform in the international Future Earth Initiative (http://www.icsu.org/future-earth).(eb)

  15. Global climate change and the equity-efficiency puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a broad consensus that the costs of abatement of global climate change can be reduced efficiently through the assignment of quota rights and through international trade in these rights. There is, however, no consensus on whether the initial assignment of emissions permits can affect the Pareto-optimal global level of abatement. This paper provides some insight into the equity-efficiency puzzle. Qualitative results are obtained from a small-scale model; then quantitative evidence of separability is obtained from MERGE, a multiregion integrated assessment model. It is shown that if all the costs of climate change can be expressed in terms of GDP losses, Pareto-efficient abatement strategies are independent of the initial allocation of emissions rights. This is the case sometimes described as 'market damages'. If, however, different regions assign different values to nonmarket damages such as species losses, different sharing rules may affect the Pareto-optimal level of greenhouse gas abatement. Separability may then be demonstrated only in specific cases (e.g. identical welfare functions or quasi-linearity of preferences or small shares of wealth devoted to abatement)

  16. The real ecological fallacy: epidemiology and global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    Prompted by my participation in the People's Climate March held in New York City on 21 September 2014, as part of the 'Harvard Divest' contingent, in this brief essay I reflect on the late 20th century development of--and debates over--the necessity of ecological thinking in epidemiology, and also the still limited engagement of our field with work on the health impact of global climate change. Revisiting critiques about the damaging influence of methodological individualism on our field, I extend critique of the still influential notion of 'ecological fallacy,' including its wilful disregard for ecology itself as being pertinent to people's ways of living--and dying. Indeed, the real 'ecological fallacy' is to think epidemiologists or others could ever understand the people's health except in societal and ecological, and hence historical, context. I conclude by urging all of us, as members of the broader scientific community, whether or not we directly study the health impacts of the planetary emergency of global climate change, to step up by joining the call for universities to divest from fossil fuels. PMID:25403380

  17. Investigating global change and fish biology with fish otolith radiocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, John M.

    1994-06-01

    Fish otoliths, calcium carbonate gravity and auditory receptors in the membranous labyrinths of teleost fish, can provide radiocarbon data that are valuable to a wide range of disciplines. For example, the first pre- and post-bomb time series of radiocarbon levels from northern or southern hemisphere temperate oceans was obtained by carrying out accelerator mass spectrometry analyses on selected regions of fish otoliths. These data can provide powerful constraints on both carbon cycle models and ocean general circulation models. Because fish otoliths can serve as a proxy of radiocarbon in seawater dissolved inorganic carbon in all oceans and at most depths, there is considerable scope for further investigations of otolith radiocarbon in relation to both oceanography and global change. In addition to applications relevant to global change, fish otoliths are also valuable sources of information on the age, growth, and ecology of fishes, with age being among the most important parameters in population modelling and fisheries management. Use of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer to validate fish age determination methods offers considerable advantages over traditional forms of age validation and promises to become a standard tool in fish biology and fisheries management. Radiocarbon data from otoliths can also provide valuable information on the ecology of fishes and has already provided surprising information relevant to the ecology of some deep-sea fishes.

  18. Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Hertzberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.

  19. 76 FR 55060 - Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... and aquatic ecosystems across the United States to the potential impacts of global change. Using a... directly evaluate the potential impacts of global change on ecosystems and watersheds. Rather, it...

  20. The gender perspective in climate change and global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Evengård

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population health is a primary goal of sustainable development. United Nations international conferences like the Beijing Platform for Action have highlighted the key role of women in ensuring sustainable development. In the context of climate change, women are affected the most while they display knowledge and skills to orient themselves toward climate adaptation activities within their societies. Objective: To investigate how the gender perspective is addressed as an issue in research and policy-making concerning climate change and global health. Methods: A broad literature search was undertaken using the databases Pubmed and Web of Science to explore the terms ‘climate change,’ ‘health,’ ‘gender,’ and ‘policy.’ Climate change and health-related policy documents of the World Health Organization (WHO and National Communications and National Adaptation Programs of Action reports submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of selected countries were studied. Assessment guidelines to review these reports were developed from this study's viewpoint. Results: The database search results showed almost no articles when the four terms were searched together. The WHO documents lacked a gender perspective in their approach and future recommendations on climate policies. The reviewed UN reports were also neutral to gender perspective except one of the studied documents. Conclusion: Despite recognizing the differential effects of climate change on health of women and men as a consequence of complex social contexts and adaptive capacities, the study finds gender to be an underrepresented or non-existing variable both in research and studied policy documents in the field of climate change and health.

  1. Understand Changes of the Tropical Tropopause Under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P.; Paynter, D.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2014-12-01

    Previous model studies has predicted a warmer and higher tropical tropopause as greenhouse gases increases, but the mechanisms of such changes have not been investigated fully. Here we examine changes the tropical tropopause in two idealized experiments simulated by GFDL global climate model AM3: (1) 4xCO2 with fixed sea surface temperature; and (2) an uniform 4K increase of the sea surface temperature with fixed greenhouse gases concentrations. The tropical tropopause becomes warmer in both experiments, but a higher tropopause is only seen in the second case. By examining the heat budget of the tropical tropoapuse, we diagnose the physical processes that are responsible for these changes and quantify their contributions. For the 4xCO2 experiment, the direct radiative effect of CO2 increase contributes the most. For the SST warming experiment, the radiative effect of a warmer troposphere and convection-related processes lead to a warming at 100 hPa, while a stronger Brewer-Dobson circulation and associated changes in ozone lead to a cooling at 60 hPa. This warming-cooling pattern results in a significant upward shift of the tropopause.

  2. Global climate change and tree nutrition: influence of water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur

    2010-09-01

    The effects of global climate change will regionally be very different, mainly causing considerable changes in temperature and water availability. For Central Europe, for example, increased temperatures are predicted, which will cause increased frequencies and durations of summer drought events. On the other hand, the predicted changes in precipitation patterns will lead to enhanced rainfall during winter and spring, thereby increasing the risk of flooding in Central and Northern Europe. Depending on the sensitivity to reduced water availability on the one hand and oxygen depletion due to waterlogging on the other, physiological performance, growth and competitive ability of trees may be adversely affected. Both drought and excess water availability impair the mineral nutrition of trees by influencing on the one hand the nutrient availability in the soil and on the other hand the physiology of the uptake systems mainly of the mycorrhizal tree roots. Extreme water regimes also change interaction patterns among plants and between plants and microorganisms, and alter the carbon balance of trees and ecosystems. Here we summarize and discuss the present knowledge on tree nutrition under altered water availability as expected to be more common in the future. The focus is on tree mineral nutrient uptake and metabolism as well as on the interaction between carbon allocation and the mineral nutrient balance as affected by reduced and excess water availability. PMID:20581013

  3. Detection and Attribution of Global Mean Thermosteric Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slangen, A.; Church, J. A.; Zhang, X.; Monselesan, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea level are driven by a range of natural and anthropogenic forcings. To better understand the response of global mean thermosteric sea-level change to these forcings, we compare three observational datasets to experiments of 28 climate models with up to five different forcing scenarios for 1957-2005. We use the pre-industrial control runs to determine the internal climate variability. Our analysis shows that anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing is required to explain the magnitude of the observed changes, while natural forcing drives most of the externally-forced decadal variability. The experiments that include anthropogenic and natural forcings capture the observed increased trend towards the end of the 20th century. The observed changes can be best explained by scaling the natural-only experiment by 0.70±0.30 and the anthropogenic-only experiment (including opposing forcing from greenhouse gases and aerosols) by 1.08±0.13 (+/-2σ).

  4. Improving models to predict phenological responses to global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-11-25

    The term phenology describes both the seasonal rhythms of plants and animals, and the study of these rhythms. Plant phenological processes, including, for example, when leaves emerge in the spring and change color in the autumn, are highly responsive to variation in weather (e.g. a warm vs. cold spring) as well as longer-term changes in climate (e.g. warming trends and changes in the timing and amount of rainfall). We conducted a study to investigate the phenological response of northern peatland communities to global change. Field work was conducted at the SPRUCE experiment in northern Minnesota, where we installed 10 digital cameras. Imagery from the cameras is being used to track shifts in plant phenology driven by elevated carbon dioxide and elevated temperature in the different SPRUCE experimental treatments. Camera imagery and derived products (“greenness”) is being posted in near-real time on a publicly available web page (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu/webcam/gallery/). The images will provide a permanent visual record of the progression of the experiment over the next 10 years. Integrated with other measurements collected as part of the SPRUCE program, this study is providing insight into the degree to which phenology may mediate future shifts in carbon uptake and storage by peatland ecosystems. In the future, these data will be used to develop improved models of vegetation phenology, which will be tested against ground observations collected by a local collaborator.

  5. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability". PMID:26030377

  6. Climate change implications and use of early warning systems for global dust storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With increased changes in land cover and global climate, early detection and warning of dust storms in conjunction with effective and widespread information broadcasts will be essential to the prevention and mitigation of future risks and impacts. Human activities, seasonal variations and long-term climatic patterns influence dust storms. More research is needed to analyse these factors of dust mobilisation to create more certainty for the fate of vulnerable populations and ecosystems in the future. Early warning and communication systems, when in place and effectively implemented, can offer some relief to these vulnerable areas. As an issue that affects many regions of the world, there is a profound need to understand the potential changes and ultimately create better early warning systems for dust storms.

  7. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  8. Policy framework for the management of global climate change issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, D. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Health Directorate

    2001-03-01

    Pollution has resulted in a variety of environmental problems which give rise to concerns about the ecosystem and human health. There is a need for collaboration at many levels to address the problems associated with acid rain, smog, ozone-destroying chemicals and the long-range transport of toxic substances. The author noted that the vulnerability of ecosystems and of human population groups must be assessed along with the full range of implications (including costs and benefits) of mitigation and adaptation measures. Health implications are generally difficult to assess because a wide range of information, skills, and databases are required. In addition, there are no standard methods for undertaking the assessment, but the World Health Organization is currently developing guidelines for assessing climate change health impacts. Climate change is determined by natural mechanisms that affect the distribution and intensity of environmental health change risk factors, including insects and chemicals. The Canadian government has drafted a framework entitled The Policy Framework for Managing Global Climate Change Issues. It was developed by external experts and is based on the U.S. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. The six interactive stages of the framework are to: (1) define the health, socioeconomic, technical and political context and problems and assess the relevance to affected stakeholders, (2) characterize hazards and possible health impacts from environmental change, (3) develop mitigation options based on precautionary and equity principles, (4) assess risk predictions and uncertainties, socioeconomic inputs and public inputs, (5) implement national and international risk management strategies for mitigation and adaptation, and (6) evaluate the progress of actions by monitoring changes in risk through a broad range of indicators of heath. It was also noted that policies and strategies should be revised as needed.

  9. Ways to Include Global Climate Change in Courses for Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, Emily; Grobart, Emma; Roberts-Harris, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    What responsibility do science teacher educators have for engaging students in learning about global climate change in courses? How can the topic of global climate change be added to an already packed course curriculum? The authors have begun assembling instructional resources and learning ways others have incorporated global climate change in…

  10. Changes of plasma ET and BNP contents in patients suffering from essential hypertension with atrial fibrillation (AF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma ET and BNP contents in patients suffering from essential hypertension with atrial fibrillation. Methods: Plasma ET and BNP contents were measured with IRMA in 130 patients with essential hypertension (48 with AF and 82 with out AF) and 56 controls. Results: The plasma contents of ET and BNP in patients with AF were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.001). Conclusion: Further study in the changes of plasma ET and BNP contents in patients suffering from essential hypertension would be of great clinical importance in the prevention and treatment of the disease

  11. Effects of insecticidal essential oil fumigations on physiological changes in cut Dendrobium Sonia orchid flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarongsak Pumnuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated essential oil (EO formulas with high insecticidal properties, but low physiological impacts on cut Dendrobium Sonia orchid flower. Fumigation toxicities of EOs from 18 medicinal plants at 2.0 and 3.0 µl/L air were examined against adults of thrips (Frankliniella schultzei and larvae of mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi. The effective EO mixtures, optimal concentrations fumigation and air circulation periods were investigated. Then, field experiments were conducted, and changes in L*, a* and b* values, percentages of weight loss and anthocyanin contents of the EOfumigated flower were observed and compared to the methyl bromide and control fumigations. The results showed that clove and cinnamon demonstrated high insecticidal properties against the insects (>85% mortality and low physiological changes in the flower. In particular, fumigations with 2.0 µl/L air of a mixture between clove and cinnamon EOs (1:3 for 3 hr with 15- min air circulation demonstrated the highest thrips and mealybug mortalities (92.2 and 74.6%, respectively. The EO fumigation formula presented less impact on color change and anthocyanin content than methyl bromide fumigation which showed higher reduction of anthocyanin content (22.9 mg/100g FW when compared to the control (13.6 mg/100g FW. The percentages of weight loss in the flower fumigated with EO, control and methyl bromide were about 10.4, 7.9 and 14.8%, respectively. In general, applications of EO at higher concentrations resulted in higher insect mortalities and more impacts on physiological changes which involved anthocyanin degradation and higher percentages of weight loss. Further studies might consider applications of clove and cinnamon EO formulas via other methods. In addition, revisions of the EO mixture can also be examined in order to obtain the most effective and environment friendly insect management approach.

  12. Global compilation of coastline change at river mouths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Tore; Helland-Hansen, William

    2016-04-01

    We are using Google Earth Engine to analyze Landsat images to create a global compilation of coastline change at river mouths in order to develop scaling relationships between catchment properties and shoreline behaviour. Our main motivation for doing this is to better understand the rates at which shallowing upward successions of deltaic successions are formed. We are also interested in getting an insight into the impact of climate change and human activity on modern shorelines. Google Earth Engine is a platform that offers simple selection of relevant data from an extensive catalog of geospatial data and the tools to analyse it efficiently. We have used Google Earth Engine to select and analyze temporally and geographically bounded sets of Landsat images covering modern deltas included in the Milliman and Farnsworth 2010 database. The part of the shoreline sampled for each delta has been manually defined. The areas depicted in these image sets have been classified as land or water by thresholding a calibrated Modified Normalized Water Index. By representing land and water as 1.0 and 0 respectively and averaging image sets of sufficient size we have generated rasters quantifying the probability of an area being classified as land. The calculated probabilities reflect variation in the shoreline position; in particular, it minimizes the impact of short term-variations produced by tides. The net change in the land area of deltas can be estimated by comparing how the probability changes between image sets spanning different time periods. We have estimated the land area change that occurred from 2000 to 2014 at more than 130 deltas with catchment areas ranging from 470 to 6300000 sqkm. Log-log plots of the land area change of these deltas against their respective catchment properties in the Milliman and Farnsworth 2010 database indicate that the rate of land area change correlates with catchment size and discharge. Useful interpretation of the data requires that we

  13. Oxidative Stress State Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mechanics Changes, Measured by Speckle Tracking in Essential Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Moreno-Ruíz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress state is characterized by an increase in oxygen reactive species that overwhelms the antioxidant defense; we do not know if these pathological changes are correlated with alterations in left ventricular mechanics. The aim was correlating the oxidative stress state with the left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS and the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP. Twenty-five patients with essential hypertension and 25 controls paired by age and gender were studied. All of the participants were subjected to echocardiography and biochemical determination of oxidative stress markers. The hypertensive patients, compared with control subjects, had significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of oxidized proteins (5.03±1.05 versus 4.06±0.63 nmol/mg, lower levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD activity (0.045±0.02 versus 0.082±0.02 U/mg, higher LVEDP (16.2±4.5 versus 11.3±1.6 mm Hg, and lower GLS (−12% versus −16%. Both groups had preserved ejection fraction and the results showed a positive correlation of oxidized proteins with GLS (r=0.386, p=0.006 and LVEDP (r=0.389, p=0.005; we also found a negative correlation of EC-SOD activity with GLS (r=-0.404, p=0.004 and LVEDP (r=-0.347, p=0.014.

  14. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  15. Global change and conservation triage on National Wildlife Refuges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred A. Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs in the United States play an important role in the adaptation of social-ecological systems to climate change, land-use change, and other global-change processes. Coastal refuges are already experiencing threats from sea-level rise and other change processes that are largely beyond their ability to influence, while at the same time facing tighter budgets and reduced staff. We engaged in workshops with NWR managers along the U.S. Atlantic coast to understand the problems they face from global-change processes and began a multidisciplinary collaboration to use decision science to help address them. We are applying a values-focused approach to base management decisions on the resource objectives of land managers, as well as those of stakeholders who may benefit from the goods and services produced by a refuge. Two insights that emerged from our workshops were a conspicuous mismatch between the scale at which management can influence outcomes and the scale of environmental processes, and the need to consider objectives related to ecosystem goods and services that traditionally have not been explicitly considered by refuges (e.g., protection from storm surge. The broadening of objectives complicates the decision-making process, but also provides opportunities for collaboration with stakeholders who may have agendas different from those of the refuge, as well as an opportunity for addressing problems across scales. From a practical perspective, we recognized the need to (1 efficiently allocate limited staff time and budgets for short-term management of existing programs and resources under the current refuge design and (2 develop long-term priorities for acquiring or protecting new land/habitat to supplement or replace the existing refuge footprint and thus sustain refuge values as the system evolves over time. Structuring the decision-making problem in this manner facilitated a better understanding of the issues of

  16. Global change accelerates carbon assimilation by a wetland ecosystem engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Hager, Rachel N.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2015-11-01

    The primary productivity of coastal wetlands is changing dramatically in response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, nitrogen (N) enrichment, and invasions by novel species, potentially altering their ecosystem services and resilience to sea level rise. In order to determine how these interacting global change factors will affect coastal wetland productivity, we quantified growing-season carbon assimilation (≈gross primary productivity, or GPP) and carbon retained in living plant biomass (≈net primary productivity, or NPP) of North American mid-Atlantic saltmarshes invaded by Phragmites australis (common reed) under four treatment conditions: two levels of CO2 (ambient and +300 ppm) crossed with two levels of N (0 and 25 g N added m-2 yr-1). For GPP, we combined descriptions of canopy structure and leaf-level photosynthesis in a simulation model, using empirical data from an open-top chamber field study. Under ambient CO2 and low N loading (i.e., the Control), we determined GPP to be 1.66 ± 0.05 kg C m-2 yr-1 at a typical Phragmites stand density. Individually, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 44 and 60%, respectively. Changes under N enrichment came largely from stimulation to carbon assimilation early and late in the growing season, while changes from CO2 came from stimulation during the early and mid-growing season. In combination, elevated CO2 and N enrichment increased GPP by 95% over the Control, yielding 3.24 ± 0.08 kg C m-2 yr-1. We used biomass data to calculate NPP, and determined that it represented 44%-60% of GPP, with global change conditions decreasing carbon retention compared to the Control. Our results indicate that Phragmites invasions in eutrophied saltmarshes are driven, in part, by extended phenology yielding 3.1× greater NPP than native marsh. Further, we can expect elevated CO2 to amplify Phragmites productivity throughout the growing season, with potential implications including accelerated spread

  17. An Essential Role for Pediatricians: Becoming Child Poverty Change Agents for a Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plax, Katie; Donnelly, Jeanine; Federico, Steven G; Brock, Leonard; Kaczorowski, Jeffrey M

    2016-04-01

    Poverty has profound and enduring effects on the health and well-being of children, as well as their subsequent adult health and success. It is essential for pediatricians to work to reduce child poverty and to ameliorate its effects on children. Pediatricians have important and needed tools to do this work: authority/power as physicians, understanding of science and evidence-based approaches, and first-hand, real-life knowledge and love of children and families. These tools need to be applied in partnership with community-based organizations/leaders, educators, human service providers, business leaders, philanthropists, and policymakers. Examples of the effects of pediatricians on the issue of child poverty are seen in Ferguson, Missouri; Denver, Colorado; and Rochester, New York. In addition, national models exist such as the American Academy of Pediatrics Community Pediatrics Training Initiative, which engages numerous pediatric faculty to learn and work together to make changes for children and families who live in poverty and to teach these skills to pediatric trainees. Some key themes/lessons for a pediatrician working to make changes in a community are to bear witness to and recognize injustice for children and families; identify an area of passion; review the evidence and gain expertise on the issue; build relationships and partnerships with community leaders and organizations; and advocate for effective solutions. PMID:27044693

  18. Food security in the context of global environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.

    1993-11-01

    United Nations predictions and other sources indicate that world population could grow to 8.5 billion by 2025 (Keyfitz 1989) and 11 billion by the end of the coming century (UNFPA 1990). As new information becomes available on the effectiveness of population control programs, the rise of virulent diseases and other factors, these numbers change--sometimes smaller, sometimes larger still. Whatever the numbers actually turn out to be, global agricultural production will have to increase several-fold from present levels to feed and clothe the growing population and to improve worldwide standards of nutrition. The capacity of global agriculture to ensure food security through increased and sustained agricultural production depends on our ability to manage, conserve and in some cases increase the resource base available to the industry of agriculture. The resources that underpin agriculture are land, water and genetic diversity. The first two of these are the subject of this paper. Genetic diversity is the subject of another paper in this volume.

  19. B\\"o\\"ogg Bang drives global climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Brennwald, M S; Kipfer, R

    2011-01-01

    The B\\"o\\"ogg is a large model of a snowman, constructed of inflammable materials and filled with explosives. During the traditional festival of Sechsel\\"auten, which takes place each spring in Zurich, Switzerland, the B\\"o\\"ogg is placed atop a wooden pyre, which is set alight. According to popular legend, the time that elapses until the B\\"o\\"ogg's head explodes (the "head-bang" time) is said to give a rough forecast of local weather conditions prevailing during the following summer. However, recent research has questioned the validity of this prediction. To study the B\\"o\\"ogg's predictive powers, we analyzed the B\\"o\\"ogg head-bang time record from 1965-2010 within the context of global climate change. Our analysis shows that the B\\"o\\"ogg head-bang time is a good predictor not of short-term local weather, as might be expected from the legend, but of the behavior of the entire global climate system.

  20. Buffer Capacity, Ecosystem Feedbacks, and Seawater Chemistry under Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Toonen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA results in reduced seawater pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag, but also reduced seawater buffer capacity. As buffer capacity decreases, diel variation in seawater chemistry increases. However, a variety of ecosystem feedbacks can modulate changes in both average seawater chemistry and diel seawater chemistry variation. Here we model these effects for a coastal, reef flat ecosystem. We show that an increase in offshore pCO2 and temperature (to 900 µatm and + 3 °C can increase diel pH variation by as much as a factor of 2.5 and can increase diel pCO2 variation by a factor of 4.6, depending on ecosystem feedbacks and seawater residence time. Importantly, these effects are different between day and night. With increasing seawater residence time and increasing feedback intensity, daytime seawater chemistry becomes more similar to present-day conditions while nighttime seawater chemistry becomes less similar to present-day conditions. Recent studies suggest that carbonate chemistry variation itself, independent of the average chemistry conditions, can have important effects on marine organisms and ecosystem processes. Better constraining ecosystem feedbacks under global change will improve projections of coastal water chemistry, but this study shows the importance of considering changes in both average carbonate chemistry and diel chemistry variation for organisms and ecosystems.

  1. Global climate change: A U.S. business community's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientists from all over the world are currently attempting to evaluate the impact of both manmade and natural phenomena on climate change, including such issues as the role of oceans as sinks in absorbing CO2, the role of sunspots, the absorptive capacity of different tree species, the impact of nitrous oxide and non- CO2 greenhouse gases, the length of time carbon remains in the atmosphere, the impact of ocean currents and innumerable other issues. Understanding these phenomena, and their interaction will be critical to properly addressing the issue which has tremendous importance for both the US and the world economic future development. The climate change issue has the potential to become the vehicle which will link developing countries to the rest of the world, since, embodies in the global climate debate are several of the social issues that the U.N. has attempted to address over the last two decades: hunger, overpopulation, environment, technology, and development. The climate change issue has the potential to test new international institutions, relationships between developed and developing counties and between traditional trading partners

  2. Cryptic biodiversity loss linked to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, M.; Domisch, S.; Engelhardt, C. H. M.; Haase, P.; Lehrian, S.; Sauer, J.; Theissinger, K.; Pauls, S. U.; Nowak, C.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change (GCC) significantly affects distributional patterns of organisms, and considerable impacts on biodiversity are predicted for the next decades. Inferred effects include large-scale range shifts towards higher altitudes and latitudes, facilitation of biological invasions and species extinctions. Alterations of biotic patterns caused by GCC have usually been predicted on the scale of taxonomically recognized morphospecies. However, the effects of climate change at the most fundamental level of biodiversity--intraspecific genetic diversity--remain elusive. Here we show that the use of morphospecies-based assessments of GCC effects will result in underestimations of the true scale of biodiversity loss. Species distribution modelling and assessments of mitochondrial DNA variability in nine montane aquatic insect species in Europe indicate that future range contractions will be accompanied by severe losses of cryptic evolutionary lineages and genetic diversity within these lineages. These losses greatly exceed those at the scale of morphospecies. We also document that the extent of range reduction may be a useful proxy when predicting losses of genetic diversity. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific patterns of genetic diversity should be considered when estimating the effects of climate change on biodiversity.

  3. Using Argumentation to Foster Learning about Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B. W.

    2012-12-01

    Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the

  4. Climate change impacts on global agricultural land availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change can affect both crop yield and the land area suitable for agriculture. This study provides a spatially explicit estimate of the impact of climate change on worldwide agricultural land availability, considering uncertainty in climate change projections and ambiguity with regard to land classification. Uncertainty in general circulation model (GCM) projections is addressed using data assembled from thirteen GCMs and two representative emission scenarios (A1B and B1 employ CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas concentrations of 850 and 600 ppmv, respectively; B1 represents a greener economy). Erroneous data and the uncertain nature of land classifications based on multiple indices (i.e. soil properties, land slope, temperature, and humidity) are handled with fuzzy logic modeling. It is found that the total global arable land area is likely to decrease by 0.8-1.7% under scenario A1B and increase by 2.0-4.4% under scenario B1. Regions characterized by relatively high latitudes such as Russia, China and the US may expect an increase of total arable land by 37-67%, 22-36% and 4-17%, respectively, while tropical and sub-tropical regions may suffer different levels of lost arable land. For example, South America may lose 1-21% of its arable land area, Africa 1-18%, Europe 11-17%, and India 2-4%. When considering, in addition, land used for human settlements and natural conservation, the net potential arable land may decrease even further worldwide by the end of the 21st century under both scenarios due to population growth. Regionally, it is likely that both climate change and population growth will cause reductions in arable land in Africa, South America, India and Europe. However, in Russia, China and the US, significant arable land increases may still be possible. Although the magnitudes of the projected changes vary by scenario, the increasing or decreasing trends in arable land area are regionally consistent.

  5. Addressing global change challenges for Central Asian socio-ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaguo QI; Temirbek S.BOBUSHEV; Rashid KULMATOV; Pavel GROISMAN; Garik GUTMAN

    2012-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions on the planet earth to global climate change,depending on very fragile natural resources.The Soviet legacy has left the five countries (Kazakhstan,Tajikistan,Kyrgyzstan,Turkmenistan,and Uzbekistan) with a highly integrated system but they are facing great challenges with tensions that hinder regional coordination of food and water resources.With increasing climate variability and warming trend in the region,food and water security issues become even more crucial now and,if not addressed properly,could affect the regional stability.The long-term drivers of these two most critical elements,food and water,are climate change; the immediate and probably more drastic factors affecting the food and water security are land uses driven by institutional change and economic incentives.As a feedback,changes in land use and land cover have directly implications on water uses,food production,and lifestyles of the rural community in the region.Regional and international efforts have been made to holistically understand the cause,extent,rate and societal implications of land use changes in the region.Much of these have been understood,or under investigation by various projects,but solutions or research effort to develop solutions,to these urgent regional issues are lacking.This article,serves as an introduction to the special issue,provides a brief overview of the challenges facing the Central Asian countries and various international efforts in place that resulted in the publications of this special issue.

  6. Global change technology initiative architecture trade study plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the trade study is to define the architectural mix of missions, spacecraft/platforms, and sensors to meet the science requirements of the Mission to Planet Earth/Global Change Technology Initiative (MPE/GCTI) beyond the early Earth Observing System (Eos) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) spacecraft missions. Within the overall objective, the study includes the following specific objectives: (1) Substantiate the selected mix of Low Earth Orbit (LEO), GEO, or intermediate orbit spacecraft/platforms; (2) Define the required number and size of spacecraft related to objective (1); (3) Define a generic sensor complement for the spacecraft/platforms; (4) Evaluate current spacecraft capabilities to meet the mission requirements and develop conceptual designs of spacecraft/platforms as required. (5) Identify advanced or new technology needed to most efficiently accomplish the MPE/GCTI Program.

  7. Geomagnetism, volcanoes, global climate change, and predictability. A progress report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gregori

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A model is investigated, by which the encounters of the solar system with dense interstellar clouds ought to trigger either geomagnetic field reversals or excursions, that produce extra electric currents within the Earth dynamo, that cause extra Joule's heating, that supplies volcanoes and endogenous processes. Volcanoes increase the Earth degassing into the atmosphere, hence the concentration of the minor atmospheric constituents, including the greenhouse gases, hence they affect climate temperature, glacier melting, sea level and global change. This investigation implies both theoretical studies and observational data handling on different time scales, including present day phenomena, instrumental data series, historical records, proxy data, and geological and palaeontological evidences. The state of the art is briefly outlined, mentioning some already completed achievements, investigations in progress, and future perspectives.

  8. Earth system science: A program for global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  9. Global warming calls for changes in public climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an environmental management problem, the greenhouse issue will require fundamentally different approaches if the US is to do its part to limit global warming. Preventive measures must be used to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and reforestation and vegetative processes must help capture future carbon-dioxide emissions. In turn, these approaches will require changes in environmental and institutional management. There must be a close integration of energy and environmental policy with coordinated efforts among environmental agencies, energy agencies, and public service commissions to promote and evaluate energy conservation and energy efficiency. A creative policy mix of regulation, economic incentives, and penalties will be required, with specific policies targeted towards specific segments of the economy. Finally, energy R and D priorities must be broadened to promote utilization of existing and new energy-conservation and alternate-energy technologies that have not reached their market potential due to economic, institutional, and behavioral barriers

  10. Observational evidence of changes in global snow and ice cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of observational data on recent variations in the seasonal extent of snow cover and sea ice, of the terminal position and volume of alpine glaciers, and of ground temperature profiles in areas of permafrost are briefly reviewed. Recent evidence of changes in these variables is then examined. The extent of seasonal snow cover in the Northern hemisphere and of sea ice in both hemispheres has fluctuated irregularly over the last 15-20 years with a range of about 10-15% in each case. There is no clear evidence of any recent trends, despite general global warming. In contrast, most glaciers retreated and thinned from before the turn of the century until the 1960s and alaskan permafrost temperatures have risen 2-4 C per century. Recently, glacier advances have been noted, perhaps in response to increased accumulation. Problems of linking climate forcing and snow/ice responses are discussed

  11. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner II, B.L.; Lambin, E.F.; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-01-01

      Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research.  This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land-cover and land-use as a coupled human-environment system in order to address theory, concepts, models......, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two.  The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system-causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues.  The six articles...

  12. Recent change of the global monsoon precipitation (1979-2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Liu, Jian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Nanjing (China); Kim, Hyung-Jin [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Webster, Peter J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yim, So-Young [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The global monsoon (GM) is a defining feature of the annual variation of Earth's climate system. Quantifying and understanding the present-day monsoon precipitation change are crucial for prediction of its future and reflection of its past. Here we show that regional monsoons are coordinated not only by external solar forcing but also by internal feedback processes such as El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). From one monsoon year (May to the next April) to the next, most continental monsoon regions, separated by vast areas of arid trade winds and deserts, vary in a cohesive manner driven by ENSO. The ENSO has tighter regulation on the northern hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) than on the southern hemisphere summer monsoon (SHSM). More notably, the GM precipitation (GMP) has intensified over the past three decades mainly due to the significant upward trend in NHSM. The intensification of the GMP originates primarily from an enhanced east-west thermal contrast in the Pacific Ocean, which is coupled with a rising pressure in the subtropical eastern Pacific and decreasing pressure over the Indo-Pacific warm pool. While this mechanism tends to amplify both the NHSM and SHSM, the stronger (weaker) warming trend in the NH (SH) creates a hemispheric thermal contrast, which favors intensification of the NHSM but weakens the SHSM. The enhanced Pacific zonal thermal contrast is largely a result of natural variability, whilst the enhanced hemispherical thermal contrast is likely due to anthropogenic forcing. We found that the enhanced global summer monsoon not only amplifies the annual cycle of tropical climate but also promotes directly a ''wet-gets-wetter'' trend pattern and indirectly a ''dry-gets-drier'' trend pattern through coupling with deserts and trade winds. The mechanisms recognized in this study suggest a way forward for understanding past and future changes of the GM in terms of its driven mechanisms. (orig.)

  13. United States policy for mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this paper is to explain current US policy on global climate change. US Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to implement this policy are described. A secondary objective of this paper is to discuss from a US perspective the social and political efforts which must be initiated in order for ocean storage of CO2 to be considered as a viable CO2 mitigation option. The fact that the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has not been successful in reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now recognized. Thus, US policy has shifted towards the development of binding medium-term emissions targets and long-term atmosphere concentration goals. The US believes these goals can be accomplished through the adoption of cost-effective joint implementation agreements and international emissions trading mechanisms. Studies are currently underway to assess specific targets and timetables for emissions reductions. Voluntary efforts on the part of US industry have proven to be extremely successful in reducing US CO2-emissions. The US electric utility industry has taken the lead in voluntarily lowering greenhouse gas emissions under the DOE Climate Challenge Program. Areas of research interest to DOE include the development of high efficiency advanced power generation cycles and CO2 sequestration technology. The US currently spends $1.6 billion on understanding global climate phenomena and only $1.6 million on CO2 mitigation research. A number of socio-political considerations must be looked at in assessing the feasibility of ocean storage of CO2. Developing public trust appears to be a major concern in establishing the acceptability of ocean storage. Uncertainties in the effects of CO2 on marine life, potential safety hazards associated with pipelining, and ship transport of CO2 are all issues which must be dealt with as soon as possible. Some hidden costs associated with ocean disposal is also discussed

  14. The Southern Ocean: Its involvement in global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern Ocean is the site of considerable water mass formation which cools and ventilates the modern world ocean. At the polar front zone, formation of cool, low salinity water sinks and spreads northward at intermediate depths limiting the downward penetration of the thermocline. Within the seasonal sea ice zone and along the margins of Antarctica, convection injects very cold oxygenated water into the deep and bottom ocean. These conditions developed as Antarctica shifted into its present configuration and grew a persistent glacial ice sheet, about 14 million years ago. The potential of the Southern Ocean to ventilate the deep and bottom ocean layers is related to occurrence of polynyas that form within the winter sea ice cover. Global climate changes would be expected to alter the polynya size and frequency. Under greenhouse-induced warming offshore polynyas may become less common as the static stability of the Southern Ocean mixed layer increases. This would diminish the Southern Ocean's cooling influence on the deep layers of the world ocean, resulting in a warmer deep ocean. The fate of coastal polynyas is less clear. It is likely that they would continue at close to their present form providing a setting conducive to Antarctic Bottom Water formation. Within the polar front zone, global warming is expected to create lower salinity though slightly cooler surface water. A reduction in the salt input to the Antarctic Intermediate Water would inject it into a shallower horizon at the thermocline base, further limiting the thickness of the thermocline. Less heat storage in the thermocline would tend to counter-act the proposed deep ocean warming. The thermocline change would occur at a faster rate than would deep ocean warming (based on present-day resident times), its effect would precede the polynya influence

  15. Water security, global change and land-atmosphere feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadson, Simon; Acreman, Michael; Harding, Richard

    2013-11-13

    Understanding the competing pressures on water resources requires a detailed knowledge of the future water balance under uncertain environmental change. The need for a robust, scientifically rigorous evidence base for effective policy planning and practice has never been greater. Environmental change includes, but is not limited to, climate change; it also includes land-use and land-cover change, including deforestation for agriculture, and occurs alongside changes in anthropogenic interventions that are used in natural resource management such as the regulation of river flows using dams, which can have impacts that frequently exceed those arising in the natural system. In this paper, we examine the role that land surface models can play in providing a robust scientific basis for making resource management decisions against a background of environmental change. We provide some perspectives on recent developments in modelling in land surface hydrology. Among the range of current land surface and hydrology models, there is a large range of variability, which indicates that the specification and parametrization of several basic processes in the models can be improved. Key areas that require improvement in order to address hydrological applications include (i) the representation of groundwater in models, particularly at the scales relevant to land surface modelling, (ii) the representation of human interventions such as dams and irrigation in the hydrological system, (iii) the quantification and communication of uncertainty, and (iv) improved understanding of the impact on water resources availability of multiple use through treatment, recycling and return flows (and the balance of consumptive and conservative uses). Through a series of examples, we demonstrate that changes in water use could have important reciprocal impacts on climate over a wide area. The effects of water management decisions on climate feedbacks are only beginning to be investigated-they are

  16. Urban Growth as a Component of Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Friedl, M. A.; Woodcock, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Urban populations have exploded in the last three decades, with nearly 50 percent (3 billion) of the Earth's inhabitants currently living in cities (UN 2000). Further, while urban land cover accounts for less than two percent of the Earth's land area, this proportion is growing rapidly as more cities expand into natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. The amount and rate of this land conversion affects local and regional ecosystems, climate, biogeochemistry, as well as food production. While monitoring and understanding of land use/cover change has improved dramatically in the arenas of forests, grasslands, and agriculture, more attention must be paid to the form and extent of urbanization as a key land transformation process. To address this issue, this research involves two objectives: 1) to map and monitor urban areas globally using coarse resolution data, and 2) to understand urban growth and its drivers during the last decade at regional to local scales, in a cross section of global cities. The first objective is to improve understanding of the methodological requirements for mapping urban land cover over large areas from coarse resolution remotely sensed data. Circulation models will soon include urban information in their parameterization of global land cover (G. Bonan, pers. comm.), however, no complete, updated map of global cities exists. Of the commonly used surrogate data sources, the Digital Chart of the World urban data (Danko 1992) is outdated, while the nighttime lights data (Elvidge et al. 1999) overestimates cities due to ``blooming'' effects. To meet this need, a technique called boosting is used to improve supervised classification accuracy and provides a means to integrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with prior information derived from ancillary sources. Results indicate that fusion of data types improves urban classification results by resolving confusion between urban and other classes that occurs when any of

  17. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  18. Visualization of the chains of risks under global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokohata, T.; Nishina, K.; Takahashi, K.; Kiguchi, M.; Iseri, Y.; Sueyoshi, T.; Yoshimori, M.; Iwase, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Honda, Y.; Hanasaki, N.; Masaki, Y.; Ito, A.; Iizumi, T.; Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Emori, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change possibly causes various impacts on human society and ecosystem. Here, we call possible damages or benefits caused by the future climate change as "climate risks". Many climate risks are closely interconnected with each other by direct cause-effect relationship. In this study, the major climate risks are comprehensively summarized based on the survey of studies in the literature using IPCC AR5 etc, and their cause-effect relationship are visualized by a "network diagram". This research is conducted by the collaboration between the experts of various fields, such as water, energy, agriculture, health, society, and eco-system under the project called ICA-RUS (Integrated Climate Assessment - Risks, Uncertainties and Society). First, the climate risks are classified into 9 categories (water, energy, food, health, disaster, industry, society, ecosystem, and tipping elements). Second, researchers of these fields in our project survey the research articles, and pick up items of climate risks, and possible cause-effect relationship between the risk items. A long list of the climate risks is summarized into ~130, and that of possible cause-effect relationship between the risk items is summarized into ~300, because the network diagram would be illegible if the number of the risk items and cause-effect relationship is too large. Here, we only consider the risks that could occur if climate mitigation policies are not conducted. Finally, the chain of climate risks is visualized by creating a "network diagram" based on a network graph theory (Fruchtman & Reingold algorithm). Through the analysis of network diagram, we find that climate risks at various sectors are closely related. For example, the decrease in the precipitation under the global climate change possibly causes the decrease in river runoff and the decrease in soil moisture, which causes the changes in crop production. The changes in crop production can have an impact on society by

  19. Science and User Needs for Observing Global Mass Transport to Understand Global Change and to Benefit Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pail, Roland; Bingham, Rory; Braitenberg, Carla; Dobslaw, Henryk; Eicker, Annette; Güntner, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Ivins, Eric; Longuevergne, Laurent; Panet, Isabelle; Wouters, Bert

    2015-11-01

    Satellite gravimetry is a unique measurement technique for observing mass transport processes in the Earth system on a global scale, providing essential indicators of both subtle and dramatic global change. Although past and current satellite gravity missions have achieved spectacular science results, due to their limited spatial and temporal resolution as well as limited length of the available time series numerous important questions are still unresolved. Therefore, it is important to move from current demonstration capabilities to sustained observation of the Earth's gravity field. In an international initiative performed under the umbrella of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, consensus on the science and user needs for a future satellite gravity observing system has been derived by an international panel of scientists representing the main fields of application, i.e., continental hydrology, cryosphere, ocean, atmosphere and solid Earth. In this paper the main results and findings of this initiative are summarized. The required target performance in terms of equivalent water height has been identified as 5 cm for monthly fields and 0.5 cm/year for long-term trends at a spatial resolution of 150 km. The benefits to meet the main scientific and societal objectives are investigated, and the added value is demonstrated for selected case studies covering the main fields of application. The resulting consolidated view on the required performance of a future sustained satellite gravity observing system represents a solid basis for the definition of technological and mission requirements, and is a prerequisite for mission design studies of future mission concepts and constellations.

  20. Arctic climate change with a 2C global warming. Timing, climate patterns and vegetation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signatories to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are charged with stabilizing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous interference with the climate system. A number of nations, organizations and scientists have suggested that global mean temperature should not rise over 2C above preindustrial levels. However, even a relatively moderate target of 2C has serious implications for the Arctic, where temperatures are predicted to increase at least 1.5 to 2 times as fast as global temperatures. High latitude vegetation plays a significant role in the lives of humans and animals, and in the global energy balance and carbon budget. These ecosystems are expected to be among the most strongly impacted by climate change over the next century. To investigate the potential impact of stabilization of global temperature at 2C, we performed a study using data from six Global Climate Models (GCMs) forced by four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, the BIOME4 biogeochemistry-biogeography model, and remote sensing data. GCM data were used to predict the timing and patterns of Arctic climate change under a global mean warming of 2C. A unified circumpolar classification recognizing five types of tundra and six forest biomes was used to develop a map of observed Arctic vegetation. BIOME4 was used to simulate the vegetation distributions over the Arctic at the present and for a range of 2C global warming scenarios. The GCMs simulations indicate that the earth will have warmed by 2C relative to preindustrial temperatures by between 2026 and 2060, by which stage the area-mean annual temperature over the Arctic (60-90N) will have increased by between 3.2 and 6.6C. Forest extent is predicted by BIOME4 to increase in the Arctic on the order of 3 x 106 km2 or 55% with a corresponding 42% reduction in tundra area. Tundra types generally also shift north with the largest reductions in the prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra

  1. Volatile constituents and behavioral change induced by Cymbopogon winterianus leaf essential oil in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Bárbara Lima Simioni; Souza, Thaís Teles de; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Barreto, Rosana Souza Siqueira; QUINTANS, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rogoldi; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Araújo, Adriano Antunes Souza

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (‘Java citronella’) is an important essential oil yielding aromatic grass cultivated in India and Brazil and its volatile essential oils extracted from its leaves are used in perfumery, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and flavoring industries. However, there is no report on any psychopharmacological study of C. winterianus leaf essential oil (LEO) available to date. In this study, the pharmacological effects of the LEO were investigated in animal models and its phy...

  2. Global agricultural intensification during climate change: a role for genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cockram, James; Costa de Oliveira, Antonio; Cseke, Leland J; Dempewolf, Hannes; De Pace, Ciro; Edwards, David; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony E; Henry, Robert; Hori, Kiyosumi; Howe, Glenn Thomas; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike; Lightfoot, David; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is now facing the 'perfect storm' of climate change, increasing costs of fertilizer and rising food demands from a larger and wealthier human population. These factors point to a global food deficit unless the efficiency and resilience of crop production is increased. The intensification of agriculture has focused on improving production under optimized conditions, with significant agronomic inputs. Furthermore, the intensive cultivation of a limited number of crops has drastically narrowed the number of plant species humans rely on. A new agricultural paradigm is required, reducing dependence on high inputs and increasing crop diversity, yield stability and environmental resilience. Genomics offers unprecedented opportunities to increase crop yield, quality and stability of production through advanced breeding strategies, enhancing the resilience of major crops to climate variability, and increasing the productivity and range of minor crops to diversify the food supply. Here we review the state of the art of genomic-assisted breeding for the most important staples that feed the world, and how to use and adapt such genomic tools to accelerate development of both major and minor crops with desired traits that enhance adaptation to, or mitigate the effects of climate change. PMID:26360509

  3. Global hydropower potential during recent droughts and under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2015-04-01

    There is a strong dependency of world's electricity sector on available water resources for hydropower generation. Recent droughts showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for hydropower generation in different regions worldwide. Using a global modelling framework consisting of the VIC hydrological model and a hydropower model, we assess the impacts of recent droughts and future climate change on hydropower generation potentials worldwide. Our hydrological-electricity modelling framework was optimized and evaluated for 1981-2010, showing a realistic representation of observed streamflow and hydropower generation. We assessed the impacts of recent droughts and future climate change for more than 25,000 hydropower plants worldwide. Our results show that hydropower production potentials were significantly reduced during severe recent streamflow droughts (including e.g. summer of 2003 in Europe and 2007 in the United States). Model simulations with bias-corrected CMIP5 general circulation model output indicate that in several regions considerable reductions in hydropower production potentials are projected due to declines in streamflow during parts of the year. Considering these impacts and the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  4. Combustion and global climate change: Canada's challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All aspects of energy use, combustion and environmental impacts have been examined in an effort to find scientific, engineering and societal solutions to the global warming and climatic change challenges facing the world's population. Primary emphasis was on challenges to Canadians and the uniquely Canadian solutions required to ensure that Canada as a nation can meet its environmental commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. The conference was organized in eight concurrent sessions, some of which were further subdivided into two or more sub-sessions. Each session or sub-session consisted of an average of five formal presentations and the ensuing question and answer sessions. The proceedings volume contains only the formal presentations. Session titles included (1) flaring; (2) how can electric utilities succeed in the climate change challenge; (3) industrial combustion and greenhouse gases: the consequences and the challenges; (4) more efficient residential and commercial combustion systems; (5) carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; (6) the district energy solution and climate protection; (7) improving transportation engines, systems, and fuels for GHG emission reductions; and (8) biomass in Canada's energy mix. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  6. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  7. Pharmaceutical expenditure changes in Serbia and Greece during the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Clarity on health expenditures is essential for the timely identification of risks that jeopardize the democratic provision of health services and the credibility of health insurance systems. Furthermore, observing health outcomes with geographical scope is essential for making multilateral associations. This study aimed at conveying information on the variability of important economic parameters of the health sector of Serbia and Greece from 2007 to 2012, when the most serious financial crisis in the post-war economic history hit the global economy. Methods: Exchange rates, purchase-power-parities (PPP and price indices were used for the bilateral review of health and pharmaceutical expenditure dynamics during 2007-2012. Prescription and dispensing changes were also studied taking into account the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC structure of drugs consumed. Results: Greece was forced to cut down its total health care and pharmaceutical expenditure and mainly its out-of-pocket payments were more seriously affected by the recession. Surprisingly, emerging market of Serbia, although severely damaged by global recession, succeeded to maintain 19% growth of its per capita health expenditure and even 25% increase of its per capita spending on pharmaceuticals. Innovative pharmaceuticals showed an upward trend in both countries. Conclusions: These two countries might serve as an example of two distinct pathways of mature and emerging health care markets during financial constraints caused by global recession. Our findings show that producing disease-based feedback, in the long run, may empower the assessment of the return on investment on medical technology and healthcare systems’ cost-effectiveness.

  8. Downscaling drivers of global environmental change: Enabling use of global SRES scenarios at the national and grid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, D.P.; Lucas, P.L.; Hilderink, H.

    2007-01-01

    Global environmental change scenarios typically distinguish between about 10–20 global regions. However, various studies need scenario information at a higher level of spatial detail. This paper presents a set of algorithms that aim to fill this gap by providing downscaled scenario data for populati

  9. Rates of global temperature change during the past millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the characteristics (amplitude and phase of the temporal variation in the rates of global-mean surface temperature change during the past millennium. The study was conducted by applying 20-, 30-, and 50-yr sliding windows to the observations of recent century and reconstructions of earlier times. The analysis focuses on the characteristics of the 20th century within the context of the millennium as well as their sensitivity to the low frequency variability of sea surface temperature (SST and time scales. On 20-yr time scale, comparable rates to that of the 20th century in both amplitude and phase occur in earlier nine centuries. The peak in the amplitude of rates in the 20th century on 30-yr time scale, although is not the largest during the past millennium, but is the most persistent. On 50-yr time scale, the 20th century warming rates are the highest and the most persistent during the past millennium. The results also indicate that although the SST variability does not affect much the amplitude of the rates, but the phases is quite different, thus highlighting the importance of the role of oceans in affecting the rates. We also analyzed the characteristics from global climate model (1000–1999 AD simulations with different climate (solar, volcanic, and greenhouse gases forcing. Except for the one driven by the solar forcing, other forcing simulates similar amplitudes as the observed ones. However, only greenhouse gases (GHG forcing can reproduce the persistent high warming rates of the 20th century.

  10. Changing patterns in global lead supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H.

    The past decade has seen some very significant changes in the supply and the demand for lead. One of the most obvious developments is the emergence of China—both as the world's largest producer of primary lead and as a very significant consumer. Perhaps less obvious have been the increasing role of secondary lead in meeting demand for refined metal and the rapid growth in demand for industrial batteries, which have helped to sustain an annual average growth rate in Western World consumption of 3.4% between 1993 and 2000. Patchy knowledge about the lead industry in China has made it difficult to anticipate developments there and has created uncertainty in the global market. This uncertainty, and lead's poor environmental image, largely undeserved as it may be today, has meant few companies outside the lead business want to be seen participating in it. This is just one factor accounting for the very limited increase in lead mine production for the foreseeable future. With around 75% of lead now being used in batteries and a very high global scrap recycling rate, it is probable that most, if not all, growth in lead demand can be met without an overall increase in mine production. The challenge for the lead industry will be to ensure that sufficient recycling capacity is in place in the right parts of the world to process an increasing quantity of battery and other lead-bearing scrap. Huge investment in the world's telecommunications infrastructure and IT networks in the second half of the 1990s created a major market for industrial lead-acid batteries. With the collapse of the market for telecommunications equipment in 2001, lead consumption has fallen sharply and has revealed the extent to which demand growth in recent years has been dependent on this sector.

  11. The physics of global climate change: challenges for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are major issues in our scientific understanding of the functioning of our planet Earth. The growing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, changing in surface albedo, changes in distribution and lifetime of clouds, alteration in aerosol properties and distribution, are all key issues in the radiation balance that controls the climate of our planet. Earth is a non linear highly complex system. Since the industrial revolution, concentration of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane have increase by 30 to 100%. The fraction of infrared radiation trapped in the atmosphere has increased by about 1.6 watts/m2. This additional energy has increased the average temperature by 0.79 degrees centigrade, with certain regions. But, we know very little of the physics, chemistry and biology that controls emissions, sinks and effects in Earth climate. Every week new important scientific findings are published in this area, and models that could predict the future of Earth climate are quite primitive and lack key issues. The hard science of global change is closely associated with socio-economic issues. Humanity have taken the main control role on Earth climate, and the potential for an average increase in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees is large, although there are tentative to limit the average temperature growth to 2 degrees. But even with this ambitious target, Amazonia and the Arctic will probably be much hotter than 3-4 degrees, with important feedbacks in the climate system. The talk will deal with these issues and new research that is needed to increase our knowledge on how the climate of our planet works and which climate we could have in the next decades. (author)

  12. Changing Global Risk Landscape - Challenges for Risk Management (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.

    2009-12-01

    The exponentially growing losses related to natural disasters on a global scale reflect a changing risk landscape that is characterized by the influence of climate change and a growing population, particularly in urban agglomerations and coastal zones. In consequence of these trends we witness (a) new hazards such as landslides due to dwindling permafrost, new patterns of strong precipitation and related floods, potential for tropical cyclones in the Mediterranean, sea level rise and others; (b) new risks related to large numbers of people in very dense urban areas, and risks related to the vulnerability of infrastructure such as energy supply, water supply, transportation, communication, etc. (c) extreme events with unprecedented size and implications. An appropriate answer to these challenges goes beyond classical views of risk assessment and protection. It must include an understanding of risk as changing with time so that risk assessment needs to be supplemented by risk monitoring. It requires decision making under high uncertainty. The risks (i.e. potentials for future losses) of extreme events are not only high but also very difficult to quantify, as they are characterized by high levels of uncertainty. Uncertainties relate to frequency, time of occurrence, strength and impact of extreme events but also to the coping capacities of society in response to them. The characterization, quantification, reduction in the extent possible of the uncertainties is an inherent topic of extreme event research. However, they will not disappear, so a rational approach to extreme events must include more than reducing uncertainties. It requires us to assess and rate the irreducible uncertainties, to evaluate options for mitigation under large uncertainties, and their communication to societal sectors. Thus scientist need to develop methodologies that aim at a rational approach to extreme events associated with high levels of uncertainty.

  13. The feasibility of implementing an ecological network in The Netherlands under conditions of global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martha; Alam, Shah Jamal; van Dijk, Jerry; Rounsevell, Mark; Spek, Teun; van den Brink, Adri

    2015-01-01

    Context: Both global change and policy reform will affect the implementation of the National Ecological Network (NEN) in the Netherlands. Global change refers to a combination of changing groundwater tables arising from climate change and improved economic prospects for farming. Policy reform refers

  14. The feasibility of implementing an ecological network in The Netherlands under conditions of global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.M.; Alam, S.J.; Dijk, van J.; Rounsevell, T.; Spek, T.; Brink, van den A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Both global change and policy reform will affect the implementation of the National Ecological Network (NEN) in the Netherlands. Global change refers to a combination of changing groundwater tables arising from climate change and improved economic prospects for farming. Policy reform refers

  15. Global climate change: An introduction and results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Anji

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives summary of the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I (WG1) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4): The physical science basis for climate change. It begins with a history of the theory of global climate change, followed by the important concepts surrounding global climate change: the greenhouse effect and carbon cycle and how the climate has changed throughout the earth's history. It then discusses the IPCC's assessment reports, focusi...

  16. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  17. Interactive Ocean Observatories are Essential for Global Assessment of Plate-tectonically Modulated Microbial Input to the Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J.; Team, K.

    2004-12-01

    A major new planetary-scale research thrust can only be addressed with interactive, next-generation ocean-observatory capabilities. These new research opportunities arise from the possibility that input into the ocean of chemosynthetically derived microbial biomass from below the seafloor rivals the biomass from primary photosynthetic productivity near the top of the ocean. All three types of plate boundaries and many plate interiors vent microbe-bearing fluids into the deep ocean continuously AND episodically. Unpredicted episodes increase nutrient output and venting volume by as much as a factor of 100 for weeks to months at a time (Lilley et al.,2003, Nature). Because of the highly non-linear nature of these fluxes, quantification of such processes represents essential, but unconstrained, variables in equations for carbon budgets and bio-flux in the deep ocean. Triggering events and their induced fluxes must be detected, located, responded to, and quantified before their relative importance to the global-ocean system can be evaluated. Addressing these issues requires an essential new capability in the ocean sciences. High-power and high-bandwidth cabled systems will enable remote and long-term experimentation with processes via thousands of stationary and/or mobile sensor platforms on, below, and above the seafloor. The Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION) program is currently working with NEPTUNE Canada to produce a plate-tectonic-scale, regional cabled ocean observatory (RCO), an ideal platform for adaptive surveillance and quantitative response to fluid-flux generating events at the margins and interior of the Juan de Fuca (JdF) Plate. The W. M. Keck Foundation is supporting a pre-NEPTUNE exploration of the linked processes involved in the deformation-fluid/microbial flux concept. Thirteen seismometers (3 broadband, 10 short-period) and 45 fluid-movement/chemical sensors are co-deployed on three different, but adjacent, plate boundaries at

  18. Educating About Global Climate Change With A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, C.; Fessenden, J.; Kanjorski, N.; Hall, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Predominantly minority populated schools in Northern New Mexico are plagued by low standardized test scores and high drop-out rates. The school system is currently failing students, and success in science is reliant on self-motivation among students. In order for students to gain momentum in a system where exposure to science is not prevalent, it is important for them to get outside support that catalyzes their interest. Collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Science Education Solutions (SES), and local schools has been established to identify student needs and provide them with the opportunity to engage in science through hands-on experience with world-class scientists. Students are being introduced to the prospects of a scientific career while getting the unique chance to explore different aspects of several LANL scientists' research. This initiative also incorporates cultural awareness efforts to promote parent and community involvement. In the past year, two pilot projects were carried out to test the concepts, goals, and methods of the collaboration. One pilot project used plant growth studies in predominantly Hispanic fifth-grade classrooms to stimulate student interest. Students explored tree ring cores and tested water-use efficiency with sponges. The other pilot project included a two-day workshop for Native American students from Jemez Pueblo focusing on global climate change. This project combined a class component and hands-on field research. Samples were taken from LANL research sites with in-field lessons from scientists who monitor the sites. In addition, Jemez Pueblo officials were able to tie the sites to the student's lives with a historical and cultural overview. The most successful elements from these pilot projects are being used to develop a long-term project that will pique student interest in the science disciplines. Field activities garnered the most enthusiastic response from students, while in-class lessons were less

  19. Modeling and Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production in a Changing Global Environment: Toward a Multiscale Synthesis of Observation and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to monitor and predict terrestrial primary production, the key indicator of ecosystem functioning, in a changing global environment. Here we provide a brief review of three major approaches to monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production: (1 ground-based field measurements, (2 satellite-based observations, and (3 process-based ecosystem modelling. Much uncertainty exists in the multi-approach estimations of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP. To improve the capacity of model simulation and prediction, it is essential to evaluate ecosystem models against ground and satellite-based measurements and observations. As a case, we have shown the performance of the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM at various scales from site to region to global. We also discuss how terrestrial primary production might respond to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 and uncertainties associated with model and data. Further progress in monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production requires a multiscale synthesis of observations and model simulations. In the Anthropocene era in which human activity has indeed changed the Earth’s biosphere, therefore, it is essential to incorporate the socioeconomic component into terrestrial ecosystem models for accurately estimating and predicting terrestrial primary production in a changing global environment.

  20. Contributions of developed and developing countries to global climate forcing and surface temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the relative contributions of individual countries to global climate change for different time periods is essential for mitigation strategies that seek to hold nations accountable for their historical emissions. Previous assessments of this kind have compared countries by their greenhouse gas emissions, but have yet to consider the full spectrum of the short-lived gases and aerosols. In this study, we use the radiative forcing of anthropogenic emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases, ozone precursors, aerosols, and from albedo changes from land cover change together with a simple climate model to evaluate country contributions to climate change. We assess the historical contribution of each country to global surface temperature change from anthropogenic forcing ( Δ Ts), future Δ Ts through year 2100 given two different emissions scenarios, and the Δ Ts that each country has committed to from past activities between 1850 and 2010 (committed Δ Ts). By including forcings in addition to the long-lived greenhouse gases the contribution of developed countries, particularly the United States, to Δ Ts from 1850 to 2010 (58%) is increased compared to an assessment of CO2-equivalent emissions for the same time period (52%). Contributions to committed Δ Ts evaluated at year 2100, dominated by long-lived greenhouse gas forcing, are more evenly split between developed and developing countries (55% and 45%, respectively). The portion of anthropogenic Δ Ts attributable to developing countries is increasing, led by emissions from China and India, and we estimate that this will surpass the contribution from developed countries around year 2030. (paper)

  1. Model studies of the effects of global warming and Antarctic sea ice changes on Antarctic and global climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the results obtained in three experiments by changing the global ocean temperatures and the concentration and distribution of Antarctic sea ice in a General Circulation Model of July climate, with a view to determining the local and global impacts of Antarctic sea ice variations alone, as distinct with those coupled with global scale temperature changes which may be associated with global warming. In all cases there were significant changes in the upward flux of sensible heat over the sea ice zone associated with the reductions of sea ice. The response of weaker westerlies between 40 and 65 degree S was common to all three experiments. Their analyses suggest that a significant proportion of this is a response to the change in sea ice concentration alone. (Not surprisingly, further north of this region most of the changes induced in the wind structure in the global forcing experiment can be seen as due unambiguously to the differential changes in ocean temperatures.). This weakening of the westerlies means there is less mechanical forcing of the ocean in this region. From this they suggest that when consideration is given to the possible impact of feedbacks not considered in these experiments, sea ice changes alone, and particularly those in the Southern Hemisphere, have the potential to induce changes on a hemispheric scale

  2. Changes in Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice as a Microcosm of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is a key element of the climate system and has now been monitored through satellite observations for over three and a half decades. The satellite observations reveal considerable information about polar ice and its changes since the late 1970s, including a prominent downward trend in Arctic sea ice coverage and a much lesser upward trend in Antarctic sea ice coverage, illustrative of the important fact that climate change entails spatial contrasts. The decreasing ice coverage in the Arctic corresponds well with contemporaneous Arctic warming and exhibits particularly large decreases in the summers of 2007 and 2012, influenced by both preconditioning and atmospheric conditions. The increasing ice coverage in the Antarctic is not as readily explained, but spatial differences in the Antarctic trends suggest a possible connection with atmospheric circulation changes that have perhaps been influenced by the Antarctic ozone hole. The changes in the polar ice covers and the issues surrounding those changes have many commonalities with broader climate changes and their surrounding issues, allowing the sea ice changes to be viewed in some important ways as a microcosm of global climate change.

  3. Greenhouse gas emission response to global change may be limited by vegetation community shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal marshes experience a confluence of global changes including climate change, sea level rise, exotic species invasion, and eutrophication. These changes are likely to exert new abiotic stressors and affect interspecific interactions that influence vegetation community stru...

  4. The feathered world and the global climate: Current changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the avifauna, environmental conditions in northern latitudes obviously have been changing to the better, primarily in the northern hemisphere, so that bird species have been expanding towards the northern face of the earth. This has been observed by ornitologists who came to realize that more species than before remained for longer periods in their northern breeding grounds, with reproduction rates increasing and mortality during the winter seasons declining. Most of the trends observed are significant, although there also are some species whose number in traditional living environments is declining. The positive trends are attributed to the recent global warming. Should this process continue, it is expected to cause considerable shifts in the bird population, from subtropical regions up to the polar regions. At our latitudes, the populations of non-migratory birds are expected to grow, while those of birds migrating over long distances should decline. This might reduce the diversity in species over a given period, but experts expect that this will be followed by growing and lasting diversity at our latitudes. (orig./CB)

  5. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Alaska Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, D.

    2009-12-01

    The assessment of the Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States includes analyses of the potential climate change impacts in Alaska. The resulting findings are discussed in this presentation, with the effects on water resources discussed separately. Major findings include: Summers are getting hotter and drier, with increasing evaporation outpacing increased precipitation. Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These impacts are different from region to region and will grow under projected climate change. Wildfires and insect problems are increasing. Climate plays a key role in determining the extent and severity of insect outbreaks and wildfire. The area burned in North America’s northern forest that spans Alaska and Canada tripled from the 1960s to the 1990s. During the 1990s, south-central Alaska experienced the largest outbreak of spruce bark beetles in the world because of warmer weather in all seasons of the year. Under changing climate conditions, the average area burned per year in Alaska is projected to double by the middle of this century10. By the end of this century, area burned by fire is projected to triple under a moderate greenhouse gas emissions scenario and to quadruple under a higher emissions scenario. Close-bodied lakes are declining in area. A continued decline in the area of surface water would present challenges for the management of natural resources and ecosystems on National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska. These refuges, which cover over 77 million acres (21 percent of Alaska) and comprise 81 percent of the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System, provide a breeding habitat for millions of waterfowl and shorebirds that winter in the lower 48 states. Permafrost thawing will damage public and private infrastructure. Land subsidence (sinking) associated with the thawing of permafrost presents substantial challenges to engineers attempting to preserve infrastructure in

  6. TRANSFORMATION OF THE WORLD BANKING SYSTEM IN CHANGING GLOBAL IMBALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shestopalova O. O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the processes of transformation in the global banking system amid the global financial and monetary crisis. The author argues that the globalization of the world economy has a significant impact on the development of the banking system as an important integral part of the financial system. The author comes to the conclusion that the crisis state of the U.S. economy and individual countries in Western Europe led to the transformation of the monetary and banking sector globally. Banking system world's leading economies are now in “at risk” because the instability of the U.S. dollar and the euro continues to make chaotic

  7. Global warming and climate change with reference to South Africa. Some perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawie de Villiers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the geological history of the earth, climate change is an integral part of environmental changes that occurred over time. Sufficient evidence is provided of recurrent wet and dry and cold and hot periods due to natural circumstances. Since the industrial revolution human activities increasingly contribute to air pollution by releasing huge volumes of carbon dioxide and other gasses into the atmosphere, so much so that it is generally accepted that increase in global warming the past decades is directly linked to human activities. Observable signs of human induced climate change include increasing average temperatures at many places, melting ice caps in polar areas, rising sea levels on a global scale and coastal disturbances and damages due to storm surges on coastal areas in various countries, also in South Africa. Consensus from a number of hydrological-meteorological circulation models show, for South Africa, a rise in average annual winter and summer temperatures of between 1.5 and 3.0 degrees Centigrade the following number of decades with a strong possibility of an increase in rainfall in the eastern parts and a decrease in rainfall in the western parts. Bigger floods and longer droughts should occur more frequently as well as severe sea onslaught activities along the eastern and south-eastern coastal areas. The net impact of the predictions on the community is negative. There is though other scientists who indicate that no concrete proof of climate change in South Africa exists; including changes with regard to river floods and droughts. According to more beneficial than detrimental. Despite the differences in opinion about the relative contribution of natural and human activities to the present global warming, changes in hydrological and characteristics of floods in several parts of South Africa in the immediate past, necessitate modifications to available models and approaches to flood damage management and control. Flood

  8. The ecology of saprophagous macroarthropods (millipedes, woodlice) in the context of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jean-François; Handa, Ira Tanya

    2010-11-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda) and woodlice (Crustacea, Isopoda), with a total of about 15000 described species worldwide, contribute substantially to invertebrate biodiversity. These saprophagous macroarthropods, which are key regulators of plant litter decomposition, play an important role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical and temperate areas. Herein we review current knowledge on the effects of climate, food quality and land cover on millipede and woodlouse species to explore their potential responses to global change. Essentially similar trends are observed in the two taxa. Experiments have shown that climate warming could result in higher rates of population growth and have positive effects on the abundance of some temperate species. This is consistent with signs of northward expansion in Europe, although the mechanisms of dispersal remain unclear. The generality of this finding is evaluated in relation to the life histories and geographical distributions of species. At low latitudes, interactions with more severe droughts are likely and could affect community composition. Elevated atmospheric CO₂ levels and changes in plant community composition are expected to alter leaf litter quality, a major determinant of macroarthropod fertility via the link with female adult body size. Although food quality changes have been shown to influence population growth rates significantly, it is proposed that the effects of warming will be probably more important during the coming decades. Land cover changes, mainly due to deforestation in the tropics and land abandonment in Europe, are critical to habitat specialists and could override any other effect of global change. Habitat destruction by man may be the main threat to macroarthropod species, many of which are narrow endemics. At the landscape scale, habitat heterogeneity could be a good option for conservation, even at the cost of some fragmentation. Two principal areas are identified which require

  9. Enhancement in the effectiveness of requirement change management model for global software development

    OpenAIRE

    Mateen, Ahmed; Amir, Hina

    2016-01-01

    The need for change in project requirements is necessary for every organization due to change in technology,change in government policy,and change of customer or stakeholders requirements.Requirement Change Management RCM is not an easy task,especially in Global Software Development GSD where team members are globally distributed in different geographical location and a cultural difference is present between team members. So it becomes more difficult to manage these changes. There are a numbe...

  10. Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, N; Weinberg, Z G; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Ashbell, G; Putievsky, E

    2001-05-01

    Changes in essential oil during ensiling of lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus were studied. Wilted lemongrass and eucalyptus leaves were ensiled in 0.25-L anaerobic jars. Samples consisted of a control (no additives) and a treated sample (0.5% glucose and lactic acid bacteria and 1% cellulase plus 1% hemicellulase plus pectinase). Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 6, 10, and 36 for analysis of essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by extraction and by hydrodistillation. Extraction efficacy of essential oil from the lemongrass was improved by the enzyme treatment, but it was much lower than the amount obtained by distillation. The major components of the essential oil were neral and geranial. In the eucalyptus, total essential oils obtained by distillation decreased during ensiling, and the amount was similar to the amount obtained by extraction. Citronellal, which was the major component of the essential oil in the fresh eucalyptus leaves, decreased, whereas isopulegol and 3,8-terpinolhydrate increased during ensiling. PMID:11368586

  11. Changes in the essential oil composition of Majorana hortensis Moench. cultivated in India during plant ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAM S. VERMA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil content and composition of “sweet marjoram” (Majorana hortensis Moench. cultivated in the Kumaon region of the western Himalayas was studied at different ages of the crop. The samples were taken after 60, 90, 120 and 150 days of transplanting. The essential oil contents varied from 0.20 to 0.70 %. The essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Twenty eight components, representing 96.53–98.44 % of the oil, were identified. The major essential oil constituents, viz., cis-sabinene hydrate (37.05–47.49 %, terpinen-4-ol (14.45–16.22 % and trans-sabinene hydrate (5.81–6.97 % showed considerable variation in their concentrations in relation to crop age.

  12. Locating Biodiversity Data Through The Global Change Master Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola M.

    1998-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) presently holds descriptions for almost 7000 data sets held worldwide. The directory's primary purpose is for data discovery. The information provided through the GCMD's Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is the set of information that a researcher would need to determine if a particular data set could be of value. By offering data set descriptions worldwide in many scientific disciplines - including meteorology, oceanography, ecology, geology, hydrology, geophysics, remote sensing, paleoclimate, solar-terrestrial physics, and human dimensions of climate change - the GCMD simplifies the discovery of data sources. Direct linkages to many of the data sets are also provided. In addition, several data set registration tools are offered for populating the directory. To search the directory, one may choose the Guided Search or Free-Text Search. Two experimental interfaces were also made available with the latest software release - one based on a keyword search and another based on a graphical interface. The graphical interface was designed in collaboration with the Human Computer Interaction Laboratory at the University of Maryland. The latest version of the software, Version 6, was released in April, 1998. It features the implementation of a scheme to handle hierarchical data set collections (parent-child relationships); a hierarchical geospatial location search scheme; a Java-based geographic map for conducting geospatial searches; a Related-URL field for project-related data set collections, metadata extensions (such as more detailed inventory information), etc.; a new implementation of the Isite software; a new dataset language field; hyperlinked email addresses, and more. The key to the continued evolution of the GCMD is in the flexibility of the GCMD database, allowing modifications and additions to made relatively easily to maintain currency, thus providing the ability to capitalize on current technology while importing

  13. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  14. Global change and biogeochemical cycles: The south Asia region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitra, A.P.; DileepKumar, M.; Kumar, K.R.; Abrol, Y.P.; Kalra, N.; Velayutham, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    stream_size 33 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Global-Region_Linkage_Earth_Syst_2002_75.pdf.txt stream_source_info Global-Region_Linkage_Earth_Syst_2002_75.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  15. To assess and control global change in agriculture through ecosystem models integrated into geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of ENEA PBDM (physiologically based demographic models) GIS technology, represents an opportunity to address global change in agriculture on an ecological basis in a local context, be able to provide European governmental agencies the necessary scientific basis for developing effective policies for adaptation to global change, including climate change

  16. Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in Global Change Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, P.; Goodsite, M.E.; Cloetingh, S.; Agnoletti, M.; Moldan, B.; Lang, D.J.; Leemans, R.; Oerstroem Moeller, J.; Pardo Buendía, M.; Pohl, W.; Scholz, R.W.; Sors, A.; Vanheusden, B.; Yusoff, K.; Zondervan, R.

    2013-01-01

    In nearly all domains of Global Change Research (GCR), the role of humans is a key factor as a driving force, a subject of impacts, or an agent in mitigating impacts and adapting to change. While advances have been made in the conceptualisation and practice of interdisciplinary Global Change Researc

  17. Attribution of projected changes in US ozone and PM2.5 concentrations to global changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guenther

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact that changes in future climate, anthropogenic US emissions, background tropospheric composition, and land-use have on regional US ozone and PM2.5 concentrations is examined through a matrix of downscaled regional air quality simulations using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ model. Projected regional scale changes in meteorology due to climate change under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A2 scenario are derived through the downscaling of Parallel Climate Model (PCM output with the MM5 meteorological model. Future chemical boundary conditions are obtained through downscaling of MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2.4 global chemical model simulations based on the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES A2 emissions scenario. Projected changes in US anthropogenic emissions are estimated using the EPA Economic Growth Analysis System (EGAS, and changes in land-use are projected using data from the Community Land Model (CLM and the Spatially Explicit Regional Growth Model (SERGOM. For July conditions, changes in chemical boundary conditions are found to have the largest impact (+5 ppbv on average daily maximum 8-h (DM8H ozone. Changes in US anthropogenic emissions are projected to increase average DM8H ozone by +3 ppbv. Land-use changes are projected to have a significant influence on regional air quality due to the impact these changes have on biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. When climate changes and land-use changes are considered simultaneously, the average DM8H ozone decreases due to a reduction in biogenic VOC emissions (−2.6 ppbv. Changes in average 24-h (A24-h PM2.5 concentrations are dominated by projected changes in anthropogenic emissions (+3 μg m−3, while changes in chemical boundary conditions have a negligible effect. On average, climate change reduces A24-h PM2.5 concentrations by −0.9 μg m−3, but this reduction is more than tripled in the

  18. Land-use change and global climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD thesis assess the role of land-use dynamics and carbon sequestration within climate policies. First, it describes the emergence, from the Rio-1992 to the Marrakech Accords (2001), of diplomatic controversies upon carbon sinks, in the context of the progressive constitution of a scientific basis on terrestrial carbon sinks. It questions the ability of the actual form of international climate regime to generate the appropriate incentives to sequester within the forestry sector in developed countries, or to control tropical deforestation. Second, the contribution of land-use change to atmospheric CO2 rise is quantified using a newly designed model of the global carbon cycle and regional land-use (OSCAR). We show that carbon emitted via land-use is not equivalent to fossil carbon emission in respect to atmospheric CO2 rise. This effect, all the more than land-use emissions are increasing, requires a greater mitigation effort to stabilize atmospheric CO2. Finally, optimal timing of mixed climate policies involving fossil emissions mitigation and biological sequestration is assessed within an inter temporal cost-benefit framework. We show that the social value of sequestered carbon depends on anticipating future climate damages. Within optimal control models, this links the timing of sequestration to fossil effort and to the evolution of climate damages; if the latter are uncertain, but might be revealed at a later date, then it might be optimal to reserve part of the limited sequestration potential to cut off an eventual future abatement cost peak, were a climate surprise to finally imply stringent concentration ceilings. (author)

  19. Identify: Improving industrial energy efficiency and mitigating global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in the industrial sectors of nations with both industrialized and developing economies will continue to be, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The patterns of industrial-sector energy use--energy provided primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels-have shifted both within the between countries in recent decades. Projections of future energy use and carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions suggest continued shifts in these patterns, as industrial production in developed countries stabilizes and declines, while industrial output in the developing world continues to expand. This expansion of industrial-sector activity and CO2 emissions in developing countries presents both a challenge and an opportunity. To seize this opportunity and contribute to international efforts to mitigate global climate change, the United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) recently initiated a two-phase effort to help improve the efficiency of energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals, refining, paper and pulp, and cement) in developing countries. As part of the Phase I, the authors reviewed industrial sector scenarios and to initiated development of a software-based toolkit for identifying and assessing GHG mitigating technologies. This toolkit, called IDENTIFY, is comprised of a technology inventory and a companion economic analysis tool. In addition, UNIDO commissioned institutions in India, South Africa, and Argentina to review energy use patterns and savings opportunities in selected industries across nine developing countries, and contribute to the development of the IDENTIFY toolkit. UNIDO is now preparing to launch Phase 2, which will focus on full development and dissemination of the IDENTIFY toolkit through seminars and case studies around the world. This paper describes Phase 1 of the UNIDO project

  20. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Ge

    Full Text Available Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4 (31% species are from Poaceae. The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of

  1. The Japanese business model, and how globalization is changing it. Is change necessary for Japanese companies?

    OpenAIRE

    Daníel Jón Guðjónsson 1985

    2009-01-01

    The Japanese business model is one of the most intriguing aspects of Japanese society in my view due to its ability to export high quality products at low prices. The model’s success after the Second World War meant that Japan was the first Asian country to become a first world nation where living standards and longevity were among the highest in the world. Recently however, it can be said that the model has been changing in order to fit into the emerging global business environment wher...

  2. How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gnanadesikan; Russell, J. L.; Fanrong Zeng

    2007-01-01

    International audience Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes, No...

  3. Effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity as manifested by fractal dimension changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity by fractal analysis. Fractal dimension (FD values of the parietal electrocortical activity were calculated before and after intra-peritoneal administration of camphor essential oil (450-675 μl/kg in anesthetized rats. Camphor oil induced seizure-like activity with single and multiple spiking of high amplitudes in the parietal electrocorticogram and occasional clonic limb convulsions. The FD values of cortical activity after camphor oil administration increased on the average. Only FD values of cortical ECoG sequences were lower than those before camphor oil administration.

  4. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Soumaya Bourgou; Fatma Zohra Rahali; Iness Ourghemmi; Moufida Saïdani Tounsi

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulate) and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95%) and 1,8-cineole (tr-1...

  5. Changing Schools in an Era of Globalization. Routledge Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Caldwell, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written about globalization and the challenge of preparing young people for the new world of work and life in times of complexity and continuous change. However, few works have examined how globalization has and will continue to shape education in the East. This volume discusses education within the context of globalization and…

  6. Change In Strategy - The Answer To Overcome Global Downturn

    OpenAIRE

    Siddhartha Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    In terms of overcoming the global downturn, innovative business strategy has three major dimensions namely, ‘Innovative Promotional Practices’, ‘Social and Organizational welfare’, and ‘Ethical behavior’. Fortunately most strategic dimensions in business and management are measurable so as to facilitate development ratings in order to compare and highlight the different levels of overcoming the global downturn. My research paper on the role of innovative business strategy in overcoming the re...

  7. Anticipated public health consequences of global climate change.

    OpenAIRE

    Longstreth, J

    1991-01-01

    Human activities are placing enormous pressures on the biosphere. The introduction of new chemicals and the increasing ambient levels of existing chemicals have resulted in atmospheric degradation. This paper reviews some of the adverse effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. Because the atmospheric effects of ozone depletion are fairly well characterized, quantitative risk estimates have been developed. However, because the atmospheric effects of global warming are less ...

  8. Globalization and Change of Investment Environment in ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Khaing, Khaing Sape Saw

    2007-01-01

    The more advanced is the country; the more it is profited by globalization. This is a true philosophical concept. However the less advanced ones must also embrace it unavoidably because only by that way it can achieve improvement and progress in very short time. One can’t be left in Stone Age. Finally, we will have to conclude and evaluate globalization as favorable on the conditions that it must be handled with great care and knowledge.

  9. Australian Medical Students' Association Global Health Essay Competition - Global climate change, geo-engineering and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyages, Costa S

    2013-10-01

    Rio+20's proposed Sustainable Development Goals have the potential to redefine the course of international action on climate change. They recognise that environmental health is inextricably linked with human health, and that environmental sustainability is of paramount importance in safeguarding global health. Competition entrants were asked to discuss ways of making global health a central component of international sustainable development initiatives and environmental policy, using one or two concrete examples PMID:24099214

  10. Land-use change and global climate policies; Usage des terres et politiques climatiques globales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitz, V

    2004-03-15

    This PhD thesis assess the role of land-use dynamics and carbon sequestration within climate policies. First, it describes the emergence, from the Rio-1992 to the Marrakech Accords (2001), of diplomatic controversies upon carbon sinks, in the context of the progressive constitution of a scientific basis on terrestrial carbon sinks. It questions the ability of the actual form of international climate regime to generate the appropriate incentives to sequester within the forestry sector in developed countries, or to control tropical deforestation. Second, the contribution of land-use change to atmospheric CO{sub 2} rise is quantified using a newly designed model of the global carbon cycle and regional land-use (OSCAR). We show that carbon emitted via land-use is not equivalent to fossil carbon emission in respect to atmospheric CO{sub 2} rise. This effect, all the more than land-use emissions are increasing, requires a greater mitigation effort to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Finally, optimal timing of mixed climate policies involving fossil emissions mitigation and biological sequestration is assessed within an inter temporal cost-benefit framework. We show that the social value of sequestered carbon depends on anticipating future climate damages. Within optimal control models, this links the timing of sequestration to fossil effort and to the evolution of climate damages; if the latter are uncertain, but might be revealed at a later date, then it might be optimal to reserve part of the limited sequestration potential to cut off an eventual future abatement cost peak, were a climate surprise to finally imply stringent concentration ceilings. (author)

  11. The Potential for Global Energy Crop Production from Intensification and Extensification Under Current and Global Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D. K.; Gerber, J. S.; Mueller, N. D.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Various countries have mandated ethanol blending into transportation fuel and increase in biodiesel production over time. To grow the extra biofuel either an intensification to prevent further land cover changes or extensification that would result in land cover change would be imperative. In this paper we developed and applied the relationship between the yield of specific energy crops such as maize and sugarcane and management decisions such as fertilizer applications and irrigation to determine the potential to further intensify energy crop production at locations where they are currently grown. Specifically we show the potential for further increases in global and country specific biofuel production from circa 2005. For the extensification case we identify those locations that are currently used for other crops or not cultivated including forest and pasture land circa 2005 and use the year 2005 yield information of energy crops from analogous locations (such as locations with similar climate, soils and economic status) to determine the global yield under extensification conditions. Finally, both intensification and extensification could be affected by global climate changes. Thus, we provide information of global biofuel production potential from intensification and extensification under both the current climate as well as global climate change conditions using the IPCC AR4 GCM projections circa 2050.

  12. A global assessment of the impact of climate change on water scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Simon N. Gosling; Arnell, Nigel W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a global scale assessment of the impact of climate change on water scarcity. Patterns of climate change from 21 Global Climate Models (GCMs) under four SRES scenarios are applied to a global hydrological model to estimate water resources across 1339 watersheds. The Water Crowding Index (WCI) and the Water Stress Index (WSI) are used to calculate exposure to increases and decreases in global water scarcity due to climate change. 1.6 (WCI) and 2.4 (WSI) billion people are es...

  13. Self-organizing change? On drivers, causes and global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Elverfeldt, Kirsten; Embleton-Hamann, Christine; Slaymaker, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Within global environmental change research, certain external drivers generally are assumed to cause the environmental system to change. The most commonly considered drivers are relief, sea level, hydroclimate, and/or people. However, complexity theory and self-organizing systems provide a very different framework and means of explanation. Self-organization - understood as the aggregate processes internal to an environmental system that lead to a distinctive spatial, temporal, or other organization - reduces the possibility of implicating a specific process as being causal. The principle of equifinality, whereby two or more different drivers can generate the same form, has long been recognized within a process-response framework, as well as the concept of divergence, which states that similar causes or processes result in different effects. Both ideas differ from self-organization in that they (i) deal with drivers external to the system and (ii) imply concrete cause-and-effect relations that might be difficult to discern. The assumption is, however, that careful study will eventually lead to the true causes and processes. Studies of self-organization deal with the ways in which internal processes interact and may drive a system toward an instability threshold, the so-called bifurcation point. At this point, the system develops by chance and no single external or internal cause for the change can be defined. For research into environmental change this is a crucial theory for two reasons:

  14. Inadvertent Weather Modification in Urban Areas: Lessons for Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changnon, Stanley A.

    1992-05-01

    Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the nation's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multi disciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioral implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally.

  15. Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Eric F.; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A central challenge for sustainability is how to preserve forest ecosystems and the services that they provide us while enhancing food production. This challenge for developing countries confronts the force of economic globalization, which seeks cropland that is shrinking in availability and triggers deforestation. Four mechanisms—the displacement, rebound, cascade, and remittance effects—that are amplified by economic globalization accelerate land conversion. A few developing countries have ...

  16. Middle school students' conceptual change in global climate change: Using argumentation to foster knowledge construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barry W.

    This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against already existing explanatory frameworks, which have likely served the learner well to this point. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the patterns of students' conceptual change in GCC? (a) What conceptions are invoked in student learning in this arena? (b) What conceptions are most influential? (c) What are the extra-rational factors influencing conceptual change in GCC? This research took place in an urban public school in a medium sized city in the southeastern United States. A sixth grade science teacher at Central Middle school, Ms. Octane, taught a course titled "Research Methods I., which was an elective science course that students took as part of a science magnet program. A unit was designed for 6th grade instruction that incorporated an Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) approach, centered on the subject matter of Global Climate change and Global Warming. Students were immersed in three separate lessons within the unit, each of which featured an emphasis upon creating scientific explanations based upon evidence. Additionally, each of the lessons placed a premium on students working towards the development of such explanations as a part of a group, with an emphasis on peer review of the robustness of the explanations proposed. The students were involved in approximately a two week unit emphasizing global climate change. This unit was based on an argumentation model that provided data to students and asked them to develop explanations that accounted for the data. The students then underwent a peer-review process to determine if

  17. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    OpenAIRE

    Hagemann, S.; Chen, C.; Clark, D.B.; S. Folwell; Gosling, S.N.; Haddeland, I.; Hanasaki, N.; J. Heinke; F. Ludwig; Voß, F.; A. J. Wiltshire

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three) and hydrological models (eight) were used to systematically assess the hydrological response to climate change and project the future state of global water resources. The results show a large spread in projected changes in water resources within the climate–...

  18. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    OpenAIRE

    Hagemann, S.; Chen, Cui; Clark, D.B.; S. Folwell; Gosling, S.; Haddeland, I.; Hanasaki, N.; J. Heinke; F. Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three) and hydrological 5 models (eight) were used to systematically assess the hydrological response to climate change and project the future state of global water resources. The results show a large spread in projected changes in water resources within the climat...

  19. Regional Science-Society Interface within Global Environmental and Social Change towards Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Aysun UYAR; Makoto Taniguchi

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the GEC (Global Environmental Change)-Japan/Asia platform as one of the attempts to enhance linkages and promote collaboration on transdisciplinarity approaches to global environmental and social change in Asia. This paper also attempts to contribute to discussions about new research directions and frameworks to promote science-society interface for sustainability research in Asia.

  20. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric eff

  1. Deforestation: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the second installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. This series teaches students how to gather a wide range of information from pertinent areas of study and encourages them to develop their own opinions…

  2. Biodiversity: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the first installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. It encourages students to weigh a wide range of information from pertinent disciplines and to develop their own opinions in order to make their own…

  3. Changes of Peel Essential Oil Composition of Four Tunisian Citrus during Fruit Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Bourgou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of ripening stage on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from peel of four citrus: bitter orange (Citrus aurantium, lemon (Citrus limon, orange maltaise (Citrus sinensis, and mandarin (Citrus reticulate and on their antibacterial activity. Essential oils yields varied during ripening from 0.46 to 2.70%, where mandarin was found to be the richest. Forty volatile compounds were identified. Limonene (67.90–90.95% and 1,8-cineole (tr-14.72% were the most represented compounds in bitter orange oil while limonene (37.63–69.71%, β-pinene (0.63–31.49%, γ-terpinene (0.04–9.96%, and p-cymene (0.23–9.84% were the highest ones in lemon. In the case of mandarin, the predominant compounds were limonene (51.81–69.00%, 1,8-cineole (0.01–26.43%, and γ-terpinene (2.53–14.06%. However, results showed that orange peel oil was dominated mainly by limonene (81.52–86.43% during ripening. The results showed that ripening stage influenced significantly the antibacterial activity of the oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This knowledge could help establish the optimum harvest date ensuring the maximum essential oil, limonene, as well as antibacterial compounds yields of citrus.

  4. Global analysis of induced transcription factors and cofactors identifies Tfdp2 as an essential coregulator during terminal erythropoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cynthia; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2014-01-01

    Key transcriptional regulators of terminal erythropoiesis, such as GATA1 and TAL1, have been well characterized, but transcription factors and cofactors and their expression modulations have not yet been explored on a global scale. Here we use global gene expression analysis to identify 28 transcription factors and 19 transcriptional cofactors induced during terminal erythroid differentiation and whose promoters are enriched for binding by GATA1 and TAL1. Utilizing protein-protein interaction...

  5. Glacier fluctuations, global temperature and sea-level change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    The current world-wide glacier retreat is a clear sign of global warming. In addition, glaciers contribute to sea-level rise as a consequence of the current retreat. In this thesis we use records of past glacier fluctuations to reconstruct past climate variations and the glacier contribution to sea-

  6. Global Climate Change:A Monumental Mitigation Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A holistic view of long-term sustainability cannot ignore humanity’s ever-growing demands on fossil fuels, water, and other finite geological resources. Figure 1 (Princiotta et. al., 2014) illustrates the key factors that are responsible for potentially unsustainable global impac...

  7. The human dimensions of global environmental change: Ecosystem services, resilience, and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechkemmer, A.; von Falkenhayn, L.

    2009-02-01

    Global environmental change affects all societies and their environments at various spatial and temporal scales. The linking of natural ecosystems to social ones is of central importance for the analysis, mitigation of and adaptation to any action or issue related to sustainability and global change. When examining the human dimensions of environmental change, the study of ecosystem services illustrates the strong interlinkages existing between both socio-ecological systems and global change. Ecosystem services are inextricably linked to human well-being and play a central role in sustainable adaptation strategies. Environmental impact of global change can both add to social vulnerability and change resilience by altering the supply of ecosystem services and the trade-offs which can occur. It is when examining such phenomena that the importance and abilities of governance systems to shape change and responses are seen.

  8. Global Climate Change and the Wildlands of Montana: Promoting Scientific Understanding for K-12 Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumlich, L. J.; Simonsen, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    The complexities and uncertainties associated with the science of global climate change is a barrier to the implementation of global change into K-12 classrooms. This issue is part of a larger conundrum where by teachers who are not well-versed in the content of an emerging science field are less likely to incorporate that topic into their curriculum. As such, it is not surprising that the K-12 community has been slow to embrace global climate change as a curriculum element, given that science underlying global climate change is interdisciplinary and replete with new discoveries, complex models, and competing theories. Faculty members associated with the Big Sky Institute have experimented with ways to promote collaboration between researchers and educators to enhance scientific literacy. In 2004, with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency and private foundations, we implemented a five-day, field based professional development workshop for middle and high school teachers that focused on the research underlying EPA's Climate Change, Wildlife and Wildlands curriculum. A primary objective of the overall project is to promote one-on-one engagement of teachers with researchers whose work forms the basis of the content of the curriculum. Further, we seek to assess the degree to which increased content knowledge leads to incorporation of global climate change content into classrooms and curricula. During the workshop, we focused on two broad research findings, namely: 1) Global climate change is systemically pervasive such that even wildlands (i.e., unmanaged, pristine parks and reserves) are or potentially will be altered by global climate change. 2) At the same time, natural climate variability may enhance or mask human-induced climate impacts on wildlands and wildlife. In addition, we emphasized two broadly framed "ways of thinking" about global climate change, namely: 1) Wildlands can be used to detect and measure the impacts of human-induced climate

  9. Global change and water resources in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    in the first half of the 20th century. Decreased summer runoff affects water supply for agriculture, domestic water supply, cooling needs for thermoelectric power generation, and ecosystem needs. In addition to the reduced volume of streamflow during warm summer months, less water results in elevated stream temperature, which also has significant effects on cooling of power generating facilities and on aquatic ecosystem needs. We are now required to include fish and other aquatic species in negotiation over how much water to leave in the river, rather than, as in the past, how much water we could remove from a river. Additionally, we must pay attention to the quality of that water, including its temperature. This is driven in the US by the Endangered Species Act and the Clean Water Act. Furthermore, we must now better understand and manage the whole hydrograph and the influence of hydrologic variability on aquatic ecosystems. Man has trimmed the tails off the probability distribution of flows. We need to understand how to put the tails back on but can’t do that without improved understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Sea level rise presents challenges for fresh water extraction from coastal aquifers as they are compromised by increased saline intrusion. A related problem faces users of ‘run-of-the-river’ water-supply intakes that are threatened by a salt front that migrates further upstream because of higher sea level. We face significant challenges with water infrastructure. The U.S. has among the highest quality drinking water in the world piped to our homes. However, our water and sewage treatment plants and water and sewer pipelines have not had adequate maintenance or investment for decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are up to 3.5M illnesses per year from recreational contact with sewage from sanitary sewage overflows. Infrastructure investment needs have been put at 5 trillion nationally. Global change and water resources

  10. Changing mechanism of global water scarcity events: Impacts of socioeconomic changes and inter-annual hydro-climatic variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Wada, Y.; Moel, de H.; Kummu, M.S.; Eisner, S.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Ward, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    79%) of the yearly changes in global water scarcity, whilst only after six to ten years, socioeconomic developments become the largest driver of change. Moreover, our results showed that the growth in the relative contribution of socioeconomic developments to changing water scarcity conditions stabi

  11. World environmental policy. Conceptual approaches of German political science in response to the challenges of Global Change; Weltumweltpolitik - Global Change als Herausforderung fuer die deutsche Politikwissenschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Dingwerth, K. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Politik- und Sozialwissenschaften

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes, first, the international community of social scientists working on global change, and elaborates on possible contributions to this community by German political scientists. Second, the paper examines three new conceptual approaches to analysing global change, namely the Syndromes of Global Change approach, Earth System Analysis, and Sustainability Science. The paper then elaborates on a number of ways in which German political science could respond to the academic and political challenges posed by global change. It concludes by emphasizing the need for a new approach, focusing on 'world environmental policy analysis' that would bridge traditional (environmental) policy analysis, international relations research, and comparative politics. (orig.) [German] Der Aufsatz beschreibt die Wissenschaftslandschaft der internationalen sozialwissenschaftlichen Global-Change-Forschung mit besonderem Augenmerk auf moegliche Beitraege der deutschen Politologie. Mit den 'Syndromen des Globalen Wandels', der 'Erdsystemanalyse' und der 'Nachhaltigkeitswissenschaft' werden drei neuere konzeptionelle Innovationen vorgestellt, mit denen der Herausforderung des Globalen Wandels begegnet werden soll. Anschliessend werden Wege skizziert, wie die Politikwissenschaft auf die neuen gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftlichen Probleme des Globalen Wandels reagieren koennte. Eine Schlussfolgerung ist ein Plaedoyer fuer die Entwicklung einer eigenstaendigen Weltumweltpolitik-Analyse an der Schnittstelle von traditioneller Policy-Analyse, Internationalen Beziehungen/Aussenpolitik sowie Komparatistik. (orig./CB)

  12. Global water resources affected by human interventionss and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Florke, M.F.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  13. Correlation Factor Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Duru; Huang Zhongning

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate correlation between retinal microvascular signs and essential hypertension classification. Methods The retinal microvascular signs in patients with essential hypertension were assessed with the indirect biomicroscopy lens, the direct and the indirect ophthalmoscopes were used to determine the hypertensive retinopathy grades and retinal arteriosclerosis grades.The rank correlation analysis was used to analysis the correlation these grades with the risk factors concerned with hypertension. Results Of 72 cases with essential hypertension, 28 cases complicated with coronary disease, 20 cases diabetes, 41 cases stroke,17 cases renal malfunction. Varying extent retinal arterioscleroses were found in 71 cases, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage, 2 cases with retina edema, 4 cases with retinal hard exudation, 5 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation, 2 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and cotton wool spot, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and microaneurysms,1 case with retinal edema and hard exudation, 1 case with retinal microaneurysms, 1 case with branch retinal vein occlusion. The rank correlation analysis showed that either hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades were correlated with risk factor lamination of hypertension (r=0.25 or 0.31, P<0.05), other correlation factors included age and blood high density lipoprotein concerned about hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades, but other parameters, namely systolic or diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose,blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine were not confirmed in this correlation analysis (P > 0.05).Conclusions Either hypertensive retinopathy grade or retinal arteriosclerosis grade is close with the hypertension risk factor lamination, suggesting that the fundus examination of patients with

  14. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  15. What have we learned from global change manipulative experiments in China? A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zheng; Niu, Shuli; Dukes, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-01

    Although China has the largest population in the world, a faster rate of warming than the global average, and an active global change research program, results from many of the global change experiments in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems have not been included in global syntheses. Here, we specifically analyze the observed responses of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in global change manipulative experiments in China, and compare these responses to those from other regions of the world. Most global change factors, vegetation types, and treatment methods that have been studied or used elsewhere in the world have also been studied and applied in China. The responses of terrestrial ecosystem C and N cycles to N addition and climate warming in China are similar in both direction and intensity to those reported in global syntheses. In Chinese ecosystems as elsewhere, N addition significantly increased aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB), litter mass, dissolved organic C, net ecosystem productivity (NEP), and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP). Warming stimulated AGB, BGB and the root-shoot ratio. Increasing precipitation accelerated GEP, NEP, microbial respiration, soil respiration, and ecosystem respiration. Our findings complement and support previous global syntheses and provide insight into regional responses to global change.

  16. Developing priority variables ("ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables" — eEOVs) for observing dynamics and change in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Constable, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise; Urban, Edward R.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Ballerini, Tosca; Boyd, Philip W.; Brandt, Angelika; de la Mare, Bill; Edwards, Martin; Eléaume, Marc; Emmerson, Louise; Fennel, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Reliable statements about variability and change in marine ecosystems and their underlying causes are needed to report on their status and to guide management. Here we use the Framework on Ocean Observing (FOO) to begin developing ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables (eEOVs) for the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). An eEOV is a defined biological or ecological quantity, which is derived from field observations, and which contributes significantly to assessments of Southern Ocean ecosyst...

  17. SIGNAL DETECTION OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND EXTERNAL FORCING FACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 王在文; 侯章栓

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we displayed one-dimensional climate signals, such as global temperature variation, Southern Oscillation Index and variation of external forcing factors, on a two-dimensional time-scale plane using compactly supported wavelet decomposition. Using the lag-correlation analysis method, and interpretative variance analysis method, and phase comparison method to the wavelet analysis result, we not only gained the variation on different scales to the global temperature and El Nino signals, the location of the jump point and intrinsic scale of these series, but also indicated the magnitude, extent and time of the effect of external forcing factors on them. We also put forward reasonable explanation to the main variation of recent 140 years.

  18. Global Climate Change Adaptation Costs in the Industrial and Municipal Water Supply Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. J.; Strzepek, K. M.; Hughes, G. A.; Aerts, J. C.; Pauw, P.; Brander, L. M.

    2009-12-01

    The results of global modelling studies show that many of the negative impacts of 21st century climate change will be felt through changes in the hydrological cycle, such as increased frequencies of drought and flooding. Moreover, these impacts are expected to strengthen over the course of the 21st century, regardless of whether greenhouse gas emission mitigation takes place (due to committed climate change as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gases already emitted to the atmosphere). Hence, in addition to mitigation, it is essential to develop adequate adaptation measures to moderate the impacts and realise the opportunities associated with climate change in the water sector. Nevertheless, to date there has been little research on the costs of adaptation to climate change in the water sector at the global scale; this hampers planning and negotiating the financial resource allocations necessary for effective adaptation. Hence, we carried out a global study to estimate the costs of climate change related adaptation in the water supply sector. In this study, the cost of adaptation is defined as the cost of providing enough raw water to meet future industrial and municipal water demand, based on country-level demand projections until 2050. Increased water demand between present and the future scenarios is assumed to be met through reservoir yield by increasing the capacity of surface reservoir storage, except for when: (a) increasing supply from reservoir yield would increase withdrawals above a given threshold of river runoff; and/or (b) the cost of supplying water from reservoir yield is in excess of a given threshold. In these cases, supply is assumed to be met through alternative measures at a cost of 0.30 per cubic meter. The additional reservoir storage capacity required to meet future water demand was calculated using storage-yield curves, which show the storage capacity needed to provide a firm yield and reliability of water supply over the course of a year

  19. Global Climate Change, Technology Transfer and Trade with Complete Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Rübbelke, Dirk T. G.; Mukherjee, Vivekananda

    2006-01-01

    The paper develops a model in which a country with better technology for abatement of Green House Gas (GHG) emission (the North) commits to an international protocol to keep the global GHG emission within a specified limit while it helps the mitigation effort in the other country (the South) with unconditional transfer of abatement technology. It finds out in the autarkic (‘no trade’) equilibrium the technology transfer offer from the North is always accepted by the South. The North may offer...

  20. Imported infections’ importance : global change driving Dengue dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Quam, Mikkel B

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a significant problem of international health concern. According to the World Health Organization in 2012, globally, dengue is “the most important mosquito borne viral disease” with incidence 30 higher than it had been 50 years ago. While most of the burden of disease associated with dengue is located in areas with a tropical and sub-tropical climate, increasing evidence suggests temperate areas are also at risk. Considering the recent introduction of relevant mosquito ve...