WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing employment patterns

  1. Post-Fordist technology and the changing patterns of women's employment in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, M

    2000-01-01

    Literate but unskilled--and largely female--labor has thus far fueled the tremendous increase in manufactured exports of garments and microelectronic products from the Third World to the industrially advanced economies of the North. The future growth of these sectors, however, may require literate and skilled workers--a category in which women are woefully under-represented, especially in the Third World. In the case of the garment industry, defensive innovation in the industrially advanced countries, including automation and flexible management, has initiated a relocation of jobs to these countries or to offshore locations geographically close to their markets. Automated garment production in these countries requires fewer but computer-literate workers. In the case of microelectronics, development policies of East Asian countries and the competitive pressures on start-up companies in the North have led to an increased demand for computer-literate, skilled technicians over the unskilled and overwhelmingly female workforce of manual-assembly workers. Women's continued employment and advancement in these industries globally will depend upon their acquisition of new technical skills. The ratification by the 1995 international women's conference at Beijing of the demand for better access to education and skills training for women, especially in the Third World, is a step in the right direction.

  2. Gender, professional and non-professional work, and the changing pattern of employment-related inequality in poor self-rated health, 1995-2006 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Ho; Khang, Young Ho; Cho, Sung Il; Chun, Heeran; Muntaner, Carles

    2011-01-01

    We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.

  3. Growth, Employment and Structural Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the decomposition of GSDP growth per capita in Punjab via-a-vis 15 other states in India during 1993–94 and 2011–12 in terms of employment and productivity growth. Specifically, it focuses on the role of employment growth and structural change in employment on economic growth...... but structural shifts have paid off well in terms of diversification of the economy and their contribution to labour productivity especially for manufacturing. Overall employment effect had been negative but this was essentially due to contraction in the labour force; the employment rate effect turned out...

  4. Offshoring and Changes in Firms’ Domestic Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    difference on a set of employment characteristics, i.e. employment growth, growth in high skilled employees, and growth in employees with a background in science and engineering, by using a partial propensity score matching approach. The findings of the analyses show that there are clear differences between......In this paper, we investigate, by merging the Danish linked employer-employee database with a Danish offshoring survey, the difference in employment between offshoring and non-offshoring firms that are active in manufacturing industries and business services in Denmark. We measure the mean...... Danish offshoring and non-offshoring firms in how the employee composition changes over time. The change in employment composition differ considerably between manufacturing industries and business services and on whether firms offshore administrative and technical business functions or other types...

  5. Employment Change and Business Prospects in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosovka Đ Ognjenovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine whether some previous knowledge about business prospects affects companies’ decisions about new employment in Serbia. In order to investigate this assumption a set of firm level data for 2012 is used. Following the theoretical approach that put an employer in a position to make various decisions about employment within the company, the trichotomous logit model is employed for the estimation of outcomes of possible companies’ decisions with respect to a set of independent variables. We find that the level of employment in the year that precedes companies’ decisions and relative changes in the number of employees in two successive years, as well as age and size of the company to some extent, affect companies’ decisions about new employment. The most important finding of our research is that the companies that experienced fluctuations in the number of employees and upgraded their business opportunities in the previous period hesitate to make decisions on the engagement of new workers, whereas those companies that lost some business opportunities rather decide to downsize the total number of employees.

  6. Reading Patterns Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are

  7. Contemporary psychological contracts : How both employer and employee are changing the employment relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Smissen, A.I.M.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.

    2013-01-01

    The employment relationship between employer and employee has gone through fundamental changes in the last decades, influencing psychological contracts. It is unclear, however, exactly how psychological contracts are changing. This article offers a comprehensive model that focuses on two factors

  8. Occupational change, employer change, internal migration, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, R G

    1997-02-01

    "In this paper I use microdata from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics to measure the financial returns to intercounty and interstate migration for individuals in a temporal framework accounting for gains that accrue over time.... To account for the indirect effects of migration on earnings, explanatory variables are created by interacting migration status with: (1) occupational change, (2) employer change and (3) changes in both occupation and employer. These interaction terms are then included in the earnings functions. Earnings are estimated for three years subsequent to the migration decision to account for the financial returns to migration accruing over time. Results indicate that, when estimating earnings, the use of a simple migration dummy variable will mask the indirect effects of migration on earnings." excerpt

  9. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  10. Growth, employment patterns and inequality in Asia a case study of India

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar, C. P; Ghosh, Jayati

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that economic inequalities in India have been driven by employment patterns and changes in labour markets, which in turn have been affected by macroeconomic policies and processes as well as forms of social discrimination and exclusion. While many Asian economies have shown indications of rising inequality in recent decades, the Indian experience is particularly remarkable in the way inequalities have intertwined with the economic growth process. Structural change (or the re...

  11. Africa's Changing Farm Structure and Employment Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne, T.S.; Chapoto, A.; Sitko, N.; Muyanga, M.; Nkonde, C.; Chamberlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Even under optimistic assumptions about the rate of urbanization and growth of non-farm employment, agriculture will still be the main source of livelihood for the majority of Africans for at least the next several decades (Losch 2012). Non-farm wage jobs in Sub-Saharan Africa will be able to absorb between 40 to 65 percent of the additional 122 million workers estimated to enter the labor force before 2020 (Fine et al. 2012). This means that farming will be called upon to provide gainful emp...

  12. National Call for Organizational Change from Sheltered to Integrated Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Patricia; Rinne, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in this article is to contend that organizational change from sheltered to integrated employment is not only possible but necessary, and a federal Employment First agenda must be advanced. Findings are reported from interviews with senior managers from 10 organizations that have shifted their service delivery to community employment,…

  13. Economic Growth, Structural Change and Productive Employment Linkages in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative analysis of growth, structural change and employment linkages at the aggregate level and by sector under the state- and market-led regimes in India. The underlying objectives are: (a) to understand how economic liberalization has affected the economic and labour...... intervention to broad base structural change for generating productive employment, which is at the core of poverty reduction....

  14. Framework for projecting employment and population changes accompanying energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Metzger, J.E.

    1980-05-01

    This report provides a framework which energy planners can use to readily estimate the size and timing of the population and employment changes associated with energy development. The direct employment requirements for eight different technologies are listed. This direct employment requirement can be combined with the set of employment multipliers and other information provided to obtain practical estimates of the employment and population impacts of new energy development. Some explanation is given for the variation of the multipliers among counties in the same region. A description is presented of a demographic model for deriving the annual population changes that can be expected as a result of in-migrating workers and their families. Several hypothetical examples of the procedure for making the calculations are discussed as practical exercises in using the multipliers. The necessary data are provided for obtaining estimates of population and employment changes in any county in the US.

  15. Changes in Employed People’s Health Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jungbauer-Gans

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines for Germany whether the subjective satisfaction with health has changed over the course of time. It is analysed whether a drop in health satisfaction can be observed and whether this can be explained by changing employment circumstances. Labour market research has documented a change in the employment situation in detail, which can be subsumed under the keyword of precarisation. In the theoretical section we will portray the current state of research concerning the development of the employment situation and emphasize the significance of gainful employment for health. The empirical analyses of the article are based on data of employed people in the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP of the years 1985, 1996 and 2009. The data show a significantly declining health satisfaction between 1985 and 2009 in Western Germany and no noteworthy change in Eastern Germany between 1996 and 2009. The Blinder/Oaxaca decomposition is used in the analyses to better differentiate the effect of the changed employment situation on the drop in health satisfaction. The analyses indeed reveal changing effects of the employment situation. In Western Germany, a significant percentage of the lesser health satisfaction can be attributed to an increasing number of workers in precarious employment situations. Workplace security is of primary significance for explaining the declining health satisfaction in Western Germany.

  16. Change in employment status of 5-year cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Nielsen, Roy A; Fosså, Sophie D; Gudbergsson, Saevar B; Dahl, Alv A

    2013-02-01

    To follow the employment status of 5-year cancer survivors for 5 years after diagnosis with their first lifetime invasive cancer and to identify socio-demographic, work-related and cancer-related predictors of employment status after 5 years. This prospective registry study concerned all 3278 people in Norway (18-61 years old) diagnosed with their first lifetime invasive cancer in 1999 and alive in 2004 and a cancer-free control group (n = 6368) matched by sex, age, educational level and employment status in 1998. The employment rate among male cancer survivors declined steadily every year, from 94% the year before diagnosis (1998) to 77% 5 years after diagnosis (2004). This change did not differ significantly from that of male controls. The employment rate of female survivors also declined steadily, from 87% (1998) to 69% (2004). This decline was greater than that among female controls, and in 2004 survivors had a significantly lower employment rate. For both men and women, the significant pre-diagnosis predictors of being employed in 2004 concerned higher socio-economic position. For both sexes, lung cancer survivors had the highest decline in employment rate, and male skin cancer survivors had a lower decline in employment rate than controls. Socio-demographic and work-related factors explained more of the variance in employment status than did cancer diagnosis. The employment rate among 5-year cancer survivors did not change significantly except for female survivors. Low socio-economic position is a risk factor for decline in employment rate and should be focused on to prevent cancer-related inequity.

  17. Job Sharing: An Alternative to Traditional Employment Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttweiler, Robert W.

    Taking the view that job sharing is a positive alternative for workers and employers, this article defines job sharing in broad terms and describes its evolution from the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 to the present. The advantages, such as increased productivity, are felt to be impressive, but disadvantages also exist, including significant…

  18. Society Membership Profile: Employment Mobility and Career Change. AIP Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Beverly Fearn; Kellman, Dawn

    Information on the influence of employment mobility and career change on the flexibility of the physics labor force is provided, noting the past several decades have brought a dramatic roller coaster of changes to the physics community. Five sections are as follows: membership composition (demographics, professional self-identification, and…

  19. Does Change in Young Men's Employment Influence Fathering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Goldscheider, Frances

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal and maternal employment changes and changes in the frequency of fathers praising, showing affection, disciplining, and reading to children. Data were drawn from the Young Adult supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Supporting economic theory, fathers were more involved…

  20. Changing patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytle, T.L.; Johnson, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reviewed the initial chest roentgenograms of 182 consecutive adult patients with proven active tuberculosis. Less than 50% of all cases were known or suspected at the time of initial presentation. There is a low degree of correlation between radiologically discernible active pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. A high percentage of cases represent uncommon pulmonary locations. The frequency of occurrence of four common pulmonary patterns is presented. 21 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  1. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  2. Changing patterns of wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was not to analyze the effects of global warming on wildlife disease patterns, but to serve as a springboard for future efforts to identify those wildlife diseases, including zoonotic diseases, that could be influenced the most by warming climates and to encourage the development of models to examine the potential effects. Hales et al. (1999) examined the relationship of the incidence of a vector-borne human disease, Dengue fever, and El Nino southern oscillations for South Pacific Island nations. The development of similar models on specific wildlife diseases which have environmental factors strongly associated with transmission would provide information and options for the future management of our wildlife resources.

  3. Evolutionary change - patterns and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Salzano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review considered: (a the factors that conditioned the early transition from non-life to life; (b genome structure and complexity in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organelles; (c comparative human chromosome genomics; and (d the Brazilian contribution to some of these studies. Understanding the dialectical conflict between freedom and organization is fundamental to give meaning to the patterns and processes of organic evolution.A presente revisão considerou: (a os fatores que condicionaram a transição inicial entre não-vida e vida; (b a estrutura e complexidade genômica em procariotos, eucariotos e organelas; (c a genômica comparada dos cromossomos humanos; (d a contribuição brasileira a alguns desses estudos. A compreensão do conflito dialético entre liberdade e organização é fundamental para dar significado aos padrões e processos da evolução orgânica.

  4. Mother employment status and nutritional patterns in Japanese junior high schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, A; Sekine, M; Chandola, T; Marmot, M; Kagamimori, S

    2009-07-01

    To investigate associations between mothers' employment (full, part time and no employment) and nutrition habits (regularity of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and portion size) in a sample of Japanese junior high schoolchildren, 12-13 years of age. A total of 10 453 children aged 12-13 years from the Toyama birth cohort study (fourth phase) participated, of whom 8906 children (89% response rate) responded to all questions related to the examined variables. Nutrition habits consisted of breakfast, snack, dinner, meal speed and meal portion. Children's obesity/overweight was measured by body mass index (BMI). Fathers' employment had no effect on their children's nutrition patterns. Children of full-time employed mothers were the most likely to snack and to skip dinner. Children of part-time employed mothers ate larger meal portions, and those of non-employed mothers reported faster meal speeds. BMI was significantly (P<0.001) higher among children of full-time employed mothers (19.3), and lowest among non-employed mothers (19.00). Children of full-time employed mothers are more likely to be overweight, but not obese compared with other children. There was a strong relationship between mother's employment and nutrition patterns in this cohort of Japanese schoolchildren; special programs focused on children's nutrition patterns should take into account the mothers' employment status.

  5. Impact of cancer on employment: A qualitative study exploring employment changes and financial coping strategies following breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yek-Ching Kong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the impact of cancer diagnosis on employment among breast cancer patients. We aim to gain an in-depth understanding on the employment issues faced by breast cancer patients as well as their financial coping strategies in a multi-ethnic Asian setting. Methods: Six focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out with breast cancer patients, representing various ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds, who were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a public hospital, and University Malaya Medical Centre, a public academic hospital. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was carried out using the NVivo software. Results: Majority of breast cancer patients quitted their jobs upon diagnosis of breast cancer, with many describing that their bosses were not understanding in terms of their cancer diagnosis. Those who were self-employed meanwhile reported less productivity. Patterns of financial coping strategies due to employment changes were diverse. Some patients chose to do light weight part time jobs, while others described the important role of husbands and relatives in coping with income loss. There were mixed responses regarding return to work, in which money was the major reason to return to work, while stress was cited as a barrier to not return to work. However, many reported barriers in finding a job after cancer due to discrimination against their cancer and their age. Conclusion: It is evident that a breast cancer diagnosis brings about adverse impact on employment. Multidisciplinary interventions are urgently required in Malaysia to improve the employment status of our cancer survivors including legislative reforms to prevent discrimination. This study was funded by AIA Bhd. NMRR ID: NMRR-16-2054-32802 

  6. [Motivations for foreign employment and carrier change among Hungarian physiotherapists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pónusz, Róbert; Kovács, Dalma; Raposa, László Bence; Hock, Márta; Decsi, Tamás; Kránicz, János; Endrei, Dóra

    2016-02-28

    An increasing motivation can be experienced among professional workers within the Hungarian healthcare system towards foreign employment or career change. The aim of the authors was to assess Hungarian physiotherapists' migration and career changing behaviour and to understand the underlying factors. A national survey in Hungary from April to August, 2014 was performed. Only physiotherapists who practice in Hungary were included (n = 215). The results suggest that age (pappreciation experienced in the workplace (pappreciated, are 55 times more likely to search for employment outside the country's borders [OR = 55.28 CI (95%) = 18.85 to 161.12]. The most common causes for that are unfavourable financial (pappreciation of the profession within the Hungarian healthcare system.

  7. A descriptive study of employment patterns and work environment outcomes of specialist nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane; Duffield, Christine; Rizk, Paul; Nahm, Sang; Chu, Charlene H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the number, demographic characteristics, work patterns, exit rates, and work perceptions of nurses in Ontario, Canada, in 4 specialty classifications: advanced practice nurse (APN)-clinical nurse specialist (CNS), APN-other, primary healthcare nurse practitioner [RN(extended class [EC])], and registered nurse (RN) with specialty certification. The objectives were to (1) describe how many qualified nurses are available by specialty class; (2) create a demographic profile of specialist nurses; (3) determine the proportions of specialist and nonspecialist nurses who leave (a) direct patient care and (b) nursing practice annually; (4) determine whether specialist and nonspecialist nurses differ in their self-ratings of work environment, job satisfaction, and intention to remain in nursing. Employment patterns refer to nurses' employment status (eg, full-time, part-time, casual), work duration (ie, length of employment in nurses and in current role), and work transitions (ie, movement in and out of the nursing workforce, and movement out of current role). A longitudinal analysis of the Ontario nurses' registration database from 2005 to 2010 and a survey of specialist nurses in Canada was conducted. The setting was Canada. The database sample consisted of 3 specialist groups, consisting of RN(EC), CNS, and APN-other, as well as 1 nonspecialist RN staff nurse group. The survey sample involved 359 nurses who were classified into groups based on self-reported job title and RN specialty-certification status. Data sources included College of Nurses of Ontario registration database and survey data. The study measures were the Nursing Work Index, a 4-item measure of job satisfaction, and 1-item measure of intent to leave current job. Nurses registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario were tracked over the study period to identify changes in their employment status with comparisons made between nurses employed in specialist roles and those

  8. Women's employment and changing gender relations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alice Colón

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000, using excerpts from interviews conducted with women workers displaced from a clothing and a tuna factory between 2001 and 2002 (Colón et al. 2008), as well as data from the Public Use Sample (PUMS) of the U.S. Census Puerto Rico Community Survey 2005-2007. It is argued that women's employment has resulted in advances in women's autonomy, gender equity, and renegotiations of the provider role, but, intensified by men's unstable earnings, it has also led to the increase of female family headship even among married women. Women's education and employment have been an important means of reducing family poverty both among dual earner families and female heads. Yet, the continuing joblessness in the Island places even higher educated sectors on the verge of economic precariousness.

  9. The gender composition of the medical profession in Mexico: implications for employment patterns and physician labor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, F; Frenk, J; Aguilar, A M

    2000-01-01

    The gender composition of the medical profession is changing rapidly in many parts of the world, including Mexico. We analyze cross-sectional and longitudinal data on sex differences in physician employment from household employment surveys. The results suggest that Mexico is a particularly interesting example of the feminization of physician employment. Female enrollment in medical school increased from 11% in 1970 to about 50% in 1998. The increased participation of women in medicine seems to be accompanied by differences in employment patterns that could generate significant reductions in the total supply of physician hours of service. Women physicians are unemployed at a much higher rate than men and hence account for half of underused physician human capital. The results suggest that improved educational opportunities do not translate automatically into equal employment opportunities.

  10. Is changing footstrike pattern beneficial to runners?

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Hamill; Allison H. Gruber

    2017-01-01

    Some researchers, running instructors, and coaches have suggested that the “optimal” footstrike pattern to improve performance and reduce running injuries is to land using a mid- or forefoot strike. Thus, it has been recommended that runners who use a rearfoot strike would benefit by changing their footstrike although there is little scientific evidence for suggesting such a change. The rearfoot strike is clearly more prevalent. The major reasons often given for changing to a mid- or forefoot...

  11. Changing Housing Patterns in Metropolitan Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, George; Grier, Eunice

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes extensive studies of changing minority residential patterns in metropolitan Washington and less extensive studies of other groups; the prospects for future desegregation and for using the growing economic potential of minority families…

  12. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  13. The changing employment relationship in the chemical industry : the role of the employment- and psychological contract / Elsabé Keyser.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyser, Elsabé

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the employment relationship in the chemical industry in South Africa and organisational change within it is crucial to the understanding of the changing employment and psychological contract within this industry. This study focused on the employment- and psychological contracts, as well as employees ' work-outcomes (organisational commitment, job insecurity, job performance and intention to quit). Employees from the chemical industry were targeted and a cross-sectional survey...

  14. Policy Changes, Employment, and Single Parenthood in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Forssén

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The labor supply of mothers is in? uenced by womens preferences and labor market conditions, as well as by family policy packages which enable families to reconcile work and family life. This article deepens the understanding about why Finnish single mothers are facing higher unemployment risks than mothers in two-parent families. The main question is how the changes in the Finnish family policy system have affected the economic and labor market status of single mothers in the last part of the 1990s. Have the changes in family policy affected their entry / re-entry into the labor market? Or can these changes in employment rate be explained by mothers personal decisions. Single parents were more vulnerable compared to partnered mothers in parental leave reforms and in the Family reform package in 1994. Changes in the labor market have had an impact on the situation of mothers with small children. One group of mothers can enjoy the full provision of leaves, bene? ts and job security, but an increased share of mothers have become dependent on only basic bene? ts. In this respect, the inequality among mothers has increased.

  15. Service patterns related to successful employment outcomes of persons with traumatic brain injury in vocational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Denise; Pereira, Ana Paula; Wu, Ming-Yi; Ho, Hanson; Chan, Fong

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) case service report (RSA-911) data for fiscal year 2004 to examine effects of demographic characteristics, work disincentives, and vocational rehabilitation services patterns on employment outcomes of persons with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). The results indicated that European Americans (53%) had appreciably higher competitive employment rates than Native American (50%), Asian Americans (44%), African Americans (42%), and Hispanic/Latino Americans (41%). Clients without co-occurring psychiatric disabilities had a higher employment rate (51%) than those with psychiatric disabilities (45%). Clients without work disincentives showed better employment outcomes (58%) than those with disincentives (45%). An important finding from this analysis was the central role of job search assistance, job placement assistance, and on-the-job support services for persons with TBI in predicting employment outcomes. A data mining technique, the exhaustive CHAID analysis, was used to examine the interaction effects of race, gender, work disincentives and service variables on employment outcomes. The results indicated that the TBI clients in this study could be segmented into 29 homogeneous subgroups with employment rates ranging from a low of 11% to a high of 82%, and these differences can be explained by differences in work disincentives, race, and rehabilitation service patterns.

  16. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  17. The impact of attitudes and work preferences on Dutch mothers' employment patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, J.; de Beer, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, preference theory has gained significance in the academic literature on the determinants of female employment patterns. Mostly, within these studies gender and work attitudes and work preferences (the number of hours a woman prefers to work) are treated as one concept. However,

  18. Labor-force participation patterns of older self-employed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J F

    1980-04-01

    Self-employed persons work in a less constrained environment than do most wage-and-salary employees. Generally they are not subject to compulsory retirement nor are they affected by institutional rules concerning labor supply. Data from the 1969 and 1971 interviews of the Retirement History Study show that the labor supply and retirement patterns of the self-employed are distinct from those of other workers. The self-employed (espeically "career" self-employed) nearing retirement age are less likely to be out of the labor force, and those who continue in the labor force have a wider variation in the number of hours worked per year. Downward flexibility in hours (the option for gradual retirement) may be an extremely valuable aspect of self-employed status, and one wonders whether other older workers would also choose this pattern if more flexible opportunities were available. Despite these differences, labor-supply decisions of the self-employed are found to be influenced by many of the same factors that affect the rest of the workforce--health, eligibility for social security and pension benefits, the wage rate, and the flow of asset.

  19. Change in attitudes about employed mothers: exposure, interests, and gender ideology discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Elman, Cheryl

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of continuously-married individuals (793 women and 847 men) and their spouses drawn from the first two waves of the NSFH, we examine change in individuals' attitudes about mothers' employment. We investigate hypotheses derived from three models of attitude change: the exposure model, the interest-based model, and the control model. We find support for hypotheses derived from all three. Consistent with exposure hypotheses, the adoption of fundamentalist beliefs reduces egalitarianism, while spouses' egalitarianism and spouses' education are positively related to individuals' own egalitarianism. As predicted in both exposure and interest hypotheses, women's entry into employment is positively related to women's egalitarianism, while wives' occupational prestige is positively related to men's egalitarianism. Congruent with the interest model, the presence of a young child is positively associated with women's egalitarianism. Consistent with the exposure model, the number of children in the home reduces men's egalitarianism, and a traditional division of housework decreases women's egalitarianism. Finally, consistent with the gender ideology discrepancy hypothesis, derived from the control model, individuals whose background, work, and family life are inconsistent with their gender ideology at wave 1 shift their gender ideology at wave 2 in a direction that is more compatible with their background, work, and family life: egalitarians with traditional life patterns at wave 1 are more traditional in their gender ideology at wave 2, and traditionals with egalitarian life patterns at wave 1 are more egalitarian at wave 2. We discuss the implications of these patterns for larger scale change in gender ideology.

  20. Does self-employment really raise job satisfaction? Adaptation and anticipation effects on self-employment and general job changes

    OpenAIRE

    Hanglberger, Dominik; Merz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Empirical analyses using cross-sectional and panel data found significantly higher levels of job satisfaction for the self-employed than for employees. We argue that by neglecting anticipation and adaptation effects estimates in previous studies might be misleading. To test this, we specify models accounting for anticipation and adaptation to self-employment and general job changes. In contrast to recent literature we find no specific long-term effect of self-employment on job satisfaction. A...

  1. Understanding and Managing Employability in Changing Career Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of employability as it has evolved over time and to propose a new definition which reflects the critical variables that contribute to employability at an individual level. It also offers suggestions for how to manage employability and careers at both an individual and an organisational…

  2. Is changing footstrike pattern beneficial to runners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hamill

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers, running instructors, and coaches have suggested that the “optimal” footstrike pattern to improve performance and reduce running injuries is to land using a mid- or forefoot strike. Thus, it has been recommended that runners who use a rearfoot strike would benefit by changing their footstrike although there is little scientific evidence for suggesting such a change. The rearfoot strike is clearly more prevalent. The major reasons often given for changing to a mid- or forefoot strike are (1 it is more economical; (2 there is a reduction in the impact peak and loading rate of the vertical component of the ground reaction force; and (3 there is a reduction in the risk of a running-related injuries. In this paper, we critique these 3 suggestions and provide alternate explanations that may provide contradictory evidence for altering one's footstrike pattern. We have concluded, based on examining the research literature, that changing to a mid- or forefoot strike does not improve running economy, does not eliminate an impact at the foot-ground contact, and does not reduce the risk of running-related injuries.

  3. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    of the results of a questionnaire survey (Jelsøe, Land & Lassen, 1994), so that their ways of life, age, number of children, distance to etc., were known in advance. Their dietary patterns, as revealed by the questionnaire survey, had no influence on the selection. 3. Not unexpectedly, the questionnaire survey...... living at home and where the children had left home. In order to illustrate how dietary patterns affect the various daily practices of different ways of life another important selection criterion was to choose four families within each way of life: the wage earner w life, the career way of life...... explain how Ziehe's work can be linked to changes in food consumption. 5. The in-depth interviews were analysed across the twelve families around eleven focus points: * division of labour in the family and the time available * economic resources * consumers' perception of quality * ecological products...

  4. Changes in Employment Status after Myocardial Infarction among Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Şahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the Turkey Burden of Disease Study, 10% of the national burden of disease is attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Although the standardized coronary heart disease (CHD rate is falling in general, CHD prevalence among young people is rising. On the other hand, as a result of increased life expectancy and higher retirement ages, the CHD rate among workers is also increasing. Therefore, work ability and return to work after diagnosis are important for population health and well-being. Socioeconomic factors and working conditions may play a key role as well as clinical conditions described in the literature that affect returning to work. Aims: The aims of this qualitative study are exploring the changes in employment and working conditions of the patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and affecting factors such as socioeconomic, personal and environmental. Study design: Qualitative research. Methods: The research population are fifty-three patients who are engaged in paid employment when the people have been diagnosed with myocardial infarction for the first time between 2011 and 2012 at a university hospital coronary care unit. We intended to reach the whole population. Twenty- seven patients were contacted whose phone numbers were accessible from the hospital records. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve patients in a meeting room at the hospital. The interviews were tape-recorded accompanied by note-taking and the content analysis method were evaluated. Results: While many of the participants continued to work at the same job by working less, one third of them said that they were thinking about getting an easier job if they have the opportunity. On the other hand, in most cases, there were neither assessments about their work ability, nor changes to their working conditions after AMI. They had to cope with their conditions, such as economic or psychosocial, without any support

  5. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  6. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  7. The changing face of public sector employment 1999–2009

    OpenAIRE

    David Matthews

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARYThis article presents an analysis of public sector employment (PSE) and makes comparisons with the private sector, using data from the Labour Force Survey and Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings. It looks at the nature of employment in the public sector before discussing the characteristics that differentiate people employed in both the public and private sector, comparing proportions of public and private sector workers in different groups: by sex, age, ethnicity, disability, working ...

  8. Changes in Attitudes toward Maternal Employment during the Past Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Kirsten; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Thomas, Amy; Johnson, Lisa; Nyce, Susan; Lang, Allison; Alvazian, Casey; Szuchyt, Jamie; Farrell, Debbi; Cane, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Zohe, Dorothy; Dous, Julie-Anne; Black, Aimee; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study replicated an earlier study that examined the differences between attitudes toward maternal employment among young adult male and female respondents in 1990 and 2000. Responses of undergraduates were obtained in 1990 and 2000 on the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children (BACMEC) and author-devised items…

  9. Motivation patterns of a sample of African workers employed at a colliery in Mpumalanga

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Labour Law and Employment Relations) The purpose of this study is to determine the work motivation pattern of African workers and the factors that motivate them In the workplace. The research was carried out within the framework of the Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene Theory. The research was conducted within the coal mining industry. The data was collected by means ofa TIMS Attitude Survey questionnaire and review of secondary data relevant to the research. The research results indica...

  10. WHAT ARE THE FEMALE EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT PATTERNS ON THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTELIAC NELA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges encountered by women in accessing and penetrating the labour market are undeniable realities of the present. One of the shortcomings of the labour market relates to gender differences. A significant part of these differences are caused by: the existence of a patriarchal social system; the segregation of the labour market; gender discrimination. This paper attempts to examine women’s employment and unemployment patterns on the Romanian labour market based on a series of statistical data that has been collected and reviewed, while highlighting the main factors that shape the current situation of the Romanian labour market. As regards the employment rate, the gender difference in Romania falls within the limits of that recorded for most EU countries (the employment rate is higher for the male than female population. On the contrary, the unemployment rate is reversed (higher unemployment rate in male than female population.

  11. Employment Patterns of Less-Skilled Workers: Links to Children’s Behavior and Academic Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Dunifon, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from five waves of the Women’s Employment Survey (WES; 1997–2003), we examine the links between low-income mothers’ employment patterns and the emotional behavior and academic progress of their children. We find robust and substantively important linkages between several different dimensions of mothers’ employment experiences and child outcomes. The pattern of results is similar across empirical approaches—including ordinary least squares and child fixed-effect models, with and without an extensive set of controls. Children exhibit fewer behavior problems when mothers work and experience job stability (relative to children whose mothers do not work). In contrast, maternal work accompanied by job instability is associated with significantly higher child behavior problems (relative to employment in a stable job). Children whose mothers work full-time and/or have fluctuating work schedules also exhibit significantly higher levels of behavior problems. However, full-time work has negative consequences for children only when it is in jobs that do not require cognitive skills. Such negative consequences are completely offset when this work experience is in jobs that require the cognitive skills that lead to higher wage growth prospects. Finally, fluctuating work schedules and full-time work in non-cognitively demanding jobs are each strongly associated with the probability that the child will repeat a grade or be placed in special education. PMID:22246798

  12. The changing face of employment relations: equality and diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sian; Tailby, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore what has happened to the notion and reality of equal pay over the past 50 years, a period in which women have become the majority of trade union members in the UK. It does so in the context of record employment levels based upon women’s increased labour market participation albeit reflecting their continued over-representation in part-time employment, locating the narrowed but persistent overall gender pay gap in the broader picture of pay ine...

  13. The Changing Pattern of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Falkinham

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria are human opportunistic pathogens whose source of infection is the environment. These include both slow-growing (eg, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium and rapid-growing (eg, Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium fortuitum species. Transmission is through ingestion or inhalation of water, particulate matter or aerosols, or through trauma. The historic presentation of pulmonary disease in older individuals with predisposing lung conditions and in children has been changing. Pulmonary disease in elderly individuals who lack the classic predisposing lung conditions is increasing. Pulmonary disease and hypersensitivity pneumonitis have been linked with occupational or home exposures to nontuberculous mycobacteria. There has been a shift from Mycobacterium scrofulaceum to M avium in children with cervical lymphadenitis. Further, individuals who are immunosuppressed due to therapy or HIV-infection are at a greatly increased risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The changing pattern of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is due in part to the ability of these pathogens to survive and proliferate in habitats that they share with humans, such as drinking water. The advent of an aging population and an increase in the proportion of immunosuppressed individuals suggest that the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease will increase.

  14. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  15. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors ...

  16. Women's Employment Transitions and Changes in Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk, Piotr

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe effect of employment on women's psychological well being has become animportant issue in the sociology of mental health. Although work-for-pay is thought to have an overallpostiive impact on women's psychological well being, not all women equally experience this positiveeffect. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of transitions in employment status onchanges in psychological distress among women in two types of family setting: lone parent families andmarried couple families (including common-law unions. Using a framework which combines a longitudinaldesign with a structural equation modelling multigroup analysis, the current study indicates clearlythat the employment transitions and employment stability have no uniform effect on the mental healthof all mothers. Specifically, transition into employment offers a significant reduction in feelings ofdistress only among married mothers. Single mothers, in contrast are found to experience a significantincrease in the level of distress when they move out of employment. The results of this study point tosome advantages of longitudinal research designs over cross-section designs.FrenchL'effet de l'emploi sur le bien-être psychologique des femmes est devenu unequestion importante en sociologie de santé mentale. Bien que le travail payé aitun impact positif global sur le bien-être psychologique des femmes, pas toutesles femmes éprouvent également cet effet positif. L'objectif de cette étude estd'évaluer l'effet des transitions dans le statut d'emploi sur des changements de ladétresse psychologique parmi des femmes dans deux types de famille: famillesà un seul parent et familles à couple mariés (y compris les mariages de fait. Enutilisant un cadre qui combine une analyse longitudinale avec une équationstructurale modelant plusieurs groupes, l'étude actuelle indique clairement queles transitions d'emploi et la stabilité d'emploi n'ont pas un effet uniforme sur lasant

  17. Self-Employment Dynamics, State Dependence and Cross-Mobility Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Marco; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mobility between self-employment, wage employment and non-employment. Using data for men in West Germany, we find strong true state dependence in all three states. Moreover, compared to wage employment, non-employment increases the probability of self-employment significantly, and self-employment goes along with a higher risk of future non-employment.

  18. Pattern changes in determinants of Chinese emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhifu; Meng, Jing; Guan, Dabo; Shan, Yuli; Liu, Zhu; Wang, Yutao; Feng, Kuishuang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The Chinese economy has been recovering slowly from the global financial crisis, but it cannot achieve the same rapid development of the pre-recession period. Instead, the country has entered a new phase of economic development—a ‘new normal’. We use a structural decomposition analysis and environmental input-output analysis to estimate the determinants of China’s carbon emission changes during 2005-2012. China’s imports are linked to a global multi-regional input-output model based on the Global Trade and Analysis Project database to calculate the embodied CO2 emissions in imports. We find that the global financial crisis has affected the drivers of China’s carbon emission growth. From 2007 to 2010, the CO2 emissions induced by China’s exports dropped, whereas emissions induced by capital formation grew rapidly. In the ‘new normal’, the strongest factors that offset CO2 emissions have shifted from efficiency gains to structural upgrading. Efficiency was the strongest factor offsetting China’s CO2 emissions before 2010 but drove a 1.4% increase in emissions in the period 2010-2012. By contrast, production structure and consumption patterns caused a 2.6% and 1.3% decrease, respectively, in China’s carbon emissions from 2010 to 2012. In addition, China tends to shift gradually from an investment to a consumption-driven economy. The proportion of CO2 emissions induced by consumption had a declining trend before 2010 but grew from 28.6%-29.1% during 2010-2012.

  19. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in FePt Patterned Media Employing a CrV Seed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A thin FePt film was deposited onto a CrV seed layer at 400°C and showed a high coercivity (~3,400 Oe and high magnetization (900–1,000 emu/cm3 characteristic of L10 phase. However, the magnetic properties of patterned media fabricated from the film stack were degraded due to the Ar-ion bombardment. We employed a deposition-last process, in which FePt film deposited at room temperature underwent lift-off and post-annealing processes, to avoid the exposure of FePt to Ar plasma. A patterned medium with 100-nm nano-columns showed an out-of-plane coercivity fivefold larger than its in-plane counterpart and a remanent magnetization comparable to saturation magnetization in the out-of-plane direction, indicating a high perpendicular anisotropy. These results demonstrate the high perpendicular anisotropy in FePt patterned media using a Cr-based compound seed layer for the first time and suggest that ultra-high-density magnetic recording media can be achieved using this optimized top-down approach.

  20. Technological Change and Employment: Some Results from BLS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Jerome A.

    1987-01-01

    Data from Bureau of Labor Statistics research projects indicate that the pace of technological advancement varies significantly from industry to industry and few employees have been laid off as a result of these changes. Implications for industry concern productivity and retraining. (CH)

  1. Dynamically Reconfigurable Metadevice Employing Nanostructured Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Evans, Philip G; Haglund, Richard F; Valentine, Jason G

    2017-08-09

    Mastering dynamic free-space spectral control and modulation in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical regimes remains a challenging task that is hindered by the available functional materials at high frequencies. In this work, we have realized an efficient metadevice capable of spectral control by minimizing the thermal mass of a vanadium dioxide phase-change material (PCM) and placing the PCM at the feed gap of a bow-tie field antenna. The device has an experimentally measured tuning range of up to 360 nm in the NIR and a modulation depth of 33% at the resonant wavelength. The metadevice is configured for integrated and local heating, leading to faster switching and more precise spatial control compared with devices based on phase-change thin films. We envisage that the combined advantages of this device will open new opportunities for signal processing, memory, security, and holography at optical frequencies.

  2. The Employment Impact of Technological Change. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Eleven descriptive studies prepared by independent experts and dealing with the employment impact of technological change are presented. Part I contains (1) an analysis, at the establishment level, of employment-increasing growth of output and employment-decreasing growth of output per man-hour, (2) case studies of the elapsed time involved in the…

  3. Innovation, Small Firm Change, and Employment of Academic Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    This paper starts from samples of economic literature hypothesizing and partly establishing a positive relationship between innovation, firm level change, and skill-bias. Confronting this literature with Danish empirics, and literature on small business economics, a research question...... on the generalizability of skill-bias emerge. Finally, taking advantage of unique Danish data, the empirical part of the paper reports findings indicating an increased likelihood of innovative small firms to hire a first academically skilled worker when compared to non-innovative counterparts. These findings generally...

  4. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  5. Climate Change and employment. Impact on employment in the European Union-25 of climate change and CO2 emission reduction measures by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupressoir, S.; Belen Sanchez, A.; Bobe, P.; Hoefele, V. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    This study was intended provide an analysis of the potential costs and benefits for employment of the policies and measures against climate change as well as of the manifestations of the consequences of climate change in Europe. This report comprises two divisions. The first, entitled 'Impact of climate change', attempts to determine the potential impact on employment in Europe of the consequences of climate change (Part 1). The second, entitled 'Impact of CO2 emission reduction measures', analyses the potential implications for employment of climate-change prevention policies in the EU with time-horizons of 2012 and 2030 (Parts 2 to 4). The conclusions and recommendations of the study appear in four parts : Part 1 analyses the potential consequences for employment of climatic warming in Europe; Part 2 presents the objectives, the hypotheses and the methodology of the 'impact of CO2 emission reduction measures' division; Part 3 analyses the foreseeable effects of CO2 emission reduction measures on employment in Europe; Part 4 offers general (or sector-wide) recommendations for measures and policies to promote positive effects and prevent negative effects. The concluding part discusses the uncertainties and identifies the questions deserving further investigation.

  6. Has climate change disrupted stratification patterns in Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Has climate change disrupted stratification patterns in Lake Victoria, East Africa? ... Climate change may threaten the fisheries of Lake Victoria by increasing density differentials in the water column, thereby strengthening stratification and increasing the ... Keywords: deoxygenation, fisheries, global warming, thermocline

  7. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  8. Climate change and amphibian diversity patterns in Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochoa-Ochoa, Leticia M.; Rodríguez, Pilar; Mora, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to characterize at fine scale alpha and beta diversity patterns for Mexican amphibians and analyze how these patterns might change under a moderate climate-change scenario, highlighting the overall consequences for amphibian diversity at the country level. We used a geo...

  9. Patterns of demographic change in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, D H

    1992-06-01

    Considerable scholarly debate has focused on the nature of demographic change in the Americas before and after 1492. Recent research on human skeletal samples and related archeological materials suggests that morbidity and mortality were increasing throughout much of the Western Hemisphere before 1492 in response to increased population density, increased sedentism, and changing subsistence. The evidence suggests that after 1492 population reduction was caused not by continental pandemics but by localized or regional epidemics augmented by social and economic disruption. The twentieth century has witnessed remarkable Native American population recovery, fueled both by improvements in health care and changing definitions of "being Indian."

  10. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...

  11. Facing aliens under globalization: changing meanings of home for Taiwanese employers of foreign domestics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-Ju Ada

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with changing meanings of home for Taiwanese employers of foreign domestics under globalization. Shifting sense of home occurs for Taiwanese employers as well as foreign domestics in the process of labor migration. The author argues that Taiwanese employers, facing aliens at home, have adopted various rhetorical strategies to redefine their relationships with foreign domestics and deployed diverse practices of management within their households. As foreign domestics do housework at home, Taiwanese employers also do their own "homework," struggling to understand and cope with the process of becoming and being household employers. Their "homework" is an integral part of the globalization of domestic service.

  12. Respiratory pattern changes during costovertebral joint movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if costovertebral joint manipulation (CVJM) could influence the respiratory pattern. Phrenic efferent activity (PA) was monitored in dogs that were anesthetized with Dial-urethane, vagotomized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. Ribs 6-10 (bilaterally) were cut and separated from ribs 5-11. Branches of thoracic nerves 5-11 were cut, leaving only the joint nerve supply intact. Manual joint movement in an inspiratory or expiratory direction had an inhibitory effect on PA. Sustained displacement of the ribs could inhibit PA for a duration equal to numerous respiratory cycles. CVJM in synchrony with PA resulted in an increased respiratory rate. The inspiratory inhibitory effect of joint receptor stimulation was elicited with manual chest compression in vagotomized spontaneously breathing dogs, but not with artificial lung inflation or deflation. It is concluded that the effect of CVJM on the respiratory pattern is due to stimulation of joint mechanoreceptors, and that they exert their influence in part via the medullary-pontine rhythm generator.

  13. Patterns of Change in Depression Post Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne-M.; Ottenbacher, Allison; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little information is available on depressive symptom change in persons with stroke. Objectives Provide estimates of change in depressive symptoms and determine how depressive symptom change influences recovery of functional status. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eleven in-patient medical rehabilitation facilities located across the U.S. Participants 544 persons with a first-time stroke. Measurements General linear regression model estimates assessed associations between depressive symptom change and functional status 3 and 12 months post discharge. Results The majority of persons with stroke were aged 75 and older, white, female and married. The most prevalent stroke type was ischemic. Non-depressed patients at discharge who reported fewer symptoms 12-months later had an adjusted functional status score of 108.2. This compared to adjusted functional status scores of 104.6 for those non-depressed at discharge with increasing symptoms over the 12-month follow-up, 100.3 for those depressed at discharge with fewer symptoms over the 12-month follow-up, and 88.0 for those depressed at discharge with more symptoms over the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion Tracking depressive symptom change in hospital and post discharge is clinically relevant and an important component of patient care and recovery of functional status. PMID:21275930

  14. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    : German banks divested their equity stakes mainly as a consequence of increased international competition. The paper extends the model of market-led change by two important observations: first, market pressure is not the only driver of legal change, but the law itself in this case contributed...... to facilitating competition. Notably, a taxation law reform enabled and accelerated the competition process already underway. Legal rules and market competition may thus be understood as not operating in isolation, but as forces that can be working in dialog. Secondly, the paper highlights the importance......German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...

  15. Supporting Employers in the Reserve Operational Forces Era: Are Changes Needed to Reservists’ Employment Rights Legislation, Policies, or Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Universal Numbering System EN Employer Notification EP Employer Partnership of the Armed Services EPF Employment Policy Foundation ESGR Employer Support of...on Employers 33 lished in 2005 by the Employment Policy Foundation ( EPF ). According to that report, about half of FMLA leave-takers do not give...Magazine (Bates, 2005), summarizes the findings of a report published in 2005 by EPF ; the original report could not be located because EPF has closed. 4

  16. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.

  17. Post-migration employment changes and health: A dyadic spousal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Goldberg, Rachel E

    2017-10-01

    Prospective studies have found unemployment and job loss to be associated with negative psychological and physical health outcomes. For immigrants, the health implications of employment change cannot be considered apart from pre-migration experiences. While immigrants demonstrate relative success in securing employment in the United States, their work is often not commensurate with their education or expertise. Previous research has linked downward employment with adverse health outcomes among immigrants, but with gender differences. We extended this literature by considering a wider range of employment states and accounting for the interdependence of husbands' and wives' employment trajectories. We examined the relationships between personal and spousal post-migration employment changes and self-rated health and depressive symptoms using dyadic data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) (n = 5682 individuals/2841 spousal pairs). We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to model cross-partner effects and account for spousal interdependence. In general, men's downward employment trajectories were associated with poorer health for themselves. Women's employment trajectories had fewer statistically significant associations with their own or their husbands' health, underscoring the generally more peripheral nature of women's work in the household. However, women's current unemployment in particular was associated with poorer health outcomes for themselves and their husbands, suggesting that unmet need for women's work can produce health risks within immigrant households. Our findings suggest that employment change should be considered a household event that can impact the wellbeing of linked individuals within. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Rural Employment Benefit from Changing Labor Skills in U.S. Processed Food Trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Gerald; Lee, Chinkook

    2002-01-01

    The 1990s saw a gain in rural food-processing employment, particularly meat packing and poultry processing, as the industry's demand for low-skilled workers increased. Analysis links the change in worker skills to international trade. While increased rural employment may seem beneficial, the jobs often do not appeal to rural domestic workers, and…

  19. The Changing Logic of Japanese Employment Practices: A Firm-Level Analysis of Four Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Keizer

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn previous decades, the perception of Japan’s employment practices has been strongly intertwined with its economic fortunes. From the 1970s, Japan’s employment practices came to be seen as one of the cornerstones of its economic success. However, this perception changed, albeit with a

  20. E-Employment? College Grad Career Building in a Changing and Electronic Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The unusual nature of the current economic environment combined with changing labor market demographics heightens the importance to those engaged in employment activity of utilizing methods that fulfill their needs. But electronic technology is transforming available employment methods. How can career building and recruiting best be sustained in…

  1. Patterns-Based IS Change Management in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makna, Janis; Kirikova, Marite

    The majority of information systems change management guidelines and standards are either too abstract or too bureaucratic to be easily applicable in small enterprises. This chapter proposes the approach, the method, and the prototype that are designed especially for information systems change management in small and medium enterprises. The approach is based on proven patterns of changes in the set of information systems elements. The set of elements was obtained by theoretical analysis of information systems and business process definitions and enterprise architectures. The patterns were evolved from a number of information systems theories and tested in 48 information systems change management projects. The prototype presents and helps to handle three basic change patterns, which help to anticipate the overall scope of changes related to particular elementary changes in an enterprise information system. The use of prototype requires just basic knowledge in organizational business process and information management.

  2. Closing the gap: Longitudinal changes in employment for Australians with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Pieter A; Kirk-Brown, Andrea K; Taylor, Bruce; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have documented far lower employment participation rates for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) compared to the general population. In a large national sample of PwMS, we examined employment status, longitudinal changes in employment and the provision of modifications to work role/environment from 2010 to 2013. Employment data were collected through the Australian MS Longitudinal Study from 2010 to 2013, with 1260 people responding to all four surveys. Employment rates were compared with the Australian general population. The survey included questions on the provision of modifications to employees' work role and work environment. Employment (full- and part-time) increased from 48.8% in 2010 to 57.8% in 2013, mainly due to increases in male full-time employment. The employment gap between PwMS and the general population fell from 14.3% in 2010 to 3.5% in 2013. Male employment rates, however, remain significantly lower than the general population. The majority of PwMS who required adjustments to either their work role or environment received them. The gap in employment between PwMS and the general population has substantially reduced from 2010 to 2013, with organisations responding positively to requests for work role/environment adjustments.

  3. Using a Classification of Occupations to Describe Age, Sex, and Time Differences in Employment Patterns. Report No. 223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Gary D.; Daiger, Denise C.

    Employment data from the 1960 and 1970 censuses were organized using the occupational classification system of John Holland to examine age, sex, and level differences in employment and to detect changes over the 10-year period. Data were organized by both kind and level of work in an attempt to answer the following questions: What are the relative…

  4. Climate change and farmers’ cropping patterns in Cemoro watershed area, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihardjo; Sutrisno, J.; Setyono, P.; Suntoro

    2018-03-01

    Cropping pattern applied by farmers is usually based on the availability of water. Farmers cultivate rice when water is available. If it is unavailable, farmers will choose to plant crops that need less water. Climate change greatly affects to farmers in determining the cropping pattern as it alters the rainfall pattern and distribution in the region. This condition requires farmers to adjust the cropping pattern so that they can do the farming successfully. This study aims to examine the application of cropping patterns applied by the farmers in the Cemoro Watershed, Central Java, Indonesia. Descriptive analysis approach is employed in this research. The results showed that farmers’ cropping pattern is not based on the availability of water. However, it adopts a habit that has been practiced since long time ago or just adopt others farmer's habit. The cropping pattern applied by irrigated paddy farmers in Cemoro watershed area consists of two types: rice-rice-rice and rice-rice-secondary crops. Among those two types, most farmers apply the rice-rice-rice pattern. Meanwhile, there are three cropping patterns applied in the rain-land, namely rice-rice-rice, rice-rice-secondary crop, and rice-rice-fallow. The majority of farmers apply the second pattern (rice-rice-secondary crops). It was also found that farmers’ cropping pattern was not in accordance with the recommendation of the local government.

  5. The relationship of sick leave benefits, employment patterns, and individual characteristics to radiation therapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Patricia

    2006-05-03

    To examine the relationship among sick leave benefits, employment patterns, individual characteristics, and fatigue in patients receiving radiation therapy. Prospective, longitudinal design. A community hospital radiation oncology department. 77 patients receiving radiation therapy to the breast, chest, head and neck, pelvis, or prostate. All were employed at the time of diagnosis. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model guided the study. The Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Brief Fatigue Inventory, and a single-item scale were used to measure five dimensions of subjective fatigue. Sick leave, employment, individual characteristics, and fatigue were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at one month post-treatment. Employment patterns, availability of sick leave benefits, and fatigue. Mean total fatigue scores on the PFS ranged from 0-4.77 at baseline (mean = 0.46, SD = 0.93), 0-8.77 at the completion of treatment (mean = 2.84, SD = 2.40), and 0-4.82 at one month post-treatment (mean = 0.77, SD = 1.20). Side effects, education, living situation, age, treatment site, and work were associated with fatigue along the trajectory of radiation therapy. Study participants who were working at the end of radiation had lower fatigue scores than those who were not. Availability of sick leave benefits was associated with employment patterns during treatment. Work may have benefits during radiation therapy but may be affected by radiation therapy-related fatigue. Management of treatment side effects, including fatigue, may help patients remain in the workforce during radiation.

  6. Career and Employer Change in the Age of the "Boundaryless" Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Narelle; Jepsen, Denise M.; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the direct effect of individual career concerns on career and employer change intention, as well as the buffering influence of organisational commitment on this relationship, based on the AMO model of behavioural change intention. Survey data, collected from 341 employees across industry sectors in Australia, showed that…

  7. LAND USE PATTERN, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND ITS IMPLICATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-01-30

    Jan 30, 2012 ... impacted seriously on Ethiopia's rich biodiversity, crop production ... change in the rural areas of Ethiopia, this paper therefore reviewed ... Key words: Climate change, Land use pattern, and Food security. .... releasing greenhouse gases, and the major driver ... Agricultural systems worldwide over the last.

  8. The New England travel market: changes in generational travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the New England domestic travel market trends, from 1979 through 1991 within the context of generations. The existing travel markets, who travel to New England, are changing by age cohorts and specifically within different generations. The New England changes in generational travel patterns do not reflect national...

  9. Fragmented patterns of flood change across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archfield, Stacey A.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the peak magnitude, frequency, duration, and volume of frequent floods (floods occurring at an average of two events per year relative to a base period) across the United States show large changes; however, few trends are found to be statistically significant. The multidimensional behavior of flood change across the United States can be described by four distinct groups, with streamgages experiencing (1) minimal change, (2) increasing frequency, (3) decreasing frequency, or (4) increases in all flood properties. Yet group membership shows only weak geographic cohesion. Lack of geographic cohesion is further demonstrated by weak correlations between the temporal patterns of flood change and large-scale climate indices. These findings reveal a complex, fragmented pattern of flood change that, therefore, clouds the ability to make meaningful generalizations about flood change across the United States.

  10. Trends and Patterns in Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schrader, Sarah; Nazarov, Zafar E

    2016-07-01

    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) protects individuals aged 40 years and over from discrimination throughout the employment process. Using data on ADEA charges from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission from 1993 to 2010, we present labor force-adjusted charge rates demonstrating that the highest charge rates are among those in the preretirement age range, and only the rate of charges among those aged 65 years and older has not decreased. We examine characteristics of ADEA charges including the prevalence of different alleged discriminatory actions (or issues) and highlight the increasing proportion of age discrimination charges that are jointly filed with other antidiscrimination statutes. Through a regression analysis, we find that the likelihood of citing various issues differs by charging party characteristics, such as age, gender, and minority status, and on charges that cite only age discrimination as compared to those that are jointly filed. Implications of these findings for employers are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Employment Pattern, Skills and Training Issues among Informal Sector Workers in Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An informal sector in any economy provides different kinds of employment opportunities to people. In Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the female are more involved in regular jobs as compare to the causal and self-employed workers. The secondary and college studied male and female are found more in regular jobs. The high school studied male and illiterate female are working on causal jobs. The causal jobs do not require more education and skills. In self-employed category, the secondary school studied male and high school studied female are found more. The monthly income of workers involved in regular jobs is much higher than the causal and self-employed workers. The moderate malnourished females are found more as compare to the male in causal and self-employed category. The multi nominal logit regression model shows that the causal workers have positive correlation with illiterate male but it is negatively co-related with high school studied male, illiterate and secondary studied female. The monthly income, source of water, refrigerator and condom use is negatively co-related with causal workers as compare to regular workers. The self-employed workers have negative co-relation with monthly wage, source of water and watch cinema regularly as compare to the regular workers. Therefore government must provide infrastructural facilities in all slums of region. The infrastructural facilities such as water supply, electricity, sewage and solid waste collection must be provided in all slums of region. Causal workers must be provided the vocational training to start their own business. Commercial and co-operative banks must provide loans to poor people of slums. Females must be encouraged to take loan and start small business. Government must provide low cost housing to causal and self-employed workers in region. Such policies will certainly improve standard of living of informal sector workers in region.

  12. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships.

  13. Socioeconomic response patterns of farmers to climate change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of African agriculture to support livelihoods for millions of people and employment for up to 60% labour has been heavily impeded by the growing threat of climate change. This challenge has left farmers to face the pressure to adjust the agricultural systems under widespread poverty, high population and low ...

  14. The Impact of Institutions on the Destandardization of Female Employment Patterns in the Services Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    Increasing female labour market participation is arguably one of the decisive factors in explaining a destandardisation of the European employment model. Due to a lack in institutions that allow combining wage and care work and in light of unequal gender distribution of care work women...... of women in specific occupations with the services sector. This paper makes use of the cross-country variation in terms of destandardisation of female employment as compared to male employment and tries to explain the country differences by way of institutions (particularly child- and elderly care but also...... at the country level the OECD family data base is used. Besides presenting descriptive statistics on the gender gaps in the services sector with regard to flexible forms of work, including their overlaps, the paper also makes use of multilevel analysis to explain the country differences in the gender gaps...

  15. Frequency of employer changes and their financial return: gender differences amongst German university graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieschke, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Gender differences in the frequency of employer changes and their financial return were examined in a sample of Bavarian university graduates. The search and matching theories were used to develop hypotheses which were then tested against each other. The results show that in the first few years after graduation women change employer more frequently than men. In large part this can be explained by gender differences in labor market structures, in particular the fact that a woman's first job is less likely to be in a large company, in an executive position or on a permanent contract and women tend to be less satisfied with their first job. After controlling for variance in these factors the coefficient changes sign, indicating that under similar circumstances men change employer more often. Furthermore, both men and women benefit financially from changing employer. The absolute return is higher for men, but as men tend to have a higher starting salary there is no gender difference in the relative return and hence no effect on the gender gap. The results are also discussed in the light of the specifics of the structure of the German labor market.

  16. A longitudinal analysis of the effects of different patterns of employment and unemployment on school-leavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, N T; O'Brien, G E

    1986-11-01

    Large samples of young employed and unemployed respondents in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, completed questionnaires on two occasions one year apart. A wide range of variables was assessed that included measures of aspects of the self-concept, Protestant Ethic values, desired work values, stress symptoms, life satisfaction, unemployment disappointment, job need, employment value, external control and attributions for youth unemployment. There was little evidence from longitudinal analyses of change scores that a shift from employment to unemployment or the reverse transition had significant effects on psychological well-being, but unemployment attributions were affected. The shift from employment to unemployment led to less internal and more external causal attributions for youth unemployment; the reverse transition had the opposite effects. Cross-sectional comparisons of findings from the employed and unemployed samples replicated previous results that were consistent with the conclusion that many of the obtained differences were present when respondents were still at school. Variables assumed to reflect employment importance did not have moderating effects on psychological well-being when employed and unemployed groups were compared in either longitudinal or cross-sectional analyses but they were involved in significant associations with other measures. Results suggested the need for more empirical and conceptual analysis of the concepts of psychological well-being and employment importance.

  17. Wildfire patterns and landscape changes in Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiomar, N; Godinho, S; Fernandes, P M; Machado, R; Neves, N; Fernandes, J P

    2015-12-01

    Fire is infrequent in the oak woodlands of southern Portugal (montado) but large and severe fires affected these agro-forestry systems in 2003-2005. We hypothesised transition from forest to shrubland as a fire-driven process and investigated the links between fire incidence and montado change to other land cover types, particularly those related with the presence of pioneer communities (generically designed in this context as "transitions to early-successional communities"). We present a landscape-scale framework for assessing the probability of transition from montado to pioneer communities, considering three sets of explanatory variables: montado patterns in 1990 and prior changes from montado to early-successional communities (occurred between 1960 and 1990), fire patterns, and spatial factors. These three sets of factors captured 78.2% of the observed variability in the transitions from montado to pioneer vegetation. The contributions of fire patterns and spatial factors were high, respectively 60.6% and 43.4%, the influence of montado patterns and former changes in montado being lower (34.4%). The highest amount of explained variation in the occurrence of transitions from montado to early-successional communities was related to the pure effect of fire patterns (19.9%). Low spatial connectedness in montado landscape can increase vulnerability to changes, namely to pioneer vegetation, but the observed changes were mostly explained by fire characteristics and spatial factors. Among all metrics used to characterize fire patterns and extent, effective mesh size provided the best modelling results. Transitions from montado to pioneer communities are more likely in the presence of high values of the effective mesh size of total burned area. This cross-boundary metric is an indicator of the influence of large fires in the distribution of the identified transitions and, therefore, we conclude that the occurrence of large fires in montado increases its probability of

  18. Longitudinal Patterns of Employment and Postsecondary Education for Adults with Autism and Average-Range IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Henninger, Natalie A.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined correlates of participation in postsecondary education and employment over 12?years for 73 adults with autism spectrum disorders and average-range IQ whose families were part of a larger, longitudinal study. Correlates included demographic (sex, maternal education, paternal education), behavioral (activities of daily living,…

  19. Do Stereotypes about Older Workers Change? : Evidence from a Panel Study among Employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, Harry; Henkens, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stereotypies of older workers and their productive value are believed to contrast with their actual potential. Still, these stereotypes among employers persist. Objective: This article examines whether managers have changed their views on older workers and if so what the driving forces

  20. Do Stereotypes about Older Workers Change? Evidence from a Panel Study among Employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stereotypies of older workers and their productive value are believed to contrast with their actual potential. Still, these stereotypes among employers persist. Objective: This article examines whether managers have changed their views on older workers and if so what the driving forces

  1. Employability as a New Mission? Organizational Changes in Chinese Vocational Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po; Lin, Xiao Ying

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the recent development of Chinese vocational colleges from two perspectives: the adoption of employability as a new institutional mission and organizational changes in six areas. The analysis is based on a multiple-case study. The analytical frameworks are developed from sociological theory and…

  2. Global Warming and Changing Temperature Patterns over Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the changing temperature pattern over Mauritius. We observe an increase of the annual mean temperature at Pamplemousses since 1876 with an average rate of 0.009oC per year with a significant correlation coefficient of 0.67. Compared to the mean temperature for the period of 1951 to 1960, we ...

  3. Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary in the middle Bengal Fan ... in 14C dated box cores from the eastern, the central and the western regions were studied to determine ...

  4. Determining intervention thresholds that change output behavior patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walrave, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a semi-automated method that can calculate intervention thresholds—that is, the minimum required intervention sizes, over a given time frame, that result in a desired change in a system’s output behavior pattern. The method exploits key differences in atomic behavior profiles that

  5. Changing Patterns of Cultural Imperialism in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, John

    Using Belize, Central America, as an example, this paper illustrates some of the changing patterns of cultural imperialism that can presently be viewed in the emerging nations of the world. Cultural imperialism is defined as the process whereby the culture of a weaker nation is dominated by that of a stronger nation. In September 1981, Belize,…

  6. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  7. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  8. Methodology, capabilities, and an example: Employment impacts of the Climate Change Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Schultz, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    A software package, Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System (SEADS-PC), that can translate policy changes into employment and energy impacts is described. The core data for this tool include input-output (I/O) tables for 1977, 1982, 1987, and 2005 in 1982 dollars, and I/O tables for 1987 and 1990 in 1987 dollars. For each of the I/O tables there are corresponding final demand vectors and employment intensities. For a but the 2005 table there are energy intensities as well. The final demands and the intensities can be changed to reflect alternative policies. A final demand vector that reflects a specific policy, for example, can be created, based on an existing final demand vector. This vector can then be premultiplied by the appropriate I/O table to yield industry output, which in turn can be multiplied by energy or employment intensities to yield employment or energy resulting from the policy scenario. These policy results can then be compared with a base case and the differences reported. The report is in four sections. The first section is an introduction. The second section provides the accounting framework for the tool and describes the data provided. The third section serves as a user`s guide to the software, describing the functionality of the program and what results can be expected. The fourth section uses the President`s Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) as an example policy for which employment impacts can be calculated. The results of the CCAP exercise suggest that this program will result in about 60,000 new jobs (about 115 million additional hours of work) for the year 2000. In the year 2000, the CCAP final demands are greater than the base case final demands by $192.8 million (1990 dollars). The additional jobs are created as a result of both the shifts among final demand categories and a slight increase in economic activity.

  9. Changing the system by changing the workforce: employing consumers to increase access, cultural diversity, and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Irsfeld, Toni DuBrino; Twomey, Tammy; Perez, Ana; Thompson, Judith; Wally, Martha; Colleton, Barbara; Kroell, Christine; McKeown, Steven K; Metz, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Services to families have traditionally been delivered in a medical model. This presents challenges including workforce shortages, lack of cultural diversity, lack of training in strength-based work, and difficulty in successfully engaging and retaining families in the therapy process. The system of care (SOC) effort has worked to establish formal roles for caregivers in SOC to improve services. This paper provides an example of one community's efforts to change the SOC by expanding the roles available to caregivers in creating systems change. It describes the model developed by Communities of Care (CoC), a SOC in Central Massachusetts, and its evolution over a 10 year period. First person accounts by system partners, caregivers hired into professional roles as well as a family receiving services, demonstrate how hiring caregivers at all levels can change systems and change lives, not only for those being served but for the caregiver/professionals doing the work. It also demonstrates, however, that change at the system level is incremental, takes time, and can be fleeting unless an ongoing effort is made to support and sustain those changes.

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Tibetan Lakes: Patterns and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Mao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude inland-drainage lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (TP, the earth’s third pole, are very sensitive to climate change. Tibetan lakes are important natural resources with important religious, historical, and cultural significance. However, the spatial patterns and processes controlling the impacts of climate and associated changes on Tibetan lakes are largely unknown. This study used long time series and multi-temporal Landsat imagery to map the patterns of Tibetan lakes and glaciers in 1977, 1990, 2000, and 2014, and further to assess the spatiotemporal changes of lakes and glaciers in 17 TP watersheds between 1977 and 2014. Spatially variable changes in lake and glacier area as well as climatic factors were analyzed. We identified four modes of lake change in response to climate and associated changes. Lake expansion was predominantly attributed to increased precipitation and glacier melting, whereas lake shrinkage was a main consequence of a drier climate or permafrost degradation. These findings shed new light on the impacts of recent environmental changes on Tibetan lakes. They suggest that protecting these high-altitude lakes in the face of further environmental change will require spatially variable policies and management measures.

  11. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...... in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate...... the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men...

  12. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption...... seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  13. Self-employed nurses as change agents in healthcare: strategies, consequences, and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on ethnographic research that investigated how self-employed nurses perceive the contemporary healthcare field, what attributes they possess that facilitate their roles as change agents, what strategies they use to influence change, and what consequences they face for their actions, thus contributing to what is known about organizational change in institutionalized settings such as healthcare. Focussed ethnography was used to explore self-employed nurses' work experiences and elucidate the cultural elements of their social contexts, including customs, ideologies, beliefs, and knowledge and the ways that these impact upon the possibilities for change in the system. These self-employed nurses reflected on the shortcomings in the healthcare system and took entrepreneurial risks that would allow them to practice nursing according to their professional values. They used a number of strategies to influence change such as capitalizing on opportunities, preparing themselves for innovative work, managing and expanding the scope of nursing practice, and building new ideas on foundational nursing knowledge and experience. They had high job satisfaction and a strong sense of contribution but they faced significant resistance because of their non-traditional approach to nursing practice. Despite dramatic restructuring in the Canadian healthcare system, the system remains physician-centered and hospital-based. Nursing's professional potential has been largely untapped in any change efforts. Self-employed nurses have positioned themselves to deliver care based on nursing values and to promote alternative conceptions of health and healthcare. This study offers a rare exploration of this unique form of nursing practice and its potential to influence health system reform.

  14. An electromagnetic signals monitoring and analysis wireless platform employing personal digital assistants and pattern analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninos, K.; Georgiadis, P.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2010-05-01

    This study presents the design and development of a mobile wireless platform to be used for monitoring and analysis of seismic events and related electromagnetic (EM) signals, employing Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). A prototype custom-developed application was deployed on a 3G enabled PDA that could connect to the FTP server of the Institute of Geodynamics of the National Observatory of Athens and receive and display EM signals at 4 receiver frequencies (3 KHz (E-W, N-S), 10 KHz (E-W, N-S), 41 MHz and 46 MHz). Signals may originate from any one of the 16 field-stations located around the Greek territory. Employing continuous recordings of EM signals gathered from January 2003 till December 2007, a Support Vector Machines (SVM)-based classification system was designed to distinguish EM precursor signals within noisy background. EM-signals corresponding to recordings preceding major seismic events (Ms≥5R) were segmented, by an experienced scientist, and five features (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, and a wavelet based feature), derived from the EM-signals were calculated. These features were used to train the SVM-based classification scheme. The performance of the system was evaluated by the exhaustive search and leave-one-out methods giving 87.2% overall classification accuracy, in correctly identifying EM precursor signals within noisy background employing all calculated features. Due to the insufficient processing power of the PDAs, this task was performed on a typical desktop computer. This optimal trained context of the SVM classifier was then integrated in the PDA based application rendering the platform capable to discriminate between EM precursor signals and noise. System's efficiency was evaluated by an expert who reviewed 1/ multiple EM-signals, up to 18 days prior to corresponding past seismic events, and 2/ the possible EM-activity of a specific region employing the trained SVM classifier. Additionally, the proposed architecture can form a

  15. Women's employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heejung; van der Horst, Mariska

    2018-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request flexible working has been expanded quickly as a way to address work-life balance issues. The dataset used is Understanding Society (2009-2014), a large household panel survey with data on flexible work. We find some suggestive evidence that flexible working can help women stay in employment after the birth of their first child. More evidence is found that mothers using flexitime and with access to teleworking are less likely to reduce their working hours after childbirth. This contributes to our understanding of flexible working not only as a tool for work-life balance, but also as a tool to enhance and maintain individuals' work capacities in periods of increased family demands. This has major implications for supporting mothers' careers and enhancing gender equality in the labour market.

  16. Neutron-gamma discrimination employing pattern recognition of the signal from liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kohji; Enokido, Uhji; Ogawa, Seiji

    1999-01-01

    A pattern recognition method was applied to the neutron-gamma discrimination of the pulses from the liquid scintillator, NE-213. The circuit for the discrimination is composed of A/D converter, fast SCA, memory control circuit, two digital delay lines and two buffer memories. All components are packed on a small circuit board and are installed into a personal computer. Experiments using a weak 252 Cf n-γ source were undertaken to test the feasibility of the circuit. The circuit is of very easy adjustment and, at the same time, of very economical price when compared with usual discrimination circuits, such as the TAC system

  17. Neutron-gamma discrimination employing pattern recognition of the signal from liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, K; Ogawa, S

    1999-01-01

    A pattern recognition method was applied to the neutron-gamma discrimination of the pulses from the liquid scintillator, NE-213. The circuit for the discrimination is composed of A/D converter, fast SCA, memory control circuit, two digital delay lines and two buffer memories. All components are packed on a small circuit board and are installed into a personal computer. Experiments using a weak sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf n-gamma source were undertaken to test the feasibility of the circuit. The circuit is of very easy adjustment and, at the same time, of very economical price when compared with usual discrimination circuits, such as the TAC system.

  18. Making women's voices heard: technological change and women's employment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Choon Sim, C

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the 1994-96 UN University Institute for New Technologies policy research project on technological change and women's employment in Asia. The project was conducted to provide a voice for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) representing women workers. It focuses on the Malaysian experience in terms of the impact of technology on women's work and employment in the telecommunications and electronic industry. The results of the NGO research project revealed that the shift to a more intensive production has no uniform impact on women. Although new jobs were created, women employment status remains vulnerable. Meaning, female workers are afraid of the technological redundancy, casualization of labor, as well as health and safety hazards associated with new technology. A good example of the effect of industrialization to women¿s rights is the situation in Malaysia. Although cutting edge technology, combined with restructuring, has yielded some benefits in terms of a vastly expanded network and services, better performances and economies of scale, employment situation of the majority of women still remained in the low-skilled or semi-skilled categories. In order to upgrade women employment status along with the technological advancement, open communication and cooperation of all types is needed to ensure a successful outcome.

  19. The Impact of Automation on Employment: Just the Usual Structural Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Vermeulen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the projected impact of automation on employment in the forthcoming decade, both at the macro-level and in actual (types of sectors. Hereto, we unite an evolutionary economic model of multisectoral structural change with labor economic theory. We thus get a comprehensive framework of how displacement of labor in sectors of application is compensated by intra- and intersectoral countervailing effects and notably mopped up by newly created, labor-intensive sectors. We use several reputable datasets with expert projections on employment in occupations affected by automation (and notably by the introduction of robotics and AI to pinpoint which and how sectors and occupations face employment shifts. This reveals how potential job loss due to automation in “applying” sectors is counterbalanced by job creation in “making” sectors as well in complementary and quaternary, spillover sectors. Finally, we study several macro-level scenarios on employment and find that mankind is facing “the usual structural change” rather than the “end of work”. We provide recommendations on policy instruments that enhance the dynamic efficiency of structural change.

  20. On-chip photonic memory elements employing phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Carlos; Hosseini, Peiman; Wright, C David; Bhaskaran, Harish; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2014-03-05

    Phase-change materials integrated into nanophotonic circuits provide a flexible way to realize tunable optical components. Relying on the enormous refractive-index contrast between the amorphous and crystalline states, such materials are promising candidates for on-chip photonic memories. Nonvolatile memory operation employing arrays of microring resonators is demonstrated as a route toward all-photonic chipscale information processing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  2. Sleep patterning changes in a prenatal stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, C; Bastlund, Jesper F

    2018-01-01

    /wakefulness behavior around the change from light-to-dark phase. Control and PNS Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electrodes for continuous monitoring of electroencephalic activity used to determine behavioral state. The distribution of slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and wakefulness......Clinical depression is accompanied by changes in sleep patterning, which is controlled in a circadian fashion. It is thus desirable that animal models of depression mirror such diurnally-specific state alterations, along with other behavioral and physiological changes. We previously found several...... changes in behavior indicative of a depression-like phenotype in offspring of rats subjected to repeated, variable prenatal stress (PNS), including increased locomotor activity during specific periods of the circadian cycle. We, therefore, investigated whether PNS rats also exhibit alterations in sleep...

  3. Has the employment status of people living with HIV changed since the early 2000s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2015-07-31

    In a context marked by major changes in the field of HIV and in the general socioeconomic context, this study aimed at investigating changes in the employment situation of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in France since the early 2000s. Repeated cross-sectional survey among two nationally representative samples of PLWHIV followed at hospital in France in 2003 (N = 2932) and 2011 (N = 3022). Differences between 2003 and 2011 in (1) rates of employment, unemployment, and inactivity and (2) rates of work cessation and access to work following HIV diagnosis were measured using two-step multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for individual sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, and then additionally for health status characteristics. Overall, among working-age PLWHIV 60.9% in 2003 and 59.6% in 2011 were employed; 12.6 and 15.8%, respectively, were unemployed; and 26.5 and 24.6%, respectively, were inactive. Adjusting for sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, while employment rate was not different in 2011 compared with 2003, inactivity rate significantly decreased (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: [0.72-0.96]) and unemployment rate significantly increased (1.28 [1.04-1.57]). After additional adjustment for health status characteristics, the difference was no longer significant for inactivity (0.89 [0.77-1.03]) but remained significant for unemployment (1.55 [1.24-1.93]). Compared with 2003, in 2011 transitions to unemployment following HIV diagnosis tended to be more frequent (1.58 [0.92-2.68]) and access to work was significantly less frequent (0.57 [0.33-0.99]). Improvements in HIV care have not translated into improvements in PLWHIV's situation regarding employment.

  4. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: Factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG-ACRIN's Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, Amye J; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary E; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles S; Fisch, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. A better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step toward the development of tools for assisting survivors in this important realm. The ECOG-ACRIN Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study was analyzed to investigate what factors were associated with the employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working with patients no longer working. There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in the analysis: 236 (35%) worked full- or part-time, whereas 302 (45%) had stopped working because of illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. A better performance status and non-Hispanic white ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis in the multivariate analysis. The disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. A significant percentage of the metastatic patients remained employed; increased symptom burden was associated with a change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working if this is desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address workplace difficulties have promise for improving this aspect of survivorship. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  5. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG’s Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, Amye; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles; Fisch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. Better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step towards the development of tools to assist survivors in this important realm. Methods We analyzed the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group’s “Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP)” study to investigate what factors were associated with employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working (Group A) to patients no longer working (Group B). Results There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in our analysis; 236 (35%) worked full or part-time while 302 (45%) stopped working due to illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. Better performance status and non-Hispanic White ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis on multivariable analysis. Disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. Conclusions A significant percentage of metastatic patients remain employed; symptom burden was associated with change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working, if desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address work place difficulties have promise to improve this aspect of survivorship. PMID:26687819

  6. Oscillatory signatures of crossmodal congruence effects: An EEG investigation employing a visuotactile pattern matching paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göschl, Florian; Friese, Uwe; Daume, Jonathan; König, Peter; Engel, Andreas K

    2015-08-01

    Coherent percepts emerge from the accurate combination of inputs from the different sensory systems. There is an ongoing debate about the neurophysiological mechanisms of crossmodal interactions in the brain, and it has been proposed that transient synchronization of neurons might be of central importance. Oscillatory activity in lower frequency ranges (congruence. Analysis of the behavioral data showed benefits for congruent visuotactile stimulus combinations. Differences in oscillatory dynamics related to crossmodal congruence within the two tasks were observed in the beta-band for crossmodal target detection, as well as in the theta-band for congruence evaluation. Contrasting ongoing activity preceding visuotactile stimulation between the two tasks revealed differences in the alpha- and beta-bands. Source reconstruction of between-task differences showed prominent involvement of premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, somatosensory association cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. These areas not only exhibited more involvement in the pre-stimulus interval for target detection compared to congruence evaluation, but were also crucially involved in post-stimulus differences related to crossmodal stimulus congruence within the detection task. These results add to the increasing evidence that low frequency oscillations are functionally relevant for integration in distributed brain networks, as demonstrated for crossmodal interactions in visuotactile pattern matching in the current study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interfacial pattern changes of imprinted multilayered material in milli- and microscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Kazuhiro; Tokumaru, Kazuki; Tsumori, Fujio

    2018-06-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a technique that transfers a mold pattern of nanometer order to the surface of a resist material by heating and pressing. NIL is an excellent technology in terms of high productivity, accuracy, and resolution. Recently, NIL has been applied to the processing of different multilayered materials, in which it is possible to process multiple materials simultaneously. In this processing of multilayered materials, it is possible to form an interfacial pattern between the upper layer and the lower layer simultaneously with patterning on the mold surface. This interface pattern can be controlled by the deformation characteristics, initial thickness, and so forth. In this research, we compared the interfacial pattern changes of imprinted multilayered materials in milli- and microscales. For multilayered imprint using multiple materials, it is important to know the flow of the resist and its dependence on the scale. If there is similarity in the relationship produced by the scale on the imprinted samples, a process design with a number of feedbacks could be realized. It also becomes easier to treat structures in the millimeter scale for the experiment. In this study, we employed micropowder imprint (µPI) for multilayered material imprint. A compound sheet of alumina powder and polymer binder was used for imprint. Two similar experiments in different scales, micro- and millimeter scales, were carried out. Results indicate that the interfacial patterns of micro- and millimeter-scale-imprinted samples are similar.

  8. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegerl, Gabriele; Zwiers, Francis; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time–space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

  9. The changing pattern of the Western world enrichment industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleit, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Past and future changes in the long-term enrichment market of the Western world are discussed, mainly from an economic point of view. Major trends and issues are summarized in the following subjects: an abstract economic model of market forms; factors specific to the enrichment market for defining its overall place within the economic model; a description of the changing pattern (market forms) of the Western world enrichment market and its major regional components in the period 1973-95 (one of the last years of the US world-wide monopoly, and one of the last years of contracts concluded in the early 1970s, respectively); a commentary, on the basis of four 'perfect market' criteria, on the main factors influencing these changes; an outlook on the market in the year 2000. (author)

  10. Changes in the Employment Status and Risk of Stroke and Stroke Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshak, Ehab S; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Ai; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Because of limited evidence, we investigated a long-term impact of changes in employment status on risk of stroke. This was a prospective study of 21 902 Japanese men and 19 826 women aged 40 to 59 years from 9 public health centers across Japan. Participants were followed up from 1990 to 1993 to the end of 2009 to 2014. Cox proportional hazard ratio of stroke (incidence and mortality) and its types (hemorrhagic and ischemic) was calculated according to changes in the employment status within 5 years interval between 1990 to 1993 and 1995 to 1998 (continuously employed, job loss, reemployed, and continuously unemployed). During the follow-up period, 973 incident cases and 275 deaths from stroke in men and 460 cases and 131 deaths in women were documented. Experiencing 1 spell of unemployment was associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality from total, hemorrhagic, and ischemic stroke in both men and women, even after propensity score matching. Compared with continuously employed subjects, the multivariable hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for total stroke incidence in job lost men was 1.58 (1.18-2.13) and in job lost women was 1.51 (1.08-2.29), and those for total stroke mortality were 2.22 (1.34-3.68) in men and 2.48 (1.26-4.77) in women. The respective hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) in reemployed men was 2.96 (1.89-4.62) for total stroke incidence and 4.21 (1.97-8.97) for mortality, whereas those in reemployed women were 1.30 (0.98-1.69) for incidence and 1.28 (0.76-2.17) for mortality. Job lost men and women and reemployed men had increased risks for both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke incidence and mortality. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Change detection for synthetic aperture radar images based on pattern and intensity distinctiveness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Gao, Feng; Dong, Junyu; Qi, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is independent on atmospheric conditions, and it is the ideal image source for change detection. Existing methods directly analysis all the regions in the speckle noise contaminated difference image. The performance of these methods is easily affected by small noisy regions. In this paper, we proposed a novel change detection framework for saliency-guided change detection based on pattern and intensity distinctiveness analysis. The saliency analysis step can remove small noisy regions, and therefore makes the proposed method more robust to the speckle noise. In the proposed method, the log-ratio operator is first utilized to obtain a difference image (DI). Then, the saliency detection method based on pattern and intensity distinctiveness analysis is utilized to obtain the changed region candidates. Finally, principal component analysis and k-means clustering are employed to analysis pixels in the changed region candidates. Thus, the final change map can be obtained by classifying these pixels into changed or unchanged class. The experiment results on two real SAR images datasets have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Policies to contend with climate change : positive impacts on employment in Europe and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, T.; Bouchereau, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the evolution of our society and economy was discussed. Studies have shown that the fight against climate change could result in the creation of many jobs. This article proposed several strategies to undertake, with particular reference to investment in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy. It promoted the frugal use of energy resources, notably fossil fuels, which are becoming scare. It also argued that investment in energy conservation and renewable energy sources is no long a luxury, but a necessity. It provided examples of how these investments are guided by profitability. For example, an investment to insulate a house in 1998 will be completely recuperated by 2005 due to savings in energy costs, after which time energy savings will continue. In addition to environmental protection and energy conservation, another benefit associated with the fight against climate change is job creation in areas such as insulating houses or the production of biofuels. By nature, renewable energy is local and decentralized. As such, it offers the opportunity for local jobs at or near the site of consumption. Examples of direct employment were depicted. In the transportation sector, half the amount of energy is needed to move in mass transit compared to individual cars, while creating twice the employment. Although the initial investment in mass transit is costly, the advantages are far from limited to energy conservation and employment. They include security, and improved health of people in cities which results in lower social costs. In France, the insulation of old buildings constructed before the introduction of new laws on thermal standards also generated employment. It is expected that 20,000 to 30,000 perennial jobs in agriculture and industrial manufacturing will been created in France by 2010 for the biofuel industry alone. Energy conservation will result in a drop in traditional energy consumption, this being the first goal

  13. Some implications of changing patterns of mineral consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzie, W. David; DeYoung,, John H.; Steblez, Walter G.

    2003-01-01

    DeYoung and Menzie (1999) examined the relations among population, Gross Domestic Product, and mineral consumption (aluminum, cement, copper, and salt) for Japan, Korea, and the United States between 1965 and 1995. They noted the extremely rapid growth of consumption in Korea between 1975 and 1995. Concomitantly, Korea's population growth rate declined. This paper extends that earlier work by examining patterns of consumption of these same commodities in the twenty most populous countries for the period 1970 through 1995. Developed countries, such as France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, show patterns of consumption that are stable (cement, copper, and salt) or grow slowly (aluminum). Some developing countries, including China, Thailand, and Turkey, show more rapid growth of consumption, especially of cement, copper, and aluminum. These changing patterns of mineral consumption in developing countries have important implications -- if they continue, there could be major increases in world mineral consumption and major increases in environmental residuals from mineral production and use. If China reaches the level of consumption of copper of developed countries, world consumption could reach levels more than twice that of 1995 (10.5 million tons).

  14. The changing role of employment status in marriage formation among young Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keuntae Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a persistent decline in Korea's marriage rates over the past three decades, there is a striking lack of research on the transition to marriage among young Koreans. Similarly, few studies have examined how economic determinants have evolved over the past several decades, even as the Korean social and socioeconomic structure has undergone substantial transformation. Methods: This paper examines changes over time in the determinants of marriage formation in Korea, using employment history data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS on three cohorts of young adults born in the 1950s‒1970s. Results: Results indicate that, for women, the marital implications of being employed reversed over the three decades examined. While working decreased the odds of getting married for women born in the 1950s, it had no statistically significant effect for those born in the 1960s, and it strongly increased the odds of marriage for the most recent (1970s cohort of women. For their part, men's employment not only continued to positively predict getting married over the three decades, but its impact became stronger with each cohort, so that a man's odds of transition to first marriage was most strongly tied to his employment status for those born in the 1970s, as compared to earlier cohorts. Contribution: This study contributes to the literature by addressing the relationship between marriage timing and economic resources using more direct measures, examining the association between mandatory military service and marriage formation, and testing if determinants of marriage timing may evolve over time in Korea.

  15. Changing patterns of brain activation during maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, J D; Gold, J M; Esposito, G; Ostrem, J L; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    1998-05-18

    Recent research has found that patterns of brain activation involving the frontal cortex during novel task performance change dramatically following practice and repeat performance. Evidence for differential left vs. right frontal lobe activation, respectively, during episodic memory encoding and retrieval has also been reported. To examine these potentially related issues regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 15 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) during the naive and practiced performance of a maze task paradigm. SPM analysis indicated a largely right-sided, frontal lobe activation during naive performance. Following training and practice, performance of the same maze task elicited a more posterior pattern of rCBF activation involving posterior cingulate and precuneus. The change in the pattern of rCBF activation between novel and practiced task conditions agrees with results found in previous studies using repeat task methodology, and indicates that the neural circuitry required for encoding novel task information differs from that required when the same task has become familiar and information is being recalled. The right-sided preponderance of activation during naive performance may relate to task novelty and the spatially-based nature of the stimuli, whereas posterior areas activated during repeat performance are those previously found to be associated with visuospatial memory recall. Activation of these areas, however, does not agree with previously reported findings of left-sided activation during verbal episodic memory encoding and right-sided activation during retrieval, suggesting different neural substrates for verbal and visuospatial processing within memory. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Impact of employment contract changes on workers' quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Alfred F; Kompier, Michiel A J; Houtman, Irene L D; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Taris, Toon W

    2012-01-01

    Changes in employment contracts may impact the quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes. We examined the validity of two partly competing theoretical approaches. Based upon a segmentation approach, we expected no change in scores among stable trajectories, whereas upward trajectories were expected to be for the better and downward trajectories to be for the worse (Hypothesis 1). As turnover theories suggest that this hypothesis may only apply to workers who do not change employer, we also examined these contract trajectories stratified for a change of employer (Hypothesis 2). Drawing on the 2007 and 2008 waves of the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (N=9,688), repeated measures analysis of covariance showed little across-time change in the criterion variables, thus largely disconfirming our first hypothesis. These results could (at least partly) be explained by employer change; this was generally associated with improved scores among all contract trajectories (Hypothesis 2). However, workers receiving a less stable contract from the same employer were found to be at risk for health and well-being problems. Segmentation theory-based assumptions on contract trajectories primarily apply to stable and downward contract trajectories at the same employer, whereas assumptions from turnover theories better apply to contract trajectories combined with a change of employer. Future research should focus more closely on factors predicting "involuntary" downward trajectories into precarious temporary employment or unemployment.

  17. Changes in rainfall patterns in Mediterranean ecosystems: the MIND project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papale D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Will Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems be affected by the expected changes in precipitation regimes? If so, by how much and in which direction? These questions are at the basis of the research performed in context of the EU MIND project, whose key objectives were: i to investigate the potential effects of increasing drought on Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems at the process, ecosystem and regional scales and ii to assess ecosystem vulnerability to changes in rainfall patterns. A network of experimental study sites has been created in Portugal, Spain, France and Italy, where field manipulations alter the amount of water available to the ecosystem. The most up-to-date methods of ecophysiology, micrometeorology, soil ecology and remote sensing have been used to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the response of vegetation and soil to changes in water availability. This information is providing the basis for the implementation and validation of simulation models capable of predicting the drought response of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems, and their vulnerability to future climate change, on a larger scale. The out-coming results are elucidating how water availability affects plant ecophysiological processes, the dynamics of soil carbon and the overall exchange of mass and energy between the land and the atmosphere. This paper focuses on some of the important, yet preliminary, results on C and energy fluxes that have been obtained at the large scale troughfall manipulation experiment (Tolfa, Italy, in a forest dominated by Arbutus unedo L.

  18. Attribution of changes in precipitation patterns in African rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Jones, Richard G.; Halladay, Kate; Allen, Myles R.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforests in Africa are one of the most under-researched regions in the world, but research in the Amazonian rainforest suggests potential vulnerability to climate change. Using the large ensemble of Atmosphere-only general circulation model (AGCM) simulations within the weather@home project, statistics of precipitation in the dry season of the Congo Basin rainforest are analysed. By validating the model simulation against observations, we could identify a good model performance for the June, July, August (JJA) dry season, but this result does need to be taken with caution as observed data are of poor quality. Additional validation methods have been used to investigate the applicability of probabilistic event attribution analysis from large model ensembles to a tropical region, in this case the Congo Basin. These methods corroborate the confidence in the model, leading us to believe the attribution result to be robust. That is, that there are no significant changes in the risk of low precipitation extremes during this dry season (JJA) precipitation in the Congo Basin. Results for the December, January, February dry season are less clear. The study highlights that attribution analysis has the potential to provide valuable scientific evidence of recent or anticipated climatological changes, especially in regions with sparse observational data and unclear projections of future changes. However, the strong influence of sea surface temperature teleconnection patterns on tropical precipitation provides more challenges in the set up of attribution studies than midlatitude rainfall. PMID:23878330

  19. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  20. The Change in Employment Forms: Empirical Results and First Explanatory Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Edeltraut; Walwei, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the world, the forms of employment in industrialized countries are in a state of flux. Employment relationships that were previously considered "regular" (permanent, full-time) are becoming less significant. In place of these relationships, other employment options (such as fixed contracts, part-time employment, and contingent…

  1. Changing fertility patterns and policies in the third world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnicoll, G

    1992-01-01

    Different patterns of fertilty transition are apparent in developing countries. Theories of fertility decline are appropriate because demographic analysis has become situation specific rather than general. Pretransition fertility patterns and the onset of decline are provided. Fertility transition patterns are also supplied, including a regional overview for Latin America, east and Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa. The specialized cases of China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Indonesia, and Brazil are also presented. The fertility determinant models of Bongaarts, Davis and Blake, Hobcraft and Little, Ryder, and Henry are used as examples of proximate determinant models. Data collection was possible on a grand scale with contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys and the World Fertility Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys. Criticism has focused on the scope of these surveys which provide at best proximate determinants and differentiate fertility by standard socioeconomic factors. Data are also obtained on small populations from piecing together records and from quasi-anthropological fieldwork. Historical demography relies on family reconstitution. Longitudinal studies are few in number. The largest and most effective fieldwork station is at Matlab in Bangladesh. Caldwell has provided anthropological methods applicable to fertility study and makes use of teamwork. In Latin America, fertility has fallen by 40% since the 1960s. Bolivia, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Haiti have changed very little. Taiwan and South Korea provide examples of economic growth with equity in East and Southeast Asia. In heterogenous South Asia, decline has been slow and uneven. West Asia and North Africa have high fertility with the exception of Egypt which is in the early stages of transition. The smallest declines are found in sub-Saharan Africa, and are complicated by the AIDS epidemic.

  2. An Analysis on change of household electricity demand pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze the behavioral pattern change of household electricity demand. Through the cross section analysis using materials from the energy total research report, the change in income elasticity of household electricity demand was studied. In this study, two methodologies were used. Firstly, it was shown that the effect of an income variable was very significant with a positive value in simultaneous equations model using exponential equations of electrical appliances holding. Cross section income effect showed a various distribution according to the season or income level. Overall, it was calculated at 0.111 when the appliances are fixed and 0.432 when even appliances are changed. Secondly, using a choice convenient correction model, it is resulted that lambda, the choice convenient correction factor, has a positive value and is statistically significant. In 1996, income elasticity of electricity demand for households with air-conditioning was 0.305 and for households without air-conditioning was 0.172. Income elasticity of households with air-conditioning is increasing as time goes by while income elasticity of households without air-conditioning is decreasing. (author). 32 refs., 35 tabs.

  3. Changing patterns of clinical PET use - 5 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, D.; Hicks, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Increasing clinical awareness and acceptance of the clinical role of positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to alter patterns of referral. To assess whether patterns of referral are changing in response to greater experience with this technique, we reviewed indications of new referrals to our facility for each of the past 5 years of operation. Of more than 6,183 studies performed since our facility began operation in September 1996, 4,401 were initial referrals. Of these referrals the most common indications were carcinoma of the lung (n = 970, 22.0 %), colorectal cancer (n = 631, 14.3 %), malignant melanoma (n = 506, 11.5 %), genito-urinary tract cancer (n = 427, 9.7 %), epilepsy (n = 366, 8.3 %), and lymphoma (n = 351, 8.0 %). Referrals for all these indications, other than malignant melanoma, continued to grow in absolute terms throughout the 5 year interval but in relative terms only lung cancer maintained a similar proportion of scans reflecting an expansion of other referral indications. Evaluation of intractable partial complex seizures demonstrated the most marked growth in both absolute and relative terms. Conversely, malignant melanoma referrals declined as patients with thick melanoma began to have sentinel lymph node biopsy rather than PET as their initial staging investigation. Our experience suggests that clinical PET referrals reflect the expanding evidence-base regarding both the strengths and weaknesses of PET. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  5. Changes in gait pattern during multitask using smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, SoYeong; Kim, ChoRong; Song, SunHae; Lee, GyuChang

    2015-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, smartphones have been deeply involved in people's everyday lives, and many perform various tasks simultaneously on smartphones. To investigate gait pattern changes on performing multitask simultaneously when using smartphones. Three tasks were performed by 26 healthy adults. In the first, participants were directed to walk without using smartphones (single-task). In the second, they were required to walk while finding applications (dual-task). Lastly, in addition to performing the second task, they were asked to listen to questions and answer them on their smartphone (triple-task). Spatiotemporal variables of gait and degree of lateral deviation during walking were measured. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the single-task and dual tasks, as well as between the single task and triple task in all variables (p smartphones in comparison to walking without using smartphones.

  6. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sik Jang

    Full Text Available Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner.

  7. [Changes in employment, retirement age and fertility: their effects on economic dependency and per capita income].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, J H

    1991-04-01

    This article provides a very simplified analysis of the impact of changes in unemployment, retirement age, and fertility on economic dependency and per capita income in Latin America. The macroeconomic consequences of variations in age structure have received a little recent attention among Latin American researchers and policymakers, partly because of the lack of simple but rigorous analytical models to orient research. This analysis is simplified in that it focuses on changes in age distribution but does not explicitly consider effects of changes in population size, even though in reality the 2 types of changes are interrelated. The analysis has also been simplified by not taking into account any type of causal interaction between the demographic and economic variables analyzed; only the most elementary accounting relations between them are utilized. The 1st section defines the concept of economic dependency, specifies the effects of changes in its demographic and economic components, and establishes a simple link between the dependency ratio and per capita income. These and other derivations in the following sections permit evaluation of the impact of changes in employment, retirement age, and fertility on the dependency ratio and per capita income. The work concludes with a synthesis and general discussion, including a theoretical consideration of the effects of interactions among components. Only the most important equations are presented in the main text, but all variables, equations, and relations are defined and derived in the appendix. 6 countries were studied to illustrate the relationships in the context of the demographic diversity of Latin America. Argentina and Cuba represented countries in an advanced stage of the demographic transition, Chile and Mexico represented an intermediate phase, and Bolivia and Peru represented countries at the beginning of the transition. Results of decomposition of changes in dependency and income due to each of the

  8. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Helen H. [Iowa State University, Department of Economics, 578 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail hhjensen@iastate.edu

    2006-07-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  9. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Helen H. . E-mail hhjensen@iastate.edu

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends

  10. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  11. Identification of DWI behavior patterns and methods for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of behavior leading to driving while intoxicated (DWI), and to propose countermeasures for altering these patterns before they result in DWI. Two samples were studied: Los Angeles high school student...

  12. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Richard

    2007-05-01

    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  13. Changes to Watershed Hydrology due to Changing Snowmelt Patterns, Michigan, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    With increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns associated with global climate change, the future of hydrologic resources related to snowmelt is less certain than ever. Most existing snowmelt hydrology research focuses on mountainous regions such as the western United States, where snowpack is a primary reservoir of available freshwater. Less research has been done on snowmelt hydrology in non-mountainous, temperate middle to upper latitude regions such as the Midwestern US, where snowmelt is still an important contributor to water budgets (and critically summer water supplies). This study examines the changes to watershed hydrology due to changing snowmelt patterns in Michigan, which has a tension line between seasonally-persistent snowpacks in the north, and episodic snowpacks in the south. This transition varies in space and time, and is likely moving northward as a consequence of climate change. Changes to snow and winter weather were statistically determined from output of the NOAA's Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) model along with historical weather data from the Global Historical Climatology Network. Stream data from the USGS, combined with in-house monitoring data from groundwater and soil moisture networks provide insight into the hydrologic changes. Snowmelt in years with warmer winter temperatures tend to end earlier in the year, resulting in earlier peak stream flows. These changes become more noticeable in the northern regions of the state, where snowfall amounts can be amongst the largest in the country. This study also examines the changing spatial transition zone between regions with snow lasting throughout the season and regions with a more episodic snow presence. In an area with some of the largest freshwater resources in the world, significant changes to streamflow and groundwater recharge could impact already stressed ecosystems and local water supplies.

  14. Continuity and Change: Employers' Training Practices and Partnerships with Training Providers. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erica; Smith, Andy; Tuck, Jacqueline; Callan, Victor

    2017-01-01

    A number of factors influence the motivations of employers to train their workforce and the ways in which they engage with the training system. This study combines a national survey and interviews with Australian employers and registered training organisations (RTOs) to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which employers navigate the…

  15. Do changes in regulation affect employment duration in temporary help agencies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoni, Manfred; Jahn, Elke

    2009-01-01

    The employment duration of workers in temporary help agencies is seen as an important indicator of their job quality. Most of the countries that regulate temporary agency employment do so to insure at least a minimal level of employment stability. Over the past three decades Germany has repeatedly...

  16. Inactivity periods and postural change speed can explain atypical postural change patterns of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-19

    With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C. elegans strains. We revealed that the occurrence patterns of the postural states and the transition patterns among these states have a relationship as expected, and such a relationship must be taken into account to identify strains with atypical behaviors that are different from those of wild type. Based on this observation, we identified several strains that exhibit atypical transition patterns that cannot be fully explained by their occurrence patterns of postural states. Surprisingly, we found that two simple factors-overall acceleration of postural movement and elimination of inactivity periods-explained the behavioral characteristics of strains with very atypical transition patterns; therefore, computational analysis of animal behavior must be accompanied by evaluation of the effects of these simple factors. Finally, we found that the npr-1 and npr-3 mutants have similar behavioral patterns that were not predictable by sequence homology, proving that our data-driven approach can reveal the functions of genes that have not yet been characterized. We propose that elimination of inactivity periods and overall acceleration of postural change speed can explain behavioral phenotypes of strains with very atypical postural transition patterns. Our methods and results constitute guidelines for effectively finding strains that show "truly" interesting behaviors and systematically uncovering novel gene

  17. The Changing Pattern of Nutrition Intake by Social Class in Contemporary China, 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhun; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    To explore the changing pattern of nutrition intake by social class in contemporary China. We defined social class in 2 ways. The first definition was based on employment, and the second definition was based on per capita household income levels. We used China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1991 to 2011 to show the changes in the relation between social class and nutrition intake. The relation between social class and nutrition intake in China changed significantly within the 2 decades. For example, in the early 1990s, the lowest social class (defined by employment or income) had more caloric intake than did the highest social class; 20 years later, however, the relation reversed, and the lowest social class consumed significantly fewer calories. China has seen a great reversal in its social class-nutrition relationship since the early 1990s. Our study calls for wider recognition that insufficient consumption of food and nutrition is increasingly an issue for people in the lower social classes in China.

  18. Changing patterns of drug-resistant Shigella isolates in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmeged, Ghada M; Khairy, Rasha M; Abo-Eloyoon, Sahar M; Abdelwahab, Sayed F

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious problem in treating shigellosis. There are limited existing data examining the change in the antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella in Egypt. We previously reported that 58% of the Shigella isolates in Egypt were resistant to at least one member of the three different antimicrobial groups. This study was performed to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella, determine their possible mechanisms of resistance, and compare their resistance profile to those reported 20 years ago. Stool samples were collected from 500 subjects and processed for the isolation and identification of Shigella. The susceptibility of the isolates to 11 different antimicrobials was determined using the disc diffusion method. Of 500 stool cultures, 24 (4.8%) samples were positive for Shigella. There was a high percentage of resistance to ampicillin (88%), tetracycline (83%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (75%). Also, there was a moderate percentage of resistance to chloramphenicol (46%), streptomycin (42%), ceftazidime (33%), and cefotaxime (25%). A lower percentage of resistance was recorded for amikacin, nalidixic acid (17% each), and ofloxacin (7%), while no resistance was found to ciprofloxacin (0%). Twenty-one of the isolates (88%) were resistant to at least three different antimicrobial groups (indicating MDR). The average number of antimicrobial agents to which the Shigella isolates were resistant was 4.3±1.4, while it was 3.4±1.5 in the same locality in 1994. These data demonstrate that there is a marked increase in MDR and change in the resistance patterns of Shigella over the past 20 years.

  19. The changing pattern of pathology due to Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the autopsy data on hepatosplenic schistosomiasis during periods, before and after the advent of new chemotherapeutic drugs, revealed that: a the pathological presentation was the same for the two periods; b the number of cases in the last five years is progressively decreasing; c hepatosplenic disease due to schistosomiasis is becoming rare in young people. These data represent a change in the pattern of pathology in schistosomiasis, probably related to new chemotherapy.Uma revisão dos dados de necrópsias realizadas em portadores da forma hépato-esplênica da esquistossomose, feita em dois períodos, antes e após a introdução das novas e efetivas drogas contra o S. mansoni, revelou que: a as lesões encontradas foram qualitativamente as mesmas nos dois períodos; b a percentagem dos casos hépato-esplênicos mostra decréscimo progressivo nos últimos cinco anos do estudo; c os casos de esquistossomose hépato-esplênica estão se tornando raros em jovens. Tais elementos constituem uma mudança no padrão de apresentação da doença, possivelmente relacionada com a introdução da nova quimioterapia curativa.

  20. Diabetes Changes Symptoms Cluster Patterns in Persons Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Julie Ann; Bose, Eliezer; Park, Jungmin; Lapiz-Bluhm, M Danet; García, Alexandra A

    Approximately 10-15% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) have a comorbid diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). Both of these long-term chronic conditions are associated with high rates of symptom burden. The purpose of our study was to describe symptom patterns for PLWH with DM (PLWH+DM) using a large secondary dataset. The prevalence, burden, and bothersomeness of symptoms reported by patients in routine clinic visits during 2015 were assessed using the 20-item HIV Symptom Index. Principal component analysis was used to identify symptom clusters. Three main clusters were identified: (a) neurological/psychological, (b) gastrointestinal/flu-like, and (c) physical changes. The most prevalent symptoms were fatigue, poor sleep, aches, neuropathy, and sadness. When compared to a previous symptom study with PLWH, symptoms clustered differently in our sample of patients with dual diagnoses of HIV and diabetes. Clinicians should appropriately assess symptoms for their patients' comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Repositioning through Culture: Testing Change in Connectivity Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Plaza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Symbolic knowledge-driven innovations can play an important role in the economic development of cities and regions. Cultural events and infrastructures can act as powerful connectivity engines, generating new connections, rewiring links, and repositioning institutions/cities/regions on the Internet map. Within this framework, this paper aims to contribute to the analytical understanding of culture-led repositioning. For this purpose we perform regression analysis with cultural networks (observational cross-sectional network data from digital media for a specific cultural case study: the Basque Culinary Center (BCC, a higher education faculty of haute cuisine promoted by the University of Mondragon along with a group of Michelin-starred chefs. Results show that a cultural sector, such as haute cuisine, can contribute to structural changes in connectivity patterns, putting an institution/city/region on the media map. It is the connection (in the online press of the BCC to the influential Michelin-starred chefs that can fuel the accumulation of press articles (media items on the BCC; and it is precisely this accumulation of press articles that can impact BCC revenues. Put differently, the co-branding between the influential Michelin chefs and the BCC may have put the BCC on the press map, promoting new student registrations and fostering Basque haute cuisine. The main contribution of this article is a prototype of regression analysis to test repositioning with network data.

  2. Do changes in spousal employment status lead to domestic violence? Insights from a prospective study in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Subbiah, Kalyani; Edmeades, Jeffrey; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of physical domestic violence--violence against women perpetrated by husbands--is staggeringly high across the Indian subcontinent. Although gender-based power dynamics are thought to underlie women's vulnerability, relatively little is known about risk and protective factors. This prospective study in southern India examined the association between key economic aspects of gender-based power, namely spousal employment status, and physical domestic violence. In 2005-2006, 744 married women, aged 16-25, residing in low-income communities in Bangalore, India were enrolled in the study. Data were collected at enrollment, 12 and 24 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the prospective association between women's employment status, their perceptions of their husband's employment stability, and domestic violence. Women who were unemployed at one visit and began employment by the next visit had an 80% higher odds of violence, as compared to women who maintained their unemployed status. Similarly, women whose husbands had stable employment at one visit and newly had difficulty with employment had 1.7 times the odds of violence, as compared to women whose husbands maintained their stable employment. To our knowledge, this study is the first from a developing country to confirm that changes in spousal employment status are associated with subsequent changes in violence risk. It points to the complex challenges of violence prevention, including the need for interventions among men and gender-transformative approaches to promote gender-equitable attitudes, practices and norms among men and women.

  3. The Forgotten Benefits of Climate Change Mitigation. Innovation, Technological Leapfrogging, Employment, and Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochem, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Madlener, R. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics CEPE, ETH Zentrum, WEC, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    Traditional concepts for ancillary benefit/co-benefit frameworks reflect a macro and welfare economics perspective. They are often designed to serve certain modelling requirements, and typically focus primarily on avoided environmental damages and/or on induced net employment. This paper presents a conceptual framework that is extended to non-environmental and non-climate-change externalities. It not only includes the net ancillary and co-benefits that accrue from the dynamics of technological innovation and market diffusion, but also those from spillover effects that arise from global trade, communications, and technology transfer, which can all have important impacts on both the business economics and the macroeconomic level. We show that multi-functionality of energy-efficient technologies at the useful energy level, in contrast to mono-functionality of energy conversion technologies, leads to net ancillary benefits/co-benefits of GHG mitigation that may go far beyond fossil energy savings and emission mitigation, and that are in many cases not (or at least not sufficiently) accounted for in investment decision-making and policy-making processes. Several illustrative examples are provided to underline the points that are made.

  4. Changes in employment status and experience of discrimination among cancer patients: findings from a nationwide survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jong-Hyock; Kim, Sung-Gyeong; Lee, Kyung-Sook; Hahm, Myung-Il

    2010-12-01

    As the number of working cancer patients increases, workplace discrimination and its relationship to changes in employment status among cancer patients is becoming an increasingly important social concern. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationship between changes in employment status and discrimination following a diagnosis of cancer. A total of 748 cancer patients, aged 18 years and older, who were employed before receiving a diagnosis of cancer, were enrolled in this study. Patients were recruited from ten cancer centers in Korea. Sociodemographic data, work-related data, and clinical information, as well as information on changes in employment status and incidences of discrimination, were collected from all patients. A change in employment status was reported by 73.4% of the sample, with unemployment being the most common change (46.4%). Forty-two (5.6%) patients reported that they had experienced discrimination in the workplace. Reports of discrimination were only weakly correlated with changes in employment status, but were significantly correlated with forced unemployment. Additional analyses revealed that being female, being from a lower socioeconomic status group and having a disability were risk-factors for unemployment, while being male, being from a higher socioeconomic status group and having a disability were risk-factors for workplace discrimination or forced unemployment. More attention should be paid to vulnerable who are diagnosed with cancer. An individualized and culture-based approach should be taken to minimize undesirable changes in employment status and to reduce discrimination among patients receiving a diagnosis of cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. MAMP (microbe-associated molecular pattern)-induced changes in plasma membrane-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlíková, Hana; Solanský, Martin; Hrdinová, Vendula; Šedo, Ondrej; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Hejátko, Jan; Lochman, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Plant plasma membrane associated proteins play significant roles in Microbe-Associated Molecular Pattern (MAMP) mediated defence responses including signal transduction, membrane transport or energetic metabolism. To elucidate the dynamics of proteins associated with plasma membrane in response to cryptogein, a well-known MAMP of defence reaction secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea, 2D-Blue Native/SDS gel electrophoresis of plasma membrane fractions was employed. This approach revealed 21 up- or down-regulated protein spots of which 15 were successfully identified as proteins related to transport through plasma membrane, vesicle trafficking, and metabolic enzymes including cytosolic NADP-malic enzyme and glutamine synthetase. Observed changes in proteins were also confirmed on transcriptional level by qRT-PCR analysis. In addition, a significantly decreased accumulation of transcripts observed after employment of a mutant variant of cryptogein Leu41Phe, exhibiting a conspicuous defect in induction of resistance, sustains the contribution of identified proteins in cryptogein-triggered cellular responses. Our data provide further evidence for dynamic MAMP-induced changes in plasma membrane associated proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of employment contract changes on workers' quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, A.F.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bossche, S.N.J.van den; Taris, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in employment contracts may impact the quality of working life, job insecurity, health and work-related attitudes. We examined the validity of two partly competing theoretical approaches. Based upon a segmentation approach, we expected no change in scores among stable

  7. Patterns of change in climate and Pacific salmon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan J. Mantua

    2009-01-01

    For much of the 20th century a clear north-south inverse production pattern for Pacific salmon had a time dynamic that closely followed that of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which is the dominant pattern of North Pacific sea surface temperature variability. Total Alaska salmon production was high during warm regimes of the PDO, and total Alaska salmon...

  8. Changing Patterns of Unmet Needs for Family Planning Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This study employed secondary data analysis of the National HIV/AIDS and. Reproductive Health ... Keywords: Unmet Need, Family Planning, Women of Reproductive Age group. Résumé ... The World Health Organization in 2012 highlighted ...

  9. Changing uveitis patterns in South India - Comparison between two decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmay Biswas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Changing pattern of uveitis in a subset of a population is an important ocular health indicator. Methods: A comparative study was done between uveitis patients of 2013 and 1995 using two proportions Z-test. Results: In 2013, 352 new uveitis cases were examined. Males 56%, females 44%; unilateral 30.4%; bilateral in 69.6%. A specific diagnosis achieved in 66.2%. Anterior uveitis was seen in 35.22%, intermediate uveitis in 30.11%, posterior uveitis in 25%, and panuveitis in 9.65%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of new uveitic cases (1.04% vs. 1.8%. A decline in male preponderance from 64% to 56% (P = 0.0187 was observed. In both studies, anterior uveitis was the most common but human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity uveitis had increased (29.83% vs. 14.5%; P < 0.05. Intermediate uveitis was the second-most common type instead of posterior uveitis (P = 0.0006. In posterior uveitis cases, etiology was established in 88.6% versus 56.06% cases (P < 0.05. The most common cause of posterior uveitis was tuberculosis (TB (35.2%. Viral retinitis had increased to 6.81% from 0.76% (P < 0.05. However, a declining trend in cases of toxoplasmosis was observed (P = 0.0545. The cause of panuveitis was comparable in both studies. The prevalence of TB has significantly increased in the present era (22.5% vs. 0.64%; P < 0.0001 and was the proven etiological cause of uveitis in overall 22.5% of which 4.8% cases were of anterior uveitis cases, 7.1% cases of intermediate uveitis cases, 8.8% cases of posterior uveitis cases, and 1.8% of panuveitis cases. Conclusion: A shifting paradigm of uveitis over the past two decades was observed.

  10. The Emphasis on Employability and the Changing Role of the University in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokou, Eleni

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that in today's knowledge societies, European universities are called upon to make students more employable, by cultivating their skills and by encouraging them to lifelong learning for enhancing their flexibility in the labour market. Employability is emphatically stressed and, to a certain extent, is associated with equity…

  11. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country with high fertility and high infant and child mortality, and declines in total mortality and substantial development initiatives. The discussion considers whether fertility patterns in Pakistan can be related to changes in child mortality, and whether current and future changes in fertility influence child survival favorably. Omran's study linked large family size to child survival. Resources, which are divided, become more important deficits in households below the poverty line: a situation common in Pakistan. High fertility is associated with short birth intervals, which are related to higher infant and child mortality. In Pakistan, the spacing and mortality link was found among both poverty and higher socioeconomic households. There is some support for the notion that it is birth weight and general health that are linked to survival rather than competition for resources. Other studies link the maternal age at birth and birth order with child mortality (Alam and Cleland). Trussel argues for limiting births in high risk ages of under 20 years and over 35 years. The exact casual link is not well documented. Institutional and community factors are also considered important in influencing child survival: sanitation, potable water, access to roads, electricity, health and family planning services, and sewage. Young infants are more vulnerable to these factors. Bangladesh and some Indian states have shown that population programs and raising per captia incomes are necessary to fertility decline. In India, female autonomy, access to education, and more equal income distribution were considered more important than economic development to child survival. In Pakistan, Sathar and Kazi have linked at least 2 years of elementary, maternal education with reductions in child mortality. The pervasiveness of female illiteracy hinders the chances of child survival. Sex preferences also impact on female children. The probably impacts of declines in breast

  12. RS- and GIS-based study on landscape pattern change in the Poyang Lake wetland area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Hui; Bao, Shuming; Wu, Zhongyi; Fu, Weijuan; Cai, Xiaobin; Zhao, Hongmei; Guo, Peng

    2006-10-01

    As wetland has been recognized as an important component of ecosystem, it is received ever-increasing attention worldwide. Poyang Lake wetlands, the international wetlands and the largest bird habitat in Asia, play an important role in biodiversity and ecologic protection. However, with the rapid economic growth and urbanization, landscape patterns in the wetlands have dramatically changed in the past three decades. To better understand the wetland landscape dynamics, remote sensing, geographic information system technologies, and the FRAGSTATS landscape analysis program were used to measure landscape patterns. Statistical approach was employed to illustrate the driving forces. In this study, Landsat images (TM and ETM+) from 1989 and 2000 were acquired for the wetland area. The landscapes in the wetland area were classified as agricultural land, urban, wetland, forest, grassland, unused land, and water body using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques integrated with Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Landscape indices, which are popular for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern, were then employed to analyze the landscape pattern changes between the two dates in a GIS. From this analysis an understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of landscape evolution was generated. The results show that wetland area was reduced while fragmentation was increased over the study period. Further investigation was made to examine the relationship between landscape metrics and some other parameters such as urbanization to address the driving forces for those changes. The urban was chosen as center to conduct buffer analysis in a GIS to study the impact of human-induced activities on landscape pattern dynamics. It was found that the selected parameters were significantly correlated with the landscape metrics, which may well indicate the impact of human-induced activities on the wetland landscape pattern dynamics and account for the driving

  13. Changing Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Factors Affecting them and the Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Bhoday, Harpreet Singh

    2017-03-01

    Sleep affects physical growth, behavior and emotional development besides determining cognitive functioning, learning and attention especially of a growing child. Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Adolescent sleep patterns deserve particular attention because of the potential impact on school performance. Average sleep period in adolescents is reduced during school days to around seven hours. The reasons may be biological mainly the sleep phase delay or psychosocial and environmental. These include academic demands, social activities, sports, internet, television viewing, part-time employment, and use of mobile phone at night, peer and parental influence and socioeconomic status. These changing patterns of sleep in adolescents lead to many behavioral sleep problems like Delayed Sleep-phase Syndrome; Difficulties in falling asleep (insomnia); excessive daytime sleepiness, poor academic performance. Decreased sleep in adolescents also causes obesity and other cardio-metabolic abnormalities. This needs an integrated approach involving adolescents themselves, their parents, teachers and specialized physicians to help improve the sleep quantity and quality and lead to a better quality of life and daytime functioning in adolescents. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  14. Pattern of employment and associated factors in long-term lymphoma survivors 10 years after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, C E; Fagerli, U-M; Smeland, K B; Fluge, Ø; Bersvendsen, H; Kvaløy, S; Holte, H; Dahl, A A

    2016-05-01

    Background This study examined employment patterns and associated factors in lymphoma survivors treated with high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-ASCT) from diagnosis to a follow-up survey at a mean of 10 years after HDT-ASCT. Patients and methods All lymphoma survivors aged ≥18 years at HDT-ASCT in Norway from 1987 to 2008, and alive at the end of 2011 were eligible for this cross-sectional study performed in 2012/2013. Participants completed a mailed questionnaire. Job status was dichotomized as either employed (paid work) or not-employed (disability and retirement pension, on economic support, home-makers, or students). Results The response rate was 78%, and the sample (N = 312) contained 60% men. Mean age at HDT-ASCT was 44.3 and at survey 54.0 years. At diagnosis 85% of survivors were employed, 77% before and 77% after HDT-ASCT, and 58% at follow-up. Forty seven percent of the survivors were employed at all time points. The not-employed group at survey was significantly older and included significantly more females than the employed group. No significant between-group differences were observed for lymphoma-related variables. Fatigue, mental distress and type D personality were significantly higher among those not-employed, while quality of life was significantly lower compared to the employed group. Older age at survey, being female, work ability and presence of type D personality remained significantly related to being not-employed at survey in the multivariable analysis. Conclusions Our findings show that not-employed long-term survivors after HDT-ASCT for lymphoma have more comorbidity, cognitive problems and higher levels of anxiety/depression than employed survivors. These factors should be checked and eventually treated in order to improve work ability.

  15. 77 FR 1872 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Changes to Subsistence Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Order 13563 (Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review) emphasizes the importance of quantifying both... Part 21 Administrative practice and procedure, Armed forces, Civil rights, Claims, Colleges and universities, Conflict of interests, Education, Employment, Grant programs--education, Grant programs--veterans...

  16. Associations between changes in the pattern of suicide methods and rates in Korea, the US, and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Ahrong; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Background The lethality of the suicide method employed is a strong risk factor for the completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates in South Korea, the United States (US), and Finland. Methods We analyzed annual data from 2000–2011 for South Korea and Finland, and 2000–2010 for the US in order to examine trends in the rates and methods of suicide. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World ...

  17. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  18. Changing patterns of competition in European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heren, P.

    1996-01-01

    Despite a period of statism in the European natural gas market, the author argues that economic, political and regulatory pressures are approaching which will force dramatic change in the market, and identifies factors relating to pipeline capacity, competition, prices and market changes and fuel use which will drive the changes. A historical perspective is used as a framework to explain the inevitability of these changes. (UK)

  19. Linking process and pattern of land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, Koen Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Land use change results from the interaction between the human and the natural system and therefore various scientific disciplines have developed paradigms and methods to study land use change. However, these disciplinary approaches can only cover part of the complex system of land use change. The

  20. Synthesis in land change science: methodological patterns, challenges, and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliocca, N.; Rudel, T.; Verburg, P.H.; McConnell, W.; Mertz, O.; Gerstner, K.; Heinimann, A.; Ellis, E.

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences of

  1. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...

  2. Dietary patterns and changes in frailty status: the Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, S.C.M. (Sandra C. M.); E.A.L. de Jonge (Ester); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); Franco, O.H. (Oscar H.); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); J.D. Schoufour (Josje)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To determine the associations between a priori and a posteriori derived dietary patterns and a general state of health, measured as the accumulation of deficits in a frailty index. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis embedded in the population-based Rotterdam

  3. Effect of Health Lifestyle Pattern on Dietary Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Peggy; Lazovich, DeAnn; Patterson, Ruth E.; Harnack, Lisa; French, Simone; Curry, Sue J.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of lifestyle on the effectiveness of a low-intensity dietary intervention. Analysis of data from the Eating Patterns Study indicated that people who practiced certain combinations of health behaviors responded differently to the low-intensity dietary intervention. People with high-risk behaviors were the least successful in…

  4. Patterns of scald injuries in children--has anything changed?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yates, J

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to study presentation patterns of scald injuries in children and suggest potential countermeasures to reduce these injuries. We retrospectively studied scald injuries in children attending an urban paediatric emergency department between January 1st and December 31st 2008. Data was extracted from our emergency department database using search terms \\'burn\\

  5. The changing pattern and determinants of declining consanguinity in Jordan during 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2018-03-01

    Consanguinity is a deep rooted cultural trait in Jordan. To examine the patterns and determinants of declining rates of consanguineous marriage in Jordan during 1990-2012 in the context of the changing pattern of socio-economic and demographic conditions. The data come from the 1990 and 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys (JPFHSs). A total of 6461 women in 1990 and 11,352 women in 2012 were successfully interviewed. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques were used for data analysis. Consanguinity was found to be widely practiced (35% in 2012) until recent times in Jordan. However, there has been a secular declining trend over the last few decades as the practice of consanguinity has declined from 56% in 1990 to 35% in 2012. Increasing age at marriage and female education, higher level of education of husbands, declining family size, increasing rate of urbanisation and female employment, exposure to mass media and higher economic status appeared as significant predictors of declining consanguinity in Jordan. The findings of this study support Goode's hypothesis of a decrease of consanguinity with modernisation. Although consanguinity is a deeply rooted cultural trend in Jordan, it is gradually losing ground due to modernisation and socio-demographic transition of the country.

  6. Climate Change and Employment in Europe. 'Kyoto' section. Country Report. Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, P. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona ICTA, Barcelona (Spain); Belen Sanchez, A.; Riechmann, J. [ISTAS Instituto Sindical de Trabajo, Ambiente y Salud, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    The results of an analysis of the effects of carbon dioxide emission mitigation policies and measures on the economic activity and employment in Spain are presented and discussed. The investigation is based on the review of the literature and on the results of a series of face-to-face interviews with selected stakeholders. Actors interviewed include representatives of public authorities, employers and employers' organisations, trade unions, and environmental NGOs. They are active in the following sectors: Energy, Industry, Transport, Building and Construction. Spain's lively economy experienced an important growth, exceeding the European average, in the last few years. Greenhouse gases emissions increased in all sectors in the recent years, making Spain the second European country the furthest away (+52% in 2005) from its Kyoto emission commitment (+15%) in absolute terms. Spain's Kyoto target will only be reachable with an extensive use of the flexible mechanisms. The Government, at national and regional level, put in place a comprehensive mix of Policies and Measures in order to curb down greenhouse gases emissions, the national Allocation Plan being the central element. Its design has been accompanied by a notable social consultation process, which includes trade unions and companies representatives. Other important Policies and Measures are the Strategy for Energy Savings and Energy Efficiency, the Renewable Energy Plan, and the Strategic Infrastructures and Transport Plan. The impact on employment of greenhouse gases mitigation Policies and Measures is generally perceived as minor by the interviewees. Nevertheless, some fields, such as Renewable Energy for instance, could see their activity enhanced by such policies. In the same way, cost-benefit analyses of energy efficiency measures commonly conclude to a net positive balance in terms of employment. Some fear for employment in the coal sector as a shift away from conventional energy is

  7. The Impact of Technological Change; The American Experience. Studies in Employment and Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, William; And Others

    Technological change is a complex term involving many more factors than "changes in machinery or automation." Six changes which affect jobs and influence skills in our industrial systems that could logically be called technological change have been identified: (1) scientific management, or time and motion studies, (2) mergers and consolidations,…

  8. Influence of work-related characteristics and work ability on changing employer or leaving the profession among nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Schouteten, Roel L.J.; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate how work-related characteristics and work ability influence nursing staff decisions to change employer or leave the profession. Background Previous cross-sectional studies have indicated that decreased work ability and unfavourable work-related characteristics are important

  9. The influence of living arrangements, marital patterns and family configuration on employment rates among the 1945-1954 birth cohort: evidence from ten European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Jim; Renaut, Sylvie

    2007-09-01

    As they approach retirement, Europeans in mid-life display a range of living arrangements and marital patterns. These configurations influence labour force participation for men and women in different ways and these differences are accentuated between countries. Using data from the first Wave (2004) of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), the paper examines the relationship between living arrangements, marital patterns, family configurations and participation in the labour force for the birth cohort of 1945-1954. The data show that the probability of being in paid employment was higher for respondents living in a couple in northern Europe than in southern Europe. In all countries, men in a couple had significantly higher employment rates than women in a couple, but employment rates of women in a couple differed significantly between countries. Multivariate analysis with country effects confirmed the negative influence of age, poor health, lower levels of education and household income on the probability of being in paid employment, but the effect of variables concerning living arrangements, marital patterns and family configurations varied according to country. A multilevel analysis showed that the between country variance of being in paid employment could not be explained by individual characteristics alone, that a large part of the country variance could be explained by the country specific effect of women in a couple, and that the level of 'modern' life styles in each country (rates of cohabitation outside marriage, divorce or separation and recomposed families) had a significant effect on employment rates, especially for women in a couple.

  10. Gendered Transitions: Within-Person Changes in Employment, Family, and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melissa; Petrovic, Milena

    2009-01-01

    Although contributing greatly to current criminological theory and research on crime and desistance, Sampson and Laub's theory of age-graded informal social control is limited in explaining gender differences in desistance. The authors addressed this limitation by comparing how adult institutions such as marriage, family, and employment affect…

  11. The Outlook for Technological Change and Employment. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Findings of a study of the nation's manpower requirements to 1975 are presented. Part I, on the employment outlook, consists of a 10-year projection of manpower requirements by occupation and by industry prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and an analysis of the growth prospects and the state of fiscal policy in the United States economy as…

  12. Change in Work-Family Conflict among Employed Parents between 1977 and 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from two national surveys (N = 2,050), this paper examines what accounts for the increase in the sense of work-family conflict among employed parents between 1977 and 1997. Decomposition analysis indicates that the increases in women's labor force participation, college education, time pressure in completing one's job, and the decline…

  13. Effect of climate change on crop production patterns with implications to transport flows and inland waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This project analyzed the demand for transportation capacity and changes in transportation flows on : inland waterways due to shifts in crop production patterns induced by climate change. Shifts in the crop : production mix have been observed in rece...

  14. Pattern Discovery and Change Detection of Online Music Query Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Fu

    In this paper, an efficient stream mining algorithm, called FTP-stream (Frequent Temporal Pattern mining of streams), is proposed to find the frequent temporal patterns over melody sequence streams. In the framework of our proposed algorithm, an effective bit-sequence representation is used to reduce the time and memory needed to slide the windows. The FTP-stream algorithm can calculate the support threshold in only a single pass based on the concept of bit-sequence representation. It takes the advantage of "left" and "and" operations of the representation. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm only scans the music query stream once, and runs significant faster and consumes less memory than existing algorithms, such as SWFI-stream and Moment.

  15. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  16. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  17. Synthesis in land change science: methodological patterns, challenges, and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Rudel, Thomas K; Verburg, Peter H; McConnell, William J; Mertz, Ole; Gerstner, Katharina; Heinimann, Andreas; Ellis, Erle C

    Global and regional economic and environmental changes are increasingly influencing local land-use, livelihoods, and ecosystems. At the same time, cumulative local land changes are driving global and regional changes in biodiversity and the environment. To understand the causes and consequences of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena and world regions most commonly studied are presented. Significant challenges to successful synthesis research in LCS are also identified, including issues of interpretability and comparability across case-studies and the limits of and biases in the geographic coverage of case studies. Nevertheless, synthesis methods based on local case studies will remain essential for generating systematic global and regional understanding of local land change for the foreseeable future, and multiple opportunities exist to accelerate and enhance the reliability of synthetic LCS research in the future. Demand for global and regional knowledge generation will continue to grow to support adaptation and mitigation policies consistent with both the local realities and regional and global environmental and economic contexts of land change.

  18. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  19. Land Use Pattern, Climate Change, and Its Implication for Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Ethiopia has always suffered from climatic variability like droughts and consequently food shortage and famine, climate change is set to make the lives of the poorest even harder. Climate change has the potential to adversely affect net farm revenues of small holders with increasing land fragmentation due to ...

  20. Trajectories of Neighborhood Change : Spatial Patterns of Increasing Ethnic Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.D.; van Ham, M.; Manley, D.J.

    Western cities are increasingly ethnically diverse and in most cities the share of ethnic minorities is growing. Studies analyzing changing ethnic geographies often limit their analysis to changes in ethnic concentrations in neighborhoods between two points in time. Such a static approach limits our

  1. Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C dated box cores from the eastern, the central and the western regions were studied to determine climate induced changes in the hydrography. Clay assemblages have spatial and temporal changes and are markedly different in the eastern and the western bay. From a high abundance of the clay smectite, which has its ...

  2. Monitoring, analyzing and simulating of spatial-temporal changes of landscape pattern over mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Han, Ruimei; Wang, Shuangting

    2014-11-01

    According to the merits of remotely sensed data in depicting regional land cover and Land changes, multi- objective information processing is employed to remote sensing images to analyze and simulate land cover in mining areas. In this paper, multi-temporal remotely sensed data were selected to monitor the pattern, distri- bution and trend of LUCC and predict its impacts on ecological environment and human settlement in mining area. The monitor, analysis and simulation of LUCC in this coal mining areas are divided into five steps. The are information integration of optical and SAR data, LULC types extraction with SVM classifier, LULC trends simulation with CA Markov model, landscape temporal changes monitoring and analysis with confusion matrixes and landscape indices. The results demonstrate that the improved data fusion algorithm could make full use of information extracted from optical and SAR data; SVM classifier has an efficient and stable ability to obtain land cover maps, which could provide a good basis for both land cover change analysis and trend simulation; CA Markov model is able to predict LULC trends with good performance, and it is an effective way to integrate remotely sensed data with spatial-temporal model for analysis of land use / cover change and corresponding environmental impacts in mining area. Confusion matrixes are combined with landscape indices to evaluation and analysis show that, there was a sustained downward trend in agricultural land and bare land, but a continues growth trend tendency in water body, forest and other lands, and building area showing a wave like change, first increased and then decreased; mining landscape has undergone a from small to large and large to small process of fragmentation, agricultural land is the strongest influenced landscape type in this area, and human activities are the primary cause, so the problem should be pay more attentions by government and other organizations.

  3. Patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, C.F.; de Groot, S.; Post, M.W.; Hoekstra, T.; van Asbeck, F.W.; Bongers, H.; Lindeman, E.; van der Woude, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  4. Patterns of Changes in Wheelchair Exercise Capacity After Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W.; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H.

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  5. Women's employment and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Muszynska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of women's employment on the risk of union disruption within the centrally planned economy and transition period in Russia. The empirical part is based on two retrospective surveys conducted in Russia in 2004/2005, covering the years 1967-2004. These are analyzed using hazard regression. The results show that within two periods (1967-1991 and 1992-2004 the risk of union dissolution was similar among women who worked and those who did not work. No differences were found between various employment groups during socialism. In the transition period, however, a variation in the risk of union dissolution among groups of working women existed. The biggest differences are related to company ownership type, with women who worked in private enterprises having the highest risk of union dissolution.

  6. A critical readjustment : Analyzing the regional employment composition in Norway during times of change

    OpenAIRE

    Gramstad, Emma Hartland; Wærness, Katrine Willumsen

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic fall in the oil price, which started in June 2014, introduced a national debate concerning the future of the petroleum sector in Norway. This thesis examines the sectoral employment composition in Norway, and expands the country-level analysis by looking at regional differences. The main focus is on Rogaland, which is clearly dependent on the petroleum sector. Rogaland’s development is compared to three counties that are presumed to be less petroleum dependent, nam...

  7. Datacenter Changes vs. Employment Rates for Datacenter Managers In the Cloud Computing Era

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Timur; Benson, Bruce; Hillhouse, David; Lewis, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    Due to the evolving Cloud Computing paradigm, there is a prevailing concern that in the near future data center managers may be in short supply. Cloud computing, as a whole, is becoming more prevalent into today s computing world. In fact, cloud computing has become so popular that some are now referring to data centers as cloud centers. How does this interest in cloud computing translate into employment rates for data center managers? The popularity of the public and private cloud models are...

  8. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.

    2008-01-01

    rates increased annually by 7.0% (95% confidence interval 3.4%-10.7%) and 3.4% (0.1%-6.8%), respectively, in men and by 13.7% (9.1%-18.6%) and 12.2% (7.8-16.8%), respectively, in women between 1968 and 2004. However, the incidence peak remained considerably lower than what can be observed in young......A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  9. Changing Infliximab Prescription Patterns in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Broberg, Marie Christine Hede

    2018-01-01

    Background: Long-term data on real life use of infliximab (IFX) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are lacking. We studied prescription patterns during the first 16 years following marketing authorization. Methods: In a population-based cohort from the North Denmark Region, all IBD patients...... exposed to IFX during 1999 to 2014 were identified. Results: A total of 623 patients (210 with ulcerative colitis [UC] and 413 with Crohn's disease [CD]) were exposed to IFX. In patients with UC, age at first exposure decreased by 10 months per calendar year (P ... with CD, disease duration at time of first IFX exposure decreased by 7 months per calendar year (P

  10. Nail changes in alopecia areata: Incidence and pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi V

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive patients with alopecia areata were examined for presence of nail abnormalities. Nail changes were seen in 44/100 (44% of patients with most frequent occurrence in multifocal variety (30/44=68%. The commonest abnormality observed was superficial pits seen in 28(64% patients. Presence and severity of nail changes may indicate a more severe and recalcitrant disease.

  11. How do baby boomers' mobility patterns change with retirement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu; Haustein, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Baby boomers will comprise a considerable share of tomorrow's older population. Previous research has indicated higher travel activity and car use amongst baby boomers than amongst older cohorts. However, little evidence exists on the effects of boomers' ageing on the transportation system....... To analyse how retirement affects baby boomers' travel and the related future travel demand, we compared three groups, distinguished by employment status as ‘still working’, ‘early retirees’ and ‘recent retirees’, in a longitudinal setting. Data for 864 individuals were collected via standardised telephone...... working had a high car reliance that did not decline over time. This study suggests that retirement is a transition point associated with decreasing car use. Hence, the ageing of the population is likely to have a decreasing effect on transportation demand. However, informal care-giving, prolonged careers...

  12. Work-related discrimination and change in self-stigma among people with mental illness during supported employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Nordt, Carlos; Kawohl, Wolfram; Brantschen, Elisabeth; Bärtsch, Bettina; Müller, Mario; Corrigan, Patrick W; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-12-01

    The relationship of work-related discrimination to the change in self-stigma and stigma stress was assessed among supported employment participants in Switzerland. Self-stigma and the cognitive appraisal of mental illness stigma as a stressor were measured at baseline among supported employment participants (N=116). These variables and work-related discrimination in the past year were assessed one year later (N=96). Compared with participants who did not find employment (N=30), those who worked without experiencing discrimination (N=25) had lower levels of self-stigma and stigma stress at one year. Among those who worked and reported work-related discrimination (N=38), these measures did not decrease significantly. Experiencing discrimination at work may determine whether employment has positive effects in terms of self-stigma and stigma stress among individuals with mental illness. Interventions to reduce discrimination in work settings and to improve coping resources of these individuals could augment the positive effects of supported employment.

  13. Physiologically induced color-pattern changes in butterfly wings: mechanistic and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Joji M

    2008-07-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the butterfly wing color-pattern determination can be facilitated by experimental pattern changes. Here I review physiologically induced color-pattern changes in nymphalid butterflies and their mechanistic and evolutionary implications. A type of color-pattern change can be elicited by elemental changes in size and position throughout the wing, as suggested by the nymphalid groundplan. These changes of pattern elements are bi-directional and bi-sided dislocation toward or away from eyespot foci and in both proximal and distal sides of the foci. The peripheral elements are dislocated even in the eyespot-less compartments. Anterior spots are more severely modified, suggesting the existence of an anterior-posterior gradient. In one species, eyespots are transformed into white spots with remnant-like orange scales, and such patterns emerge even at the eyespot-less "imaginary" foci. A series of these color-pattern modifications probably reveal "snap-shots" of a dynamic morphogenic signal due to heterochronic uncoupling between the signaling and reception steps. The conventional gradient model can be revised to account for these observed color-pattern changes.

  14. 507 community perception on climate change and usage patterns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    forest-dependent communities as a strategy to cope with the impacts of climate change and variability around the ..... minimize or spread risks by managing a mix of crops, crop ... harvesting, processing and marketing of NTFPs is needed so as ...

  15. Changing pattern of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegelaar, J. E.; Steketee, W. H.; van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; Wetsteyn, J. C. F. M.; Kager, P. A.; Faber, W. R.

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in western countries seems to be appearing more frequently. Our aim was to determine if there has been a shift in countries where CL is acquired and whether the incidence has changed, and to assess current diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities. In a

  16. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  17. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  18. Changing Patterns of Interracial Marriage in a Multiracial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    We use incidence data from the 1980 Census and 2008 American Community Survey to track recent trends in interracial marriage. Intermarriage with Whites increased rapidly among Blacks but stalled among Asians and American Indians. Black-White intermarriage increased threefold over 1980-2008, independent of changing socioeconomic status, suggesting…

  19. If the drumming changes, the dance also changes : de-agrarianisation and rural non-farm employment in the Nigerian savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meagher, K.

    1999-01-01

    This working paper provides research findings emanating from the De-Agrarianisation and Rural Employment (DARE) Research Programme, coordinated by the African Studies Centre, Leiden. The aim of the Programme was to examine, from a multidisciplinary perspective, the changes in size and significance

  20. A phenomenological study of business graduates' employment experiences in the changing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Throy Alexander

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the perspectives of business college graduates, how technology has shaped the structures of their jobs, and the role of non-technical skills as they navigate the changing career path. Three overlapping themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) influence of increased technology capabilities on job structures and careers; (2) participation in job-related training and formal education as means of adapting to the new work environment; and (3) the role of non-technical skills in the workplace amidst the intensification of technology change. This research provides higher education practitioners and labor market researchers qualitative perspectives on work structure changes.

  1. Women’s employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Heejung; van der Horst, Mariska

    2017-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request ...

  2. A method employing STM for the estimation of relative changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    – spectroscopy; scanning tunneling microscope; workfunction. Abstract. – spectroscopy measurements using a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) were carried out to determine the change in the work function of a W ... Current Issue

  3. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, P.

    2001-10-01

    On November 2000 the European Commission launched a broad debate on the security of energy supply in the European Union. Fortunately these debates are occurring simultaneously in Europe and in the US, thus providing an opportunity for a transatlantic debate and further cooperation. The author come back to european facts and figures, then to stress the dramatic changes in the context since 1990 and finally to discuss the policy options. (A.L.B.)

  4. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  5. Patterns of Pathomorphological Changes in Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kovalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinar necrosis is the basic microscopic sign of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP. Microcirculation disorder is one of the major factors in the pathogenesis and morphogenesis of ANP besides free radicals and damage of enzymatic origin. This study is dedicated to the description of microscopic changes in the pancreatic stroma in ANP, which leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas with a putative mechanism of endocrine function preservation. This study has been carried out on histological samples of pancreas from 224 patients with ANP. Histological staining was performed with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E, Masson, Gomori methods, and PAS. Microscopy was performed with magnifications of 40×, 100×, and 400×. Vascular endothelial desquamation, stasis, and sludge are typical changes in microcirculation observed in early stages of ANP. Initially, parietal circular intravascular microthrombosis accompanied by endothelial desquamation as early as stromal swelling occurs with no detectable necrosis. Residual stroma appears between areas of necrosis and intact pancreatic tissue. Mucoid swelling is first seen in the perivascular spaces extending to the parenchyma and changing into fibrinoid imbibition causing further necrosis. Reticulin argyrophilic backbone surrounding the pancreatic acini and small ducts decompose. Pancreatic structures, which may be preserved in necrotic tissue, include nerves, major ducts, and Langerhans islets.

  6. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-01-01

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for open-quotes greenfieldsclose quotes in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed

  7. Climatic changes and uplift patterns - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerck, S.; Svensson, N.O.

    1992-11-01

    Our knowledge about the Pleistocene (= last 2.5 million years) climatic changes and their global environmental effects on the Earth system, e.g. the glacial-interglacial cycles, the sea level changes, and the significant crustal movements in glaciated regions, has increased greatly during the last decades. This report outlines the historical background and the present state-of-the-arts on these matters. Because the driving mechanisms and feed-back effects behind these changes have been more and more discussed in earth-science literature, analysed, and probably also better and better understood, it has become possible to present theoretical models for future climates (not including mans influence on the earth system). The report presents and discusses one such climate model (short of predicting mans future behaviour and its consequent effect on climate) and its likely implications on future climatic and glacial conditions, and bedrock movements, with focus on the Stockholm region. Possibilities for quaternary geologists to establish and map post glacial fault zones, related to irregular bedrock movements, are also briefly outlined in the report. (222 refs.)

  8. Patterns of Change: Transitions in Hmong Textile Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Hmong life, women produced complex textiles as markers of clan identity and cultural values. Paj ntaub (flower cloth, created by embroidery, appliqué, reverse appliqué, and indigo batik (among the Blue or Green Hmong, were primary transmitters of Hmong culture from one generation to the next over centuries. Clothing, funeral and courtship cloths, baby carriers and hats were designed with traditionally geometric, abstract patterns Hmong could understand as a shared visual language within an oral culture.This photo essay introduces the author’s twenty-five year fascination with paj ntaub and documents a trip to Laos and northern Thailand in November/December 2009 to discover whether story cloths were being produced in Hmong villages in Laos or if story cloths remain a product of refugees only. The researcher also hoped tolearn whether traditional Hmong clothing is still produced and worn in the Laos, to observe how Hmong textiles are made and consumed for a tourist market, and to discover possible sources for the dramatic shift in paj ntaub visual language from symbolic abstraction to pictorial representation.

  9. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  10. Land use changes in Europe: Processes of change, environmental transformations, and future patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Thomas, A.J.; Chadwick, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As the pressures to control costs and resources expended on cleaning up hazardous waste sites increase, there is a growing notion that consideration of ultimate land use or end states should aid in focusing remediation efforts, and thus, controlling costs. Resources would not be expended on all sites equally, rather knowledge that a particular site is most likely to be used for industrial rather than residential purposes, for example, would influence the type of clean-up invoked at a site and the clean-up goals themselves. Thus, land use has become a hot topic among environmental risk assessors and risk managers. This milieu makes the contents of Volume 18 in Kluwer's GeoJournal Library of particular interest. The book is a collection of papers, with contributors from across Europe. The paper generally fall into three categories: analyses of historical land use patterns in particular countries, forecasts of changing land use trends for the EC countries, and analyses of particular factors affecting land use decisions (atmospheric contamination, hydrologic regimes, land use decision methodologies). Although very little of the text deals explicitly with hazardous waste clean up, the perspective provided by a view of the European struggles with land use allocations provides helpful context to those in the historically unlimited spaces of the United States just beginning to come to terms with the concept

  11. Do changes in per capita consumption mirror changes in drinking patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R G; Suurvali, H M; Mann, R E

    2000-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how well per capita alcohol consumption figures derived from beverage sales data relate to changes over time in survey-based measures of drinking patterns. It was expected that strong associations would be found among these various measures of consumption. Data from 12 household surveys conducted in Ontario between 1977 and 1997 provided information on: percentages of drinkers; daily drinkers; those drinking five or more drinks at a sitting weekly; those reporting two or more alcohol-related harms; and average number of drinks per week. These variables were then correlated with per capita consumption. Significant correlations were found only between per capita consumption and percentage of daily drinkers, and between percentage of drinkers and average number of drinks per week. The relationship of per capita consumption to survey measures of drinking is weak. The absence of consistent associations over time between per capita consumption and survey measures may be attributable to the small number of available data points or to increases in unrecorded consumption. Further research is needed to verify and explain these results.

  12. Global Ocean Sedimentation Patterns: Plate Tectonic History Versus Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Reynolds, E.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global sediment data (Whittaker et al., 2013) and carbonate content data (Archer, 1996) allows examination of ocean sedimentation evolution with respect to age of the underlying ocean crust (Müller et al., 2008). From these data, we construct time series of ocean sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian ocean basins for the past 120 Ma. These time series are unique to each basin and reflect an integrated response to plate tectonics and climate change. The goal is to parameterize ocean sedimentation tied to crustal age for paleoclimate studies. For each basin, total sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate from 0.1 x 0.1 degree cells are binned according to basement crustal age; area-corrected moments (mean, variance, etc.) are calculated for each bin. Segmented linear fits identify trends in present-day carbonate deposition rates and changes in ocean sedimentation from 0 to 120 Ma. In the North and South Atlantic and Indian oceans, mean sediment thickness versus crustal age is well represented by three linear segments, with the slope of each segment increasing with increasing crustal age. However, the transition age between linear segments varies among the three basins. In contrast, mean sediment thickness in the North and South Pacific oceans are numerically smaller and well represented by two linear segments with slopes that decrease with increasing crustal age. These opposing trends are more consistent with the plate tectonic history of each basin being the controlling factor in sedimentation rates, rather than climate change. Unlike total sediment thickness, carbonate deposition rates decrease smoothly with crustal age in all basins, with the primary controls being ocean chemistry and water column depth.References: Archer, D., 1996, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 159-174.Müller, R.D., et al., 2008, Science, 319, 1357-1362.Whittaker, J., et al., 2013, Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst. DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20181

  13. Pattern recognition invariant under changes of scale and orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Henri H.; Parent, Sebastien; Moisan, Sylvain

    1997-08-01

    We have used a modified method proposed by neiberg and Casasent to successfully classify five kinds of military vehicles. The method uses a wedge filter to achieve scale invariance, and lines in a multi-dimensional feature space correspond to each target with out-of-plane orientations over 360 degrees around a vertical axis. The images were not binarized, but were filtered in a preprocessing step to reduce aliasing. The feature vectors were normalized and orthogonalized by means of a neural network. Out-of-plane rotations of 360 degrees and scale changes of a factor of four were considered. Error-free classification was achieved.

  14. The changing demographic pattern of multiple sclerosis epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2010-01-01

    in Europe and North America, while this gradient is still apparent for Australia and New Zealand; and suggest a general, although not ubiquitous, increase in incidence of MS in females. The latter observation should prompt epidemiological studies to focus on changes in lifestyle in females. New insights....... These sources of error might play a part in the geographical and temporal variations. Our literature search and meta-regression analyses indicated an almost universal increase in prevalence and incidence of MS over time; they challenge the well accepted theory of a latitudinal gradient of incidence of MS...

  15. New labor management guidelines and changes in cesarean delivery patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Joshua I; Stout, Molly J; Tuuli, Methodius G; Woolfolk, Candice L; López, Julia D; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2017-12-01

    In 2010 the Consortium on Safe Labor published labor curves. It was proposed that the rate of cesarean delivery could be lowered by avoiding the diagnosis of arrest of dilation before 6 cm. However, there is little information on the uptake of the guidelines and on changes in cesarean delivery rates that may have occurred. The objective of the study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) among patients laboring at term, rates of arrest of dilation disorders have decreased, leading to a decrease in the rate of cesarean delivery; (2) in the second stage, pushing duration prior to diagnosis of arrest of descent has increased, also leading to a reduction in the rate of cesarean delivery for this indication. As a secondary aim, we investigated changes in maternal and neonatal morbidity. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of all patients presenting at ≥37 weeks' gestation from 2010 through 2014 with a nonanomalous vertex singleton and no prior history of cesarean delivery. Rates of cesarean delivery, arrest of dilation, and changes in rates of maternal and neonatal morbidity were calculated in crude and adjusted models. Cervical dilation at diagnosis of the arrest of dilation, time spent at the maximal dilation prior to diagnosis of arrest of dilation, and time in the second stage prior to the diagnosis of arrest of descent were compared over the study period. There were 7845 eligible patients. The cesarean delivery rate in 2010 was 15.8% and, in 2014, 17.7% (P trend = .51). In patients undergoing cesarean delivery for the arrest of dilation, the median cervical dilation at the time of cesarean delivery was at 5.5 cm in 2010 and 6.0 cm in 2014 (P trend = .94). In these patients, there was an increase in the time spent at last dilation: 3.8 hours in 2010 to 5.2 hours in 2014 (P trend = .02). There was no change in the frequency of patients diagnosed with the arrest of dilation at labor management that have occurred over the initial years

  16. Working Alliance and Stages of Change for Employment: The Intermediary Role of Autonomous Motivation, Outcome Expectancy and Vocational Rehabilitation Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Kanako; Chan, Fong; Tansey, Timothy N; Strauser, David; Ritter, Ellen; Bishop, Malachy; Brooks, Jessica

    2018-05-30

    Purpose Working alliance is one of the most important common factors for successful counseling/psychotherapy outcomes. Based on the empirical literature about working alliance, it seems that self-determination and self-efficacy theory (SDT/SET) can potentially be used as a motivational model to explain the relationship between working alliance and vocational rehabilitation (VR) outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate three primary SDT/SET constructs, autonomous motivation, expectancy and engagement, as mediators for the relationship between working alliance and stages of change (SOC) for employment. Methods A serial multiple mediation analysis (SMMA) was computed to evaluate autonomy, outcome expectancy, and VR engagement as mediators of the relationship between working alliance and SOC for employment in a sample of 277 people with chronic illness and disability (CID) receiving services from state VR agencies in the United States. Results The SMMA results indicated that working alliance was positively associated with SOC for employment (total effect), while the direct effect between working alliance and SOC for employment was not significant after controlling for the effects of the mediators, indicating significant mediation effects. The mediation effects were estimates of the indirect effects for working alliance on SOC for employment through (a) autonomous motivation, (b) outcome expectancy, (c) VR engagement, and (d) autonomous motivation, outcome expectancy and VR engagement together. Conclusions The results indicated that a strong working alliance has the benefit of helping consumers develop autonomous motivation to work and increasing their vocational outcome expectancy and engagement in VR services, leading to employment.

  17. Development of passive and active microprism arrays to change the radiation pattern of solid-state lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chih-Chun; Ting, Yi-Shuo; Fang, Weileun

    2012-01-01

    This study implements a compact solid-state lighting chip with changeable illumination map as well as radiation pattern. The lighting chip consists of a microprism array, light-emitting diode (LED) chip and Si carrier. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) layers are respectively employed to implement the passive and active microprism arrays. The specific radiation pattern can be defined by the shape of the passive PDMS-microprism. Moreover, by using the scattering and transmitting modes of the PDLC layer, the PDLC-microprism enables the changing of light shaping by applying voltage. Thus, the radiation pattern can be changed by the driving voltage on the PDLC layer, and the deformable and movable micro optical components are not required. This study has established the low-temperature fabrication and packaging processes to realize the lighting chip, and the damage of the PDMS and PDLC material is prevented. Typical dimensions of the PDMS lighting chip are 5 mm wide, 6 mm long and 1 mm thick, and The PDLC lighting chip is 550 µm thick. The measurement results show that the PDMS-microprism array can change the radiation pattern from a 70° half-maximum viewing angle to 52° and 40° half-maximum viewing angles on two orthogonal axes. In addition, the PDLC-microprism array can change the radiation pattern from 51° and 43° half-maximum viewing angles at 0 V (i.e. scattering mode) to 48° and 33° half-maximum viewing angles at 100 V (i.e. transmitting mode). (paper)

  18. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  19. Early positivity signals changes in an abstract linguistic pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Monte-Ordoño

    Full Text Available The extraction of abstract structures from speech (or from gestures in the case of sign languages has been claimed to be a fundamental mechanism for language acquisition. In the present study we registered the neural responses that are triggered when a violation of an abstract, token-independent rule is detected. We registered ERPs while presenting participants with trisyllabic CVCVCV nonsense words in an oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli followed an ABB rule (where A and B are different syllables. Importantly, to distinguish neural responses triggered by changes in surface information from responses triggered by changes in the underlying abstract structure, we used two types of deviant stimuli. Phoneme deviants differed from standards only in their phonemes. Rule deviants differed from standards in both their phonemes and their composing rule. We observed a significant positivity as early as 300 ms after the presentation of deviant stimuli that violated the abstract rule (Rule deviants. The amplitude of this neural response was correlated with participants' performance in a behavioral rule learning test. Differences in electrophysiological responses observed between learners and non-learners suggest that individual differences in an abstract rule learning task might be related to how listeners select relevant sources of information.

  20. Changes in Characteristics and Practice Patterns of Ontario Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdyak, Paul; Zaheer, Juveria; Cheng, Joyce; Rudoler, David; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in demographic, geographic, and practice characteristics of all Ontario psychiatrists between 2003 and 2013 and their implication for access to psychiatrists. We included all psychiatrists who were clinically active in Ontario in any year from 2003 to 2013. For each psychiatrist, we reported age, sex, years since medical school graduation, geographic practice region, and practice characteristics such as total number of inpatients, outpatients, and outpatient visit frequencies. In 2013, there were 2070 psychiatrists, with nearly half (47%) more than 30 years since medical school graduation. Female psychiatrists comprised 41% of all psychiatrists in 2013 but 56% of all psychiatrists within 15 years of medical school graduation. Between 2003 and 2013, there was a 17% increase in the total number of psychiatrists, with the largest growth in psychiatrists occurring in the group more than 30 years from medical school graduation. Over these 11 years, the mean (SD) number of unique outpatients seen by a psychiatrist annually increased from 208 (228) to 249 (275) (19.5%; P = 0.001), with male psychiatrists, on average, seeing more outpatients annually than female psychiatrists. The number of outpatients seen by psychiatrists is slowly increasing. However, the large proportion of aging psychiatrists, the high concentration of psychiatrists in urban settings, and the increase in the number of female psychiatrists with smaller practices suggest that without radical changes to the way psychiatrists practice, access to psychiatrists will remain a challenge in Ontario.

  1. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Carley E; Hegerl, Gabriele C

    2015-11-01

    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1-6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8-10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20 th and late 19 th century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions - a significant (peruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability.

  2. A method employing STM for the estimation of relative changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    determine the change in the work function of a W tip following one monolayer (1 ML) deposition of Ni and subsequent annealing at 700 K. The variation in the actual gap voltage obtained ... Studies using STM mostly concentrate on work func-.

  3. Women’s employment patterns after childbirth and the perceived access to and use of flexitime and teleworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heejung; van der Horst, Mariska

    2017-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate how flexitime and teleworking can help women maintain their careers after childbirth. Despite the increased number of women in the labour market in the UK, many significantly reduce their working hours or leave the labour market altogether after childbirth. Based on border and boundary management theories, we expect flexitime and teleworking can help mothers stay employed and maintain their working hours. We explore the UK case, where the right to request flexible working has been expanded quickly as a way to address work–life balance issues. The dataset used is Understanding Society (2009–2014), a large household panel survey with data on flexible work. We find some suggestive evidence that flexible working can help women stay in employment after the birth of their first child. More evidence is found that mothers using flexitime and with access to teleworking are less likely to reduce their working hours after childbirth. This contributes to our understanding of flexible working not only as a tool for work–life balance, but also as a tool to enhance and maintain individuals’ work capacities in periods of increased family demands. This has major implications for supporting mothers’ careers and enhancing gender equality in the labour market. PMID:29276304

  4. Spatial pattern and its changes of grain production using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianzhai; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhou, Xiangyang; Han, Shuqing

    2018-02-01

    Aiming to provide the support for maintaining grain security in China, we discussed the spatial distribution of China’s grain production and its changes in 1980-2013 using GIS spatial analysis method based on statistics data. The results show that regional differences of food production in China is obvious, and characterized as “up in south, low in north”on the north-south direction and “low in center, high in both sides “on the east-west direction. From 1980 to 2013, the concentration degree of grain production improved, and the output significantly concentrated to the northern and central regions. The regions with the rapid increase in grain yield are almost located in the Midwest China, and the northern China has also made a significant increase.

  5. The Employment of Structures and Work Patterns in Organizations Involved in Modern, Complex, Multi-National Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    headquarters itself as situations change . The ‘Commander’s trajectory’ is a sensing, monitoring and nudging process, whose main task (from a Command...reveal their true character once a solution (i.e. a set of intervention actions) is attempted and have the potential to change in unpredictable ways...appropriate is learning. Learning In this paper we pick out, in particular, three aspects of learning-related behaviour , all of which relate to feedback

  6. Transitional economy, technological change and women's employment: the case of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Nhat Tuyen

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the changing labor and gender relations in the process of economic change in Vietnam. The report also explores the extent of opportunities for women emerging from the processes of technological change and economic liberalization. Vietnam was able to achieve considerable progress and growth with the introduction of the policy package known as doi-moi (renovation). Along with liberalization, came withdrawal of state support in vital social sectors. Under socialism, the state had observed a set of minimum labor standards and provided facilities such as childcare, which were crucial in enabling women to participate in the public sphere. With the state receding into the background, labor has been made much vulnerable to exploitation by internal and external forces. Much affected are women who have steadily been losing all support from the state, which also affects their ability to compete equally with men in the market. Therefore, although there is a Labor Code, which guarantees the rights of workers, in particular the rights of women workers, not many women in the nonstate sector can practically enjoy its legal benefits. In order to correct this situation, the government should develop a program for the implementation and monitoring of the Labor Code, with a special focus on possible violations in the private sector.

  7. Avian Incubation Patterns Reflect Temporal Changes in Developing Clutches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B Cooper

    Full Text Available Incubation conditions for eggs influence offspring quality and reproductive success. One way in which parents regulate brooding conditions is by balancing the thermal requirements of embryos with time spent away from the nest for self-maintenance. Age related changes in embryo thermal tolerance would thus be expected to shape parental incubation behavior. We use data from unmanipulated Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus nests to examine the temporal dynamics of incubation, testing the prediction that increased heat flux from eggs as embryos age influences female incubation behavior and/or physiology to minimize temperature fluctuations. We found that the rate of heat loss from eggs increased with embryo age. Females responded to increased egg cooling rates by altering incubation rhythms (more frequent, shorter on- and off- bouts, but not brood patch temperature. Consequently, as embryos aged, females were able to increase mean egg temperature and decrease variation in temperature. Our findings highlight the need to view full incubation as more than a static rhythm; rather, it is a temporally dynamic and finely adjustable parental behavior. Furthermore, from a methodological perspective, intra- and inter-specific comparisons of incubation rhythms and average egg temperatures should control for the stage of incubation.

  8. The changing demographic pattern of multiple sclerosis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2010-05-01

    The uneven distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) across populations can be attributed to differences in genes and the environment and their interaction. Prevalence and incidence surveys could be affected by inaccuracy of diagnosis and ascertainment, and prevalence also depends on survival. These sources of error might play a part in the geographical and temporal variations. Our literature search and meta-regression analyses indicated an almost universal increase in prevalence and incidence of MS over time; they challenge the well accepted theory of a latitudinal gradient of incidence of MS in Europe and North America, while this gradient is still apparent for Australia and New Zealand; and suggest a general, although not ubiquitous, increase in incidence of MS in females. The latter observation should prompt epidemiological studies to focus on changes in lifestyle in females. New insights into gene-environment and gene-gene interactions complicate interpretations of demographic epidemiology and have made obsolete the idea of simple causative associations between genes or the environment and MS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changing and Differentiated Urban Landscape in China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong; Wang, Shaojian

    2016-03-01

    Urban landscape spatiotemporal change patterns and their driving mechanisms in China are poorly understood at the national level. Here we used remote sensing data, landscape metrics, and a spatial econometric model to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urban landscape change and investigate its driving forces in China between 1990 and 2005. The results showed that the urban landscape pattern has experienced drastic changes over the past 15 years. Total urban area has expanded approximately 1.61 times, with a 2.98% annual urban-growth rate. Compared to previous single-city studies, although urban areas are expanding rapidly, the overall fragmentation of the urban landscape is decreasing and is more irregular and complex at the national level. We also found a stair-stepping, urban-landscape changing pattern among eastern, central, and western counties. In addition, administrative level, urban size, and hierarchy have effects on the urban landscape pattern. We also found that a combination of landscape metrics can be used to supplement our understanding of the pattern of urbanization. The changes in these metrics are correlated with geographical indicators, socioeconomic factors, infrastructure variables, administrative level factors, policy factors, and historical factors. Our results indicate that the top priority should be strengthening the management of urban planning. A compact and congregate urban landscape may be a good choice of pattern for urban development in China.

  10. Measles outbreak in adults: A changing epidemiological pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Bajaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thirty-one cases of fever with rash were reported among students of a college in Pune, India, from March to May 2014. The clinical profile was similar to that of measles and 7 of them tested positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM. An outbreak of measles was declared, and epidemiological investigation was carried out to assess the situation and suggest preventive measures. Methods: An epidemiological case sheet filled for each case to identify the source and likely contacts. Medical and administrative authorities were sensitized about the increase in incidence and clustering of cases. A surveillance system was set up for detection of new cases and follow-up of contacts. Throat swabs and blood samples from 12 cases were tested by ELISA method for commonly occurring viral exanthematous fevers to confirm the diagnosis and 7 were positive for measles-specific IgM antibody. Preventive measures were advised to control the outbreak. Results: A total of 31 cases of fever with rashes were reported among students of a college in Pune, India, during the months of March–May 2014. Most of the students were in the age group of 18–24 years. Samples from 12 cases were sent for testing and 7 tested positive for measles-specific IgM antibodies. Seven cases were epidemiologically linked to a lab-confirmed case. All cases had fever, maculopapular rash, and sore throat and gave a history of vaccination for measles in childhood. Conclusion: An epidemiological investigation was carried out for outbreak of measles in a young adult population of college students from Pune. It is reported that, with increase in overall coverage of vaccination, there is a rise in incidence of measles in vaccinated individuals. The age profile also shifts to higher age groups. Investigation of such outbreaks provides an opportunity to identify high-risk groups, changes in measles epidemiology and weaknesses in the routine immunization programs.

  11. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  12. Variation, certainty, evidence, and change in dental education: employing evidence-based dentistry in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, V C; Richards, D; Niederman, R

    2001-05-01

    Variation in health care, and more particularly in dental care, was recently chronicled in a Readers Digest investigative report. The conclusions of this report are consistent with sound scientific studies conducted in various areas of health care, including dental care, which demonstrate substantial variation in the care provided to patients. This variation in care parallels the certainty with which clinicians and faculty members often articulate strongly held, but very different opinions. Using a case-based dental scenario, we present systematic evidence-based methods for accessing dental health care information, evaluating this information for validity and importance, and using this information to make informed curricular and clinical decisions. We also discuss barriers inhibiting these systematic approaches to evidence-based clinical decision making and methods for effectively promoting behavior change in health care professionals.

  13. State obligations to implement African abortion laws: employing human rights in a changing legal landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwena, Charles G

    2012-11-01

    Women in the African region are overburdened with unsafe abortion. Abortion regimes that fail to translate any given abortion rights into tangible access are partly to blame. Historically, African abortion laws have been highly restrictive. However, the post-independence era has witnessed a change toward liberalizing abortion law, even if incremental for many jurisdictions. Furthermore, Article 14 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa has significantly augmented the regional trend toward liberalization by recognizing abortion as a human right in given circumstances. However, states are failing to implement abortion laws. The jurisprudence that is emerging from the European Court of Human Rights and United Nations treaty bodies is a tool that can be used to render African governments accountable for failure to implement domestic abortion laws. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations of employment status and educational levels with mortality and hospitalization in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Imanishi

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES factors such as employment, educational attainment, income, and marital status can affect the health and well-being of the general population and have been associated with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, no studies to date in Japan have reported on the prognosis of patients with CKD with respect to SES. This study aimed to investigate the influences of employment and education level on mortality and hospitalization among maintenance hemodialysis (HD patients in Japan.Data on 7974 HD patients enrolled in Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study phases 1-4 (1999-2011 in Japan were analysed. Employment status, education level, demographic data, and comorbidities were abstracted at entry into DOPPS from patient records. Mortality and hospitalization events were collected during follow-up. Patients on dialysis < 120 days at study entry were excluded from the analyses. Cox regression modelled the association between employment and both mortality and hospitalization among patients < 60 years old. The association between education and outcomes was also assessed. The association between patient characteristics and employment among patients < 60 years old was assessed using logistic regression.During a median follow-up of 24.9 months (interquartile range, 18.4-32.0, 10% of patients died and 43% of patients had an inpatient hospitalization. Unemployment was associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.36 and hospitalization (HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08-1.44. Compared to patients who graduated from university, patients with less than a high school (HS education and patients who graduated HS with some college tended to have elevated mortality (HR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92 and HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02-1.82, respectively but were not at risk for increased hospitalizations. Factors associated with unemployment included lower level of education, older age, female

  15. The relationship between changes in employment status and mortality risk based on the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (2003-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Man; Son, Nak-Hoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status. This study used mortality data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study. To analyze the relationship between the mortality rate and changes in employment status, the population was classified into employed, unemployed, or economically inactive. Demographic and socioeconomic variables such as gender, age, educational level, annual household income, marital status, and self-rated health status were controlled. In this study, the generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the relationship between the morality rate and the changes in employment status. The mortality rate was higher (odds ratio = 4.31) among the population that experienced a change in economic status from employed to unemployed than those who maintained employment. The mortality rate for the population who became unemployed or economically inactive was higher (odds ratio = 5.05) in cases of death by disease. © 2013 APJPH.

  16. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent...... of concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were......, but the associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  17. Trends in Employer-Funded Training as an Indicator of Changes in Employment: The Case of Norway in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooderham, Paul N.; Hines, Kjell

    1995-01-01

    Norwegian data on employer-sponsored training revealed no public-sector support of the neo-Marxist theory of skill degrading; private-sector support for upgrading lower-level jobs and the emergence of flexible organizations; and limited support for bipolarization--increasing skills gap between full- and part-time workers. Bipolarization affected a…

  18. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  19. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  20. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition Changes in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    pattern or changing from a processed pattern to a sweet pattern presented the most unfavourable changes in fat mass and abdominal fat. These findings support the need to promote overall healthy dietary habits in obesity prevention and health promotion programmes targeting children....... frequencies of consumption of forty-three food items and regression models were fitted to assess the association between dietary patterns and body composition changes. Setting: Primary schools and pre-schools of selected regions in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Subjects...... consistently allocated to the ‘processed’ cluster presented increased BMI (β=0·050; 95 % CI 0·006, 0·093), increased waist circumference (β=0·071; 95 % CI 0·001, 0·141) and increased fat mass gain (β=0·052; 95 % CI 0·014, 0·090) over time v. children allocated to the ‘healthy’ cluster. Being in the ‘processed...

  1. Bioenergy expansion in the EU: Cost-effective climate change mitigation, employment creation and reduced dependency on imported fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndes, Goeran; Hansson, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the European Union (EU) is promoting bioenergy. The aim of this paper is to study the prospects for using domestic biomass resources in Europe and specifically to investigate whether different policy objectives underlying the promotion of bioenergy (cost-effective climate change mitigation, employment creation and reduced dependency on imported fuels) agree on which bioenergy options that should be used. We model bioenergy use from a cost-effectiveness perspective with a linear regionalized energy- and transport-system model and perform supplementary analysis. It is found that the different policy objectives do not agree on the order of priority among bioenergy options. Maximizing climate benefits cost-effectively is in conflict with maximizing employment creation. The former perspective proposes the use of lignocellulosic biomass in the stationary sector, while the latter requires biofuels for transport based on traditional agricultural crops. Further, from a security-of-supply perspective, the appeal of a given bioenergy option depends on how oil and gas import dependencies are weighed relative to each other. Consequently, there are tradeoffs that need to be addressed by policymakers promoting the use of bioenergy. Also, the importance of bioenergy in relation to employment creation and fuel import dependency reduction needs to be further addressed

  2. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-09-06

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  3. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.

  4. [Wetland landscape pattern change based on GIS and RS: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Ting; Xi, Min; Li, Yue; Kong, Fan-Long; Chen, Wan

    2013-04-01

    Wetland is an ecological landscape with most biodiversity in nature, which has unique ecological structure and function, and contains abundant natural resources to provide material guarantee for human's living and development. Wetland landscape pattern is the comprehensive result of various ecological processes, and has become a hot issue in wetland ecological study. At present, the combination of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies is an important way to study the wetland landscape pattern change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the wetland landscape change based on GIS and RS from the aspects of the research methods of wetland landscape pattern, index of wetland landscape pattern, and driving forces of wetland landscape pattern evolution, and discussed the applications of the combination of GIS and RS in monitoring the wetland landscape pattern change, the index selection of wetland landscape pattern, and the driving mechanisms of the combined action of human and nature. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future-studies were prospected.

  5. Key principles for adapting South African settlement patterns to climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify key principles for adapting SA settlement patterns to climate change. Section 1 reviews the range of climate-related impacts likely to affect SA settlements using climate change models and scenarios as a context...

  6. Changes in spatiotemporal land use patterns in selected hydrogeomorphic areas of China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences exist in land use/cover pattern and its change between the P. R. China and the USA. In order to describe those differences, land use changes in representative regions were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Xiamen City, Changzhutan region and Liupan Mountains regions were selected to ...

  7. Association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (_75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n=270; mean±SD age: 78.6±3.9 years)....

  8. Personality traits and career choices among physicians in Finland: employment sector, clinical patient contact, specialty and change of specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullola, Sari; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Jokela, Markus; Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko

    2018-03-27

    Personality influences an individual's adaptation to a specific job or organization. Little is known about personality trait differences between medical career and specialty choices after graduating from medical school when actually practicing different medical specialties. Moreover, whether personality traits contribute to important career choices such as choosing to work in the private or public sector or with clinical patient contact, as well as change of specialty, have remained largely unexplored. In a nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians (N = 2837) we examined how personality traits are associated with medical career choices after graduating from medical school, in terms of employment sector, patient contact, medical specialty and change of specialty. Personality was assessed using the shortened version of the Big Five Inventory (S-BFI). An analysis of covariance with posthoc tests for pairwise comparisons was conducted, adjusted for gender and age with confounders (employment sector, clinical patient contact and medical specialty). Higher openness was associated with working in the private sector, specializing in psychiatry, changing specialty and not practicing with patients. Lower openness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in general practice as well as ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. Higher conscientiousness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in surgery and other internal medicine specialties. Lower conscientiousness was associated with specializing in psychiatry and hospital service specialties. Higher agreeableness was associated with working in the private sector and specializing in general practice and occupational health. Lower agreeableness and neuroticism were associated with specializing in surgery. Higher extraversion was associated with specializing in pediatrics and change of specialty. Lower extraversion was associated with not practicing with

  9. Pandimensional field pattern changes in healers and healees: experiencing therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dorothy Woods; Broida, John P

    2007-12-01

    Rogers's Science of Unitary Human Beings framed this study of pandimensional pattern changes in healers and healees paired for an 8-week series of Therapeutic Touch (TT) sessions. Comparison of healee patterns before and after 141 TT sessions supported the hypotheses that healees would manifest decreased pulse and blood pressure, and reduced pain and stress (p < .05). Duration of TT sessions was not preset but determined by healers according to energy cues. TT time was not related to pattern changes, consistent with the clinical practice of TT and the atemporal nature of Rogers's conceptual framework. Healers and healees showed parallel changes after the TT series. Participants manifested greater spirituality (p <.05). Although increases in three of the four dimensions of power were significant (p <.05), changes in power measured as a whole were not. Contrary to expectations, manifestations of diversity were decreased in healers and healees.

  10. Method of changing the control rod pattern in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to change the control rod pattern in a short time with ease, as well as improve the availability factor of the reactor. Method: Control rods other than those being inserted into the reactor core are inserted into the reactor core to reduce the power by the reduction in the reactor core flow rate. Then, the control rod to be operated is operated partially for the change of the control rod pattern to restrict the linear heat rating of the fuels to less than 0.1 kW/ft per one hour to change the control pattern to the aimed control rod pattern. Then, the reactor core flow rate is increased after the pattern exchange for the control rod to increase the power. Since only the control rod operation is performed without adjusting the reactor core flow rate upon change of the control rod pattern, procedures can be made simply in a short time to thereby improve the availability factor of the reactor. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Mapping the order and pattern of brain structural MRI changes using change-point analysis in premanifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Faria, Andreia V; Younes, Laurent; Mori, Susumu; Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Hans; Paulsen, Jane S; Ross, Christopher A; Miller, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that progressively affects motor, cognitive, and emotional functions. Structural MRI studies have demonstrated brain atrophy beginning many years prior to clinical onset ("premanifest" period), but the order and pattern of brain structural changes have not been fully characterized. In this study, we investigated brain regional volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements in premanifest HD, and we aim to determine (1) the extent of MRI changes in a large number of structures across the brain by atlas-based analysis, and (2) the initiation points of structural MRI changes in these brain regions. We adopted a novel multivariate linear regression model to detect the inflection points at which the MRI changes begin (namely, "change-points"), with respect to the CAG-age product (CAP, an indicator of extent of exposure to the effects of CAG repeat expansion). We used approximately 300 T1-weighted and DTI data from premanifest HD and control subjects in the PREDICT-HD study, with atlas-based whole brain segmentation and change-point analysis. The results indicated a distinct topology of structural MRI changes: the change-points of the volumetric measurements suggested a central-to-peripheral pattern of atrophy from the striatum to the deep white matter; and the change points of DTI measurements indicated the earliest changes in mean diffusivity in the deep white matter and posterior white matter. While interpretation needs to be cautious given the cross-sectional nature of the data, these findings suggest a spatial and temporal pattern of spread of structural changes within the HD brain. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5035-5050, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Well-being improvement in a midsize employer: changes in well-being, productivity, health risk, and perceived employer support after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community. Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity. This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.

  13. Changes in latitude, changes in attitude - emerging biogeographic patterns of invasion in the Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeographic patterns of invasion of near-coastal and estuarine species in the Northeastern Pacific (NEP) are beginning to emerge based on surveys by U.S. EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and the EPA/USGS synthesis of native and nonindigenous species ...

  14. Climate change induced rainfall patterns affect wheat productivity and agroecosystem functioning dependent on soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.

    2014-05-01

    Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.

  15. Changing drainage patterns within South Cascade Glacier, Washington, USA, 1964-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A.G.; Vaughn, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical patterns of water drainage are presented for South Cascade Glacier for four different years between 1964 and 1992, during which the glacier was thinning and receding. The theoretical pattern compares well, in a broad sense, with the flow pattern determined from tracer injections in 1986 and 1987. Differences between the patterns may result from the routing of surface meltwater in crevasses prior to entering the body of the glacier. The changing drainage pattern was caused by glacier thinning. The migration of a drainage divide eventually rerouted most of the surface meltwater from the main stream that drained the glacier in 1987 to another, formerly smaller, stream by 1992. On the basis of projected glacier thinning between 1992 and 1999, we predict that the drainage divide will continue to migrate across the glacier.

  16. Patterns of structural - qualitative changes in the development of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    S Holtier

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to outline, in an emancipatory fashion, a framework of thinking to deal with the general patterns of development. As decision problems in society are increasingly of a developmental nature compared with simple performance in equilibrium systems, the author pleads in favour of an operational approach centred on 'the algebra' of structural change. It is argued that for describing and understanding development patterns better we need a proper 'structural' and 'ontologica...

  17. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim Gökçe; Neslihan Çiçek; Serçin Güven; Ülger Altuntaş; Neşe Bıyıklı; Nurdan Yıldız; Harika Alpay

    2017-01-01

    Background: The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. Aims: To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (-) bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2) in children with urinary tract infections. We...

  18. The Changes of Interaction Patterns between Males and Famales in Love Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    川名 , 好裕

    2014-01-01

    Internet survey was conducted to study the changes of interaction patterns betweenmen and women in love relationships. Survey participants are 968 males and 967 females of all over Japan. Their ages are between 20~49. Samples were divided into 6 different love relationship phases: friend, unrequited, platonic, love-sexual, affianced and married. The degrees of contents of love relation interactions; communication, co-activities, body contacts were investigated. These interaction patterns were...

  19. Changes in Land Use/Land Cover Patterns in Indonesia's Border and their Relation to Population and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiscus Xaferius Herwirawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the pattern and change of land use and land cover (LULC during 2000−2015 and its relation to population and poverty in the semi-arid region of Indonesia in Timor Island, on the country border to Republic Dominica Timor Leste (RDTL. The analyzes employ visual interpretation on the GIS software to classify 14 classes of LULC using Landsat imagery. The transition matrix of LULC change during the 15 years period indicates a substantial deforestation in which 1,309 ha or 13% of the forest in year 2000 has been disappeared. In detail, about 2 ha (7% of primary mangrove forest has been converted into mixed farming and 1,307 ha (19% of secondary forest has become shrub. Within the non-forest classification, 1,288 ha (17% of shrub in 2000 has turned into savannah, and 15 ha (10% of shrub swamp has turned into bare land, while at the same time human settlement has expanded by 118% from the settlement area in year 2000. Spatial pattern of LULC changes in the study area for 15 years are dispersed, and tend to remained in the middle area that dominated by mix agriculture. The forest cover is weakly associated with level of poverty and rural population in the study area. However, the two latter variables were not significantly associated with deforestation

  20. Patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H

    2013-07-01

    (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Prospective cohort study. Measurements were recorded at the start of active inpatient rehabilitation, 3 months after the start, at discharge of inpatient rehabilitation, 1 year after discharge, and 5 years after discharge. Eight rehabilitation centers. Persons with SCI (N=130; age range, 18-65y), who were wheelchair-dependent, at least for long distances. Not applicable. Wheelchair exercise capacity: peak power output (W). We found 4 different patterns of the change of peak power output (mean ± SD): (1) a pattern with high and progressive scores (33% of total study group): high progressive scores (start of rehabilitation: 49±15W to 5 years after discharge: 77±17.2W); (2) a pattern of improvement during inpatient rehabilitation and deterioration after inpatient rehabilitation (12%): progressive scores during inpatient rehabilitation with deteriorating scores after discharge (start of rehabilitation: 29±8.7W, to discharge: 60±8.4W, to 5 years after discharge: 39±13.1W); (3) a pattern with low and only slightly progressive scores (52%): low progressive scores (start of rehabilitation: 20±10.1W to 5 years after discharge: 31±15.9W); and (4) a pattern with low scores during inpatient rehabilitation and a sharp rise after discharge (3%): low inpatient scores with strong progressive scores after discharge (start of rehabilitation: 29±15.5W to 5 years after discharge: 82±10.6W). A logistic regression of factors that may distinguish between patterns with high and progressive scores and patterns with low and only slightly progressive scores revealed that older age, being a woman, having a tetraplegic lesion, and low functional status were associated with patterns with low and only slightly

  1. Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Zapata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  2. [Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, María Elisa; Rovirosa, Alicia; Carmuega, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  3. Dietary patterns and longitudinal change in hip bone mineral density among older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T S; Harrison, S; Judd, S; Orwoll, E S; Marshall, L M; Shannon, J; Langsetmo, L; Lane, N E; Shikany, J M

    2018-05-01

    Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss. This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time. Participants (n = 4379; mean age 72.9 ± 5.5 years) were from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) prospective cohort study and had dietary data collected at baseline (March 2000-April 2002) and BMD measured at baseline and Visit 2 (March 2005-May 2006). Dietary intake was assessed with a brief Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); %ΔBMD was calculated from baseline to Visit 2. We used generalized linear regression to estimate least square (LS) means of %ΔBMD in quartiles of the dietary pattern scores adjusted for potential confounding factors. Two major dietary patterns were derived: Prudent (abundant in vegetables, salad, and non-fried fish) and Western (rich in hamburger, fries, processed meats, cheese, and sweets/desserts). There was an inverse association between adherence to the Prudent pattern and total hip %ΔBMD (p-trend = 0.028 after adjusting for age and clinical site; p-trend = 0.033 after further adjustment for smoking, calcium supplement use, diabetes, hypertension, and total energy intake). No other consistent associations between dietary patterns and %ΔBMD were observed. Greater adherence to a Prudent dietary pattern may attenuate total hip BMD loss (%ΔBMD) in older men.

  4. Recognizing lexical and semantic change patterns in evolving life science ontologies to inform mapping adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Dinh, Duy; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Mappings established between life science ontologies require significant efforts to maintain them up to date due to the size and frequent evolution of these ontologies. In consequence, automatic methods for applying modifications on mappings are highly demanded. The accuracy of such methods relies on the available description about the evolution of ontologies, especially regarding concepts involved in mappings. However, from one ontology version to another, a further understanding of ontology changes relevant for supporting mapping adaptation is typically lacking. This research work defines a set of change patterns at the level of concept attributes, and proposes original methods to automatically recognize instances of these patterns based on the similarity between attributes denoting the evolving concepts. This investigation evaluates the benefits of the proposed methods and the influence of the recognized change patterns to select the strategies for mapping adaptation. The summary of the findings is as follows: (1) the Precision (>60%) and Recall (>35%) achieved by comparing manually identified change patterns with the automatic ones; (2) a set of potential impact of recognized change patterns on the way mappings is adapted. We found that the detected correlations cover ∼66% of the mapping adaptation actions with a positive impact; and (3) the influence of the similarity coefficient calculated between concept attributes on the performance of the recognition algorithms. The experimental evaluations conducted with real life science ontologies showed the effectiveness of our approach to accurately characterize ontology evolution at the level of concept attributes. This investigation confirmed the relevance of the proposed change patterns to support decisions on mapping adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Change Support in Process-Aware Information Systems - A Pattern-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Barbara; Rinderle, S.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    In today's dynamic business world the economic success of an enterprise increasingly depends on its ability to react to changes in its environment in a quick and flexible way. Process-aware information systems (PAIS) offer promising perspectives in this respect and are increasingly employed for

  6. L'impatto delle nuove tecnologie sulle forme di lavoro: una prospettiva europea (Technical Change and Employment: A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Corsi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of knowledge within the process of growth and job creation in the European Union. Many features of the so-called knowledge-based economy are connected with the increasing use of information and communication technologies (ICT, that radically changes the conditions for the production and distribution of knowledge as well as its coupling to the production system. Technological change not only stimulates investment in physical capital but also brings to knowledge accumulation: human skills are required to implement, maintain, adapt and use technologies embodied in physical capital. Indeed, as new technologies become more widespread, certain skills may be less in demand--because many tasks once carried out manually are now performed by automated equipment--while the demand for workers able to maintain, program, and develop these sophisticated technologies rise. There is therefore concern that technological change may cause unemployment as the result of a mismatch between the demand for labour and the various skills of workers; in this way it may also increase the polarisation of society by widening the gap in income and employment opportunities between those whose skills have been displaced by new technology and those who create and use it.

  7. The role of local sea surface temperature pattern changes in shaping climate change in the North Atlantic sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Ralf; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Bader, Jürgen; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    2018-03-01

    Beside its global effects, climate change is manifested in many regionally pronounced features mainly resulting from changes in the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. Here we investigate the influence of the North Atlantic SST on shaping the winter-time response to global warming. Our results are based on a long-term climate projection with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to investigate the influence of North Atlantic sea surface temperature pattern changes on shaping the atmospheric climate change signal. In sensitivity experiments with the model's atmospheric component we decompose the response into components controlled by the local SST structure and components controlled by global/remote changes. MPI-ESM simulates a global warming response in SST similar to other climate models: there is a warming minimum—or "warming hole"—in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the sharp SST gradients associated with the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Current shift northward by a few a degrees. Over the warming hole, global warming causes a relatively weak increase in rainfall. Beyond this, our experiments show more localized effects, likely resulting from future SST gradient changes in the North Atlantic. This includes a significant precipitation decrease to the south of the Gulf Stream despite increased underlying SSTs. Since this region is characterised by a strong band of precipitation in the current climate, this is contrary to the usual case that wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier in a warmer climate. A moisture budget analysis identifies a complex interplay of various processes in the region of modified SST gradients: reduced surface winds cause a decrease in evaporation; and thermodynamic, modified atmospheric eddy transports, and coastal processes cause a change in the moisture convergence. The changes in the the North Atlantic storm track are mainly controlled by the non-regional changes in the forcing. The impact of

  8. Temperature-Driven Change in the Unstable Growth Mode on Patterned GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadayyon-Eslami, T.; Phaneuf, R. J.; Kan, H.-C.; Calhoun, L. C.

    2006-01-01

    We observe a dramatic change in the unstable growth mode during GaAs molecular beam epitaxy on patterned GaAs(001) as the temperature is lowered through approximately 540 deg. C, roughly coincident with the preroughening temperature. Observations of the As 2 flux dependence, however, rule out thermodynamic preroughening as driving the growth mode change. Similar observations rule out the change in surface reconstruction as the cause. Instead, we find evidence that the change in the unstable growth mode can be explained by a competition between the decreased adatom collection rate on small terraces and a small anisotropic barrier to adatom diffusion downward across step bunches

  9. Patterns and drivers of land use change in selected European rural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Busck, Anne Gravsholt; van der Sluis, Theo

    2016-01-01

    concerns are less dominant and many landscape and land use changes are undertaken to improve public goods or fulfil personal and family ambitions and values. This paper investigates the patterns of farm-level land use changes that occurred between 2002 and 2012 in three different landscape regions...... with their engagement in land use changes. Common to all areas is that agricultural production is under pressure due to physical or socio-economic challenges. The results indicate that relatively more nature or landscape features have been added by landowners than removed by them in the six study areas. Furthermore......, the analysis revealed that full-time landowners were responsible for the largest proportion of landscape change and that the areas involved differed greatly. The analysis also underlined the variety of European landscapes, as many landscape activities exhibited strong geographical patterns. A multivariate...

  10. Development of infant mismatch responses to auditory pattern changes between 2 and 4 months old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Hotson, Lisa; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-02-01

    In order to process speech and music, the auditory cortex must learn to process patterns of sounds. Our previous studies showed that with a stream consisting of a repeating (standard) sound, younger infants show an increase in the amplitude of a positive slow wave in response to occasional changes (deviants) in pitch or duration, whereas older infants show a faster negative response that resembles mismatch negativity (MMN) in adults (Trainor et al., 2001, 2003; He et al., 2007). MMN reflects an automatic change-detection process that does not require attention, conscious awareness or behavioural response for its elicitation (Picton et al., 2000; Näätänen et al., 2007). It is an important tool for understanding auditory perception because MMN reflects a change-detection mechanism, and not simply that repetition of a stimulus results in a refractory state of sensory neural circuits while occasional changes to a new sound activate new non-refractory neural circuits (Näätänen et al., 2005). For example, MMN is elicited by a change in the pattern of a repeating note sequence, even when no new notes are introduced that could activate new sensory circuits (Alain et al., 1994, 1999;Schröger et al., 1996). In the present study, we show that in response to a change in the pattern of two repeating tones, MMN in 4-month-olds remains robust whereas the 2-month-old response does not. This indicates that the MMN response to a change in pattern at 4 months reflects the activation of a change-detection mechanism similarly as in adults.

  11. Recent changes of weather patterns in North America. Progress report for period ending April 1, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.J.; Karl, T.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information dealing with climatic change in North America. Results gathered from present and previous DOE contracts are discussed. These include: usage of the Historical Climatology Network, characteristics of recent climate change, impacts of increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, seasonal trends, geographic and seasonal distribution of temperature anomalies, paleoclimates, weather pattern differences between eastern and western regions, daily temperature variations, general circulation models, and results of oceanic circulation

  12. Economic and demographic impacts of passenger rail systems : the impact of intercity passenger rails on population and employment change in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This research examines the impact of intercity passenger rails on change in population and employment at the county level in the continental United States from 2000 to 2010. This research adopts an integrated spatial regression approach that incorpor...

  13. Consonant and Syllable Structure Patterns in Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Developmental Change in Three Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam; Marquardt, Thomas P.; Davis, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in consonant and syllable-level error patterns of three children diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) were investigated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed to assess the accuracy of consonants and syllables. Consonant accuracy was low overall, with most frequent errors on middle- and…

  14. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, In Ho; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined.

  15. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Cha, In Ho; Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk

    1996-01-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined

  16. Dynamic Changes of Landscape Pattern and Vulnerability Analysis in Qingyi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziwei; Xie, Chaoying; He, Xiaohui; Guo, Hengliang; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Environmental vulnerability research is one of the core areas of global environmental change research. Over the past 10 years, ecologically fragile zones or transition zones had been significantly affected by environmental degradation and climate change and human activities. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of landscape pattern and landscape vulnerability degree in Qingyi River Basin by calculating the landscape sensitivity index and landscape restoration degree index based on Landsat images of 2005, 2010 and 2015. The results showed that: (1) The top conversion area was farmland, woodland and grassland area decreased, city land and rural residential land increased fastest. (2) The fragility of the landscape pattern along the Qingyi River gradually increased between 2005 and 2015, the downstream area was influenced by the influence of human activities. (3) Landscape pattern changes and fragility are mainly affected by urbanization. These findings are helpful for understanding the evolution of landscape pattern as well as urban ecology, which both have significant implications for urban planning and minimize the potential environmental impacts of urbanization in Qingyi River Basin.

  17. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  18. Personality and changes in comorbidity patterns among anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; de Rooij, M.; Heiser, W.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study examined the prognostic value of the Big Five personality model for changes in comorbidity patterns of emotional disorders both from a person- and trait-centered perspective. Moreover, it is investigated whether the predictive effect of personality can be attributed to symptom

  19. Checking, Sharing, Clicking and Linking: Changing patterns of news use between 2004 and 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costera Meijer, I.; Groot Kormelink, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper challenges the generally taken-for-granted automatic link between media platforms, media technology and news user practices. It explores what has changed in people’s news consumption by comparing patterns in news use between 2004–2005 and 2011–2014. While new, social and mobile media

  20. The Changing Patterns of Individual and School Effects on Educational Transitions. Evidence from Catalan Data (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article engages with the tradition of educational transitions research, particularly with its attempt to evaluate the effect of exogenous variables on educational attainment. The study revisits a number of hypotheses that have attempted to explain the changing patterns of such effects throughout students' educational career,…

  1. Personality and Changes in Comorbidity Patterns Among Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; de Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study examined the prognostic value of the Big Five personality model for changes in comorbidity patterns of emotional disorders both from a person- and trait-centered perspective. Moreover, it is investigated whether the predictive effect of personality can be attributed to symptom

  2. HISTORICAL PATTERNS OF HABITAT CHANGES AND GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN THE DESERT AND SHORT HORNED LIZARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historical environmental change is thought to have played an important role in the diversification of the biota of western North America. Many patterns of diversification have been associated with glacial-interglacial cycles of the latest Pleistocene. To evaluate the relativ...

  3. The oil industry in Latin America: changing demand patterns and deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, Harald.

    1997-02-01

    The Oil Industry in Latin America: changing demand patterns and deregulation analyses the common problems faced by countries in the region in modernising and developing their oil sectors, despite the great variation in domestic natural resources between them. It highlights areas of potential, as well as clearly indicating risks and possible bureaucratic and political problems. (author)

  4. Analysis of climate change impact on rainfall pattern of Sambas district, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliana Sipayung, Sinta; Nurlatifah, Amalia; Siswanto, Bambang; Slamet S, Lilik

    2018-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most important issues being discussed globally. It caused by global warming and indirectly affecting the world climate cycle. This research discussed the effect of climate change on rainfall pattern of Sambas District and predicted the future rainfall pattern due to climate change. CRU and TRMM were used and has been validated using in situ data. This research was used Climate Modelling and Prediction using CCAM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model) which also validated by in situ data (correlation= 0.81). The results show that temperature trends in Sambas regency increased to 0.082°C/yr from 1991-2014 according to CRU data. High temperature trigger changes in rainfall patterns. Rainfall pattern in Sambas District has an equatorial type where the peak occurs when the sun is right on the equator. Rainfall in Sambas reaches the maximum in March and September when the equinox occurs. The CCAM model is used to project rainfall in Sambas District in the future. The model results show that rainfall in Sambas District is projected to increase to 0.018 mm/month until 2055 so the flow rate increase 0.006 m3/month and the water balance increase 0.009 mm/month.

  5. [Changes of regional environment quality pattern in China since 1986-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Hua; Sun, Ming-Kun; Lu, Yu-Qi

    2011-03-01

    For further study of regional differences and the pattern of changes in environmental quality in China since 1986-2008, we perform the principal component analysis, standard deviation, Mann-Kendall and cluster analysis on 18 environmental quality indexes in 28 provinces of China in this paper. Those indexes refer to pollutant emission, pollutants treatment capacities and pollutant emission of per unit land area, etc. The paper indicates that regional environmental quality in China has been increased slightly during this period. It can be divided into four stages: 1986-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2005 and 2005-2008. The overall patterns of regional environmental quality is the West is higher than the East in general, while the environmental quality of the eastern part have been changed somewhat. For more details, the regional environmental quality in China in 1986 is composed of two parts, the eastern part and the western part, while in 2000 and 2001 the eastern part, the middle part and the western part appears as the overall pattern. For the year of 2005, the regional environmental quality in the western is higher than that of the eastern; meanwhile, the eastern can be divided into the northern part, the middle part and the southern part, and the environmental quality in northern part is better than that of the southern part, southern part is better than that of the middle part. This pattern hardly changed in 2008, except that the area with poor environment quality region had expanded. Pollutant emission of per unit land area played as a main factor; yet both the pollutant emission and the reuse of pollutants impacted the pattern specifically. In addition, the national macro policies, the regional policies, the regional economic and the industrial structure can be primary reason for the change of regional environmental quality pattern in China as well.

  6. Patterns and biases of climate change threats in the IUCN Red List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Nicholas; Böhm, Monika; Carr, Jamie

    2018-02-01

    International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments rely on published data and expert inputs, and biases can be introduced where underlying definitions and concepts are ambiguous. Consideration of climate change threat is no exception, and recently numerous approaches to assessing the threat of climate change to species have been developed. We explored IUCN Red List assessments of amphibians and birds to determine whether species listed as threatened by climate change display distinct patterns in terms of habitat occupied and additional nonclimatic threats faced. We compared IUCN Red List data with a published data set of species' biological and ecological traits believed to infer high vulnerability to climate change and determined whether distributions of climate change-threatened species on the IUCN Red List concur with those of climate change-threatened species identified with the trait-based approach and whether species possessing these traits are more likely to have climate change listed as a threat on the IUCN Red List. Species in some ecosystems (e.g., grassland, shrubland) and subject to particular threats (e.g., invasive species) were more likely to have climate change as a listed threat. Geographical patterns of climate change-threatened amphibians and birds on the IUCN Red List were incongruent with patterns of global species richness and patterns identified using trait-based approaches. Certain traits were linked to increases or decreases in the likelihood of a species being threatened by climate change. Broad temperature tolerance of a species was consistently related to an increased likelihood of climate change threat, indicating counterintuitive relationships in IUCN assessments. To improve the robustness of species assessments of the vulnerability or extinction risk associated with climate change, we suggest IUCN adopt a more cohesive approach whereby specific traits highlighted by our results are considered in Red List

  7. Changing Patterns in Consumer Behavior Engendered by the Changing Status of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Linda G.

    A review of research suggests that female participation in the work force in the United States creates change in the socioeconomic status of women and thus in their consumer behavior. In 1950, 25 percent of married women were in the labor force; in 1975, 44 percent worked outside the home. The increasing number of married working women has led to…

  8. Early-return-to-work in the context of an intensification of working life and changing employment relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seing, Ida; MacEachen, Ellen; Ståhl, Christian; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Many Western welfare states have introduced early-return-to-work policies, in which getting sick-listed people back to work before they have fully recovered is presented as a rather unproblematic approach. This reflects a belief in the ability of employers and the labour market to solve sickness absence. Against this background, the aim of this study was to analyse return-to-work practice in local workplace contexts, in relation to Swedish early-return-to-work policy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 matched pairs of workers and managers. The material, comprising a total of 36 interviews, was analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three main themes were identified: (1) intensive workplaces and work conditions (2) employer support-a function of worker value and (3) work attachment and resistance to job transition. The results reflected the intensity of modern working life, which challenged return-to-work processes. Managers had different approaches to workers' return-to-work, depending on how they valued the worker. While managers used the discourse of 'new opportunities' and 'healthy change' to describe the transition process (e.g. relocation, unemployment and retirement), workers regularly experienced transitions as difficult and unjust. In the context of early-return-to-work policy and the intensity of modern working life, a great deal of responsibility was placed on workers to be adaptable to workplace demands in order to be able to return and stay at work. Overall, this study illustrates an emerging social climate where sick-listed workers are positioned as active agents who must take responsibility for sick leave and return-to-work process.

  9. Spatial Pattern of Populus euphratica Forest Change as Affected by Water Conveyance in the Lower Tarim River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To restore declining species, including Populus euphratica and other riparian communities, in the river ecosystem of the lower Tarim River, the ecological water conveyance project (EWCP, as a part of an integrated water resource management plan, was implemented in 2000. The EWCP aims to schedule and manage the water resources in the upper reaches and transfer water to the lower reaches by a series of intermittent water deliveries. The delivered water flows along a modified river channel and nourishes riparian communities by river overflow flooding. Since it began, it has caused a fierce debate over the response of riparian vegetation to the water conveyance scheme. This study focuses on the lower Tarim River, where Populus euphratica forests have undergone watering, due to the EWCP. Twelve Landsat sensor images and one IKONOS satellite imagery acquired between 1999 and 2009 were used to monitor the change in Populus euphratica forests. Bi-temporal change detection and temporal trajectory analysis were employed to represent the spatial pattern of the forest change. Field investigations were used to analyze the driving forces behind forest change from the perspectives of anthropogenic activities and natural forces. The results showed that Populus euphratica forest have been declining in area, which implies that ecological risks have been increased during the watering process. However, forests areas have increased in the regions where the water supply is abundant, and vice versa.

  10. Water Discharge and Sediment Load Changes in China: Change Patterns, Causes, and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, monthly hydrological and daily meteorological data were collected across China for the period 1956–2012. Modified Mann–Kendall tests, double mass curve analysis, and correlation statistics were performed to identify the long-term trends and interrelation of the hydrometeorological variables and to examine the influencing factors of streamflow and sediment. The results are as follows: (1 In the last 60 years, the streamflow in northern China has shown different decreasing trends. For the southern rivers, the streamflow presented severe fluctuations, but the declining trend was insignificant. For the streamflow in western China, an increasing trend was shown. (2 In the northern rivers, the streamflow was jointly controlled by the East Asian monsoon and westerlies. In the southern rivers, the runoff was mainly influenced by the Tibet–Qinghai monsoon, the South Asian monsoon, and westerlies. (3 Sediment loads in the LCRB (Lancang River Basin and YZRB (Yarlung Zangbo River Basin did not present significant change trends, although other rivers showed different degrees of gradual reduction, particularly in the 2000s. (4 Underlying surface and precipitation changes jointly influenced the streamflow in eastern rivers. The water consumption for industrial and residential purposes, soil and water conservation engineering, hydraulic engineering, and underlying surface changes induced by other factors were the main causes of streamflow and sediment reduction.

  11. Learning to Recognize Patterns: Changes in the Visual Field with Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, James M.; Uchikawa, Keiji; Saida, Shinya; Ikeda, Mitsuo

    1995-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate changes which take place in the visual information processing of novel stimuli as they become familiar. Japanese writing characters (Hiragana and Kanji) which were unfamiliar to two native English speaking subjects were presented using a moving window technique to restrict their visual fields. Study time for visual recognition was recorded across repeated sessions, and with varying visual field restrictions. The critical visual field was defined as the size of the visual field beyond which further increases did not improve the speed of recognition performance. In the first study, when the Hiragana patterns were novel, subjects needed to see about half of the entire pattern simultaneously to maintain optimal performance. However, the critical visual field size decreased as familiarity with the patterns increased. These results were replicated in the second study with more complex Kanji characters. In addition, the critical field size decreased as pattern complexity decreased. We propose a three component model of pattern perception. In the first stage a representation of the stimulus must be constructed by the subject, and restricting of the visual field interferes dramatically with this component when stimuli are unfamiliar. With increased familiarity, subjects become able to reconstruct a previous representation from very small, unique segments of the pattern, analogous to the informativeness areas hypothesized by Loftus and Mackworth [J. Exp. Psychol., 4 (1978) 565].

  12. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED. This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and middle cingulate cortex (MCC. Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP, the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P<0.005. Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex.

  13. Changing patterns in the management of splenic trauma: the impact of nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, H L; Guth, A A; Hofstetter, S R; Spencer, F C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The recognition that splenectomy renders patients susceptible to lifelong risks of septic complications has led to routine attempts at splenic conservation after trauma. In 1990, the authors reported that over an 11-year study period involving 193 patients, splenorrhaphy was the most common splenic salvage method (66% overall) noted, with nonoperative management employed in only 13% of blunt splenic injuries. This report describes changing patterns of therapy in 190 consecutive patients with splenic injuries seen during a subsequent 6-year period (1990 to 1996). An algorithmic approach for patient management and pitfalls to be avoided to ensure safe nonoperative management are detailed. METHODS: Nonoperative management criteria included hemodynamic stability and computed tomographic examination without shattered spleen or other injuries requiring celiotomy. RESULTS: Of 190 consecutive patients, 102 (54%) were managed nonoperatively: 96 (65%) of 147 patients with blunt splenic injuries, which included 15 patients with intrinsic splenic pathology, and 6 hemodynamically stable patients with isolated stab wounds (24% of all splenic stab wounds). Fifty-six patients underwent splenectomy (29%) and 32 splenorrhaphy (17%). The mean transfusion requirement was 6 units for splenectomy survivors and 0.8 units for nonoperative therapy (85% received no transfusions). Fifteen of the 16 major infectious complications that occurred followed splenectomy. Two patients failed nonoperative therapy (2%) and underwent splenectomy, and one patient required splenectomy after partial splenic resection. There no missed enteric injuries in patients managed nonoperatively. The overall mortality rate was 5.2%, with no deaths following nonoperative management. CONCLUSIONS: Nonoperative management of blunt splenic injuries has replaced splenorrhaphy as the most common method of splenic conservation. The criteria have been extended to include patients previously excluded from this form

  14. Rotation and scale change invariant point pattern relaxation matching by the Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu

    1997-12-01

    Relaxation matching is one of the most relevant methods for image matching. The original relaxation matching technique using point patterns is sensitive to rotations and scale changes. We improve the original point pattern relaxation matching technique to be invariant to rotations and scale changes. A method that makes the Hopfield neural network perform this matching process is discussed. An advantage of this is that the relaxation matching process can be performed in real time with the neural network's massively parallel capability to process information. Experimental results with large simulated images demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the method to perform point patten relaxation matching invariant to rotations and scale changes and the method to perform this matching by the Hopfield neural network. In addition, we show that the method presented can be tolerant to small random error.

  15. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovička

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and contains several gaps and a few discrepancies, but the overall pattern of observed long-term changes throughout the upper atmosphere is consistent with model predictions of the effect of greenhouse gas increases. Together with the large body of lower atmospheric trend research, our synthesis indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the atmosphere at nearly all altitudes between ground and space.

  16. Sensitivity of peak flow to the change of rainfall temporal pattern due to warmer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhel, Sherien; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; Han, Dawei

    2018-05-01

    The widely used design storms in urban drainage networks has different drawbacks. One of them is that the shape of the rainfall temporal pattern is fixed regardless of climate change. However, previous studies have shown that the temporal pattern may scale with temperature due to climate change, which consequently affects peak flow. Thus, in addition to the scaling of the rainfall volume, the scaling relationship for the rainfall temporal pattern with temperature needs to be investigated by deriving the scaling values for each fraction within storm events, which is lacking in many parts of the world including the UK. Therefore, this study analysed rainfall data from 28 gauges close to the study area with a 15-min resolution as well as the daily temperature data. It was found that, at warmer temperatures, the rainfall temporal pattern becomes less uniform, with more intensive peak rainfall during higher intensive times and weaker rainfall during less intensive times. This is the case for storms with and without seasonal separations. In addition, the scaling values for both the rainfall volume and the rainfall fractions (i.e. each segment of rainfall temporal pattern) for the summer season were found to be higher than the corresponding results for the winter season. Applying the derived scaling values for the temporal pattern of the summer season in a hydrodynamic sewer network model produced high percentage change of peak flow between the current and future climate. This study on the scaling of rainfall fractions is the first in the UK, and its findings are of importance to modellers and designers of sewer systems because it can provide more robust scenarios for flooding mitigation in urban areas.

  17. Patterns and potential drivers of dramatic changes in Tibetan lakes, 1972-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingkui; Liao, Jingjuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Zewen; Shen, Guozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Most glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are retreating, and glacier melt has been emphasized as the dominant driver for recent lake expansions on the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating detailed changes in lake extents and levels across the Tibetan Plateau from Landsat/ICESat data, we found a pattern of dramatic lake changes from 1970 to 2010 (especially after 2000) with a southwest-northeast transition from shrinking, to stable, to rapidly expanding. This pattern is in distinct contrast to the spatial characteristics of glacier retreat, suggesting limited influence of glacier melt on lake dynamics. The plateau-wide pattern of lake change is related to precipitation variation and consistent with the pattern of permafrost degradation induced by rising temperature. More than 79% of lakes we observed on the central-northern plateau (with continuous permafrost) are rapidly expanding, even without glacial contributions, while lakes fed by retreating glaciers in southern regions (with isolated permafrost) are relatively stable or shrinking. Our study shows the limited role of glacier melt and highlights the potentially important contribution of permafrost degradation in predicting future water availability in this region, where understanding these processes is of critical importance to drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated areas in South and East Asia.

  18. Investigating change of properties in gallium ion irradiation patterned single-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Dong, Jinyao; Bai, Bing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xie, Guoxin [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-10-14

    Besides its excellent physical properties, graphene promises to play a significant role in electronics with superior properties, which requires patterning of graphene for device integration. Here, we presented the changes in properties of single-layer graphene before and after patterning using gallium ion beam. Combined with Raman spectra of graphene, the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) image confirmed that a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. The changes in work function and Raman spectra of graphene indicated that the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. The patterning width of graphene presented an increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate. - Highlights: • The scanning capacitance microscopy image confirmed a metal–insulator transition occurred after large doses of gallium ion irradiation. • The changes indicated the defect density increased as increasing the dose and a structural transition occurred during gallium ion irradiation. • The patterning width of graphene presented a increasing trend due to the scattering influence of the impurities and the substrate.

  19. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  20. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  1. Soil Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Rural Anthropogenic Activity across Tiaoxi Watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Jiang, Diwei; Christakos, George; Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Soil sealing (loss of soil resources due to extensive land covering for the purpose of house building, road construction etc.) and subsequent soil landscape pattern changes constitute typical environmental problems in many places worldwide. Previous studies concentrated on soil sealing in urbanized regions, whereas rural areas have not been given sufficient attention. Accordingly, this paper studies soil landscape pattern dynamics (i.e., landscape pattern changes in response to rural anthropogenic activities) in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China), in which surface sealing is by far the predominant component of human forcing with respect to environmental change. A novel approach of quantifying the impacts of rural anthropogenic activities on soil resources is presented. Specifically, quantitative relationships were derived between five soil landscape pattern metrics (patch density, edge density, shape index, Shannon’s diversity index and aggregation index) and three rural anthropogenic activity indicators (anthropogenic activity intensity, distance to towns, and distance to roads) at two landscape block scales (3 and 5 km) between 1985 and 2010. The results showed that the Tiaoxi watershed experienced extensive rural settlement expansion and high rates of soil sealing. Soil landscapes became more fragmented, more irregular, more isolated, and less diverse. Relationships between soil landscape pattern changes and rural anthropogenic activities differed with the scale (spatial and temporal) and variable considered. In particular, the anthropogenic activity intensity was found to be the most important indicator explaining social development intensity, whereas the other two proximity indicators had a significant impact at certain temporal interval. In combination with scale effects, spatial dependency (correlation) was shown to play a key role that should be carefully taken into consideration in any relevant environmental study. Overall, the

  2. Patterns in household-level engagement with climate change in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohensky, Erin L.; Smajgl, Alex; Brewer, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Understanding how individuals engage with climate change is critical for developing successful climate adaptation policies. Indonesia ranks among the world's top CO2 emitters, affirming its relevance to the global climate change policy arena, yet the dynamics of climate change engagement in Indonesia may differ from developed countries from which much research on this issue derives. We surveyed 6,310 households in two Indonesian regions to investigate patterns in four steps of engagement: observation, risk perception, reactive action (in response to present climate change) and proactive action (in anticipation of future climate change). We show that 89.5% of households exhibited a pattern whereby taking each of these steps in sequence implied taking all steps that precede it. Exceptions occurred in urban areas, where households were more likely to take action without having observed climate change or perceiving risks. In rural areas, households were more likely to observe climate change without taking action. These variations suggest a potentially nonlinear relationship between steps of engagement. We distinguish three types of household requiring adaptation support, and stress that Indonesian climate policy should shift emphasis from raising awareness to identifying broader institutional structures and processes to facilitate household engagement.

  3. Examining patterns of change in the critical thinking skills of graduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Maureen A; McMullen, William F

    2009-06-01

    Although critical thinking in undergraduate nursing education has been explored in depth, little is known about the critical thinking skills of graduate nursing students. Prior research on change in critical thinking scores is based primarily on pretest and posttest assessments that provide minimal information about change. This study used individual growth modeling to investigate how critical thinking skills change during a 2-year graduate nurse program. Scores from the evaluation, inference, and analysis subscales of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test comprised the empirical growth record. Change in the three critical thinking skills was more dynamic than that reported in previous studies. Patterns of change differed by critical thinking skill and in relation to students' initial critical thinking skill levels at program entry.

  4. Short-term changes in running mechanics and foot strike pattern after introduction to minimalistic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, John D; Bjorhus, Jordan S; Williams, D S Blaise; Butler, Robert J; Porcari, John P; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Minimalistic footwear has garnered widespread interest in the running community, based largely on the premise that the footwear may reduce certain running-related injury risk factors through adaptations in running mechanics and foot strike pattern. To examine short-term adaptations in running mechanics among runners who typically run in conventional cushioned heel running shoes as they transition to minimalistic footwear. A 2-week, prospective, observational study. A movement science laboratory. Nineteen female runners with a rear foot strike (RFS) pattern who usually train in conventional running shoes. The participants trained for 20 minutes, 3 times per week for 2 weeks by using minimalistic footwear. Three-dimensional lower extremity running mechanics were analyzed before and after this 2-week period. Hip, knee, and ankle joint kinematics at initial contact; step length; stance time; peak ankle joint moment and joint work; impact peak; vertical ground reaction force loading rate; and foot strike pattern preference were evaluated before and after the intervention. The knee flexion angle at initial contact increased 3.8° (P < .01), but the ankle and hip flexion angles at initial contact did not change after training. No changes in ankle joint kinetics or running temporospatial parameters were observed. The majority of participants (71%), before the intervention, demonstrated an RFS pattern while running in minimalistic footwear. The proportion of runners with an RFS pattern did not decrease after 2 weeks (P = .25). Those runners who chose an RFS pattern in minimalistic shoes experienced a vertical loading rate that was 3 times greater than those who chose to run with a non-RFS pattern. Few systematic changes in running mechanics were observed among participants after 2 weeks of training in minimalistic footwear. The majority of the participants continued to use an RFS pattern after training in minimalistic footwear, and these participants experienced higher

  5. Cognition-emotion interactions: patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory (WM) resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry “unstable across time” subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone) to account for differences in problem solving abilities. PMID:25132830

  6. Cognition-emotion interactions: Patterns of change and implications for math problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eTrezise

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly little is known about whether relationships between cognitive and emotional states remain stable or change over time, or how different patterns of stability and/or change in the relationships affect problem solving abilities. Nevertheless, cross-sectional studies show that anxiety/worry may reduce working memory resources, and the ability to minimize the effects anxiety/worry is higher in individuals with greater WM capacity. To investigate the patterns of stability and/or change in cognition-emotion relations over time and their implications for problem solving, 126 14-year-olds’ algebraic WM and worry levels were assessed twice in a single day before completing an algebraic math problem solving test. We used latent transition analysis to identify stability/change in cognition-emotion relations, which yielded a six subgroup solution. Subgroups varied in WM capacity, worry, and stability/change relationships. Among the subgroups, we identified a high WM/low worry subgroup that remained stable over time and a high WM/high worry, and a moderate WM/low worry subgroup that changed to low WM subgroups over time. Patterns of stability/change in subgroup membership predicted algebraic test results. The stable high WM/low worry subgroup performed best and the low WM capacity-high worry unstable across time subgroup performed worst. The findings highlight the importance of assessing variations in cognition-emotion relationships over time (rather than assessing cognition or emotion states alone to account for differences in problem solving abilities.

  7. Climate change and employment. A case study of Finland; Changement climatique et emploi. Cas de la Finlande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The study has been carried out by a consortium led by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the Social Development Agency (SDA), which includes Syndex, the Wuppertal Institute and ISTAS. It was commissioned by the European Commission, DG environment, as a contribution to improve current understanding of the relationship between climate change and employment. The study was also supported financially by seven public bodies: Ministries of Environment of Belgium, Spain, Finland, Italy, United-Kingdom; ADEME and DIAC in France. The first part of the study examines the potential consequences for employment of global warming in Europe - which has already begun and will continue. The main finding is that even moderate climate change will affect economic activity and employment in Europe, with some regions and economic sectors being particularly vulnerable. Increased warming will be likely to have very damaging consequences. The second half of the report considers the challenge for employment of the transition towards a lower CO2 European economy at the horizon 2030, in four key economic sectors: energy production, transport, steel and cement industries, construction/housing. The study considers a number of scenario for a reduction of 40% in CO2 emissions by the year 2030 and what the effects can be on European employment and skills. Case studies of eleven European countries are also analysed. This report is about Finland. [French] La Finlande est le 5e pays europeen en superficie, avec un total de 338.145 km{sup 2}, pour une population de 5,2 millions d'habitants. Le climat finlandais est le plus froid d'Europe, avec des besoins en chauffage pratiquement toute l'annee et des besoins en eclairage tres importants les mois d'hiver, en raison de la duree tres courte du jour. L'industrie est dominee par l'exploitation forestiere et le papier, ainsi que la metallurgie et la chimie, ces industries etant hautement energie-intensives. Ces

  8. Emerging European winter precipitation pattern linked to atmospheric circulation changes over the North Atlantic region in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Seo, Hyodae; Kwon, Young-Oh; Parfitt, Rhys; Brands, Swen; Joyce, Terrence M.

    2017-08-01

    Dominant European winter precipitation patterns over the past century, along with their associated extratropical North Atlantic circulation changes, are evaluated using cluster analysis. Contrary to the four regimes traditionally identified based on daily wintertime atmospheric circulation patterns, five distinct seasonal precipitation regimes are detected here. Recurrent precipitation patterns in each regime are linked to changes in atmospheric blocking, storm track, and sea surface temperatures across the North Atlantic region. Multidecadal variability in the frequency of the precipitation patterns reveals more (fewer) winters with wet conditions in northern (southern) Europe in recent decades and an emerging distinct pattern of enhanced wintertime precipitation over the northern British Isles. This pattern has become unusually common since the 1980s and is associated with changes in moisture transport and more frequent atmospheric river events. The observed precipitation changes post-1950 coincide with changes in storm track activity over the central/eastern North Atlantic toward the northern British Isles.

  9. Associations between changes in the pattern of suicide methods and rates in Korea, the US, and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The lethality of the suicide method employed is a strong risk factor for the completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates in South Korea, the United States (US), and Finland. Methods We analyzed annual data from 2000–2011 for South Korea and Finland, and 2000–2010 for the US in order to examine trends in the rates and methods of suicide. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. Results Along with an annual rapid increase in suicide rates, the incidence of hanging increased steadily while suicide by self-poisoning steadily decreased in South Korea. In the US, along with an annual increase in suicide rates, the proportion of suicides committed by hanging increased while those committed with the use of firearms steadily decreased. In Finland, annual changes in the suicide rate and suicide method were not statistically significant during the study period. Conclusions Our present findings suggest that the increased use of specific lethal methods for suicide, namely hanging, is reflected in the increased suicide rates in the Korean and the US populations. The most effective approach for reducing overall suicide rates may be the implementation of population-based initiatives that reduce both the accessibility (e.g., access to firearms) and the social acceptability (e.g., effective and responsible regulations for reporting suicide) of lethal methods of suicide. PMID:24949083

  10. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  11. Mapping patterns of change in emotion-focused psychotherapy: Implications for theory, research, practice, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2018-05-01

    An important objective in humanistic-experiential psychotherapies and particularly emotion-focused psychotherapy (EFT) is to map patterns of change. Effective mapping of the processes and pathways of change requires that in-session processes be linked to in-session resolutions, immediate post-session changes, intermediate outcome, final therapy outcome, and longer-term change. This is a challenging and long-term endeavour. Fine-grained descriptions of in-session processes that lead to resolution of specific interpersonal and intrapersonal issues linked with longer-term outcomes are the foundation of EFT, the process-experiential approach. In this paper, evidence in support of EFT as a treatment approach will be reviewed along with research on two mechanisms of change, viewed as central to EFT, clients' emotional processing and the therapeutic relationship conditions. The implications for psychotherapy research are discussed. Given the methodological constraints, there is a need for more innovative methodologies and strategies to investigate specific psychotherapy processes within and across different approaches to map patterns and mechanisms of change to enhance theory, research, practice, and training.

  12. Risk attitudes in a changing environment: An evolutionary model of the fourfold pattern of risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallpress, Dave E W; Fawcett, Tim W; Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2015-04-01

    A striking feature of human decision making is the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, involving risk-averse behavior in situations of unlikely losses and likely gains, but risk-seeking behavior in response to likely losses and unlikely gains. Current theories to explain this pattern assume particular psychological processes to reproduce empirical observations, but do not address whether it is adaptive for the decision maker to respond to risk in this way. Here, drawing on insights from behavioral ecology, we build an evolutionary model of risk-sensitive behavior, to investigate whether particular types of environmental conditions could favor a fourfold pattern of risk attitudes. We consider an individual foraging in a changing environment, where energy is needed to prevent starvation and build up reserves for reproduction. The outcome, in terms of reproductive value (a rigorous measure of evolutionary success), of a one-off choice between a risky and a safe gain, or between a risky and a safe loss, determines the risk-sensitive behavior we should expect to see in this environment. Our results show that the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes may be adaptive in an environment in which conditions vary stochastically but are autocorrelated in time. In such an environment the current options provide information about the likely environmental conditions in the future, which affect the optimal pattern of risk sensitivity. Our model predicts that risk preferences should be both path dependent and affected by the decision maker's current state. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Binge-pattern alcohol exposure during puberty induces long-term changes in HPA axis reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.

  14. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and middle cingulate cortex (MCC). Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP), the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP) showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex.

  15. The Effect of Changes in Maternal Employment and Family Composition on Children's Behaviour. Working Paper Series. W-02-3-2E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Recent research suggests that changing maternal employment and family composition are associated with children's behavioural development. This report assesses whether, and if so to what extent, changes in these areas may affect the behavioural development of children, using information from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth…

  16. Patterns of Change in Psychological Variables Leading up to Competition in Superior Versus Inferior Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boat, Ruth; Taylor, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    The study explored patterns of change in a number of potentially performance-related variables (i.e., fatigue, social support, self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, mental skills) during the lead-up to a competitive triathlon, and whether these patterns of change differed for relatively superior versus inferior performers. Forty-two triathletes completed an inventory measuring the study variables every other day during a 2-week period leading up to competition. Performance was assessed using participants' race time, and using a self-referenced relative score compared with personal best times. Multilevel growth curve analyses revealed significant differences in growth trajectories over the 2-week period in mental skills use, social support, and fatigue. The results provide novel insight into how athletes' fluctuating psychological state in the 2 weeks before competition may be crucial in determining performance.

  17. Employment changes in U.S. hardwood lumber consuming industries during economic expansions and contractions since 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matt Bumgardner

    2016-01-01

    Understanding employment trends is important for discerning the economic vitality of U.S. hardwood lumber users. After a period of growth in the 1990s, employment in industries consuming hardwood lumber has declined in the 21st century. The wood household furniture industry has experienced the greatest decline, with North Carolina, Virginia, and California being the...

  18. Future climate and changes in flow patterns in Czech headwater catchments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benčoková, A.; Krám, P.; Hruška, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-15 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : climate change impact * flow pattern * regional climate scenarios * Headwater catchments * hydrological modelling * Broo90 Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.994, year: 2011

  19. New drugs on the street: changing inner city patterns of illicit consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singer, Merrill

    2005-01-01

    .... 16, No. 1/2 2000. The journal is renumbered to start as Vol. 1, No. 1 2002. New Drugs on the Street: Changing Inner City Patterns of Illicit Consumption, edited by Merrill Singer, PhD (Vol. 4, No. 2, 2005). "ESSENTIAL READING for anyone in the drug use area who wants to be brought up-to-date on the current state of the field. This edited ...

  20. Sequential changes in histologic pattern and extracellular matrix deposition during the healing of chronic venous ulcers.

    OpenAIRE

    Herrick, S. E.; Sloan, P.; McGurk, M.; Freak, L.; McCollum, C. N.; Ferguson, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a major clinical trial, sequential biopsies were taken from the margins of venous leg ulcers during their healing. The changing patterns of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix synthesis during healing were documented histologically and immunocytochemically. Initial biopsies were similar in appearance: prominent fibrin cuffs, variable inflammation, hemosiderin, and red blood cell extravasation. So called "fibrin cuffs" were highly organized structures composed of laminin, f...

  1. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Patricia J; Vanak, Abi T; Muggeo, Vito M R; Ferreira, Salamon M; Slotow, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana), in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009). Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or other extrinsic shifts in ecological studies, rather than arbitrarily fixed definitions

  2. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana, in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009. Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or

  3. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L H; Conners, M G; Hazen, E L; Bograd, S J; Antolos, M; Costa, D P; Shaffer, S A

    2016-06-01

    Changes to patterns of wind and ocean currents are tightly linked to climate change and have important implications for cost of travel and energy budgets in marine vertebrates. We evaluated how El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven wind patterns affected breeding Laysan and black-footed albatross across a decade of study. Owing to latitudinal variation in wind patterns, wind speed differed between habitat used during incubation and brooding; during La Niña conditions, wind speeds were lower in incubating Laysan (though not black-footed) albatross habitat, but higher in habitats used by brooding albatrosses. Incubating Laysan albatrosses benefited from increased wind speeds during El Niño conditions, showing increased travel speeds and mass gained during foraging trips. However, brooding albatrosses did not benefit from stronger winds during La Niña conditions, instead experiencing stronger cumulative headwinds and a smaller proportion of trips in tailwinds. Increased travel costs during brooding may contribute to the lower reproductive success observed in La Niña conditions. Furthermore, benefits of stronger winds in incubating habitat may explain the higher reproductive success of Laysan albatross during El Niño conditions. Our findings highlight the importance of considering habitat accessibility and cost of travel when evaluating the impacts of climate-driven habitat change on marine predators. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Patterns and comparisons of human-induced changes in river flood impacts in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephanie; Sharma, Ashish; Sisson, Scott A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, information extracted from the first global urban fluvial flood risk data set (Aqueduct) is investigated and visualized to explore current and projected city-level flood impacts driven by urbanization and climate change. We use a novel adaption of the self-organizing map (SOM) method, an artificial neural network proficient at clustering, pattern extraction, and visualization of large, multi-dimensional data sets. Prevalent patterns of current relationships and anticipated changes over time in the nonlinearly-related environmental and social variables are presented, relating urban river flood impacts to socioeconomic development and changing hydrologic conditions. Comparisons are provided between 98 individual cities. Output visualizations compare baseline and changing trends of city-specific exposures of population and property to river flooding, revealing relationships between the cities based on their relative map placements. Cities experiencing high (or low) baseline flood impacts on population and/or property that are expected to improve (or worsen), as a result of anticipated climate change and development, are identified and compared. This paper condenses and conveys large amounts of information through visual communication to accelerate the understanding of relationships between local urban conditions and global processes.

  5. Trade pattern change impact on industrial CO2 emissions in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yun-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Yin

    2007-01-01

    Input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) is applied in this paper to analyze the sources of change in industrial CO 2 emissions in Taiwan from 1989 to 2001. Owing to the fact that Taiwan is an export-oriented, trade-dependent economy, the focus is on trade transformation over the past decade and its effect over industrial CO 2 emissions. Change in trade patterns has significantly impacted many aspects of the Taiwan economy, subsequently resulting in various influences on industrial CO 2 emissions, as shown by empirical analysis results. Change in export level increased industrial CO 2 emissions, above all other effects, by 72.1%. However, changes in export mix and import coefficients imposed effects of dragging down industrial CO 2 emissions by 5.7% and 11.7%, respectively. (author)

  6. Effectiveness of return-to-work interventions for disabled people: a systematic review of government initiatives focused on changing the behaviour of employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Stephen; Barr, Ben; Nylen, Lotta; Burström, Bo; Thielen, Karsten; Diderichsen, Finn; Dahl, Espen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2012-06-01

    OECD countries over the past two decades have implemented a range of labour market integration initiatives to improve the employment chances of disabled and chronically ill individuals. This article presents a systematic review and evidence synthesis on effectiveness of government interventions to influence employers' employment practices concerning disabled and chronically ill individuals in five OECD countries. A separate paper reports on interventions to influence the behaviour of employees. Electronic and grey literature searches to identify all empirical studies reporting employment effects and/or process evaluations of government policies aimed at changing the behaviour of employers conducted between 1990 and 2008 from Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK. Few studies provided robust evaluations of the programmes or their differential effects and selection of participants into programmes may distort the findings of even controlled studies. A population-level effect of legislation to combat discrimination by employers could not be detected. Workplace adjustments had positive impacts on employment, but low uptake. Financial incentives such as wage subsidies can work if they are sufficiently generous. Involving employers in return-to-work planning can reduce subsequent sick leave and be appreciated by employees, but this policy has not been taken up with the level of intensity that is likely to make a difference. Some interventions favour the more advantaged disabled people and those closer to the labour market. Future evaluations need to pay more attention to differential impact of interventions, degree of take-up, non-stigmatizing implementation and wider policy context in each country.

  7. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidell Jaap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a western country is associated with changes in dietary patterns. This could have unfavourable effects on the risk of CVD. There is limited knowledge on the food patterns, awareness and knowledge about healthy nutrition among Chinese immigrants. The objective for this study is to explore changes in food patterns, and levels of awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition by length of residence among Chinese immigrants to Canada. Methods 120 Chinese individuals born in China but currently living in Canada completed an assessment on socio-demographic characteristics, changes in dietary patterns and variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods. With ordinal logistic regression the associations between the quartiles of length of residence and dietary patterns, variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods were explored, adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index. Results More than 50% of the participants reported increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreasing the use of deep-frying after immigration. Increased awareness and knowledge about healthy foods was reported by more than 50% of the participants. Ordinal regression indicated that Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the longest, compared to Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the shortest, consumed significant greater portion sizes (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 3.11 - 31.15, dined out more frequently (OR: 15.8; 95% CI: 5.0 - 49.85, and consumed convenience foods more often (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.23 - 10.01. Conclusions Chinese immigrants reported some favourable changes in their dietary intake and greater awareness and more knowledge about healthy foods after

  8. Does the diurnal pattern of enteric methane emissions from dairy cows change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2018-02-22

    Diet manipulation and genetic selection are two important mitigation strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to assess whether the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from individual dairy cows changes over time when cows are fed on diets varying in forage composition. Emissions of CH4 from 36 cows were measured during milking in an automatic (robotic) milking station in three consecutive feeding periods, for a total of 84 days. In Periods 1 and 2, the 36 cows were fed a high-forage partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content. In Period 3, cows were fed a commercial PMR containing 69% forage. Cows were offered PMR ad libitum plus concentrates during milking and CH4 emitted by individual cows was sampled during 8662 milkings. A linear mixed model was used to assess differences among cows, feeding periods and time of day. Considerable variation was observed among cows in daily mean and diurnal patterns of CH4 emissions. On average, cows produced less CH4 when fed on the commercial PMR in feeding Period 3 than when the same cows were fed on high-forage diets in feeding Periods 1 and 2. The average diurnal pattern for CH4 emissions did not significantly change between feeding periods and as lactation progressed. Emissions of CH4 were positively associated with dry matter (DM) intake and forage DM intake. It is concluded that if the management of feed allocation remains constant then the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from dairy cows will not necessarily alter over time. A change in diet composition may bring about an increase or decrease in absolute emissions over a 24-h period without significantly changing the diurnal pattern unless management of feed allocation changes. These findings are important for CH4 monitoring techniques that involve taking measurements over short periods within a day rather than complete 24-h observations.

  9. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359786-13$15.00/0.

  10. Spatial-temporal changes of maximum and minimum temperatures in the Wei River Basin, China: Changing patterns, causes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saiyan; Huang, Shengzhi; Xie, Yangyang; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Hou, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Xiu

    2018-05-01

    Due to the important role of temperature in the global climate system and energy cycles, it is important to investigate the spatial-temporal change patterns, causes and implications of annual maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures. In this study, the Cloud model were adopted to fully and accurately analyze the changing patterns of annual Tmax and Tmin from 1958 to 2008 by quantifying their mean, uniformity, and stability in the Wei River Basin (WRB), a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. Additionally, the cross wavelet analysis was applied to explore the correlations among annual Tmax and Tmin and the yearly sunspots number, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and soil moisture with an aim to determine possible causes of annual Tmax and Tmin variations. Furthermore, temperature-related impacts on vegetation cover and precipitation extremes were also examined. Results indicated that: (1) the WRB is characterized by increasing trends in annual Tmax and Tmin, with a more evident increasing trend in annual Tmin, which has a higher dispersion degree and is less uniform and stable than annual Tmax; (2) the asymmetric variations of Tmax and Tmin can be generally explained by the stronger effects of solar activity (primarily), large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, and soil moisture on annual Tmin than on annual Tmax; and (3) increasing annual Tmax and Tmin have exerted strong influences on local precipitation extremes, in terms of their duration, intensity, and frequency in the WRB. This study presents new analyses of Tmax and Tmin in the WRB, and the findings may help guide regional agricultural production and water resources management.

  11. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Ripollés, Pablo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients ( N = 90), we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered) amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered) amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of the lesions

  12. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Ripollés, Pablo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients (N = 90), we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered) amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered) amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of the lesions

  13. The Effect of Aging on Muscular Dynamics Underlying Movement Patterns Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij, Carlijn A; Rao, Guillaume; Berton, Eric; Retornaz, Frédérique; Temprado, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Aging leads to alterations not only within the complex subsystems of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system, but also in the coupling between them. Here, we studied how aging affects functional reorganizations that occur both within and between the behavioral and muscular levels, which must be coordinated to produce goal-directed movements. Using unimanual reciprocal Fitts' task, we examined the behavioral and muscular dynamics of older adults (74.4 ± 3.7 years) and compared them to those found for younger adults (23.2 ± 2.0 years). Methods: To achieve this objective, we manipulated the target size to trigger a phase transition in the behavioral regime and searched for concomitant signatures of a phase transition in the muscular coordination. Here, muscular coordination was derived by using the method of muscular synergy extraction. With this technique, we obtained functional muscular patterns through non-negative matrix factorization of the muscular signals followed by clustering the resulting synergies. Results: Older adults showed a phase transition in behavioral regime, although, in contrast to young participants, their kinematic profiles did not show a discontinuity. In parallel, muscular coordination displayed two typical signatures of a phase transition, that is, increased variability of coordination patterns and a reorganization of muscular synergies. Both signatures confirmed the existence of muscular reorganization in older adults, which is coupled with change in dynamical regime at behavioral level. However, relative to young adults, transition occurred at lower index of difficulty (ID) in older participants and the reorganization of muscular patterns lasted longer (over multiple IDs). Discussion: This implies that consistent changes occur in coordination processes across behavior and muscle. Furthermore, the repertoire of muscular patterns was reduced and somewhat modified for older adults, relative to young participants. This suggests that

  14. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi J. Sihvonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM and morphometry (VBM study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients (N = 90, we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA. Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of

  15. Changing Pattern and Relation with Technological Level of the Korean and Japanese Export Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyul Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore empirically whether export competitiveness of Korea and Japan has changed since 1990s. Unlike existing literature, we tried to grasp changing patterns of export competitiveness by new methodology such as belonging quadrant and moving direction, rather than simply showing its trend or comparison classified by industry. And we categorized 48 sectors into some technological levelsThe purpose of this paper is to explore empirically whether export competitiveness of Korea and Japan has changed since 1990s. Unlike existing literature, we tried to grasp changing patterns of export competitiveness by new methodology such as belonging quadrant and moving direction, rather than simply showing its trend or comparison classified by industry. And we categorized 48 sectors into some technological levels, then analyzed how the change of export competitiveness is distributed by each technological level. When seeing 'revealed comparative advantage' and 'trade specification index', we found considerable changes in export competitiveness. Competitiveness of Korea has rapidly improved while that of Japan has been continuously decreasing. Especially the gap of competitiveness between Korea and Japan has largely reduced around the midterm of 2000s. Shrinking of the gap in export competitiveness has begun from the latter half of 1990s and first half of 2000s. Change of export competitiveness shows different trend by technology level. Korea has gained more competitiveness than Japan in high and middle level of technology. Korea shows upward tendency of competitiveness in mid and high technology, while Japan in low technology. Competitiveness gap between Korea and Japan is rapidly decreasing since the late 1990s, and curtailment of the gap is mainly happening in the high level of technological capabilities.

  16. Changes in foot and shank coupling due to alterations in foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Michael B; Buckley, John G

    2008-03-01

    Determining if and how the kinematic relationship between adjacent body segments changes when an individual's gait pattern is experimentally manipulated can yield insight into the robustness of the kinematic coupling across the associated joint(s). The aim of this study was to assess the effects on the kinematic coupling between the forefoot, rearfoot and shank during ground contact of running with alteration in foot strike pattern. Twelve subjects ran over-ground using three different foot strike patterns (heel strike, forefoot strike, toe running). Kinematic data were collected of the forefoot, rearfoot and shank, which were modelled as rigid segments. Coupling at the ankle-complex and midfoot joints was assessed using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. In general good coupling was found between rearfoot frontal plane motion and transverse plane shank rotation regardless of foot strike pattern. Forefoot motion was also strongly coupled with rearfoot frontal plane motion. Subtle differences were noted in the amount of rearfoot eversion transferred into shank internal rotation in the first 10-15% of stance during heel strike running compared to forefoot and toe running, and this was accompanied by small alterations in forefoot kinematics. These findings indicate that during ground contact in running there is strong coupling between the rearfoot and shank via the action of the joints in the ankle-complex. In addition, there was good coupling of both sagittal and transverse plane forefoot with rearfoot frontal plane motion via the action of the midfoot joints.

  17. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Changing energy profiles and consumption patterns following electrification in five rural villages, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madubansi, M.; Shackleton, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Following the democratic transition in South Africa in the early 1990s the government has implemented a widespread electrification programme, as well as introduced a free basic electricity allowance as a means of poverty alleviation. Yet there are limited longitudinal studies on the impacts of the introduction of electricity on the patterns of household energy use, and even more so in the neglected rural sector. This study reports on the patterns of household energy use in five rural settlements in 1991 and again in 2002. Results indicate a changing pattern of energy use for lighting and powering entertainment appliances, more specifically from dry-cell batteries and paraffin to electricity. Yet for thermal needs, most notably cooking, fuelwood has remained the most widespread fuel, and the amount used per month has not changed, despite increasing scarcity of wood in the local environment. There has been an increase in the proportion of households purchasing fuelwood as opposed to collecting their own. Overall, the mean total number of fuel types used per household has increased, indicating that electricity is simply viewed as an additional energy, rather than an alternative. Yet, electricity accounted for approximately 60% of expenditure on energy sources in 2002, despite the government's policy of a free basic allowance of 5-6 kWh per month. This has implications for energy supply costing, as well as the poverty alleviation dimensions of the whole programme

  19. Changes in gluteal muscle forces with alteration of footstrike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Charles Nathan; Kernozek, Thomas W; Gheidi, Naghmeh

    2017-10-01

    Gait retraining is a common form of treatment for running related injuries. Proximal factors at the hip have been postulated as having a role in the development of running related injuries. How altering footstrike affects hip muscles forces and kinematics has not been described. Thus, we aimed to quantify differences in hip muscle forces and hip kinematics that may occur when healthy runners are instructed to alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rear-foot strike to a forefoot strike. This may gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of running related lower extremity injury. Twenty-five healthy female runners completed a minimum of 10 running trials in a controlled laboratory setting under rear-foot strike and instructed forefoot strike conditions. Kinetic and kinematic data were used in an inverse dynamic based static optimization to estimate individual muscle forces during running. Within subject differences were investigated using a repeated measures multi-variate analysis of variance. Peak gluteus medius and minimus and hamstring forces were reduced while peak gluteus maximus force was increased when running with an instructed forefoot strike pattern. Peak hip adduction, hip internal rotation, and heel-COM distance were also reduced. Therefore, instructing habitual rearfoot strike runners to run with a forefoot strike pattern resulted in changes in peak gluteal and hamstring muscle forces and hip kinematics. These changes may be beneficial to the development and treatment of running related lower extremity injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of color modification in digital images by CFA pattern change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Hee; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2013-03-10

    Extensive studies have been carried out for detecting image forgery such as copy-move, re-sampling, blurring, and contrast enhancement. Although color modification is a common forgery technique, there is no reported forensic method for detecting this type of manipulation. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for estimating color modification in images acquired from digital cameras when the images are modified. Most commercial digital cameras are equipped with a color filter array (CFA) for acquiring the color information of each pixel. As a result, the images acquired from such digital cameras include a trace from the CFA pattern. This pattern is composed of the basic red green blue (RGB) colors, and it is changed when color modification is carried out on the image. We designed an advanced intermediate value counting method for measuring the change in the CFA pattern and estimating the extent of color modification. The proposed method is verified experimentally by using 10,366 test images. The results confirmed the ability of the proposed method to estimate color modification with high accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Asian students change their eating patterns after living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y L; Dixon, Z; Himburg, S; Huffman, F

    1999-01-01

    To collect information on changes in dietary patterns among Asian students before and after immigration to the United States. A questionnaire designed to collect information about background, changes in food habits, and frequency of food consumption from a 72-item food list was mailed to subjects. Potential participants were students of local universities and junior colleges who were born in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, or Korea and were aged 18 years or older. All subjects were required to have been residing in the United States for at least 3 months before the start of the study. Questionnaires were mailed to 120 potential participants. Paired t tests were used to determine differences in eating patterns and frequency of food consumption of subjects before and after immigrating to the United States. Seventy-one questionnaires were returned. Because of missing information on 8 of these questionnaires, only 63 were used in the analysis, which gave a response rate of 53%. The number of students consuming only 2 meals per day increased significantly; 29 (46%) respondents skipped breakfast because of their school schedules. Despite no significant change in the frequency of snack consumption, a majority (n = 46; 73%) of the respondents were consuming more salty and sweet snack items. Subjects were eating out less often, but they were selecting more American-style fast foods when they did eat out. Significant increases were noted in consumption of fats/sweets, diary products, and fruits, and significant decreases were noted in the consumption of meat/meat alternatives and vegetables after immigration to the United States. Results of this study could be useful to dietetics practitioners as they observe changes in dietary patterns of Asian immigrants. These health professionals can use this information to plan nutrition education programs for Asian groups so that they can make informed decisions in adapting to new eating patterns and make wise food choices in their

  2. Circulation pattern-based assessment of projected climate change for a catchment in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo; Jódar, Jorge; Carrera, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    We present an approach for evaluating catchment-scale hydro-meteorological impacts of projected climate change based on the atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs) of a region. Our approach is motivated by the conjecture that GCMs are especially good at simulating the atmospheric circulation patterns that control moisture transport, and which can be expected to change in response to global warming. In support of this, we show (for the late 20th century) that GCMs provide much better simulations of ACPs than those of precipitation amount for the Upper Guadiana Basin in central Spain. For the same period, four of the twenty GCMs participating in the most recent (5th) IPCC Assessment provide quite accurate representations of the spatial patterns of mean sea level pressure, the frequency distribution of ACP type, the 'number of rainy days per month', and the daily 'probability of rain' (they also reproduce the trend of 'wet day amount', though not the actual magnitudes). A consequent analysis of projected trends and changes in hydro-climatic ACPology between the late 20th and 21st Centuries indicates that (1) actual changes appear to be occurring faster than predicted by the models, and (2) for two greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) the expected decline in precipitation volume is associated mainly with a few specific ACPs (primarily directional flows from the Atlantic Ocean and Cantabric Sea), and with decreasing probability of rain (linked to increasing temperatures) rather than wet day amount. Our approach is a potentially more insightful alternative for catchment-scale climate impacts assessments than the common approach of statistical downscaling and bias correction.

  3. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Emilio; Schoeman, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata), two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda), and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga) with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S), with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N). Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1) in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single widespread coastal

  4. Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties.

  5. Eco-innovation Dynamics and Green Economic Change: the role of sectoral-specific patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the features of Green Economic Change process at the meso-level, the greening of industries. We posit that, as for “traditional” innovations, it is possible to identify sectoral eco-innovation patterns and that these represent key but neglected factors in the dynamics...... of green economic evolution. . The paper represents early speculative conceptual work. We have posited that, as for “general” innovations, it is possible to identify sectoral eco-innovation patterns and that these represent key but neglected factors in the dynamics of green economic chance. The paper...... identifies seven specific characteristics of eco-innovation which form the basis for identifying 4 core hypothesis which may explain sectoral heterogeneity and identify likely sectoral eco-innovation leaders....

  6. Visual Scanning Patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in previous literature. The present study explored ASD children’s visual scanning patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS task using eye-tracking technique. ASD and typical developing (TD children completed the standardized DCCS procedure on the computer while their eye movements were tracked. Behavioral results confirmed previous findings on ASD children’s deficits in executive function. ASD children’s visual scanning patterns also showed some specific underlying processes in the DCCS task compared to TD children. For example, ASD children looked shorter at the correct card in the postswitch phase and spent longer time at blank areas than TD children did. ASD children did not show a bias to the color dimension as TD children did. The correlations between the behavioral performance and eye moments were also discussed.

  7. Modelling regional cropping patterns under scenarios of climate and socio-economic change in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Juhász-Horváth, Linda; Pintér, László; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Harrison, Paula A

    2018-05-01

    Impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic change on agricultural land systems are inherently uncertain. The role of regional and local-level actors is critical in developing effective policy responses that accommodate such uncertainty in a flexible and informed way across governance levels. This study identified potential regional challenges in arable land use systems, which may arise from climate and socio-economic change for two counties in western Hungary: Veszprém and Tolna. An empirically-grounded, agent-based model was developed from an extensive farmer household survey about local land use practices. The model was used to project future patterns of arable land use under four localised, stakeholder-driven scenarios of plausible future socio-economic and climate change. The results show strong differences in farmers' behaviour and current agricultural land use patterns between the two regions, highlighting the need to implement focused policy at the regional level. For instance, policy that encourages local food security may need to support improvements in the capacity of farmers to adapt to physical constraints in Veszprém and farmer access to social capital and environmental awareness in Tolna. It is further suggested that the two regions will experience different challenges to adaptation under possible future conditions (up to 2100). For example, Veszprém was projected to have increased fallow land under a scenario with high inequality, ineffective institutions and higher-end climate change, implying risks of land abandonment. By contrast, Tolna was projected to have a considerable decline in major cereals under a scenario assuming a de-globalising future with moderate climate change, inferring challenges to local food self-sufficiency. The study provides insight into how socio-economic and physical factors influence the selection of crop rotation plans by farmers in western Hungary and how farmer behaviour may affect future risks to agricultural

  8. Changing patterns in water toxicity associated with current use pesticides in three California agriculture regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Deng, Xin; Geraci, Jeff; Worcester, Karen; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2018-03-01

    Regulation of agriculture irrigation water discharges in California, USA, is assessed and controlled by its 9 Regional Water Quality Control Boards under the jurisdiction of the California State Water Resources Control Board. Each Regional Water Board has developed programs to control pesticides in runoff as part of the waste discharge requirements implemented through each region's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program. The present study assessed how pesticide use patterns differ in the Imperial (Imperial County) and the Salinas and Santa Maria (Monterey County) valleys, which host 3 of California's prime agriculture areas. Surface-water toxicity associated with current use pesticides was monitored at several sites in these areas in 2014 and 2015, and results were linked to changes in pesticide use patterns in these areas. Pesticide use patterns appeared to coincide with differences in the way agriculture programs were implemented by the 2 respective Regional Water Quality Control Boards, and these programs differed in the 2 Water Board Regions. Different pesticide use patterns affected the occurrence of pesticides in agriculture runoff, and this influenced toxicity test results. Greater detection frequency and higher concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos were detected in agriculture runoff in Imperial County compared to Monterey County, likely due to more rigorous monitoring requirements for growers using this pesticide in Monterey County. Monterey County agriculture runoff contained toxic concentrations of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid pesticides, which impacted amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus) in toxicity tests. Study results illustrate how monitoring strategies need to evolve as regulatory actions affect change in pesticide use and demonstrate the importance of using toxicity test indicator species appropriate for the suite of contaminants in runoff in order to accurately assess environmental risk. Integr

  9. Comparison of Modeling Grassland Degradation with and without Considering Localized Spatial Associations in Vegetation Changing Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassland ecosystems worldwide are confronted with degradation. It is of great importance to understand long-term trajectory patterns of grassland vegetation by advanced analytical models. This study proposes a new approach called a binary logistic regression model with neighborhood interactions, or BLR-NIs, which is based on binary logistic regression (BLR, but fully considers the spatio-temporally localized spatial associations or characterization of neighborhood interactions (NIs in the patterns of grassland vegetation. The BLR-NIs model was applied to a modeled vegetation degradation of grasslands in the Xilin river basin, Inner Mongolia, China. Residual trend analysis on the normalized difference vegetation index (RESTREND-NDVI, which excluded the climatic impact on vegetation dynamics, was adopted as a preprocessing step to derive three human-induced trajectory patterns (vegetation degradation, vegetation recovery, and no significant change in vegetation during two consecutive periods, T1 (2000–2008 and T2 (2007–2015. Human activities, including livestock grazing intensity and transportation accessibility measured by road network density, were included as explanatory variables for vegetation degradation, which was defined for locations if vegetation recovery or no significant change in vegetation in T1 and vegetation degradation in T2 were observed. Our work compared the results of BLR-NIs and the traditional BLR model that did not consider NIs. The study showed that: (1 both grazing intensity and road density had a positive correlation to vegetation degradation based on the traditional BLR model; (2 only road density was found to positively correlate to vegetation degradation by the BLR-NIs model; NIs appeared to be critical factors to predict vegetation degradation; and (3 including NIs in the BLR model improved the model performance substantially. The study provided evidence for the importance of including localized spatial

  10. Patterned changes in urge ratings with tic suppression in youth with chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabson, Laurel A; Brown, Jessica L; Capriotti, Matthew R; Ramanujam, Krishnapriya; Himle, Michael B; Nicotra, Cassandra M; Ostrander, Rick; Kelly, Laura M; Grados, Marco A; Walkup, John T; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Hankinson, Jessica C; Specht, Matt W

    2016-03-01

    Premonitory urges are central to emerging behavioral models of chronic tic disorders (CTD). Urge reduction has been proposed as a behavioral explanation for tic maintenance and exacerbation as well as the efficacy of behavioral treatments. Prior investigations have produced inconsistent findings despite common methodologies. The current study evaluated the possibility that data aggregation obscures distinct and meaningful patterns of change in urge ratings when tics are freely expressed versus suppressed. Participants (n = 12) included children with moderate-to-marked tic severity and noticeable premonitory urges. Tic frequencies and urge ratings were obtained at 15 s and 10-s intervals, respectively, across an alternating sequence of 10-min tic freely and 40-min tic suppression conditions. Patterns were established using a two step approach. Five distinct patterns of urge rating change emerged, suggesting data aggregation may obscure meaningful patterns in the urge-tic relationship when tics are completed versus suppressed. Eligibility criteria may have unintentionally excluded younger affected children and included older participants with more severe tic disorders than commonly seen. Additional research with less stringent eligibility criteria and a larger sample size will help validate the results. The relationship between urges and tics is much more complex than previously theorized. Investigations that rely on global assessments of urge and tic severity and/or assume uniformity when aggregating participant data may obscure meaningful differences in the urge-tic relationship. Future investigations should examine the possibility that individual differences and/or developmental considerations modulate the functional urge-tic relationship. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Residual flow patterns and morphological changes along a macro- and meso-tidal coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Plater, Andrew James

    2017-11-01

    The hydrodynamic and residual transport patterns arising from oscillating tidal motion have important consequences for the transport of sediments, and for the evolution of the shoreline, especially under macro- and meso-tidal conditions. For many locations there are significant uncertainties about residual currents and sediment transport characteristics, and their possible influence on the morphological evolution of the coastline and on the character of the bed. Herein we use the coastline of SE England as a test case to investigate possible changes in residual currents, and residual transport patterns from neap to spring tide, the reciprocal interaction between residuals and the character of the bed, and the morphological evolution of the coastline at a century timescale. We found that in the long term the morphology of the system evolves toward a dynamic equilibrium configuration characterized by smaller, and spatially constant residual transport patterns. While the spatial distribution of residual currents maintains a similar trend during both neap and spring tide, during spring tide and for large areas residual currents switch between northerly and southerly directions, and their magnitude is doubled. Residual eddies develop in regions characterized by the presence of sand bars due to the interaction of the tide with the varying topography. Residual transport patterns are also computed for various sediment fractions, and based on the hydrodynamics and sediment availability at the bottom. We found that the distribution of sediments on the bed is significantly correlated with the intensity of residuals. Finally, the majority of long-term morphological changes tend to develop or augment sand banks features, with an increase in elevation and steepening of the bank contours.

  12. Employment changes associated with the introduction of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy-dense food in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Molina, Mariana; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-12-01

    We assessed changes in employment in the manufacturing industry, the commercial sector and national unemployment rates, associated with the fiscal policies implemented in 2014 in Mexico: a 1 peso per liter excise tax to sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and an 8% tax on nonessential energy-dense food. We used data from three nationally representative surveys. Controlling for contextual variables, we used interrupted time series analyses to model changes in number of employees in the SSB and nonessential energy-dense food industry, in commercial establishments selling beverages and food and changes in national unemployment rates. Our results show that there were no significant changes in employment associated with the taxes in the manufacturing industries (for beverages and nonessential energy-dense food). We found a very small increasing trend in the post-tax period for employment in commercial stores and a decreasing trend in the unemployment rate. However, these changes are negligible and unlikely to be caused by the implementation of the taxes. In conclusion, there were no employment reductions associated with the fiscal policies implemented in Mexico in 2014 on SSB and nonessential energy-dense food. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D. A. C.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Newby, P. K.; Northstone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects 3911 children with complete data. Results There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd) in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd) in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies. PMID:25018688

  14. Changes in the pattern of substance abuse after the onset of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Roland; Löhrer, Frank; Morgan, Vera; Hambrecht, Martin

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine early signs of psychosis in patients suffering from both drug dependence and schizophrenia, compared to a control group of drug-addicted patients without a comorbid psychotic disorder, and to assess whether the presence of these signs was related to changes in the pattern of substance abuse. In a rehabilitation hospital for young addicts, 32 patients with a comorbid diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 patients without the diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, were assessed using the Interview for the Retrospective Assessment of the Onset of Schizophrenia. Information relating to 64 signs of early psychosis was collected from every patient. From the 64 signs, five groups of symptoms were defined: non-specific and precursor symptoms; non-specific and depressive symptoms; negative symptoms; positive symptoms; and impaired social adjustment. The semiquantitative pattern of substance abuse for each 1-year interval over the previous 10 years was investigated using the categories of chapter F1 of ICD-10 and including an additional category "biological drugs". The relationship between the pattern of substance abuse and the presence of early signs was assessed using anova and non-parametric statistical methods. The results indicate that the defined pathological symptomatology greatly influences the pattern of consumption of psychoactive substances in both the psychosis group and the control group. The group factor exerted the greatest influence within the categories "biological drugs" and "other stimulants", where the "psychosis and addiction group" consumed significantly more than the control group. There is a subgroup of non-psychotic addicted patients whose pattern of psychoactive substance abuse is similar to that found in addicted patients suffering from schizophrenia. It may be helpful to systematically identify this subgroup with regard to possible therapeutic implications, particularly with regard to possible pharmacological treatment

  15. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. A. C. Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design: Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting: Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects: 3911 children with complete data. Results: There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions: There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies.

  16. Motor unit recruitment patterns 1: responses to changes in locomotor velocity and incline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2008-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are composed of a mixture of motor unit types, which contribute a range of mechanical and physiological properties to the muscle. For a muscle to effectively contribute to smooth, co-ordinated movement it must activate an appropriate number and combination of motor units to generate the required force over a suitable time period. Much evidence exists indicating that motor units are activated in an orderly fashion, from the slowest through to the fastest. A growing body of evidence, however, indicates that such a recruitment strategy does not always hold true. Here we investigate how motor unit recruitment patterns were influenced by changes in locomotor velocity and incline. Kinematics data and myoelectric signals were collected from three rat ankle extensor muscles during running on a treadmill at nine velocity and incline combinations. Wavelet and principal component analysis were used to simultaneously decompose the signals into time and frequency space. The relative frequency components of the signals were quantified during 20 time windows of a stride from each locomotor condition. Differences in signal frequency components existed between muscles and locomotor conditions. Faster locomotor velocities led to a relative increase in high frequency components, whereas greater inclines led to a relative increase in the low frequency components. These data were interpreted as representing changes in motor unit recruitment patterns in response to changes in the locomotor demand. Motor units were not always recruited in an orderly manner, indicating that recruitment is a multi-factorial phenomenon that is not yet fully understood.

  17. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.; Vecchia, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10–40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10–30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems.

  18. Microhabitat and Climatic Niche Change Explain Patterns of Diversification among Frog Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J

    2017-07-01

    A major goal of ecology and evolutionary biology is to explain patterns of species richness among clades. Differences in rates of net diversification (speciation minus extinction over time) may often explain these patterns, but the factors that drive variation in diversification rates remain uncertain. Three important candidates are climatic niche position (e.g., whether clades are primarily temperate or tropical), rates of climatic niche change among species within clades, and microhabitat (e.g., aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal). The first two factors have been tested separately in several studies, but the relative importance of all three is largely unknown. Here we explore the correlates of diversification among families of frogs, which collectively represent ∼88% of amphibian species. We assemble and analyze data on phylogeny, climate, and microhabitat for thousands of species. We find that the best-fitting phylogenetic multiple regression model includes all three types of variables: microhabitat, rates of climatic niche change, and climatic niche position. This model explains 67% of the variation in diversification rates among frog families, with arboreal microhabitat explaining ∼31%, niche rates ∼25%, and climatic niche position ∼11%. Surprisingly, we show that microhabitat can have a much stronger influence on diversification than climatic niche position or rates of climatic niche change.

  19. Impulsive sounds change European seabass swimming patterns: Influence of pulse repetition interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neo, Y.Y.; Ufkes, E.; Kastelein, R.A.; Winter, H.V.; Cate, C. ten; Slabbekoorn, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We exposed impulsive sounds of different repetition intervals to European seabass. • Immediate behavioural changes mirrored previous indoor & outdoor studies. • Repetition intervals influenced the impacts differentially but not the recovery. • Sound temporal patterns may be more important than some standard metrics. - Abstract: Seismic shootings and offshore pile-driving are regularly performed, emitting significant amounts of noise that may negatively affect fish behaviour. The pulse repetition interval (PRI) of these impulsive sounds may vary considerably and influence the behavioural impact and recovery. Here, we tested the effect of four PRIs (0.5–4.0 s) on European seabass swimming patterns in an outdoor basin. At the onset of the sound exposures, the fish swam faster and dived deeper in tighter shoals. PRI affected the immediate and delayed behavioural changes but not the recovery time. Our study highlights that (1) the behavioural changes of captive European seabass were consistent with previous indoor and outdoor studies; (2) PRI could influence behavioural impact differentially, which may have management implications; (3) some acoustic metrics, e.g. SEL cum , may have limited predictive power to assess the strength of behavioural impacts of noise. Noise impact assessments need to consider the contribution of sound temporal structure

  20. Changes in the serum protein electrophoretic pattern in lambs during the first month of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the changes in serum protein pattern in the neonatal period in animals are still limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in the concentrations of serum protein fractions in 7 clinically healthy merino lambs (4 males, 3 females during their first month of life. The first blood sampling was performed before the colostrum intake and then at 1, 2, 7, 14 and 30 days of age. Blood serum was analysed for total serum protein concentrations and for the relative and absolute values of serum protein fractions - albumin, alpha1- (α1, alpha2- (α2, beta- (β, and gamma- (γ globulins. The results showed a significant effect of age on the serum total protein concentrations and for all the protein fractions. The concentrations of total proteins and γ-globulins increased significantly 1 day after the colostrum intake (P P 1-globulins significantly decreased during the first month of life (P 2- and β-globulins increased significantly from birth till the end of the monitored period (P < 0.001. Our results suggest that the serum protein electrophoretic pattern in growing lambs is significantly influenced by the age of the evaluated animal, and this should be taken into consideration when interpreting the serum protein profile. Our findings extend existing knowledge about significant changes in the protein profile associated with the physiological adaptation process in the neonatal period in young animals.

  1. Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P C D; Dunne, K A; Vecchia, A V

    2005-11-17

    Water availability on the continents is important for human health, economic activity, ecosystem function and geophysical processes. Because the saturation vapour pressure of water in air is highly sensitive to temperature, perturbations in the global water cycle are expected to accompany climate warming. Regional patterns of warming-induced changes in surface hydroclimate are complex and less certain than those in temperature, however, with both regional increases and decreases expected in precipitation and runoff. Here we show that an ensemble of 12 climate models exhibits qualitative and statistically significant skill in simulating observed regional patterns of twentieth-century multidecadal changes in streamflow. These models project 10-40% increases in runoff in eastern equatorial Africa, the La Plata basin and high-latitude North America and Eurasia, and 10-30% decreases in runoff in southern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and mid-latitude western North America by the year 2050. Such changes in sustainable water availability would have considerable regional-scale consequences for economies as well as ecosystems.

  2. Soil water content evaluation considering time-invariant spatial pattern and space-variant temporal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.; Si, B. C.

    2013-10-01

    Soil water content (SWC) varies in space and time. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil water content distribution using a statistical model. The model divides spatial SWC series into time-invariant spatial patterns, space-invariant temporal changes, and space- and time-dependent redistribution terms. The redistribution term is responsible for the temporal changes in spatial patterns of SWC. An empirical orthogonal function was used to separate the total variations of redistribution terms into the sum of the product of spatial structures (EOFs) and temporally-varying coefficients (ECs). Model performance was evaluated using SWC data of near-surface (0-0.2 m) and root-zone (0-1.0 m) from a Canadian Prairie landscape. Three significant EOFs were identified for redistribution term for both soil layers. EOF1 dominated the variations of redistribution terms and it resulted in more changes (recharge or discharge) in SWC at wetter locations. Depth to CaCO3 layer and organic carbon were the two most important controlling factors of EOF1, and together, they explained over 80% of the variations in EOF1. Weak correlation existed between either EOF2 or EOF3 and the observed factors. A reasonable prediction of SWC distribution was obtained with this model using cross validation. The model performed better in the root zone than in the near surface, and it outperformed conventional EOF method in case soil moisture deviated from the average conditions.

  3. Hydrospatial Analysis of Inundation Patterns for a Restored Floodplain to Evaluate Potential Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, A. A.; Viers, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Interaction between rivers and their floodplains create dynamic physical conditions supporting freshwater ecosystems. The natural flood regimes to which native species are adapted are often profoundly altered by interacting factors including water management, land use change, and climate change. Reintroducing dynamic flood regimes through enhancing river-floodplain connectivity is a common floodplain restoration objective. However, it is often difficult to determine how various actions (or a combination of actions), such as levee setbacks or environmental flow releases, will impact physical conditions relevant to ecological functions, such as depth, velocity, duration, timing, and connectivity, and how these might change in the future. Understanding changes to these dynamic conditions requires improved quantification of spatiotemporal variability of floodplain inundation patterns, in essence a floodplain's hydrospatial regime. The research presented here develops this concept by quantifying the hydrospatial regime of a floodplain along the lower Cosumnes River, California, both before and after levee-removal restoration, and uses this to evaluate how effects of restoration may be altered with changing hydrology due to climate change. This approach uses spatial analysis in R to summarize metrics based on estimated spatially-distributed depth and velocity, derived from 2D hydrodynamic modeling output for pre- and post-restoration conditions. This is performed for an historical and two future periods of daily flow of the largely unregulated Cosumnes River, driven by a subset of global climate models. We show that responses to restoration vary across the hydrospatial domain and further consider these differences in floodplain dynamics in relation to hydroclimatic change. This research refines expectations for restoration and overall provides readily applied methods to inform planning and management of floodplain ecosystems within the context of climate change

  4. Historical Patterns and Drivers of Spatial Changes in Recreational Fishing Activity in Puget Sound, Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H Beaudreau

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries are the primary users of many coastal fish stocks; yet, spatial and temporal patterns of recreational and subsistence fishing in coastal marine ecosystems are poorly documented. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of fishing activities can inform place-based management that balances species conservation with opportunities for recreation and subsistence. We used a participatory mapping approach to document changes in spatial fishing patterns of 80 boat-based recreational anglers from 1950 to 2010 in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Hand-drawn fishing areas for salmon, rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs were digitized and analyzed in a Geographic Information System. We found that recreational fishing has spanned the majority of Puget Sound since the 1950s, with the heaviest use limited to small areas of central and northern Puget Sound. People are still fishing in the same places they were decades ago, with relatively little change in specific locations despite widespread declines in salmon and bottomfish populations during the second half of the 20th century. While the location of core fishing areas remained consistent, the size of those areas and intensity of use changed over time. The size of fishing areas increased through the 2000s for salmon but declined after the 1970s and 1980s for rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs. Our results suggest that the spatial extent of recreational bottomfishing increased after the 1960s, when the availability of motorized vessels and advanced fish-finding technologies allowed anglers to expand their scope beyond localized angling from piers and boathouses. Respondents offered a wide range of reasons for shifts in fishing areas over time, reflecting substantial individual variation in motivations and behaviors. Changes in fishing areas were most commonly attributed to changes in residence and declines in target species and least tied to fishery regulations, despite the implementation of at

  5. Historical Patterns and Drivers of Spatial Changes in Recreational Fishing Activity in Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Anne H.; Whitney, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are the primary users of many coastal fish stocks; yet, spatial and temporal patterns of recreational and subsistence fishing in coastal marine ecosystems are poorly documented. Knowledge about the spatial distribution of fishing activities can inform place-based management that balances species conservation with opportunities for recreation and subsistence. We used a participatory mapping approach to document changes in spatial fishing patterns of 80 boat-based recreational anglers from 1950 to 2010 in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Hand-drawn fishing areas for salmon, rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs were digitized and analyzed in a Geographic Information System. We found that recreational fishing has spanned the majority of Puget Sound since the 1950s, with the heaviest use limited to small areas of central and northern Puget Sound. People are still fishing in the same places they were decades ago, with relatively little change in specific locations despite widespread declines in salmon and bottomfish populations during the second half of the 20th century. While the location of core fishing areas remained consistent, the size of those areas and intensity of use changed over time. The size of fishing areas increased through the 2000s for salmon but declined after the 1970s and 1980s for rockfishes, flatfishes, and crabs. Our results suggest that the spatial extent of recreational bottomfishing increased after the 1960s, when the availability of motorized vessels and advanced fish-finding technologies allowed anglers to expand their scope beyond localized angling from piers and boathouses. Respondents offered a wide range of reasons for shifts in fishing areas over time, reflecting substantial individual variation in motivations and behaviors. Changes in fishing areas were most commonly attributed to changes in residence and declines in target species and least tied to fishery regulations, despite the implementation of at least 25 marine

  6. Recent Changes in Tree Species Abundance: Patterns, Trends, and Drivers Across Northeastern US Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudex-Cross, D.; Pontius, J.; Adams, A.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring trends in the abundance and distribution of tree species is essential to understanding potential impacts of climate change on forested ecosystems. Related studies to date have largely focused on modeling distributional shifts according to future climate scenarios or used field inventory data to examine compositional changes across broader landscapes. Here, we leverage a novel remote sensing technique that utilizes field data, multitemporal Landsat imagery, and spectral unmixing to model regional changes in the abundance (percent basal area) of key northeastern US species over a 30-year period (1985-2015). We examine patterns in how species abundance has changed, as well as their relationship with climate, landscape, and soil characteristics using spatial regression models. Results show significant declines in overall abundance for sugar maple ( 8.6% 30-yr loss), eastern hemlock ( 7.8% 30-yr loss), balsam fir ( 5.0% 30-yr loss), and red spruce ( 3.8% total 30-yr loss). Species that saw significant increasing abundance include American beech ( 7.0% 30-yr gain) and red maple ( 2.5% 30-yr gain). However, these changes were not consistent across the landscape. For example, red spruce is increasing at upper elevations with concurrent losses in balsam fir and birch species. Similarly, sugar maple decreases are concentrated at lower elevations, likely due to increases in American beech. Various abiotic factors were significantly associated with changes in species composition including landscape position (e.g. longitude, elevation, and heat load index) and ecologically-relevant climate variables (e.g. growing season precipitation and annual temperature range). Interestingly, there was a stronger relationship in abundance changes across longitudes, rather than latitudes or elevations as predicted in modeled species migration scenarios.These results indicate that the dominant composition of northeastern forests is changing in ways that run counter to accepted

  7. Technological Change, Employment, Qualifications and Training. A Development of Concepts from a Conference Held in Berlin, November 24-26, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Arndt

    A conference examined the socioeconomic challenges of technological and educational change throughout the European community. One hundred fifty representatives from a cross section of countries and agencies involved in education, training, and employment gathered to discuss the following themes: the transition from initial training to employment…

  8. Preparing At-Risk Youth for a Changing World: Revisiting a Person-in-Context Model for Transition to Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Christopher; Godden, Lorraine; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Versnel, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current global cohort of youth has been called "a generation at-risk", marked by a dramatic rise in youth who are not in employment, education or training programmes. In 2010, youth were three times as likely as adults to be unemployed, with youth unemployment worsening in 2012 and 2013. Accordingly, there is an urgent…

  9. Changes in running pattern due to fatigue and cognitive load in orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Divert, Caroline; Banizette, Marion; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of fatigue on running biomechanics in normal running, in normal running with a cognitive task, and in running while map reading. Nineteen international and less experienced orienteers performed a fatiguing running exercise of duration and intensity similar to a classic distance orienteering race on an instrumented treadmill while performing mental arithmetic, an orienteering simulation, and control running at regular intervals. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance did not reveal any significant difference between mental arithmetic and control running for any of the kinematic and kinetic parameters analysed eight times over the fatiguing protocol. However, these parameters were systematically different between the orienteering simulation and the other two conditions (mental arithmetic and control running). The adaptations in orienteering simulation running were significantly more pronounced in the elite group when step frequency, peak vertical ground reaction force, vertical stiffness, and maximal downward displacement of the centre of mass during contact were considered. The effects of fatigue on running biomechanics depended on whether the orienteers read their map or ran normally. It is concluded that adding a cognitive load does not modify running patterns. Therefore, all changes in running pattern observed during the orienteering simulation, particularly in elite orienteers, are the result of adaptations to enable efficient map reading and/or potentially prevent injuries. Finally, running patterns are not affected to the same extent by fatigue when a map reading task is added.

  10. Acute changes in foot strike pattern and cadence affect running parameters associated with tibial stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jennifer R; Silder, Amy; Montgomery, Kate L; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L

    2018-05-18

    Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike. We found that converting to forefoot striking decreased two risk factors for tibial stress fracture: average and peak loading rates. Increasing cadence decreased one risk factor: peak hip adduction angle. Our results demonstrate that acute adaptation to forefoot striking reduces different injury risk parameters than acute adaptation to increased cadence and suggest that both modifications may reduce the risk of tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnesr, M.N.; Alazba, A.A.

    2015-07-01

    Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods) that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%); the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10%) and the WUE (~14%), but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability. (Author)

  12. Simulating spatial patterns of land-use change in Rondonia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, V.H.; Southworth, F.; O'Neill, R.V.; Rosen, A.

    1992-01-01

    Large scale deforestation in the Brazilian state of Rondonia has resulted from massive colonization and has caused increases in atmospheric CO 2 , soil degradation, loss of extractive resources, and disruption of indigenous populations. A simulation model has been developed that integrates colonization, socioeconomic, and ecological submodels to estimate spatial patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration policies, land tenure practices, and road development scenarios. It is used to model the socioeconomic causes and ecological impacts of rapid deforestation in Rondonia. The simulation can be used to identify scenarios that might optimize economic and agricultural sustainability or reduce emigration. Spatial analysis of the simulation projections shows that very different patterns of deforestation can result depending on whether soil suitability, distance to market or lot size is the prime factor affecting a colonist's choice of a lot. Projections of the amount and pattern of deforestation under specific scenarios of land-use choice and management can be used to explore the socioeconomic and ecological implications of land-use change

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: is there a picture of global change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Chapman, M Gee; Thompson, Richard C; Amaral Zettler, Linda A; Jambeck, Jenna; Mallos, Nicholas J

    2015-06-16

    Floating and stranded marine debris is widespread. Increasing sea levels and altered rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, waves, and oceanic currents associated with climatic change are likely to transfer more debris from coastal cities into marine and coastal habitats. Marine debris causes economic and ecological impacts, but understanding the scope of these requires quantitative information on spatial patterns and trends in the amounts and types of debris at a global scale. There are very few large-scale programs to measure debris, but many peer-reviewed and published scientific studies of marine debris describe local patterns. Unfortunately, methods of defining debris, sampling, and interpreting patterns in space or time vary considerably among studies, yet if data could be synthesized across studies, a global picture of the problem may be avaliable. We analyzed 104 published scientific papers on marine debris in order to determine how to evaluate this. Although many studies were well designed to answer specific questions, definitions of what constitutes marine debris, the methods used to measure, and the scale of the scope of the studies means that no general picture can emerge from this wealth of data. These problems are detailed to guide future studies and guidelines provided to enable the collection of more comparable data to better manage this growing problem.

  14. How small communities respond to environmental change: patterns from tropical to polar ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry P. Huntington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Local communities throughout the world are experiencing extensive social, cultural, economic, environmental, and climatic changes. Rather than passively accepting the effects of such changes, many communities are responding in various ways to take advantage of opportunities and to minimize negative impacts. We review examples from 13 cases around the world to identify patterns in how communities have been able to respond to change. Communities are able to respond by making changes in the time and location of activities, by using different species, by developing or using new technologies, and by organizing themselves internally or in networks. The possible responses a community can make on its own constitute the autonomous response space. When communities work with others to respond, they are in the collaborative response space. These findings suggest that assessments concerning climate and other forms of change should include local responses as a foundation for policy recommendations, recognizing that both autonomous and collaborative responses can contribute to adaptation. Policies designed to achieve adaptation or sustainability should consider ways to expand the autonomous response space, thus freeing local initiative, while also making the collaborative response space more cooperative, thus providing support to communities rather than imposing limitations.

  15. Confirmation of a change in the global shear velocity pattern at around 1000 km depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, S.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y.; Zaroli, C.; Lambotte, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we confirm the existence of a change in the shear velocity spectrum around 1000 km depth based on a new shear velocity tomographic model of the Earth's mantle, SEISGLOB2. This model is based on Rayleigh surface wave phase velocities, self- and cross-coupling structure coefficients of spheroidal normal modes and body wave traveltimes which are, for the first time, combined in a tomographic inversion. SEISGLOB2 is developed up to spherical harmonic degree 40 and in 21 radial spline functions. The spectrum of SEISGLOB2 is the flattest (i.e. richest in 'short' wavelengths corresponding to spherical harmonic degrees greater than 10) around 1000 km depth and this flattening occurs between 670 and 1500 km depth. We also confirm various changes in the continuity of slabs and mantle plumes all around 1000 km depth where we also observed the upper boundary of Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces. The existence of a flatter spectrum, richer in short-wavelength heterogeneities, in a region of the mid-mantle can have great impacts on our understanding of the mantle dynamics and should thus be better understood in the future. Although a viscosity increase, a phase change or a compositional change can all concur to induce this change of pattern, its precise origin is still very uncertain.

  16. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-10-06

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems.

  17. Did the economic crisis change V4 trade patterns? The case of intra-industry trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Emanuel TOPOROWSKI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study revisits knowledge about the post-EU accession intra-industry trade development in the Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and the Slovak Republic. These countries—through trade liberalisation, European integration and EU accession—strengthened their position in the global value chains, part of which were located in Western Europe. This paper points out that during the global financial crisis, the changes in intra-industry specialisation were not coherent in the Visegrad countries. Moreover, in some cases, the specialisation even intensified. This paper also applies the Arellano-Bover/Blundell-Bond estimator to assess whether EU accession and the later global financial crisis were driving forces of the changing trade patterns of these countries. The results of the estimation proved the positive effect of European integration (before and after EU enlargement and the negative effect of the crisis.

  18. Establishing the common patterns of future tropospheric ozone under diverse climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Gómez-Navarro, Juan J.; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; Baro, Rocio; Montávez, Juan P.

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of climate change on air quality may affect long-term air quality planning. However, the policies aimed at improving air quality in the EU directives have not accounted for the variations in the climate. Climate change alone influences future air quality through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. As such, the aim of this work is to check whether the projected changes in gas-phase air pollution over Europe depends on the scenario driving the regional simulation. For this purpose, two full-transient regional climate change-air quality projections for the first half of the XXI century (1991-2050) have been carried out with MM5+CHIMERE system, including A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Experiments span the periods 1971-2000, as a reference, and 2071-2100, as future enhanced greenhouse gas and aerosol scenarios (SRES A2 and B2). The atmospheric simulations have a horizontal resolution of 25 km and 23 vertical layers up to 100 mb, and were driven by ECHO-G global climate model outputs. The analysis focuses on the connection between meteorological and air quality variables. Our simulations suggest that the modes of variability for tropospheric ozone and their main precursors hardly change under different SRES scenarios. The effect of changing scenarios has to be sought in the intensity of the changing signal, rather than in the spatial structure of the variation patterns, since the correlation between the spatial patterns of variability in A2 and B2 simulation is r > 0.75 for all gas-phase pollutants included in this study. In both cases, full-transient simulations indicate an enhanced enhanced chemical activity under future scenarios. The causes for tropospheric ozone variations have to be sought in a multiplicity of climate factors, such as increased temperature, different distribution of precipitation patterns across Europe, increased photolysis of primary and secondary pollutants due to lower cloudiness, etc

  19. Species distributions and climate change:current patterns and future scenarios for biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian

    by shifts of their distributional ranges, which affects the spatial patterns of species richness and turnover. Global temperatures are projected to rise by 1.8 - 4°C until the end of the century; hence climate change will most likely leave further imprints on species and ecosystems. This PhD thesis aims......-thirds of the areas harboring the richest amphibian faunas may be heavily impacted by at least one of the major threats by 2080. The stability of the climatic niche influences the need for a species to track climate change via dispersal, or its potential to adapt to novel climatic conditions. I therefore explore...... the phylogenetic signal in climatic niches of the world's amphibians, which serves as a surrogate quantification of niche stability. Results indicate an overall tendency of phylogenetic signal to be present in realised climatic niches, but signal strength varies across biogeographical regions and among amphibian...

  20. The Dependencies of Ecosystem Pattern, Structure, and Dynamics on Climate, Climate Variability, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Rourke, O.

    2012-12-01

    A robust understanding of the sensitivity of the pattern, structure, and dynamics of ecosystems to climate, climate variability, and climate change is needed to predict ecosystem responses to current and projected climate change. We present results of a study designed to first quantify the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate through the use of climate and ecosystem data, and then use the results to test the sensitivity of the climate data in a state-of the art ecosystem model. A database of available ecosystem characteristics such as mean canopy height, above ground biomass, and basal area was constructed from sources like the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD). The ecosystem characteristics were then paired by latitude and longitude with the corresponding climate characteristics temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and dew point that were retrieved from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The average yearly and seasonal means of the climate data, and their associated maximum and minimum values, over the 1979-2010 time frame provided by NARR were constructed and paired with the ecosystem data. The compiled results provide natural patterns of vegetation structure and distribution with regard to climate data. An advanced ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), was then modified to allow yearly alterations to its mechanistic climate lookup table and used to predict the sensitivities of ecosystem pattern, structure, and dynamics to climate data. The combined ecosystem structure and climate data results were compared to ED's output to check the validity of the model. After verification, climate change scenarios such as those used in the last IPCC were run and future forest structure changes due to climate sensitivities were identified. The results of this study can be used to both quantify and test key relationships for next generation models. The sensitivity of ecosystem characteristics to climate data

  1. Spatial allocation of future landscape patterns for biomass and alleviation of hydrologic impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssegane, H.; Negri, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. Concurrently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increase of 2 to 4°C over the next 100 years above the preindustrial baseline, beginning as early as 2016 to 2035 over all seasons in the North America. This climate change is projected to further strain water resources currently stressed by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops on strategically selected sub-field areas in an agricultural landscape has the potential to increase the environmental and economic sustainability if location and choice of the crops result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and therefore cause minimal indirect land use change. This study identified sub-field marginal areas in an agricultural watershed using soil-based environmental sustainability criteria and a crop productivity index. Future landscape patterns (FLPs) were developed by allocating bioenergy crops (switchgrass: Panicum virgatum or shrub willows: Salix spp.) to these marginal areas (20% of the watershed). SWAT hydrologic model and dynamically downscaled climatic projection were used to asses impact of climate change on extreme flow conditions, total annual production of commodity and bioenergy crops, and water quality under current and future landscape patterns for the mid-21st century (2045-2055) and late 21st century (2085-2095) climatic projections. The frequency of flood and drought conditions was projected to increase while the corresponding durations to decrease. Sediment yields were projected to increase by 85% to 170% while FLPs would mitigate this increase by 26% to 32%.

  2. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C⁻¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  3. Shorebird Migration Patterns in Response to Climate Change: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies offer new opportunities for the application of mechanistic models to predict how continental scale bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier studies, we explored the phenotypic plasticity of a migratory population of Pectoral sandpipers by simulating the movement patterns of an ensemble of 10,000 individual birds in response to changes in stopover locations as an indicator of the impacts of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of migratory shorebirds. We used an individual based, biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate data, and biological field data. Mean stop-over durations and stop-over frequency with latitude predicted from our model for nominal cases were consistent with results reported in the literature and available field data. In this study, we take advantage of new computing capabilities enabled by recent GP-GPU computing paradigms and commodity hardware (general purchase computing on graphics processing units). Several aspects of our individual based (agent modeling) approach lend themselves well to GP-GPU computing. We have been able to allocate compute-intensive tasks to the graphics processing units, and now simulate ensembles of 400,000 birds at varying spatial resolutions along the central North American flyway. We are incorporating additional, species specific, mechanistic processes to better reflect the processes underlying bird phenotypic plasticity responses to different climate change scenarios in the central U.S.

  4. Changing incidence patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma among age groups in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Lee, Chih-Ying; Lin, Li-Yih

    2015-12-01

    This study examined and compared the incidence patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma among age groups in Taiwan, 30 years after a universal hepatitis B virus immunization program was launched. Data for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed in 2003-2011 were collected from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated to analyze and compare the changes in incidence rates and trends. More specific analyses were performed on four age groups separated by sex. A total of 82,856 patients were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma in 2003-2011 in Taiwan, yielding an age-standardized incidence rate of 32.97 per 100,000 person-years. Hepatocellular carcinoma was predominantly diagnosed in middle-aged adults (50.1%) and elderly people (49.1%), in contrast to the low incidences in children (0.04%) and adolescents and young adults (0.8%). Striking variations in trends were found for children (annual percent change: -16.6%, 2003-2010) and adolescents and young adults (annual percent change: -7.9%, 2003-2011). The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in children decreased to zero in 2011; only a slight decline in trends occurred for the middle-aged group (annual percent change: -2%, 2003-2011), and a slight upward trend was observed for elderly people (1.3%), specifically in women (1.7%). In Taiwan, hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma was nearly eradicated in children in 2011. The findings on age-specific incidence patterns and trends of hepatocellular carcinoma suggest that different control strategies for treating this devastating disease in the future be made according to age. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detecting changes in riparian habitat conditions based on patterns of greenness change: a case study from the upper San Pedro River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Bruce Jones; Curtis E. Edmonds; E. Terrance Slonecker; James D. Wickham; Anne C. Neale; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters; William G. Kepner

    2008-01-01

    Healthy riparian ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions exhibit shifting patterns of vegetation in response to periodic flooding. Their conditions also depend upon the amount of grazing and other human uses. Taking advantage of these system properties, we developed and tested an approach that utilizes historical Landsat data to track changes in the patterns...

  6. Deep brain stimulation changes basal ganglia output nuclei firing pattern in the dystonic hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblois, Arthur; Reese, René; Labarre, David; Hamann, Melanie; Richter, Angelika; Boraud, Thomas; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2010-05-01

    Dystonia is a heterogeneous syndrome of movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal movements and postures. While medical treatment is often ineffective, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal pallidum improves dystonia. Here, we studied the impact of DBS in the entopeduncular nucleus (EP), the rodent equivalent of the human globus pallidus internus, on basal ganglia output in the dt(sz)-hamster, a well-characterized model of dystonia by extracellular recordings. Previous work has shown that EP-DBS improves dystonic symptoms in dt(sz)-hamsters. We report that EP-DBS changes firing pattern in the EP, most neurons switching to a less regular firing pattern during DBS. In contrast, EP-DBS did not change the average firing rate of EP neurons. EP neurons display multiphasic responses to each stimulation impulse, likely underlying the disruption of their firing rhythm. Finally, neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata display similar responses to EP-DBS, supporting the idea that EP-DBS affects basal ganglia output activity through the activation of common afferent fibers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Castel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  8. Patterns of radiographic changes in hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S.; Al-Boukai, Ahmad A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)

  9. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    An important characteristic of a mobile handset is its ability to receive and transmit power. One way to characterize the performance of a handset in this respect is to use measurements of the spherical radiation pattern from which the total radiated power (TRP), total isotropic sensitivity (TIS)...... with respect to the environment. Standard deviations up to about 0.5dB and a maximum deviation of about 1.6dB were found....... in the performance measures are investigated for both the GSM-900 and the GSM-1800 band. Despite the deliberately large deviations from the reference position, the changes in TRP and TIS are generally within ±0.5dB with a maximum of about 1.4dB. For the MEG values the results depend on the orientation of the handset...... system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...

  10. Antibiotic-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters Do Not Change Antibiotic Resistance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Isaiah R; Buckman, Sara A; Horn, Christopher B; Bochicchio, Grant V; Mazuski, John E

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic-impregnated central venous catheters (CVCs) decrease the incidence of infection in high-risk patients. However, use of these catheters carries the hypothetical risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that routine use of minocycline and rifampin-impregnated catheters (MR-CVC) in a single intensive care unit (ICU) would change the resistance profile for Staphylococcus aureus. We reviewed antibiotic susceptibilities of S. aureus isolates obtained from blood cultures in a large urban teaching hospital from 2002-2015. Resistance patterns were compared before and after implementation of MR-CVC use in the surgical ICU (SICU) in August 2006. We also compared resistance patterns of S. aureus obtained in other ICUs and in non-ICU patients, in whom MR-CVCs were not used. Data for rifampin, oxacillin, and clindamycin were available for 9,703 cultures; tetracycline resistance data were available for 4,627 cultures. After implementation of MR-CVC use in the SICU, rifampin resistance remained unchanged, with rates the same as in other ICU and non-ICU populations (3%). After six years of use of MR-CVCs in the SICU, the rate of tetracycline resistance was unchanged in all facilities (1%-3%). The use of MR-CVCs was not associated with any change in S. aureus oxacillin-resistance rates in the SICU (66% vs. 60%). However, there was a significant decrease in S. aureus clindamycin resistance (59% vs. 34%; p resistance of S. aureus isolates to rifampin or tetracyclines.

  11. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    Full Text Available Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1 better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2 help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  12. Changes in gait patterns induced by rhythmic auditory stimulation for adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Yoo, Ga Eul; Chong, Hyun Ju; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2016-12-01

    The effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait in adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) were investigated. A total of 14 adolescents with ABI were initially recruited, and 12 were included in the final analysis (n = 6 each). They were randomly assigned to the experimental (RAS) or the control (conventional gait training) groups. The experimental group received gait training with RAS three times a week for 4 weeks. For both groups, spatiotemporal parameters and kinematic data, such as dynamic motions of joints on three-dimensional planes during a gait cycle and the range of motion in each joint, were collected. Significant group differences in pre-post changes were observed in cadence, walking velocity, and step time, indicating that there were greater improvements in those parameters in the RAS group compared with the control group. Significant increases in hip and knee motions in the sagittal plane were also observed in the RAS group. The changes in kinematic data significantly differed between groups, particularly from terminal stance to mid-swing phase. An increase of both spatiotemporal parameters and corresponding kinematic changes of hip and knee joints after RAS protocol indicates that the use of rhythmic cueing may change gait patterns in adolescents with ABI. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Dynamic temperature dependence patterns in future energy demand models in the context of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekkenberg, M.; Moll, H.C.; Uiterkamp, A.J.M. Schoot

    2009-01-01

    Energy demand depends on outdoor temperature in a 'u' shaped fashion. Various studies have used this temperature dependence to investigate the effects of climate change on energy demand. Such studies contain implicit or explicit assumptions to describe expected socio-economic changes that may affect future energy demand. This paper critically analyzes these implicit or explicit assumptions and their possible effect on the studies' outcomes. First we analyze the interaction between the socio-economic structure and the temperature dependence pattern (TDP) of energy demand. We find that socio-economic changes may alter the TDP in various ways. Next we investigate how current studies manage these dynamics in socio-economic structure. We find that many studies systematically misrepresent the possible effect of socio-economic changes on the TDP of energy demand. Finally, we assess the consequences of these misrepresentations in an energy demand model based on temperature dependence and climate scenarios. Our model results indicate that expected socio-economic dynamics generally lead to an underestimation of future energy demand in models that misrepresent such dynamics. We conclude that future energy demand models should improve the incorporation of socio-economic dynamics. We propose dynamically modeling several key parameters and using direct meteorological data instead of degree days. (author)

  14. Patterns of mechanical energy change in tetrapod gait: pendula, springs and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewener, Andrew A

    2006-11-01

    Kinematic and center of mass (CoM) mechanical variables used to define terrestrial gaits are compared for various tetrapod species. Kinematic variables (limb phase, duty factor) provide important timing information regarding the neural control and limb coordination of various gaits. Whereas, mechanical variables (potential and kinetic energy relative phase, %Recovery, %Congruity) provide insight into the underlying mechanisms that minimize muscle work and the metabolic cost of locomotion, and also influence neural control strategies. Two basic mechanisms identified by Cavagna et al. (1977. Am J Physiol 233:R243-R261) are used broadly by various bipedal and quadrupedal species. During walking, animals exchange CoM potential energy (PE) with kinetic energy (KE) via an inverted pendulum mechanism to reduce muscle work. During the stance period of running (including trotting, hopping and galloping) gaits, animals convert PE and KE into elastic strain energy in spring elements of the limbs and trunk and regain this energy later during limb support. The bouncing motion of the body on the support limb(s) is well represented by a simple mass-spring system. Limb spring compliance allows the storage and return of elastic energy to reduce muscle work. These two distinct patterns of CoM mechanical energy exchange are fairly well correlated with kinematic distinctions of limb movement patterns associated with gait change. However, in some cases such correlations can be misleading. When running (or trotting) at low speeds many animals lack an aerial period and have limb duty factors that exceed 0.5. Rather than interpreting this as a change of gait, the underlying mechanics of the body's CoM motion indicate no fundamental change in limb movement pattern or CoM dynamics has occurred. Nevertheless, the idealized, distinctive patterns of CoM energy fluctuation predicted by an inverted pendulum for walking and a bouncing mass spring for running are often not clear cut, especially

  15. Complex and changing patterns of natural selection explain the evolution of the human hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Roseman, Charles C

    2015-08-01

    Causal explanations for the dramatic changes that occurred during the evolution of the human hip focus largely on selection for bipedal function and locomotor efficiency. These hypotheses rest on two critical assumptions. The first-that these anatomical changes served functional roles in bipedalism-has been supported in numerous analyses showing how postcranial changes likely affected locomotion. The second-that morphological changes that did play functional roles in bipedalism were the result of selection for that behavior-has not been previously explored and represents a major gap in our understanding of hominin hip evolution. Here we use evolutionary quantitative genetic models to test the hypothesis that strong directional selection on many individual aspects of morphology was responsible for the large differences observed across a sample of fossil hominin hips spanning the Plio-Pleistocene. Our approach uses covariance among traits and the differences between relatively complete fossils to estimate the net selection pressures that drove the major transitions in hominin hip evolution. Our findings show a complex and changing pattern of natural selection drove hominin hip evolution, and that many, but not all, traits hypothesized to play functional roles in bipedalism evolved as a direct result of natural selection. While the rate of evolutionary change for all transitions explored here does not exceed the amount expected if evolution was occurring solely through neutral processes, it was far above rates of evolution for morphological traits in other mammalian groups. Given that stasis is the norm in the mammalian fossil record, our results suggest that large shifts in the adaptive landscape drove hominin evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of the Hydrocodone Schedule Change on Opioid Prescription Patterns in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschel, Lauren M; Mort, Jane M

    2017-10-01

    Prescription opioid use is becoming increasingly common; consequently, opioid overdose deaths are increasing at an alarming rate. Hydrocodone, one of the most commonly abused opioids, was changed from a schedule III controlled substance to the more stringent schedule II to decrease abuse and diversion, effective Oct. 6, 2014. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the hydrocodone schedule change on opioid prescribing in South Dakota. Opioid prescription patterns were examined in the following six-month phases: the baseline phase before the change, the transition phase when existing hydrocodone prescriptions could still be refilled, and the final phase. The South Dakota Board of Pharmacy Prescription Drug Monitoring Program provided aggregate monthly data for South Dakota opioid prescriptions (i.e., total number of prescriptions and days supplied), including urban and rural stratification. T-tests were performed on the monthly values for each phase to determine the significance of differences in prescription features between phases. The number of hydrocodone prescriptions significantly decreased 14 percent from baseline to final phase, while the days supplied per prescription significantly increased 7.4 percent. These changes were greater in rural areas than in urban areas. Conversely, the number of other opioid prescriptions significantly increased by 6.5 percent over this timeframe. The number of hydrocodone prescriptions decreased, while the days supplied per prescription increased. These changes were greater in rural areas than in urban areas. In addition, the number of other opioid prescriptions increased. These trends may reflect some unintended effects of the schedule change.

  17. 21st Century Changes in Precipitation Extremes Based on Resolved Atmospheric Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Monier, E.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming is expected to alter the frequency and/or magnitude of extreme precipitation events. Such changes could have substantial ecological, economic, and sociological consequences. However, climate models in general do not correctly reproduce the frequency distribution of precipitation, especially at the regional scale. In this study, a validated analogue method is employed to diagnose the potential future shifts in the probability of extreme precipitation over the United States under global warming. The method is based on the use of the resolved large-scale meteorological conditions (i.e. flow features, moisture supply) to detect the occurrence of extreme precipitation. The CMIP5 multi-model projections have been compiled for two radiative forcing scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5). We further analyze the accompanying circulation features and their changes that may be responsible for shifts in extreme precipitation in response to changed climate. The application of such analogue method to detect other types of hazard events, i.e. landslides is also explored. The results from this study may guide hazardous weather watches and help society develop adaptive strategies for preventing catastrophic losses.

  18. Tropically driven and externally forced patterns of Antarctic sea ice change: reconciling observed and modeled trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David P.; Deser, Clara

    2017-09-01

    Recent work suggests that natural variability has played a significant role in the increase of Antarctic sea ice extent during 1979-2013. The ice extent has responded strongly to atmospheric circulation changes, including a deepened Amundsen Sea Low (ASL), which in part has been driven by tropical variability. Nonetheless, this increase has occurred in the context of externally forced climate change, and it has been difficult to reconcile observed and modeled Antarctic sea ice trends. To understand observed-model disparities, this work defines the internally driven and radiatively forced patterns of Antarctic sea ice change and exposes potential model biases using results from two sets of historical experiments of a coupled climate model compared with observations. One ensemble is constrained only by external factors such as greenhouse gases and stratospheric ozone, while the other explicitly accounts for the influence of tropical variability by specifying observed SST anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific. The latter experiment reproduces the deepening of the ASL, which drives an increase in regional ice extent due to enhanced ice motion and sea surface cooling. However, the overall sea ice trend in every ensemble member of both experiments is characterized by ice loss and is dominated by the forced pattern, as given by the ensemble-mean of the first experiment. This pervasive ice loss is associated with a strong warming of the ocean mixed layer, suggesting that the ocean model does not locally store or export anomalous heat efficiently enough to maintain a surface environment conducive to sea ice expansion. The pervasive upper-ocean warming, not seen in observations, likely reflects ocean mean-state biases.

  19. Change In Course Pattern Of The Teesta River: After Effect Of An Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Z. M.; Shuvo, S. D.; Mahmud, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Bangladesh is blessed by rivers that contribute to country's agriculture, landscape development and water supply. Due to nature of the river's flow and morphology, several engineering project have been initiated to enhance its utility, Teesta barrage was one of them. After two decades of its construction in Northern Bangladesh, several study identified major impacts on local ecosystem due to hindrance in water flow. However, how Teesta River evolved in last 25 years after the barrage construction, has not been quantified yet. This study quantifies the downstream evolution of Teesta River in after-construction period (1990-2015). Time series earth observation satellite (Landsat) data and geo-spatial techniques have been utilized to understand the changes in course pattern. Besides, sinuosity index has been used to quantify it. Analysis shows that the river is becoming more braided with the rise of numerous `Char' areas (islands); as well as bifurcation of the main channel, creating newer channels increasingly. Statistically significant changes in Sinuosity Index (SI) of the Teesta river has found in post construction period. In some locations SI increased which indicate that the river is becoming more and more winding than straight it used to be around 1990. It is also found that the river is shifting towards the east where the number of human settlement is higher. The rate of shifting has accelerated during the 2000s. There are places where the course has moved about 3 kilometers from its earlier course. Therefore, higher number of human settlements are in threat of river bank erosion in recent years. River bank management should be developed considering the pattern of course change so that rural settlement can save from destructive river bank erosion.

  20. Tropically driven and externally forced patterns of Antarctic sea ice change: reconciling observed and modeled trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David P.; Deser, Clara

    2018-06-01

    Recent work suggests that natural variability has played a significant role in the increase of Antarctic sea ice extent during 1979-2013. The ice extent has responded strongly to atmospheric circulation changes, including a deepened Amundsen Sea Low (ASL), which in part has been driven by tropical variability. Nonetheless, this increase has occurred in the context of externally forced climate change, and it has been difficult to reconcile observed and modeled Antarctic sea ice trends. To understand observed-model disparities, this work defines the internally driven and radiatively forced patterns of Antarctic sea ice change and exposes potential model biases using results from two sets of historical experiments of a coupled climate model compared with observations. One ensemble is constrained only by external factors such as greenhouse gases and stratospheric ozone, while the other explicitly accounts for the influence of tropical variability by specifying observed SST anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific. The latter experiment reproduces the deepening of the ASL, which drives an increase in regional ice extent due to enhanced ice motion and sea surface cooling. However, the overall sea ice trend in every ensemble member of both experiments is characterized by ice loss and is dominated by the forced pattern, as given by the ensemble-mean of the first experiment. This pervasive ice loss is associated with a strong warming of the ocean mixed layer, suggesting that the ocean model does not locally store or export anomalous heat efficiently enough to maintain a surface environment conducive to sea ice expansion. The pervasive upper-ocean warming, not seen in observations, likely reflects ocean mean-state biases.

  1. Preschool and Children's Outcomes in Elementary School: Have Patterns Changed Nationwide Between 1998 and 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassok, Daphna; Gibbs, Chloe R; Latham, Scott

    2018-04-17

    This study employs data from both kindergarten cohorts of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (n ~ 12,450 in 1998; n ~ 11,000 in 2010) to assess whether associations between preschool participation and children's academic and behavioral outcomes-both at school entry (M age  = 5.6 years in both cohorts) and through third grade-have changed over time. Findings are strikingly similar across these two, nationally representative, U.S. cohorts: preschool is positively associated with academic outcomes and negatively associated with behavioral outcomes both at school entry and as children progress through school. Heterogeneity is documented with respect to child and preschool characteristics. However, there is no evidence that associations between preschool and medium-term child outcomes differ by elementary school characteristics. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  2. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Full Employment in Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Argues that full employment must be acceptable on both social and economic grounds. Examines profound changes in industrialized economies since the 1970s and the diversity of employment contracts. Suggests that difficult policy decisions surround full employment. (SK)

  4. Effectiveness of return-to-work interventions for disabled people: a systematic review of government initiatives focused on changing the behaviour of employers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clayton, Stephen; Barr, Ben; Nylen, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: OECD countries over the past two decades have implemented a range of labour market integration initiatives to improve the employment chances of disabled and chronically ill individuals. This article presents a systematic review and evidence synthesis on effectiveness of government...... closer to the labour market. CONCLUSIONS: Future evaluations need to pay more attention to differential impact of interventions, degree of take-up, non-stigmatizing implementation and wider policy context in each country....... employment effects and/or process evaluations of government policies aimed at changing the behaviour of employers conducted between 1990 and 2008 from Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK. RESULTS: Few studies provided robust evaluations of the programmes or their differential effects and selection...

  5. Incidence and mortality of primary liver cancer in England and Wales: changing patterns and ethnic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Khan, Shahid A; Crossey, Mary Me; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-02-14

    To explore recent trends, modes of diagnosis, ethnic distribution and the mortality to incidence ratio of primary liver cancer by subtypes in England and Wales. We obtained incidence (1979-2008) and mortality (1968-2008) data for primary liver cancer for England and Wales and calculated age-standardised incidence and mortality rates. Trends in age-standardised mortality (ASMR) and incidence (ASIR) rates and basis of diagnosis of primary liver cancer and subcategories: hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct and unspecified liver tumours, were analysed over the study period. Changes in guidelines for the diagnosis of primary liver cancer (PLC) may impact changing trends in the rates that may be obtained. We thus explored changes in the mode of diagnosis as reported to cancer registries. Furthermore, we examined the distribution of these tumours by ethnicity. Most of the statistical manipulations of these data was carried out in Microsoft excel® (Seattle, Washington, United Sttaes). Additional epidemiological statistics were done in Epi Info software (Atlanta, GA, United Sttaes). To define patterns of change over time, we evaluated trends in ASMR and ASIR of PLC and intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (IHBD) using a least squares regression line fitted to the natural logarithm of the mortality and incidence rates. We estimated the patterns of survival over subsequent 5 and 10 years using complement of mortality to incidence ratio (1-MIR). Age-standardised mortality rate of primary liver cancer increased in both sexes: from 2.56 and 1.29/100000 in 1968 to 5.10 and 2.63/100000 in 2008 for men and women respectively. The use of histology for diagnostic confirmation of primary liver cancer increased from 35.7% of registered cases in 1993 to plateau at about 50% during 2005 to 2008. Reliance on cytology as a basis of diagnosis has maintained a downward trend throughout the study period. Although approximately 30% of the PLC registrations had information on

  6. Lateralization patterns of covert but not overt movements change with age: An EEG neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten; Frerichs, Stella; Maurer, Stefanie; Kranczioch, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    The mental practice of movements has been suggested as a promising add-on therapy to facilitate motor recovery after stroke. In the case of mentally practised movements, electroencephalogram (EEG) can be utilized to provide feedback about an otherwise covert act. The main target group for such an intervention are elderly patients, though research so far is largely focused on young populations (study therefore aimed to examine the influence of age on the neural correlates of covert movements (CMs) in a real-time EEG neurofeedback framework. CM-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) was studied in young (mean age: 23.6 years) and elderly (mean age: 62.7 years) healthy adults. Participants performed covert and overt hand movements. CMs were based on kinesthetic motor imagery (MI) or quasi-movements (QM). Based on previous studies investigating QM in the mu frequency range (8-13Hz) QM were expected to result in more lateralized ERD% patterns and accordingly higher classification accuracies. Independent of CM strategy the elderly were characterized by a significantly reduced lateralization of ERD%, due to stronger ipsilateral ERD%, and in consequence, reduced classification accuracies. QM were generally perceived as more vivid, but no differences were evident between MI and QM in ERD% or classification accuracies. EEG feedback enhanced task-related activity independently of strategy and age. ERD% measures of overt and covert movements were strongly related in young adults, whereas in the elderly ERD% lateralization is dissociated. In summary, we did not find evidence in support of more pronounced ERD% lateralization patterns in QM. Our finding of a less lateralized activation pattern in the elderly is in accordance to previous research and with the idea that compensatory processes help to overcome neurodegenerative changes related to normal ageing. Importantly, it indicates that EEG neurofeedback studies should place more emphasis on the age of the potential end

  7. Changes in eating behaviour and meal pattern following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, A; Larsson, I; Bueter, M; Melanson, K J; Bosaeus, I; Forslund, H Bertéus; Lönroth, H; Fändriks, L; Olbers, T

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about eating behaviour and meal pattern subsequent to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), knowledge important for the nutritional care process. The objective of the study was to obtain basic information of how meal size, eating rate, meal frequency and eating behaviour change upon the RYGB surgery. Voluntary chosen meal size and eating rate were measured in a longitudinal, within subject, cohort study of 43 patients, 31 women and 12 men, age 42.6 (s.d. 9.7) years, body mass index (BMI) 44.5 (4.9) kg m(-2). Thirty-one non-obese subjects, 37.8 (13.6) years, BMI 23.7 (2.7) kg m(-2) served as a reference group. All subjects completed a meal pattern questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21). Six weeks postoperatively meal size was 42% of the preoperative meal size, (Pmeal size increased but was still lower than preoperative size 57% (Pmeal duration was constant before and after surgery. Mean eating rate measured as amount consumed food per minute was 45% of preoperative eating rate 6 weeks postoperatively (Pmeals per day increased from 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 4.4,5.4) preoperatively to 6 weeks: 5.2 (4.9,5.6), (not significant), 1 year 5.8 (5.5,6.1), (P=0.003), and 2 years 5.4 (5.1,5.7), (not significant). Emotional and uncontrolled eating were significantly decreased postoperatively, (both Pmeal patterns, which may lead to sustained weight loss.

  8. Changes in Nuclear Orientation Patterns of Chromosome 11 during Mouse Plasmacytoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Schmälter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying changes in nuclear architecture is a unique approach toward the understanding of nuclear remodeling during tumor development. One aspect of nuclear architecture is the orientation of chromosomes in the three-dimensional nuclear space. We studied mouse chromosome 11 in lymphocytes of [T38HxBALB/c]N mice with a reciprocal translocation between chromosome X and 11 (T38HT(X;11 exhibiting a long chromosome T(11;X and a short chromosome T(X;11 and in fast-onset plasmacytomas (PCTs induced in the same strain. We determined the three-dimensional orientation of chromosome 11 using a mouse chromosome 11 specific multicolor banding probe. We also examined the nuclear position of the small translocation chromosome T(X;11 which contains cytoband 11E2 and parts of E1. Chromosomes can point either with their centromeric or with their telomeric end toward the nuclear center or periphery, or their position is found in parallel to the nuclear border. In T38HT(X;11 nuclei, the most frequently observed orientation pattern was with both chromosomes 11 in parallel to the nuclear border (“PP”. PCT cells showed nuclei with two or more copies of chromosome 11. In PCTs, the most frequent orientation pattern was with one chromosome in parallel and the other pointing with its centromeric end toward the nuclear periphery (“CP”. There is a significant difference between the orientation patterns observed in T38HT(X;11 and in PCT nuclei (P < .0001.

  9. Changing Precipitation Patterns or Waning Glaciers? Identifying Water Supply Vulnerabilities to Climate Change in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z. S.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Bolivian Andes have become an iconic example for the impacts of climate change. Glaciers are rapidly melting and some have already completely disappeared. More than 75 percent of the water consumed by 2 million people living on the flanks of the Bolivian Andes comes from mountains and it is often cited that the dwindling ice threatens the water supply of the expanding and destitute population living in the twin cities of La Paz and El Alto. However, the wet and the warm seasons and the cold and dry seasons coincide, causing high precipitation and ice melt—and therefore high streamflows—to occur only in the austral summer (October-March); during the austral winter, cold conditions limit glacier melt. This suggests that reductions in the water supply could be influenced more by changing precipitation amounts than continued glacial mass-wasting. We hypothesize that precipitation is the principal component of groundwater recharge for the aquifers at the base of the central Cordillera Real. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from rivers partially fed by glaciers, groundwater, and glacial melt water can help determine the relative contribution of precipitation and glacial melt to important water supplies. During the dry season in August 2010, we sampled 23 sites that follow the flow path of water in the Condiriri watershed, beginning in the glacial headwaters and ending several kilometers upriver from Lake Titicaca. We collected five samples at the toe of the Pequeño Alpamayo glacier and four samples from three tributary rivers that drain glaciated headwaters, which include meltwater from the Pequeño Alpamayo glacier. W also collected 14 water samples from shallow and deep wells in rural communities within 40 kilometers of the glaciers. If the isotopic values of groundwater are similar to rain values, as we suspect, precipitation is likely the largest contributor to groundwater resources in the region and will suggest that changing precipitation patterns present the

  10. Simulating The Change In Agricultural Fruit Patterns In The Context of River Basin Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloecking, B.; Laue, K.; Stroebl, B.

    A new concept has been developed for the integrated analysis of impacts of Global Change and direct human activities on the environment and the society in mesoscale river basins. The main steps of this approach are: (1) Developing a set of regional scenarios of change considering expected changes in climate, economic, demographic and social development, (2) Identification of indicators of sustainability for the impact assessment, (3) Impact analysis of the defined scenarios of development, (4) Evalu- ation of the different scenarios on the basis of the impact analysis to elaborate new stategies in regional development. All steps include consultations with actors and stakeholders. The concept is applied in the western part of Thuringia (7.500 km2), covering the basin of the Unstrut river. This part of the German Elbe river basin is highly suited for food production under the present conditions. Therefore it is a good site for vulnerability studies focused on agriculture. The development of agricultural land-use scenarios for the Unstrut region will be done in form of a bottom-up approach based on adaptation reactions of example farms within the expected boundary condi- tions such as the global food markets and other global economic trends as well as in- ternational agreements. Representing the present conditions in Thuringia, a referential land-use scenario was developed, assuming a complete realisation of the AGENDA 2000 resolutions. Impacts of changed land use in combination with climate change scenarios on plant production and on availability and quality of water are been inves- tigated with the help of a spatial distributed river basin model. A GIS-based approach was developed to locate the spatially not explicit land use scenarios. This approach allows to reproduce the agricultural fruit patterns of a region in a river basin model without taking into account the real field boundaries. First simulation results for the referential climate and land-use scenario

  11. Legacy nutrient dynamics and patterns of catchment response under changing land use and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, S.; Van, M. K.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    Watersheds are complex heterogeneous systems that store, transform, and release water and nutrients under a broad distribution of both natural and anthropogenic controls. Many current watershed models, from complex numerical models to simpler reservoir-type models, are considered to be well-developed in their ability to predict fluxes of water and nutrients to streams and groundwater. They are generally less adept, however, at capturing watershed storage dynamics. In other words, many current models are run with an assumption of steady-state dynamics, and focus on nutrient flows rather than changes in nutrient stocks within watersheds. Although these commonly used modeling approaches may be able to adequately capture short-term watershed dynamics, they are unable to represent the clear nonlinearities or hysteresis responses observed in watersheds experiencing significant changes in nutrient inputs. To address such a lack, we have, in the present work, developed a parsimonious modeling approach designed to capture long-term catchment responses to spatial and temporal changes in nutrient inputs. In this approach, we conceptualize the catchment as a biogeochemical reactor that is driven by nutrient inputs, characterized internally by both biogeochemical degradation and residence or travel time distributions, resulting in a specific nutrient output. For the model simulations, we define a range of different scenarios to represent real-world changes in land use and management implemented to improve water quality. We then introduce the concept of state-space trajectories to describe system responses to these potential changes in anthropogenic forcings. We also increase model complexity, in a stepwise fashion, by dividing the catchment into multiple biogeochemical reactors, coupled in series or in parallel. Using this approach, we attempt to answer the following questions: (1) What level of model complexity is needed to capture observed system responses? (2) How can we

  12. Changes in alcohol consumption patterns following the introduction of credit cards in Ontario liquor stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, S A; Wells, S L; Giesbrecht, N; West, P M

    1999-05-01

    In 1994, regulatory changes were introduced in Ontario, Canada, permitting the purchase of alcoholic beverages with credit cards at government-operated liquor stores. Two objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the characteristics of credit card shoppers with non credit card shoppers at liquor stores, and (2) to assess whether changes occurred in alcohol consumption patterns among shoppers following the introduction of credit cards. Random digit dialing was used to interview 2,039 telephone participants prior to the introduction of credit cards (Time 1); 1,401 of these subjects were contacted 1 year later (Time 2). Independent sample t tests were used to compare credit card shoppers with shoppers not using credit cards, and paired t tests were performed to assess whether drinking behaviors changed from Time 1 to Time 2. The credit card shoppers were more likely than the non credit card shoppers to be highly educated (p Credit card shoppers drank an average of 6.3 drinks over the previous week compared with 4.0 drinks among non credit card shoppers (p credit card shoppers dropped from 6.7 drinks at Time 1 to 6.3 at Time 2 (NS), credit card shoppers reported drinking significantly more often after credit cards were introduced (p credit cards may not present public health problems since significant increases in alcohol consumption among credit card shoppers were not found.

  13. Gestational and postpartum weight change patterns in mothers with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie C; Von Holle, Ann; Perrin, Eliana M; Cockrell Skinner, Asheley; Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Hamer, Robert M; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-11-01

    Although pregnancy can be associated with adaptive changes in weight and eating behaviour for women with eating disorders, less is known about whether these changes are maintained in the postpartum period. We used a longitudinal design to examine gestational and postpartum weight trajectories in mothers with and without eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Fifty-six women reported anorexia nervosa (AN), 636 bulimia nervosa, 3327 binge eating disorder and 69 eating disorder not otherwise specified, purging type. The referent group included 61,233 mothers with no eating disorder. We used a mixed effects model to predict weight change over time by eating disorder subtype. Mothers with AN, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorder not otherwise specified had greater increases in body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy and greater decreases in BMI over the first 6 months postpartum. Women with AN shifted from the underweight BMI range before pregnancy to the normal weight range at 36 months postpartum Patterns of maternal weight gain and retention during the perinatal period vary across eating disorder subtype and warrant clinical attention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  15. Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montanari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientists and public administrators are devoting increasing attention to the Po River, in Italy, in view of concerns related to the impact of increasing urbanisation and exploitation of water resources. A better understanding of the hydrological regime of the river is necessary to improve water resources management and flood protection. In particular, the analysis of the effects of hydrological and climatic change is crucial for planning sustainable development and economic growth. An extremely interesting issue is to inspect to what extent river flows can be naturally affected by the occurrence of long periods of water abundance or scarcity, which can be erroneously interpreted as irreversible changes due to human impact. In fact, drought and flood periods alternatively occurred in the recent past in the form of long-term fluctuations. This paper presents advanced graphical and analytical methods to gain a better understanding of the temporal distribution of the Po River discharge. In particular, we present an analysis of river flow variability and persistence properties, to gain a better understanding of natural patterns, and in particular long-term changes, which may affect the future flood risk and availability of water resources.

  16. Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, A.

    2012-05-01

    Scientists and public administrators are devoting increasing attention to the Po River, in Italy, in view of concerns related to the impact of increasing urbanisation and exploitation of water resources. A better understanding of the hydrological regime of the river is necessary to improve water resources management and flood protection. In particular, the analysis of the effects of hydrological and climatic change is crucial for planning sustainable development and economic growth. An extremely interesting issue is to inspect to what extent river flows can be naturally affected by the occurrence of long periods of water abundance or scarcity, which can be erroneously interpreted as irreversible changes due to human impact. In fact, drought and flood periods alternatively occurred in the recent past in the form of long term cycles. This paper presents advanced graphical and analytical methods to gain a better understanding of the temporal distribution of the Po River discharge. In particular, we present an analysis of river flow variability and memory properties to better understand natural patterns and in particular long term changes, which may affect the future flood risk and availability of water resources.

  17. Autonomous change of behavior for environmental context: An intermittent search model with misunderstanding search pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hisashi; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2017-07-01

    Although foraging patterns have long been predicted to optimally adapt to environmental conditions, empirical evidence has been found in recent years. This evidence suggests that the search strategy of animals is open to change so that animals can flexibly respond to their environment. In this study, we began with a simple computational model that possesses the principal features of an intermittent strategy, i.e., careful local searches separated by longer steps, as a mechanism for relocation, where an agent in the model follows a rule to switch between two phases, but it could misunderstand this rule, i.e., the agent follows an ambiguous switching rule. Thanks to this ambiguity, the agent's foraging strategy can continuously change. First, we demonstrate that our model can exhibit an optimal change of strategy from Brownian-type to Lévy-type depending on the prey density, and we investigate the distribution of time intervals for switching between the phases. Moreover, we show that the model can display higher search efficiency than a correlated random walk.

  18. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  19. [Dynamic changes of landscape pattern and hemeroby in Ximen Island wetland, Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cui; Xie, Xue-Fen; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Bian, Hua-Jing; Xu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Abstract: The hemeroby type classification system of Ximen Island wetland of Zhejiang Province was established based on the multiple datasets: SOPT-5 image data with a spatial resolution of 5 m in 2007 and 2010, its wetland land cover and land use status, the National Land Use Classification (on trail), and sea area use classification of marine industry standards as well as remote sensing data features. Meanwhile, the dynamic relationship between the landscape pattern and the degree of hemeroby in Ximen Island was investigated with the landscape indices and hemeroby index (HI) derived from the landscape pattern index and GIS spatial analysis. The results showed that the wetland landscape spatial heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance index dropped, and the landscape shape index complexity was low. The human disturbance center developed from a dispersion type to a concentration type. The landscape type of the disturbance center was bare land and settlement. The HI rose up from the sea to the land. Settlement, wharf and traffic land had the highest HI. The HI of the mudflat cultivation, mudflats and raft-cultivation dramatically changed. Marine-terrestrial interlaced zone showed a low total HI with unstable characteristics. The number of patches declined of undisturbed, partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes. Mean patch areas of partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes increased, and that of the undisturbed decreased. Mean shape index of the undisturbed landscape decreased, while the partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes showed a trend of shape complication.

  20. Impact of nutritional interventions on food consumption pattern changes of workers and staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program aiming at modifying life style of workers and staff in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas, and Arak (reference area carried out for 5 years. Nutritional interventions are one of the interventions of this project. This research aiming at studying the effect of these interventions on food consumption pattern changes carried out in workers and staff of Isfahan and Najafabad. Materials and Method: Food consumption pattern by food frequency questionnaire and demographic information of this group were collected before, after and annually during the intervention. Data were analyzed by Genera Linear Models (GLM, descriptive and trend analysis. Results: Beverage and hydrogenated oil consumption decreased and fruits and vegetables increased in workers and staff of intervention area more than reference area (p0.27. Compare to reference society fast food consumption in office staff of intervention society was increased (p<0.001.Conclusion: We conclude that nutritional interventions have favorite effects on practice of workers and staff of this Iranian population and interventions used in this study can use as applicable interventions for similar societies

  1. Microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of otitis externa: a changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, E; Cullen, M; Hobson, J

    2018-04-01

    Otitis externa is a common presentation to secondary care otolaryngology clinics. Despite this, few studies have investigated the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance of otitis externa. This study aimed to examine these issues. Analysis identified 302 swabs taken from 217 patients (100 male, 117 female), between 1 January 2015 and 30 March 2016, at our rapid access otolaryngology clinic. In total, 315 organisms were isolated; the most frequent was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31.1 per cent), followed by candida species (22.9 per cent) and Staphylococcus aureus (11.7 per cent). P aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin in 97.7 per cent of cases and to gentamicin in 78.4 per cent. Compared with studies worldwide, the relative proportions of different organisms causing otitis externa and the patterns of antimicrobial resistance differ. Increasing resistance of P aeruginosa to aminoglycosides demonstrates a changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance that has not been previously reported. Reassuringly, quinolone antibiotics remain highly effective when treating P aeruginosa.

  2. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Gökçe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. Aims: To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (- bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2 in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1. Results: Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (- urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy. The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2. Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, p0.05. Conclusion: In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results

  3. FHR patterns that become significant in connection with ST waveform changes and metabolic acidosis at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Karl G; Norén, Håkan; Carlsson, Ann

    2018-04-18

    Recent developments have produced new CTG classification systems and the question is to what extent these may affect the model of FHR + ST interpretation? The two new systems (FIGO2015 and SSOG2017) classify FHR + ST events differently from the current CTG classification system used in the STAN interpretation algorithm (STAN2007). Identify the predominant FHR patterns in connection with ST events in cases of cord artery metabolic acidosis missed by the different CTG classification systems. Indicate to what extent STAN clinical guidelines could be modified enhancing the sensitivity. Provide a pathophysiological rationale. Forty-four cases with umbilical cord artery metabolic acidosis were retrieved from a European multicenter database. Significant FHR + ST events were evaluated post hoc in consensus by an expert panel. Eighteen cases were not identified as in need of intervention and regarded as negative in the sensitivity analysis. In 12 cases, ST changes occurred but the CTG was regarded as reassuring. Visual analysis of the FHR + ST tracings revealed specific FHR patterns: Conclusion: These findings indicate FHR + ST analysis may be undertaken regardless of CTG classification system provided there is a more physiologically oriented approach to FHR assessment in connection with an ST event.

  4. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  5. Tunable optical switching in the near-infrared spectral regime by employing plasmonic nanoantennas containing phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaliya, Priten B; Thomas, Arun; Dua, Rishi; Dhawan, Anuj

    2017-10-02

    We propose the design of switchable plasmonic nanoantennas (SPNs) that can be employed for optical switching in the near-infrared regime. The proposed SPNs consist of nanoantenna structures made up of a plasmonic metal (gold) such that these nanoantennas are filled with a switchable material (vanadium dioxide). We compare the results of these SPNs with inverted SPN structures that consist of gold nanoantenna structures surrounded by a layer of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) on their outer surface. These nanoantennas demonstrate switching of electric-field intensity enhancement (EFIE) between two states (On and Off states), which can be induced thermally, optically or electrically. The On and Off states of the nanoantennas correspond to the metallic and semiconductor states, respectively of the VO 2 film inside or around the nanoantennas, as the VO 2 film exhibits phase transition from its semiconductor state to the metallic state upon application of thermal, optical, or electrical energy. We employ finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations to demonstrate switching in the EFIE for four different SPN geometries - nanorod-dipole, bowtie, planar trapezoidal toothed log-periodic, and rod-disk - and compare their near-field distributions for the On and Off states of the SPNs. We also demonstrate that the resonance wavelength of the EFIE spectra gets substantially modified when these SPNs switch between the two states.

  6. Associations Between Dietary Patterns and Longitudinal Quality of Life Changes in Colorectal Cancer Patients: The ColoCare Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigic, Biljana; Boeing, Heiner; Toth, Reka; Böhm, Jürgen; Habermann, Nina; Scherer, Dominique; Schrotz-King, Petra; Abbenhardt-Martin, Clare; Skender, Stephanie; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Syrjala, Karen; Jacobsen, Paul B; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2018-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important clinical outcome in cancer patients. We investigated associations between dietary patterns and QoL changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The study included 192 CRC patients with available EORTC QLQ-C30 data before and 12 months post-surgery and food frequency questionnaire data at 12 months post-surgery. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate regression models assessed associations between dietary patterns and QoL changes over time. We identified four major dietary patterns: "Western" dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of potatoes, red and processed meat, poultry, and cakes, "fruit&vegetable" pattern: high intake of vegetables, fruits, vegetable oils, and soy products, "bread&butter" pattern: high intake of bread, butter and margarine, and "high-carb" pattern: high consumption of pasta, grains, nonalcoholic beverages, sauces and condiments. Patients following a "Western" diet had lower chances to improve in physical functioning (OR = 0.45 [0.21-0.99]), constipation (OR = 0.30 [0.13-0.72]) and diarrhea (OR: 0.44 [0.20-0.98]) over time. Patients following a "fruit&vegetable" diet showed improving diarrhea scores (OR: 2.52 [1.21-5.34]. A "Western" dietary pattern after surgery is inversely associated with QoL in CRC patients, whereas a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may be beneficial for patients' QoL over time.

  7. [Dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ke-Li; Chang, Qing-Rui

    2007-09-01

    By using the 1986, 1993 and 2003 Landsat TM images and with the help of GIS, the dynamic changes of land desertification landscape pattern in agriculture and pasturage interlaced zone of northern Shaanxi in 1986-2003 were analyzed. The results showed that in the past 17 years, the desertification area in the zone decreased by 206,655.2 hm2, with the patches in landscape structure reduced and fragmentation abated. Fortunately, the desertification degree decreased obviously, and moderate and light desertification took the leading position. From 1986 to 2003, the spatial centroid of desertification landscape patches expanded southwestward and northeastward, giving serious threat to the ecological safety of the southeast and northeast loess gully and hilly areas.

  8. Combining rules, background knowledge and change patterns to maintain semantic annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Silvio Domingos; Chantal, Reynaud-Delaître; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) play a key role in enriching biomedical information in order to make it machine-understandable and shareable. This is done by annotating medical documents, or more specifically, associating concept labels from KOS with pieces of digital information, e.g., images or texts. However, the dynamic nature of KOS may impact the annotations, thus creating a mismatch between the evolved concept and the associated information. To solve this problem, methods to maintain the quality of the annotations are required. In this paper, we define a framework based on rules, background knowledge and change patterns to drive the annotation adaption process. We evaluate experimentally the proposed approach in realistic cases-studies and demonstrate the overall performance of our approach in different KOS considering the precision, recall, F1-score and AUC value of the system.

  9. Dietary transition, nutritional and health outcomes, and changing agrifood production and trade patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Cao, Lijuan

    efficiency and welfare consequences. Realizing that changing dietary trends are likely to be costly, in a more refined scenario, we consider public policy options to influence consumer choices for purposes of reaching a given alternative diet target. Since the costs of the policy intervention...... and health outcomes of diet transition and alternative diets on the one hand and the associated agricultural and food production and trade effects on the other hand, using the Chinese case as an example. We base this analysis in a modified GTAP model featuring the demand, production and supply and trade...... of major agricultural and food products. Taking advantages of recent methodological advances in building calorie and other nutrition data sourced from the FAO into the GTAP model and database, we further represent current and predicted dietary patterns for China in a baseline projection. The projected...

  10. Increase in flood risk resulting from climate change in a developed urban watershed - the role of storm temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Suresh; Wasko, Conrad; Sharma, Ashish

    2018-03-01

    The effects of climate change are causing more frequent extreme rainfall events and an increased risk of flooding in developed areas. Quantifying this increased risk is of critical importance for the protection of life and property as well as for infrastructure planning and design. The updated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14 intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships and temporal patterns are widely used in hydrologic and hydraulic modeling for design and planning in the United States. Current literature shows that rising temperatures as a result of climate change will result in an intensification of rainfall. These impacts are not explicitly included in the NOAA temporal patterns, which can have consequences on the design and planning of adaptation and flood mitigation measures. In addition there is a lack of detailed hydraulic modeling when assessing climate change impacts on flooding. The study presented in this paper uses a comprehensive hydrologic and hydraulic model of a fully developed urban/suburban catchment to explore two primary questions related to climate change impacts on flood risk. (1) How do climate change effects on storm temporal patterns and rainfall volumes impact flooding in a developed complex watershed? (2) Is the storm temporal pattern as critical as the total volume of rainfall when evaluating urban flood risk? We use the NOAA Atlas 14 temporal patterns, along with the expected increase in temperature for the RCP8.5 scenario for 2081-2100, to project temporal patterns and rainfall volumes to reflect future climatic change. The model results show that different rainfall patterns cause variability in flood depths during a storm event. The changes in the projected temporal patterns alone increase the risk of flood magnitude up to 35 %, with the cumulative impacts of temperature rise on temporal patterns and the storm volume increasing flood risk from 10 to 170 %. The results also show that regional

  11. Increase in flood risk resulting from climate change in a developed urban watershed – the role of storm temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hettiarachchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change are causing more frequent extreme rainfall events and an increased risk of flooding in developed areas. Quantifying this increased risk is of critical importance for the protection of life and property as well as for infrastructure planning and design. The updated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Atlas 14 intensity–duration–frequency (IDF relationships and temporal patterns are widely used in hydrologic and hydraulic modeling for design and planning in the United States. Current literature shows that rising temperatures as a result of climate change will result in an intensification of rainfall. These impacts are not explicitly included in the NOAA temporal patterns, which can have consequences on the design and planning of adaptation and flood mitigation measures. In addition there is a lack of detailed hydraulic modeling when assessing climate change impacts on flooding. The study presented in this paper uses a comprehensive hydrologic and hydraulic model of a fully developed urban/suburban catchment to explore two primary questions related to climate change impacts on flood risk. (1 How do climate change effects on storm temporal patterns and rainfall volumes impact flooding in a developed complex watershed? (2 Is the storm temporal pattern as critical as the total volume of rainfall when evaluating urban flood risk? We use the NOAA Atlas 14 temporal patterns, along with the expected increase in temperature for the RCP8.5 scenario for 2081–2100, to project temporal patterns and rainfall volumes to reflect future climatic change. The model results show that different rainfall patterns cause variability in flood depths during a storm event. The changes in the projected temporal patterns alone increase the risk of flood magnitude up to 35 %, with the cumulative impacts of temperature rise on temporal patterns and the storm volume increasing flood risk from 10 to 170 %. The results

  12. Lethal pedestrian--passenger car collisions in Berlin. Changed injury patterns in two different time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Edwin; Tischer, Anja; Maxeiner, H

    2009-04-01

    To expand the passive safety of automobiles protecting traffic participants technological innovations were done in the last decades. Objective of our retrospective analysis was to examine if these technical modifications led to a clearly changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians whose death was caused by the accidents. Another reduction concerns the exclusion of injured car passengers--only pedestrians walking or standing at the moment of collision were included. We selected time intervals 1975-1985 and 1991-2004 (=years of construction of the involved passenger cars). The cars were classified depending on their frontal construction in types as presented by Schindler et al. [Schindler V, Kühn M, Weber S, Siegler H, Heinrich T. Verletzungsmechanismen und Wirkabschätzungen der Fahrzegfrontgestaltung bei Pkw-Fussgänger-Kollisionen. Abschlussbericht im Auftrag der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. TU-Berlin Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (GDV) 2004:36-40]. In both periods more than 90% of all cars were from the usual types small/medium/large class. Hundred and thirty-four autopsy records of such cases from Department of Forensic Medicine (Charité Berlin) data were analysed. The data included technical information of the accidents and vehicles and the external and internal injuries of the victims. The comparison of the two periods showed a decrease of serious head injuries and femoral fractures but an increase of chest-, abdominal and pelvic injuries. This situation could be explained by an increased occurrence of soft-face-constructions and changed front design of modern passenger cars, resulting in a favourable effects concerning head impact to the car during accident. Otherwise the same kinetic energy was transferred to the (complete) victim - but because of a displacement of main focus of impact the pattern of injuries modified (went distally).

  13. The addition of temozolomide does not change the pattern of progression glioblastoma multiforme post-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunjur, Ashray; Bressel, Mathias; Ryan, Gail

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the pattern of progressive disease (PD) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients has changed with the introduction of the current standard of care protocol – postoperative conformal radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray in 30 fractions with concurrent low-dose (75–100 mg/m 2 ) temozolomide, followed by six cycles of adjuvant high-dose (150–200 mg/m 2 ) temozolomide – as compared with radiotherapy alone. For GBM patients commencing combined modality treatment between October 2005 and August 2009, the MRI scan confirming progression (if any) was co-registered with the original planning CT scan, and progression site(s) marked. Coverage of the composite progression volume (PDvol) by the original 95% prescription isodose volume was obtained from dose-volume histogram (DVH) data, and assigned as ‘central’, ‘in field’, ‘marginal’ and ‘out of field’, corresponding to >95%, >80%, 20–80% and <20% coverage. Of 68 consecutive patients identified, 54 (79.4%) had documented PD. Of the 47 (87%) evaluable patients, 43 (91%) had in field progression with 36 (77%) of these being central. Of the remaining four cases, three (6%) had marginal progression, and only one patient (2%) had out of field progression. Median overall and progression-free survival were 11.6 and 6.6 months, respectively. The pattern of progression in our GBM patients does not appear to have been altered by the addition of temozolomide. The overwhelming majority of first PD occurred within the original radiotherapy planning target volume, as is the case in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. Major changes to radiotherapy volumes are not indicated, with alternative strategies required to improve outcomes.

  14. The influence of living arrangements, marital patterns and family configuration on employment rates among the 1945–1954 birth cohort: evidence from ten European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ogg, Jim; Renaut, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    As they approach retirement, Europeans in mid-life display a range of living arrangements and marital patterns. These configurations influence labour force participation for men and women in different ways and these differences are accentuated between countries. Using data from the first Wave (2004) of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), the paper examines the relationship between living arrangements, marital patterns, family configurations and participation in the ...

  15. Changes in the Austrian structure of wages, 1996-2002: evidence from linked employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Pointner, Wolfgang; Stiglbauer, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the Structure of Earnings Surveys we find that wage dispersion in Austria increased marginally between 1996 and 2002. There was an increase in the returns to education which accrued only to male workers. The positive effects of tenure and especially of experience on wages decreased over time. We adopt the Machado-Mata (2005) counterfactual decomposition technique which allows to attribute changes in each wage decile to changes in worker and workplace characteristics and in...

  16. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  17. Predicted disappearance of Cephalantheropsis obcordata in Luofu Mountain due to changes in rainfall patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ju Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past century, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.74°C and extreme weather events have become prevalent. Recent studies have shown that species have shifted from high-elevation areas to low ones because the rise in temperature has increased rainfall. These outcomes challenge the existing hypothesis about the responses of species to climate change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the use of data on the biological characteristics and reproductive behavior of Cephalantheropsis obcordata in Luofu Mountain, Guangdong, China, trends in the population size of the species were predicted based on several factors. The response of C. obcordata to climate change was verified by integrating it with analytical findings on meteorological data and an artificially simulated environment of water change. The results showed that C. obcordata can grow only in waterlogged streams. The species can produce fruit with many seeds by insect pollination; however, very few seeds can burgeon to become seedlings, with most of those seedlings not maturing into the sexually reproductive phase, and grass plants will die after reproduction. The current population's age pyramid is kettle-shaped; it has a Deevey type I survival curve; and its net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, as well as finite rate of increase are all very low. The population used in the artificial simulation perished due to seasonal drought. CONCLUSIONS: The change in rainfall patterns caused by climate warming has altered the water environment of C. obcordata in Luofu Mountain, thereby restricting seed burgeoning as well as seedling growth and shortening the life span of the plant. The growth rate of the C. obcordata population is in descending order, and models of population trend predict that the population in Luofu Mountain will disappear in 23 years.

  18. Epigenetic change detection and pattern recognition via Bayesian hierarchical hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlei; Zang, Miao; Xiao, Guanghua

    2013-06-15

    Epigenetics is the study of changes to the genome that can switch genes on or off and determine which proteins are transcribed without altering the DNA sequence. Recently, epigenetic changes have been linked to the development and progression of disease such as psychiatric disorders. High-throughput epigenetic experiments have enabled researchers to measure genome-wide epigenetic profiles and yield data consisting of intensity ratios of immunoprecipitation versus reference samples. The intensity ratios can provide a view of genomic regions where protein binding occur under one experimental condition and further allow us to detect epigenetic alterations through comparison between two different conditions. However, such experiments can be expensive, with only a few replicates available. Moreover, epigenetic data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical model, combined with hidden Markov processes with four states for modeling spatial dependence, to detect genomic sites with epigenetic changes from two-sample experiments with paired internal control. One attractive feature of the proposed method is that the four states of the hidden Markov process have well-defined biological meanings and allow us to directly call the change patterns based on the corresponding posterior probabilities. In contrast, none of existing methods can offer this advantage. In addition, the proposed method offers great power in statistical inference by spatial smoothing (via hidden Markov modeling) and information pooling (via hierarchical modeling). Both simulation studies and real data analysis in a cocaine addiction study illustrate the reliability and success of this method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Time course of ozone-induced changes in breathing pattern in healthy exercising humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Walby, William F; Adams, William C

    2007-02-01

    We examined the time course of O3-induced changes in breathing pattern in 97 healthy human subjects (70 men and 27 women). One- to five-minute averages of breathing frequency (f(B)) and minute ventilation (Ve) were used to generate plots of cumulative breaths and cumulative exposure volume vs. time and cumulative exposure volume vs. cumulative breaths. Analysis revealed a three-phase response; delay, no response detected; onset, f(B) began to increase; response, f(B) stabilized. Regression analysis was used to identify four parameters: time to onset, number of breaths at onset, cumulative inhaled dose of ozone at onset of O3-induced tachypnea, and the percent change in f(B). The effect of altering O3 concentration, Ve, atropine treatment, and indomethacin treatment were examined. We found that the lower the O3 concentration, the greater the number of breaths at onset of tachypnea at a fixed ventilation, whereas number of breaths at onset of tachypnea remains unchanged when Ve is altered and O3 concentration is fixed. The cumulative inhaled dose of O3 at onset of tachypnea remained constant and showed no relationship with the magnitude of percent change in f(B). Atropine did not affect any of the derived parameters, whereas indomethacin did not affect time to onset, number of breaths at onset, or cumulative inhaled dose of O3 at onset of tachypnea but did attenuate percent change in f(B). The results are discussed in the context of dose response and intrinsic mechanisms of action.

  20. Spider Trait Assembly Patterns and Resilience under Fire-Induced Vegetation Change in South Brazilian Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgaiski, Luciana R.; Joner, Fernando; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco; Ibanez, Sebastien; Mendonça, Milton de S.; Pillar, Valério D.

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances induce changes on habitat proprieties that may filter organism's functional traits thereby shaping the structure and interactions of many trophic levels. We tested if communities of predators with foraging traits dependent on habitat structure respond to environmental change through cascades affecting the functional traits of plants. We monitored the response of spider and plant communities to fire in South Brazilian Grasslands using pairs of burned and unburned plots. Spiders were determined to the family level and described in feeding behavioral and morphological traits measured on each individual. Life form and morphological traits were recorded for plant species. One month after fire the abundance of vegetation hunters and the mean size of the chelicera increased due to the presence of suitable feeding sites in the regrowing vegetation, but irregular web builders decreased due to the absence of microhabitats and dense foliage into which they build their webs. Six months after fire rosette-form plants with broader leaves increased, creating a favourable habitat for orb web builders which became more abundant, while graminoids and tall plants were reduced, resulting in a decrease of proper shelters and microclimate in soil surface to ground hunters which became less abundant. Hence, fire triggered changes in vegetation structure that lead both to trait-convergence and trait-divergence assembly patterns of spiders along gradients of plant biomass and functional diversity. Spider individuals occurring in more functionally diverse plant communities were more diverse in their traits probably because increased possibility of resource exploitation, following the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Finally, as an indication of resilience, after twelve months spider communities did not differ from those of unburned plots. Our findings show that functional traits provide a mechanistic understanding of the response of communities to environmental change

  1. Land Cover Change in the Andes of Southern Ecuador—Patterns and Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia F. Curatola Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the megadiverse tropical mountain forest in the Andes of southern Ecuador, a global biodiversity hotspot, the use of fire to clear land for cattle ranching is leading to the invasion of an aggressive weed, the bracken fern, which is threatening diversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services. To find sustainable land use options adapted to the local situation, a profound knowledge of the long-term spatiotemporal patterns of land cover change and its drivers is necessary, but hitherto lacking. The complex topography and the high cloud frequency make the use of remote sensing in this area a challenge. To deal with these conditions, we pursued specific pre-processing steps before classifying five Landsat scenes from 1975 to 2001. Then, we quantified land cover changes and habitat fragmentation, and we investigated landscape changes in relation to key spatial elements (altitude, slope, and distance from roads. Good classification results were obtained with overall accuracies ranging from 94.5% to 98.5% and Kappa statistics between 0.75 and 0.98. Forest was strongly fragmented due to the rapid expansion of the arable frontier and the even more rapid invasion by bracken. Unexpectedly, more bracken-infested areas were converted to pastures than vice versa, a practice that could alleviate pressure on forests if promoted. Road proximity was the most important spatial element determining forest loss, while for bracken the altitudinal range conditioned the degree of invasion in deforested areas. The annual deforestation rate changed notably between periods: ~1.5% from 1975 to 1987, ~0.8% from 1987 to 2000, and finally a very high rate of ~7.5% between 2000 and 2001. We explained these inconstant rates through some specific interrelated local and national political and socioeconomic drivers, namely land use policies, credit and tenure incentives, demography, and in particular, a severe national economic and bank crisis.

  2. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  3. [Changes in food consumption pattern among Chilean school children after the implementation of a healthy kiosk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Nelly; Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Vio, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    In Chilean school there is a kiosk that sells a large number of high-calorie products. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers that children have for buying healthy food and evaluate changes in the pattern of food purchases during a school year at a school where a "Healthy Space" was created. We designed implemented and assessed changes in food purchases by developing a "Healthy Space" which included a kiosk that incorporated a range of healthy food at affordable prices. The staff in charge of the kiosk was trained and we generate communication and marketing strategies to promote the consumption of healthy food. A validated survey to determine food purchases was applied to 9-12 year-old children from both schools at baseline and follow up 8 months later. The total number of schoolchildren was 477 (291 from the intervention and 115 from the control school). There weren't significant differences in the amount of money available to buy food between children of both schools. There was a significant increase in the purchase of fruit, milk, yoghurt, soft drinks and light juices, dried seeds, healthy sandwiches and non-fat ice cream (p increase in the supply of affordable healthy food, including communication and marketing strategies, significantly increases the consumption of these products among school children.

  4. Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodson, W.R.; Handa, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen the day of flower opening and increased to over 9% of the total protein content of senescent petal tissue. Protein synthesis during aging was investigated by following uptake and incorporation of 3 H-leucine into TCA-insoluble fraction of petal discs. Protein synthesis, as evidenced by the percent of label incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction, was greatest (32%) the day before flower opening. Senescent petal tissue incorporated 4% of label taken up into protein. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and labelled polypeptides identified by fluorography. In presenescent petal tissue, radioactivity was distributed among several major polypeptides. In senescent tissue, much of the radioactivity was concentrated in the 41 kd polypeptide

  5. Warming patterns in regional climate change projections over the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Navarro, J.J.; Montavez, J.P.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Jerez, S. [Murcia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Garcia-Valero, J.A. [Murcia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Delegacion Territorial en Murcia (ES). Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET); Gonzalez-Rouco, J.F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera

    2010-06-15

    A set of four regional climate change projections over the Iberian Peninsula has been performed. Simulations were driven by two General Circulation Models (consisting of two versions of the same atmospheric model coupled to two different ocean models) under two different SRES scenario. The XXI century has been simulated following a full-transient approach with a climate version of the mesoscale model MM5. An Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis (EOF) is applied to the monthly mean series of daily maximum and minimum 2-metre temperature to extract the warming signal. The first EOF is able to capture the spatial structure of the warming. The obtained warming patterns are fairly dependent on the month, but hardly change with the tested scenarios and GCM versions. Their shapes are related to geographical parameters, such as distance to the sea and orography. The main differences among simulations mostly concern the temporal evolution of the warming. The temperature trend is stronger for maximum temperatures and depends on the scenario and the driving GCM. This asymmetry, as well as the different warming rates in summer and winter, leads to a continentalization of the climate over the IP. (orig.)

  6. Decadal changes in phenology of peak abundance patterns of woodland pond salamanders in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Deahn M.; Ribic, Christine; Beck, Albert J.; Higgins, Dale; Eklund, Dan; Reinecke, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Woodland ponds are important landscape features that help sustain populations of amphibians that require this aquatic habitat for successful reproduction. Species abundance patterns often reflect site-specific differences in hydrology, physical characteristics, and surrounding vegetation. Large-scale processes such as changing land cover and environmental conditions are other potential drivers influencing amphibian populations in the Upper Midwest, but little information exists on the combined effects of these factors. We used Blue-spotted (Ambystoma laterale Hallowell) and Spotted Salamander (A. maculatum Shaw) monitoring data collected at the same woodland ponds thirteen years apart to determine if changing environmental conditions and vegetation cover in surrounding landscapes influenced salamander movement phenology and abundance. Four woodland ponds in northern Wisconsin were sampled for salamanders in April 1992-1994 and 2005-2007. While Blue-spotted Salamanders were more abundant than Spotted Salamanders in all ponds, there was no change in the numbers of either species over the years. However, peak numbers of Blue-spotted Salamanders occurred 11.7 days earlier (range: 9-14 days) in the 2000s compared to the 1990s; Spotted Salamanders occurred 9.5 days earlier (range: 3 - 13 days). Air and water temperatures (April 13- 24) increased, on average, 4.8°C and 3.7°C, respectively, between the decades regardless of pond. There were no discernible changes in canopy openness in surrounding forests between decades that would have warmed the water sooner (i.e., more light penetration). Our finding that salamander breeding phenology can vary by roughly 10 days in Wisconsin contributes to growing evidence that amphibian populations have responded to changing climate conditions by shifting life-cycle events. Managers can use this information to adjust monitoring programs and forest management activities in the surrounding landscape to avoid vulnerable amphibian

  7. Research Paper: The Impact of Synovial NF-ĸB Activation on Apoptosis Pattern Change During Adjuvant-induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Golabi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: It seems that apoptosis pattern change plays an important role in the progression and modulation of CFA-induced inflammation and its related symptoms. Also, it can be concluded that synovial NF-ĸB had a crucial role in synovial apoptosis change during the study period.

  8. Assessing urban context-induced change in individual activity travel patterns : case study of new railway station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Ponjé, M.M.W.; Stams, A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Findings are reported of selective descriptive analyses that were conducted to examine whether the opening of a new railway station had induced any changes in the activity travel patterns of a panel of house holds. In particular, changes in choices related to trip generation, trip chaining,

  9. The Amazon hydrometeorology: Climatology, variability and links to changes in weather patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Katia De Avila

    My thesis focuses on improving the quantification of the hydrological cycle and understanding the atmospheric processes that link weather to climate in the Amazon River basin. By using ERA40 and independent observations, I assess how well we can estimate the surface water budget in the Amazon River basin. I find that ERA40 basin wide annual precipitation (P) overall agrees with observations showing a slight underestimation of 10% in average, whereas runoff (R) is underestimated by a larger margin (˜25%). Observed residual of precipitation and runoff (denoted as P-R) is better estimated by ERA40 P-R than actual ET which includes soil moisture nudging. The causes for said discrepancies were found to partly relate to soil moisture nudging that needs to be applied during the dry season to produce realistic ET and compensate for the low soil moisture recharge during the previous wet season. Insufficient recharge may in part be caused by underestimation of rainfall amount and intensity; moreover the shallow root layer in the model does not represent the deep soil water reservoir characteristic of the Amazonian forest. Whether the hydrological cycle and weather patterns in the Amazon have changed during the past few decades is a highly debatable but central question for detecting climate change in the region. The second part of my thesis focus on the physical links between rainfall changes detected in observations, and changes of synoptic scale systems as represented by ERA40. My results suggest that an observed delayed wet season onset is consistent with a decreasing number of cold air incursion (CAI) days in southern Amazon for the period 1979--2001. The variability of CAI into southern Amazon is related to the variability of SST upstream of South America in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. A Singular Value Decomposition Analysis (SVD) between CAI days and global SST reveal three main modes of co-variability. The first mode describes the effect of the El Nino

  10. Evaluating the accuracy of climate change pattern emulation for low warming targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Claudia; Knutti, Reto

    2018-05-01

    Global climate policy is increasingly debating the value of very low warming targets, yet not many experiments conducted with global climate models in their fully coupled versions are currently available to help inform studies of the corresponding impacts. This raises the question whether a map of warming or precipitation change in a world 1.5 °C warmer than preindustrial can be emulated from existing simulations that reach higher warming targets, or whether entirely new simulations are required. Here we show that also for this type of low warming in strong mitigation scenarios, climate change signals are quite linear as a function of global temperature. Therefore, emulation techniques amounting to linear rescaling on the basis of global temperature change ratios (like simple pattern scaling) provide a viable way forward. The errors introduced are small relative to the spread in the forced response to a given scenario that we can assess from a multi-model ensemble. They are also small relative to the noise introduced into the estimates of the forced response by internal variability within a single model, which we can assess from either control simulations or initial condition ensembles. Challenges arise when scaling inadvertently reduces the inter-model spread or suppresses the internal variability, both important sources of uncertainty for impact assessment, or when the scenarios have very different characteristics in the composition of the forcings. Taking advantage of an available suite of coupled model simulations under low-warming and intermediate scenarios, we evaluate the accuracy of these emulation techniques and show that they are unlikely to represent a substantial contribution to the total uncertainty.

  11. Europe's Southeastern Gateway: Responding to Rapidly Changing Patterns of World Shipping. The University's Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World trade and transportation are changing dramatically. Energy prices and transport sustainability concerns are reinvigorating ocean freighter shipping. An ever-increasing portion of trade is in containers, and container ships are getting larger quickly. Many ports, nations and continents are not keeping up with ship size increases putting them at a trade disadvantage. Major canals and seaways must also upgrade or be rendered obsolete, causing a change in the pattern of world trade. Ports have to do more than expand vessel size limits. Port regions must also invest in infrastructure that improves multi-modal access to the port and augments hand-off of containers to smaller seaway ships, trains and trucks. With heightened security and evolving emphasis on flexible and efficient logistics, ports must become high-tech logistics hubs with improved real-time data about port throughput. Constanţa, Romania provides an example of an attempt to respond to this rapid change. Near the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea, Constanţa offers a potential southeastern gateway to Europe for the Black Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Ships from Asia, entering via the Suez Canal can easily access Constanţa, and thus save more than ten days of shipping time for destinations in southeastern Europe compared to shipping through Rotterdam or Hamburg. But Constanţa needs to make all the improvements mentioned above. Universities have several roles in this endeavor, including identifying and forecasting trends, providing the technical knowledge to develop high-tech logistics hubs, pursing publicprivate partnerships for infrastructure development and offering training.

  12. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  13. Changes in the sebaceous gland in patients with male pattern hair loss (androgenic alopecia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kure, Katsuhiro; Isago, Tsukasa; Hirayama, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    The sebaceous gland and the follicular bulge region have important role in biology of the hair. They initiate destruction of the hair follicle both in human and animal models in certain conditions. The morphometric feature of the sebaceous gland is not well understood so as the distribution of the bulge stem cells in pathological conditions of male pattern hair loss or androgenic alopecia (AGA). The authors perform morphometric analysis of the sebaceous gland in AGA patients and also study distribution of the follicular stem cells in the bulge region in these populations. Two hundred and fifty cases of glass slide specimen from Japanese patients with male pattern hair loss were reviewed. Among these, 23 cases of the longitudinal (vertical) sections of the scalp skin with diagnosis of AGA were found and analyzed for the morphometric characteristics. Each sebaceous gland area was measured using NIH imagej system and statistically analyzed. For the identification of the follicular bulge region, an immunohistochemistry using anticytokeratin 15 (C8/144B clone) was carried out in the cases of AGA. The sebaceous gland area of the AGA group was noticeably increased, while the size of each sebaceous gland remains unchanged. It has more lobules in the hair follicular unit in the AGA population. In the immunohistochemistry, the follicular stem cells are present in the bulge regions in cases of AGA. The overgrowth (multilobulation) of the sebaceous gland and relative preservation of the follicular stem cells suggest that the changes in the sebaceous gland could be an important factor in the pathology of AGA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. MECO Warming Changes Continental Rainfall Patterns in Eocene Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, K.; Mulch, A.; Fiebig, J.; Wacker, U.; Gerdes, A.; Graham, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eocene hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an existing warm climate. They dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, but still remain among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. To evaluate the impacts of global warm periods on terrestrial temperature and rainfall records in continental interiors, we sampled a suite of middle Eocene ( 40 Ma) paleosols from a high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera (Sage Creek Basin, Montana, USA) and integrated laser ablation U-Pb dating of pedogenic carbonate, stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records. Δ47 temperature data of soil carbonates progressively increase from 23 °C ±3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ±3 °C and subsequently drop to 21 °C ±2 °C and delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. This hyperthermal event is accompanied by large and rapid shifts towards low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic CaCO3 contents. U-Pb geochronology of the paleosol carbonate confirms a middle Eocene age for soil carbonate formation (39.5 ±1.4 Ma and 40.1 ±0.8 Ma). Based on U-Pb geochronology, magneto- and biostratigraphy we suggest that the recorded Δ47 temperature excursion reflects peak warming during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO). The MECO in continental western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions in this high-elevation site. Shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes and require modification of mid-latitude rainfall patterns, indicating a profound impact of the MECO on the hydrological cycle and consequently on atmospheric circulation patterns in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera.

  15. Co-occurrence patterns in aquatic bacterial communities across changing permafrost landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, J.; Lovejoy, C.; Crevecoeur, S.; Vincent, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost thaw ponds and lakes are widespread across the northern landscape and may play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles, yet knowledge about their microbial ecology is limited. We sampled a set of thaw ponds and lakes as well as shallow rock-basin lakes that are located in distinct valleys along a north-south permafrost degradation gradient. We applied high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine co-occurrence patterns among bacterial taxa (operational taxonomic units, OTUs), and then analyzed these results relative to environmental variables to identify variables controlling bacterial community structure. Network analysis was applied to identify possible ecological linkages among the bacterial taxa and with abiotic and biotic variables. The results showed an overall high level of shared taxa among bacterial communities within each valley; however, the bacterial co-occurrence patterns were non-random, with evidence of habitat preferences. There were taxonomic differences in bacterial assemblages among the different valleys that were statistically related to dissolved organic carbon concentration, conductivity and phytoplankton biomass. Co-occurrence networks revealed complex interdependencies within the bacterioplankton communities and showed contrasting linkages to environmental conditions among the main bacterial phyla. The thaw pond networks were composed of a limited number of highly connected taxa. This "small world network" property would render the communities more robust to environmental change but vulnerable to the loss of microbial "keystone species". These highly connected nodes (OTUs) in the network were not merely the numerically dominant taxa, and their loss would alter the organization of microbial consortia and ultimately the food web structure and functioning of these aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  17. Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H L

    1992-07-01

    Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, important for health, happiness, individual development, and indeed for the preservation of the human race. During the dynamic period of adolescence in which the passage from childhood to maturity takes place, sexuality takes on new dimensions; feelings become more intense, relationships become more complex, and the consequences of sexual behavior are radically altered. This not only affects the behavior of young people but also of those who interact with them, their families and peers, and those who work in the health, education, youth, social welfare, and other sectors. In the contemporary world the conditions of life for many young people have also changed, and with it patterns of sexual behavior. In general, earlier puberty, later marriage, a decline in the family leading to less control and more autonomy, and intense exposure to sexual stimuli via the mass media and travel across cultural boundaries have made pre-marital adolescent sexual activity more common. This has added to traditional problems of early marriage, newer problems of early pregnancy, childbirth, and induced abortion outside of marriage, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency syndrome infection leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. But the work of the World Health Organization (WHO), along with many others in the field, strongly suggests that given appropriate information and services, trust and equity between the sexes, young people will behave responsibly and well. In this paper some of the findings from methods developed by WHO for research, training, advocacy, and evaluation, and findings in relation to patterns and determinants of sexual and reproductive health and development will be described, and future directions suggested.

  18. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, İbrahim; Çiçek, Neslihan; Güven, Serçin; Altuntaş, Ülger; Bıyıklı, Neşe; Yıldız, Nurdan; Alpay, Harika

    2017-09-29

    The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Retrospective cross-sectional study. We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (-) bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2) in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1). Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (-) urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy). The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2). Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, pUrinary pathogens showed a decreasing trend for nitrofurantoin (from 17% to 7%, p=0.0001). No significant trends were detected for ampicillin (from 69% to 71%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (from 44% to 43%), cefazolin (from 39% to 32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 32% to 31%), cefuroxime (from 21% to 18%) and ceftriaxone (from 10% to 14%) between the two periods (p>0.05). In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results.

  19. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Horne, Jon S.; Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Durner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although sea ice loss is the primary threat to polar bears (Ursus maritimus), little can be done to mitigate its effects without global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other factors, however, could exacerbate the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bears, such as exposure to increased industrial activity. The Arctic Ocean has enormous oil and gas potential, and its development is expected to increase in the coming decades. Estimates of polar bear resource selection will inform managers how bears use areas slated for oil development and to help guide conservation planning. We estimated temporally-varying resource selection patterns for non-denning adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Sea population (2008–2012) at two scales (i.e., home range and weekly steps) to identify factors predictive of polar bear use throughout the year, before any offshore development. From the best models at each scale, we estimated scale-integrated resource selection functions to predict polar bear space use across the population's range and determined when bears were most likely to use the region where offshore oil and gas development in the United States is slated to occur. Polar bears exhibited significant intra-annual variation in selection patterns at both scales but the strength and annual patterns of selection differed between scales for most variables. Bears were most likely to use the offshore oil and gas planning area during ice retreat and growth with the highest predicted use occurring in the southern portion of the planning area. The average proportion of predicted high-value habitat in the planning area was >15% of the total high-value habitat for the population during sea ice retreat and growth and reached a high of 50% during November 2010. Our results provide a baseline on which to judge future changes to non-denning adult female polar bear resource selection in the Chukchi Sea and help guide offshore development in the region. Lastly, our study provides a

  20. Social Networking Sites: College Students' Patterns of Use and Concerns for Privacy and Trust by Gender, Ethnicity, and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei-Blankson, Lydia; Iyer, Kamakshi S.; Subramanian, Lavanya

    2016-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are web-based facilities that allow for social interaction, sharing, communication and collaboration in today's world. In the current study, patterns of use of social media among students at a public Midwestern university are examined. In addition, students were surveyed regarding concerns for privacy and trust and…

  1. Measuring the Changes in Aggregate Cycling Patterns between 2003 and 2012 from a Space Syntax Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Law

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been a world-wide surge of interest in cycling over the last 10 years of which London has seen a continuous growth in cyclists and investment in infrastructure that has resulted in the introduction of the Barclays Cycle Superhighway and Barclays Cycling Hiring Scheme. Despite the investment in cycling infrastructure, there has been little understanding of cycling activity patterns in general and the effect of spatial configuration on cycling route choices. This research aims at measuring the impact of cycling infrastructure and spatial configuration on aggregate cyclist movement over two time periods. To do so, this paper presents a spatial-based cyclist movement statistical model that regress cyclist movement flows with measure of spatial configuration, safety and infrastructure and urban character attributes. Using Elephant and Castle, a Central London location, as a case study, the authors analyze cycling movement data sets from 2003 and 2012 to compare the change in cycling behaviour and the impact that the Cycling Superhighway 07, introduced in 2011, has had on cycling patterns. Findings confirm the growth of cycling in London with a 1000% increase in cyclists along some routes in comparison to a 10% increase in population at the same time. More importantly, results also suggest that higher cyclist movement were observed along routes with greater convenience and continuity—over and above route segregation from vehicular traffic. The relationship between spatial configuration and aggregate cyclists movement is consistent between 2003 and 2012 where spatial configuration have remained the same while changes were observed in both modal split and cycling infrastructure. This result is in line with previous research wherein aggregate higher cyclists movement are observed on major routes offering direct connections than less direct routes. From a spatial cognition perspective, this research enriches our understanding on how the

  2. Gestational dietary patterns are not associated with blood pressure changes during pregnancy and early postpartum in a Brazilian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Rebelo, Fernanda; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Castro, Maria Beatriz Trindade; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-02-01

    To identify gestational dietary patterns and evaluate the association between these patterns and the blood pressure (BP) rate of change during pregnancy and the postpartum. Prospective cohort study composed of 191 healthy pregnant women. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were obtained at the 5th-13th, 20th-26th, 30th-36th gestational weeks, and with 30-45 days postpartum. A food frequency questionnaire administered at the 30th-36th gestational week was used to measure dietary intake during pregnancy. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the dietary patterns. A longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression model was used to evaluate the association between the dietary patterns and BP (adjusted for time elapsed after conception and the women's age, education, parity, body mass index and total energy intake). Three gestational dietary patterns were identified: healthy, common-Brazilian and processed. SBP/DBP mean values (SD) were 110.1 (9.0)/66.9 (7.5), 108.7 (9.0)/64.9 (6.7), 111.3 (9.2)/67.0 (6.9) and 115.0 (10.7)/73.7 (8.6) mmHg at the first, second and third gestational trimesters and postpartum, respectively. Women with higher/lower adherence to the processed pattern presented SBP of 117.9 and 113.0 mmHg (P = 0.037), respectively, during postpartum. No association was found between any of the three dietary patterns and SBP in the multiple longitudinal linear regression models, whereas 1 SD increase in the common-Brazilian pattern was associated with a small change of DBP (β = 0.0006; 95% CI 4.66e-06, 0.001; P = 0.048). The three dietary patterns identified revealed no association with changes of SBP and DBP levels during pregnancy and at early postpartum in this sample of healthy Brazilian women.

  3. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger....... But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes...

  4. The development of coordination abilities and biochemical changes in schoolchildren of primary school age at employment choreography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozhyk Irina Zinov'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the developed technique to dance on the development of coordination abilities and reflects changes some biochemical parameters, namely, urinary creatinine and inorganic phosphorus in primary school children involved in choreography. In the experiment involved students 8-9 years (boys. Found that classes in choreography improved level of coordination abilities of students and the experimental group demonstrated a positive impact choreography lessons on physical performance of students, because their body is more adapted to physical activity, and puts them at lower power consumption.

  5. Novice medical students: individual patterns in the use of learning strategies and how they change during the first academic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Adequate use of different learning strategies is one of the most important prerequisites of academic success. The actual use of learning strategies is the result of an interaction between individual and situational variables. Against this background we conducted a longitudinal study with first year medical students to investigate whether individuals show different patterns in their use of learning strategies and whether these patterns change during the first academic year. Medical students (N=175, 58% female) were surveyed three times in their first academic year regarding their use of learning strategies. A hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward) was conducted in order to identify groups of students with different patterns of learning strategies. We identified four different patterns in approaches to learning among novice medical students ("easy-going", "flexible", "problematic" and "hardworking" learners). Compared to their peers, the problematic learners had the worst final school grades. In addition changes in the use of learning strategies were identified, most of them occurred during the first term. Students start their academic studies with different patterns of learning strategies; the characteristics of these patterns change during the first academic year. Further research is necessary to better understand how individual and situational variables determine students' learning.

  6. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  7. THE PATTERN OF LONGITUDINAL CHANGE IN SERUM CREATININE AND NINETY-DAY MORTALITY AFTER MAJOR SURGERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Charles E; Pardalos, Panos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calculate mortality risk that accounts for both severity and recovery of postoperative kidney dysfunction using the pattern of longitudinal change in creatinine. Summary Background Data Although the importance of renal recovery after acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized, the complex association that accounts for longitudinal creatinine changes and mortality is not fully described. Methods We used routinely collected clinical information for 46,299 adult patients undergoing major surgery to develop a multivariable probabilistic model optimized for non-linearity of serum creatinine time series that calculates the risk function for ninety-day mortality. We performed a 70/30 cross validation analysis to assess the accuracy of the model. Results All creatinine time series exhibited nonlinear risk function in relation to ninety-day mortality and their addition to other clinical factors improved the model discrimination. For any given severity of AKI, patients with complete renal recovery, as manifested by the return of the discharge creatinine to the baseline value, experienced a significant decrease in the odds of dying within ninety days of admission compared to patients with partial recovery. Yet, for any severity of AKI even complete renal recovery did not entirely mitigate the increased odds of dying as patients with mild AKI and complete renal recovery still had significantly increased odds for dying compared to patients without AKI (odds ratio 1,48 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.68). Conclusions We demonstrate the nonlinear relationship between both severity and recovery of renal dysfunction and ninety-day mortality after major surgery. We have developed an easily applicable computer algorithm that calculates this complex relationship. PMID:26181482

  8. Changes in Flow and Transport Patterns in Fen Peat as a Result of Soil Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haojie; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The preferential movement of water and transport of substances play an important role in soils and are not yet fully understood especially in degraded peat soils. In this study, we aimed at deducing changes in flow and transport patterns in the course of soil degradation as resulting from peat drainage, using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a dye tracer. The dye tracer experiments were conducted on columns of eight types of differently degraded peat soils from three sites taken both in vertical and horizontal directions. The titanium dioxide suspension (average particle size of 0.3 μm; 10 g l-1) was applied in a pulse of 40 mm to each soil core. Twenty-four hours after the application of the tracer, cross sections of the soil cores were prepared for photo documentation. In addition, the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was determined. Preferential flow occurred in all investigated peat types. From the stained soil structural elements, we concluded that undecomposed plant remains are the major preferential flow pathways in less degraded peat. For more strongly degraded peat, bio-pores, such as root and earthworm channels, operated as the major transport domain. Results show that Ks and the effective pore network in less degraded peat soils are anisotropic. With increasing peat degradation, the Ks and cross section of effective pore network decreased. The results also indicate a strong positive relationship between Ks and number of macropores as well as pore continuity. Hence, we conclude that changes in flow and transport pathways as well as Ks with an increasing peat degradation are due to the disintegration of the peat forming plant material and decrement of number and continuity of macropores after drainage.

  9. Change commitment in low-status merger partners: The role of information processing, relative ingroup prototypicality, and merger patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Miriam; Kavanagh, Eithne; Kounov, Pavel; Jarosz, Sywlia; Waldzus, Sven; Collins, Elizabeth C; Giessner, Steffen

    2017-09-01

    Merger announcements cause stress among employees, often leading to low change commitment, especially among employees from the lower-status merger partner. Such stress influences how deeply employees process merger-relevant information. Previous research examined how merger patterns that preserve versus change status differences impact merger support, but did not address how employees' information processing may influence this relationship. The current research addresses this gap through a scenario experiment, focusing on the low-status merger partner. The interplay between merger patterns and information processing was examined regarding employees' prototypicality claims in relation to merger support. Results suggest that an integration-equality merger pattern increases change commitment via prototypicality claims in the new organization, conditional to employees' systematic information processing. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Mapping Process to Pattern in the Landscape Change of the Amazonian Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover are dynamic processes reflecting a sequence of decisions made by individual land managers. In developing economies, these decisions may be embedded in the evolution of individual households, as is often the case in indigenous areas and agricultural frontiers. One goal of the present article is to address the land use and land-cover decisions of colonist farmers in the Amazon Basin as a function, in part, of household characteristics. Another goal is to generalize the issue of tropical deforestation into a broader discussion on forest dynamics. The extent of secondary forest in tropical areas has been well documented in South America and Africa. Agricultural-plot abandonment often occurs in tandem with primary forest clearance and as part of the same decision-making calculus. Consequently, tropical deforestation and forest succession are not independent processes in the landscape. This article presents a framework that integrates them into a model of forest dynamics at household level, and in so doing provides an account of the spatial pattern of deforestation that has been observed in the Amazon's colonization frontiers.

  11. Analysis on the Changing Spatial Patterns of China's Migration in 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Q.; Bian, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Based on the data of China's fourth, fifth and sixth population census, taking the seven geographical zone as research units, the Changing Spatial Patterns of China's Migration in 1985-2010 is studied by the means of spatial analysis and mathematical statistics. The empirical results show that: (1) The migration population in China was increasing a lot in 1985-2010, and the main part of it is Provincial migration. (2) The total number of migration, immigration and emigration, the relative proportion of inter provincial and provincial migration have been positively correlated to the regional economic development level. (3) The emigrations from Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and overseas mainly moved to East and North China. (4) Central and west of China are the main area where people outflowed from, and most migration population moved to south-eastern coastal areas. The migration in Northeast and northwest of China is still relatively small. The main direction of population migration and flowing is from west to east and from north to south.

  12. Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancer Incidence Trends by Subsite in the United States: Changing Gender Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Morris Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate oral cavity and pharynx cancer (OCPC patterns by gender. Methods. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data for 71,446 cases diagnosed during 1975–2008 to classify OCPC by anatomic subsite as potentially HPV-related or not, with oral tongue cancer considered a separate category. Results. Total OCPC rates among men were 2–4 times those among women. Among whites, total OCPC rates rose in the younger age groups due to substantial increases in successive birth cohorts for HPV-related cancers, more rapid among men than women, and oral tongue cancers, more rapid among women than men. Among blacks, total OCPC rates declined among cohorts born since 1930 reflecting the strong downward trends for HPV-unrelated sites. Among Hispanics and Asians, HPV-unrelated cancer rates generally declined, and oral tongue cancer rates appeared to be converging among young men and women. Conclusions. Decreases in total OCPC incidence reflect reductions in smoking and alcohol drinking. Rising HPV-related cancers among white men may reflect changing sexual practices. Reasons for the increasing young oral tongue cancer rates are unknown, but the narrowing of the gender differences provides a clue.

  13. [Austerity policies and changes in healthcare use patterns. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanos Garrido, Rosa; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzes the main changes in healthcare use patterns in Spain related to the economic recession and to the measures taken to address it. The impact of the reform of drug copayment is examined; the number of prescriptions has decreased, although the effects of this reform on adherence, access to necessary and effective treatments, and health, are still unknown. This article also describes how waiting times and waiting lists for surgery have increased in recent years, as has the population's dissatisfaction with the national health system. Analysis of microdata from the Spanish national health surveys for 2006 and 2011/12 show that the economic recession is deterring the use of uncovered dental visits among the lowest social class. We recommend clearer definition of the role played by copayments within the national health system, and focussing on those who most need healthcare in order to prevent the more socioeconomically advantaged collectives from consuming a larger share of available services after the cuts. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Change of Diurnal Heart Rate Patterns During Pregnancy and Lactation in Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggström J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation. However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

  15. Physiological pattern changes in response to a simulated competition in elite women artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Ennequin, Gaël; Cassirame, Johan; Tordi, Nicolas

    2017-08-04

    The outstanding progress in women's artistic gymnastics in recent decades has led to increased technical and physiological demands. The aim of this study was to investigate i) the physiological demands of elite French gymnasts and ii) the impact of a competitive routine on physiological pattern changes. Fourteen French elite female gymnasts performed anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and a simulated four event competition. Heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded throughout the duration of the simulated competition. Blood lactate concentrations were assessed at rest, before the beginning and at 2, 4 and 10 min after completion of the routine on each apparatus. Isometric handgrip strength and anaerobic endurance and power were assessed during the simulated competition. The highest values of HR and blood lactate concentrations were reached during the floor and uneven bar exercises. Blood lactate concentrations and HR kinetics were apparatus dependent and values remained significantly increased at 10 min of recovery compared with resting data. Anaerobic endurance and power decreased significantly as the competition progressed (P <0.001). The present results show specifically cardiorespiratory and anaerobic apparatus- dependent responses throughout a simulated competition. Recovery approaches appear relevant to prevent and/or minimize fatigue and optimize performance in these athletes.

  16. Unintended benefits: leadership skills and behavioral change among Guatemalan fieldworkers employed in a longitudinal household air pollution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Devina; Thompson, Lisa M; Lee, Amy; Romero, Carolina; Smith, Kirk R

    2010-01-01

    The RESPIRE and CRECER studies measured the effects of reduced household air pollution (HAP) from wood-fired cookstoves on respiratory health in rural highland Guatemala. This article examines behavior change and leadership skill development in local community members who were hired as fieldworkers to assist with research. Fieldworkers administered household questionnaires, shared functions similar to community health workers, and bridged health resources to communities. A mixed-methods design for data collection (in-depth interviews, focus groups, impact drawings, knowledge questionnaire, and retrospective pre-test) was used. Purposive sampling included 10 fieldworkers and 13 local service providers. Fieldworkers showed an increase in knowledge, positive attitudes, and practices around HAP. They developed new technical, interpersonal, and leadership skills. Fieldworkers played a crucial role in building confianza (trust) with the community, bridging resources, and improving outside researchers' relationships with locals. Recommendations for future researchers include inclusion of additional training courses and adoption of community participatory approaches.

  17. UNINTENDED BENEFITS: LEADERSHIP SKILLS AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGE AMONG GUATEMALAN FIELDWORKERS EMPLOYED IN A LONGITUDINAL HOUSEHOLD AIR POLLUTION STUDY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUO, DEVINA; THOMPSON, LISA M.; LEE, AMY; ROMERO, CAROLINA; SMITH, KIRK R.

    2015-01-01

    The RESPIRE and CRECER studies measured the effects of reduced household air pollution (HAP) from wood-fired cookstoves on respiratory health in rural highland Guatemala. This article examines behavior change and leadership skill development in local community members who were hired as fieldworkers to assist with research. Fieldworkers administered household questionnaires, shared functions similar to community health workers, and bridged health resources to communities. A mixed-methods design for data collection (in-depth interviews, focus groups, impact drawings, knowledge questionnaire, and retrospective pre-test) was used. Purposive sampling included 10 fieldworkers and 13 local service providers. Fieldworkers showed an increase in knowledge, positive attitudes, and practices around HAP. They developed new technical, interpersonal, and leadership skills. Fieldworkers played a crucial role in building confianza (trust) with the community, bridging resources, and improving outside researchers’ relationships with locals. Recommendations for future researchers include inclusion of additional training courses and adoption of community participatory approaches. PMID:22192940

  18. Forming, changing, and acting on attitude toward affirmative action programs in employment: a theory-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M P; Harrison, D A; McLaughlin, M E

    2000-10-01

    A model of attitude toward affirmative action programs (AAPs) was applied in 4 studies involving 1,622 participants. In Study 1, attributes people tacitly associate with AAPs were identified by open-ended elicitation. Using those attributes, an instrument was developed and administered in Studies 2, 3, and 4. In those studies, a multiplicative composite of beliefs and evaluations about the AAP attributes predicted AAP attitude, consistent with M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen's (1975) theory of reasoned action. Demographic effects on AAP attitude were partially mediated by this composite. In Studies 3 and 4, an experimental manipulation of AAP information was successful in changing AAP attitude, but in a way that polarized existing demographic differences. Study 4 also showed that AAP attitude and subjective norm jointly and uniquely predicted intentions to perform AAP-related behaviors. Intentions predicted the actual behavior of mailing postcards to political representatives reflecting participants' support for AAPs.

  19. Changes in speckle patterns induced by load application onto an optical fiber and its possible application for sensing purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Okumura, Jyun-ya; Hyuga, Akio

    2015-08-01

    Speckle patterns to be observed in an output light spot from an optical fiber are known to be changed due to external disturbances applied onto the optical fiber. In order to investigate possibilities of utilizing such changes in speckle patterns for sensing application, a certain load was applied onto a jacket-covered communication-grade multi-mode glass optical fiber through which laser beams emitted from a laser diode were propagating, and observed changes in speckle patterns in the output light spot from the optical fiber were investigated both as image data via a CCD camera and as an output voltage from a photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot. The load was applied via a load application mechanism in which several ridges were provided onto opposite flat plates and a certain number of weights were placed there so that corrugated bending of the optical fiber was intentionally induced via load application due to the ridges. The obtained results showed that the number of speckles in the observed pattern in the output light spot as well as the output voltage from the photovoltaic panel irradiated with the output light spot showed decreases upon load application with relatively satisfactory repeatability. When the load was reduced, i.e., the weights were removed, the number of speckles then showed recovery. These results indicate there is a certain possibility of utilizing changes in speckle patterns for sensing of load application onto the optical fiber.

  20. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....