WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing earth final

  1. Changes in earth's dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2006-11-01

    The dipole moment of Earth's magnetic field has decreased by nearly 9% over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core-mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of the present episode of dipole moment decrease originates in the southern hemisphere. Weakening and equatorward advection of normal polarity magnetic field by the core flow, combined with proliferation and growth of regions where the magnetic polarity is reversed, are reducing the dipole moment on the core-mantle boundary. Growth of these reversed flux regions has occurred over the past century or longer and is associated with the expansion of the South Atlantic Anomaly, a low-intensity region in the geomagnetic field that presents a radiation hazard at satellite altitudes. We address the speculation that the present episode of dipole moment decrease is a precursor to the next geomagnetic polarity reversal. The paleomagnetic record contains a broad spectrum of dipole moment fluctuations with polarity reversals typically occurring during dipole moment lows. However, the dipole moment is stronger today than its long time average, indicating that polarity reversal is not likely unless the current episode of moment decrease continues for a thousand years or more. PMID:16915369

  2. The Earth: A Changing Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita

    2013-04-01

    hours of class time for students from 13 to 14 years of age. During the learning process, different methodological tools of teaching and learning have been used. After reading and understanding news about natural disasters such as earthquakes and eruptions, cooperative group work and an oral presentation are prepared. In addition, it has been very useful to follow-up with some web simulations to predict natural phenomena, which can then be tested in the laboratory. Finally, the students apply their new understanding on a visit to a geological formation, where applying the language learned by observing the rocks, they demonstrate that the planet Earth has changed over the course of many millions of years. Natural hazards are a small and timely demonstration of the ability to change our planet.

  3. Ecology for a changing earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To forecast the ecological impact of global change, research initiatives are needed on the explicit role of humans in ecological systems, and on how ecological processes functioning at different spatial and temporal scales are coupled. Furthermore, to synthesize the results of ecological research for Congress, policymakers, and the general public, a new agency, called the United States Ecological Survey (USES) is urgently required. Also, a national commitment to environmental health, as exemplified by establishing a National Institutes of the Environment (NIE), should be a goal

  4. Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.

    2008-01-01

    A large part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the molten outer core(1). As a result of continuous satellite measurements since 1999, the core magnetic field and its recent variations can now be described with a high resolution in space and time(2). These data have...... field occurring over only a few months, indicative of fluid flow at the top of the core, can in fact be resolved. Using nine years of magnetic field data obtained by satellites as well as Earth-based observatories, we determine the temporal changes in the core magnetic field and flow in the core. We...

  5. Space radiation and changing climate of Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. I am interested to find out the correct reason of climate change in earth experimentally and want to find the dependence of space radiation with climatic ecosystem. Thus for this reason, I have made a hypothetical theory on 'space radiation and changing climate of earth'. I can say, I was enforced to think over about this subject matter when I heard and saw by the means of TV news and newspaper about sounami disaster came in Indian Ocean. Thousands of people died, thousands wounded and thousands of people became homeless. This was really a terrible scene in nature. After Sounami, there was many earthquake came in India, Pakistan and China. A huge blowing hurricane came in Thailand and in America. These disasters in the nature shows that in the near future while we may progress much in science and technology , I seriously doubt that we could give more radiation on space so badly and so rapidly that we would find ourselves in the desert, warmed and increase level of sea. Even if it will take only some years and century, we would turn our resources towards survival of civilization. And of course during all this our efforts to find any method to protect our climatic ecosystem will be far from being applicable. I am sure that we can't destroy climatic ecosystem entirely but we can damage it so badly that due to lack of proper resources it will be difficult to survive for our next coming generation. Because nature can't defend itself, but it can avenge. It is my best guess that our technological civilization has a self destructive tendency. To save our existing climatic ecosystem, we should extract method of reducing radiation of high frequencies from different resources by filtrating the electro-magnetic waves produced from tele- communicating system, space aircraft, space atomic weapons, agriculture and industrial equipments, medical and experimental instruments and other such type of scientific researches. So my interest is to

  6. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  7. Earth system science: A program for global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  8. Climatic changes : earth for all, all for earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article argues that the impacts of global warming and climatic change in Quebec will not be as catastrophic as once expected. According to experts from Ouranos, a consortium of climatology experts and scientists, Quebec society will adapt if all the required information is available to make proper decisions, and if the temperature does not increase too fast nor too high. However, Quebec society has a responsibility to other countries in curbing its greenhouse gas emissions. Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol calls for the country to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 240 megatonnes between 2008 and 2012. In August 2003, the federal government announced that $1 billion would be spent to implement a climate change plan. This plan would encourage Canadians to make their homes more energy efficient and to make ecological decisions in terms of spending and transportation. It would also make available to business cleaner production processes, would promote the development of new technologies, and promote planting of rapid growth trees. These measures would only yield reductions of 20 megatonnes per year. One expert argued that the solution to climate change is to investigate alternative energy sources, or in the short term, to sequester greenhouse gases. Two other solutions to the permanent capture of carbon dioxide were debated: using trees for carbon in the atmosphere, and carbon dioxide capture using enzymes. A Quebec company, CO2 Solution, has developed a promising technology whereby carbon dioxide is transformed to bicarbonate with the aid of an enzyme. This bicarbonate is then precipitated with calcium or magnesium to form harmless minerals

  9. Who Should be Empowered to Know about Earth's Changing Climate? The Case of Earth's Changing Cryosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Global climate change in the past century has nearly pushed the envelope of all prior natural changes experienced since the dawn of civilization, and all plausible projections have climate shooting completely out of this envelope this century. Some plausible projections for the cumulative magnitude of climatic change this and next century are, at the upper range of these projections, comparable to the shift that ended the Ice Age and would place Earth in a "hot house" unlike anything going back 55 million years. Much life will survive and thrive through these changes, but if it is civilization we are concerned with, then we should understand and reduce the rate and long-term cumulative impact of predictable climate change and to reduce the chances of accidental tripping of a hair-trigger mechanism of rapid climate change. Coping with (even deriving some benefit from) inevitable climate changes, and forestalling even more disruptive changes, can only be accomplished through informed planning. A critical society-shaping issue is who will have and utilize the knowledge of climatic impacts. Since climate change affects all of us, the observational tools and research pertaining the Earth's changing condition should be in the hands of the masses of people: publicly financed and unclassified. A trickier issue is how to deal with information that particular cities or countries are at special risk, especially when the risk might be imminent and catastrophic. How do we maximize the efficiency of socioeconomic changes that will be needed to adapt? How do we overcome inertia and business as usual without inducing unintended consequences, such as panic? How should governments deal with this type of information? How should individual scientists deal with discoveries about the changing world that seem to pose special risks for certain people on the century timescale, the decadal scale, or this year? Natural hazards, such as volcanism, earthquakes, and hurricanes are hard enough

  10. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Hua-Dong; ZHANG; Li; ZHU; Lan-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development,especially through providing biological,physical,and chemical parameters on a global scale.Earth observation data has the 4V features(volume,variety,veracity,and velocity) of big data that are suitable for climate change research.Moreover,the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role.This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research,such as synchronous satelliteeaerialeground observation experiments,which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors(e.g.,glaciers,lakes,vegetation,radiation,and urbanization); and global environmental change information and simulation systems.With the era of global environment change dawning,Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking.Inevitably,Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  11. Earth observation big data for climate change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Dong Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation technology has provided highly useful information in global climate change research over the past few decades and greatly promoted its development, especially through providing biological, physical, and chemical parameters on a global scale. Earth observation data has the 4V features (volume, variety, veracity, and velocity of big data that are suitable for climate change research. Moreover, the large amount of data available from scientific satellites plays an important role. This study reviews the advances of climate change studies based on Earth observation big data and provides examples of case studies that utilize Earth observation big data in climate change research, such as synchronous satellite–aerial–ground observation experiments, which provide extremely large and abundant datasets; Earth observational sensitive factors (e.g., glaciers, lakes, vegetation, radiation, and urbanization; and global environmental change information and simulation systems. With the era of global environment change dawning, Earth observation big data will underpin the Future Earth program with a huge volume of various types of data and will play an important role in academia and decisionmaking. Inevitably, Earth observation big data will encounter opportunities and challenges brought about by global climate change.

  12. Changing views on earth's deep mantle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der

    2004-01-01

    While spacecraft travel ever farther in space, the rocky world deep below us remains mysterious. Yet, the present-day state and dynamics of Earth’s interior hold the keys to understanding the early conditions of the solid Earth and its biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, and how these have evolv

  13. From global change to Future Earth in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Wen-Ling; JIN; Nan; LIN; Zheng; WU; Guo-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Here we review the activities and recent accomplishments resulting from the global change and Future Earth initiative studies in China.As a new international research initiative,Future Earth will develop comprehensive knowledge for responding to global change risks and create transformative opportunities toward future global sustainability.The Chinese National Committee for Future Earth,the consultation project Develop ‘Future Earth in China’ for Promoting Social Sustainability and the cooperative international project Co-design of Implementation Plan for Future Earth in China were developed to help foster a culture of sustainability and conservation in China.To help promote the sustainability movement in China,Chinese scientists from both the natural and social sciences,policymakers,and stakeholders are encouraged to join the future activities following the Future Earth model co-design,co-produce,and co-delivery.

  14. Climate change and health in Earth's future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Devin C.; Butler, Colin D.; Friel, Sharon

    2014-02-01

    Threats to health from climate change are increasingly recognized, yet little research into the effects upon health systems is published. However, additional demands on health systems are increasingly documented. Pathways include direct weather impacts, such as amplified heat stress, and altered ecological relationships, including alterations to the distribution and activity of pathogens and vectors. The greatest driver of demand on future health systems from climate change may be the alterations to socioeconomic systems; however, these "tertiary effects" have received less attention in the health literature. Increasing demands on health systems from climate change will impede health system capacity. Changing weather patterns and sea-level rise will reduce food production in many developing countries, thus fostering undernutrition and concomitant disease susceptibility. Associated poverty will impede people's ability to access and support health systems. Climate change will increase migration, potentially exposing migrants to endemic diseases for which they have limited resistance, transporting diseases and fostering conditions conducive to disease transmission. Specific predictions of timing and locations of migration remain elusive, hampering planning and misaligning needs and infrastructure. Food shortages, migration, falling economic activity, and failing government legitimacy following climate change are also "risk multipliers" for conflict. Injuries to combatants, undernutrition, and increased infectious disease will result. Modern conflict often sees health personnel and infrastructure deliberately targeted and disease surveillance and eradication programs obstructed. Climate change will substantially impede economic growth, reducing health system funding and limiting health system adaptation. Modern medical care may be snatched away from millions who recently obtained it.

  15. Diagnosis Earth: The Climate Change Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the scrum of popular and political discourse on global warming, the scholarship of climate science is often left sitting on the sideline. Yet understanding the science and the scientists presents the best chance of developing an informed opinion about climate change. Confusion about the science, misunderstanding of risk assessment and…

  16. Technologies for global change earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in the areas of space-based observations, data/information analysis, and spacecraft/operations for the studying of global changes are discussed. Research involving systems analysis, observation technologies, information technologies, and spacecraft technologies is examined. Consideration is given to cryogenic coolers, IR arrays, laser and submillimeter sensing, large array CCD, information visualization, design knowledge capture, optical communications, multiinstrument pointing, propulsion, space environmental effects, and platform thermal systems.

  17. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  18. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  19. Creating curricular change: needs in grades 8 12 earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Steven K.; Vitek, John D.; Giardino, John R.; McQueen, Kay C.

    2002-10-01

    The realization that we do not control nature is often associated with devastating loss of life and property. Apparently, humans do not learn from their mistakes, because human tragedies seem to happen repeatedly and minimal modification of human behavior appears to transpire. Because people do not understand the dynamic nature of Earth and Earth processes, specific education to understand and to comprehend the cause and effect of a dynamic earth is needed. The strong economic base and a high literacy rate within the USA should contribute to the ability of the K-12 educational system to create more appropriate human behavior and response to processes shaping Earth. Today major efforts are underway in government agencies, professional societies, universities and by individuals to change what and how students learn about the environment. Curricular reform has been established as new national standards for what students should learn in science in grades K-12. Just having standards, however, does not guarantee implementation, improved teaching by teachers, or increased understanding by students. Science faculties must accept the challenge to provide the pedagogical education for K-12 teachers; teachers must be trained and empowered to implement change; this change must ripple throughout the entire K-12 system. Workshops and innovative materials to support renovations in the curricula are essential to affect change. The World Wide Web will be a major help in information dissemination. However, for success to be achieved, local involvement is fundamental. People with expertise about Earth can have the greatest impact on effecting change by helping neighbors acquire knowledge of the dynamic environment of Earth. The same people (namely you) must become pro-active in K-12 education.

  20. Teaching Long-term Climate Change Using EarthInquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, M.; Keane, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    In the year 2000, the American Geological Institute (AGI) began developing its EarthInquiry activity series. Since that time, seven full-length activities have been released. Each EarthInquiry activity enables introductory college students to interact with real-time and archived geoscience data. EarthInquiry addresses some of the most commonly discussed topics in introductory geoscience course work. Each activity has its own workbook, printed by W.H. Freeman and Company that contains a code, allowing students access to the EarthInquiry web site. The EarthInquiry web site, maintained by AGI, provides students with detailed instructions on how to access, analyze, and interpret the data collected in each activity. The web site also supplies supplementary information, glossary terms, and web-based tools to assist with data analysis. In the Long-term Climate Change activity, students begin to understand some of the fundamental challenges faced by climate scientists trying to distinguish naturally occurring climate variability from potentially human-induced climate change. The Vostok ice-core record of two gases, carbon dioxide and methane, is used to introduce students to natural cycles of variability in the atmospheric system. In an effort to understand the cause(s) of these natural cycles, students superimpose the Milankovitch cycles, as calculated by Berger and Loutre (1991), over the Vostok gas records. As students work through the investigation, they develop a deeper understanding of how natural variability in the Earth's insolation can influence cyclic changes in the presence of gases, ice volume, and even temperature. In the online Assessment activity, students compare the current carbon dioxide and methane concentrations to those preserved in the Vostok record, and consider what these modern concentrations might say about a human impact on climate change.

  1. The effects of solar Reimers η on the final destinies of Venus, the Earth, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianpo; Lin, Ling; Bai, Chunyan; Liu, Jinzhong

    2016-04-01

    Our Sun will lose sizable mass and expand enormously when it evolves to the red giant branch phase and the asymptotic giant branch phase. The loss of solar mass will push a planet outward. On the contrary, solar expansion will enhance tidal effects, and tidal force will drive a planet inward. Will our Sun finally engulf Venus, the Earth, and Mars? In the literature, one can find a large number of studies with different points of view. A key factor is that we do not know how much mass the Sun will lose at the late stages. The Reimers η can describe the efficiency of stellar mass-loss and greatly affect solar mass and solar radius at the late stages. In this work, we study how the final destinies of Venus, the Earth, and Mars can be depending on Reimers η chosen. In our calculation, the Reimers η varies from 0.00 to 0.75, with the minimum interval 0.0025. Our results show that Venus will be engulfed by the Sun and Mars will most probably survive finally. The fate of the Earth is uncertain. The Earth will finally be engulfed by the Sun while η survive while η ≥ 0.4600. New observations indicate that the average Reimers η for solar-like stars is 0.477. This implies that Earth may survive finally.

  2. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueqing

    2015-08-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  3. Earth's surface water change over the past 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Baart, Fedor; Winsemius, Hessel; Gorelick, Noel; Kwadijk, Jaap; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Earth's surface gained 115,000 km2 of water and 173,000 km2 of land over the past 30 years, including 20,135 km2 of water and 33,700 km2 of land in coastal areas. Here, we analyse the gains and losses through the Deltares Aqua Monitor -- an open tool that detects land and water changes around the globe.

  4. Carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon trading namely the reduction of future carbon dioxide levels has been widely touted as a solution needed to counter the problem of climate change. However, there are enormous risks involved as the measure tackles only one of the causes of climate change and may prove to be ineffective. This presentation highlights ten points relevant to the discussion on carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth for increasing public awareness. They include: (1) Climate has changed throughout Earth’s history. (2) The present level of about 388 parts per million level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already exceeded the maximum level of the past 800,000 years. This value is obtained from air bubbles trapped within the ice in Antarctica but the consequence of further increases remains uncertain. (3) Earth scientists do not have an overwhelming consensus on whether carbon trading alone is an effective measure in mitigating climate change. (4) The present state of the Earth’s demise is largely the result of human actions including population growth and the mismanagement of the Earth. (5) The latest evidence on sea-level changes in the South China Sea a far-field region unaffected by glacial isostatic readjustment is not in support of a ‘rapid’ rate of future sea-level rise through global warming. (6) Volcanic eruptions have an important role in driving the Earth’s climate. Examples of temperature lowering as well as abnormally wet and dry years can both be found in the instrumental record. (7) Humans have drastically modified the ‘natural’ water cycle. This is however not a well recognized cause of climate change compared to the emission of greenhouse gases through fossil fuel consumption. (8) The bulk (~75%) of the rise in mean annual temperature of about 1oC observed at the Hong Kong Observatory Station since record began in 1884 is best explained by the thermal heat island effect. (9) No evidence has been found

  5. Secular tidal changes in lunar orbit and Earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James G.; Boggs, Dale H.

    2016-11-01

    Small tidal forces in the Earth-Moon system cause detectable changes in the orbit. Tidal energy dissipation causes secular rates in the lunar mean motion n, semimajor axis a, and eccentricity e. Terrestrial dissipation causes most of the tidal change in n and a, but lunar dissipation decreases eccentricity rate. Terrestrial tidal dissipation also slows the rotation of the Earth and increases obliquity. A tidal acceleration model is used for integration of the lunar orbit. Analysis of lunar laser ranging (LLR) data provides two or three terrestrial and two lunar dissipation parameters. Additional parameters come from geophysical knowledge of terrestrial tides. When those parameters are converted to secular rates for orbit elements, one obtains d n/d t = -25.97± 0.05 ''/cent2, d a/d t = 38.30 ± 0.08 mm/year, and d i/d t = -0.5 ± 0.1 μas/year. Solving for two terrestrial time delays and an extra d e/d t from unspecified causes gives ˜ 3× 10^{-12}/year for the latter; solving for three LLR tidal time delays without the extra d e/d t gives a larger phase lag of the N2 tide so that total d e/d t = (1.50 ± 0.10)× 10^{-11}/year. For total d n/d t, there is ≤ 1 % difference between geophysical models of average tidal dissipation in oceans and solid Earth and LLR results, and most of that difference comes from diurnal tides. The geophysical model predicts that tidal deceleration of Earth rotation is -1316 ''/cent2 or 87.5 s/cent2 for UT1-AT, a 2.395 ms/cent increase in the length of day, and an obliquity rate of 9 μas/year. For evolution during past times of slow recession, the eccentricity rate can be negative.

  6. MODELLING EARTH SYSTEM CHANGES THROUGH THE SHURUM-WONOKA ANOMALY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, D. E.

    -amplitude fluctuations in the isotopic composition of marine carbonate carbon (d13CIC ) and oxygen (d18O) and more subdued changes in the isotope composition of marine organic carbon. Normally, carbon isotope changes are considered to reflect the burial history of inorganic and organic carbon into sediments, while...... and organic carbon at lower values of d13CIC, with a cross-plot slope of about 1. This unit slope seems to be unique to the Neoproterozoic in Earth history and not easily explained. In our model, the carbon isotope excursions were driven by methane from sediment-hosted clathrate hydrate deposits. Being...... a powerful greenhouse gas, methane increased temperature and melted icecaps. These combined to produce a negative 18O anomaly, while the higher temperatures also accelerated the weathering of continental rocks, drawing down atmospheric CO2. Lower CO2, in turn, reduced the isotope fractionation between DIC...

  7. Modelling the carbon cycle though Neoproterozoic Earth system changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, C. J.; Canfield, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian records major changes in geochemical proxies as a result of a profound reorganization of the Earth system. Extensive glaciations and the first oxygenation of the deep ocean with a shift from sulfidic/ferruginous conditions to more oxic conditions was accompanied by the radiation of the first animals. The reorganization was also recorded in enigmatic large-amplitude fluctuations in the isotopic composition of marine carbonate carbon (δ13CIC ), were only some are associated with major known glaciations. The carbon isotope events seem to grow in amplitude through the Neoproterozoic culminating in the Shuram anomaly - the largest in Earth history. The δ13CIC events are also accompanied by changes in the isotope composition of marine organic carbon (δ13COC), where the co-variation of δ13CIC and δ13COC seems to evolve from markedly positive relationship over a subdued δ13COC variation and an almost inverse pattern. There is limited understanding as to why or how the structure of these isotope events evolved over time and how these events may tie to the reorganization of the Earth system. We use our published quantitative model of the Shuram anomaly to explore carbon cycle dynamics during the Neoproterozoic. By changing in pre-event atmosphere-ocean chemistry we explore which factors contribute to the observed patterns of the large Neoproterozoic carbon isotope events. In particular, decreasing atmospheric CO2 and a slight increase of oxygen together with an increasing CO source from rising DOC concentrations results in progressively larger event amplitudes with changing co-variation between δ13CIC and δ13COC , culminating with the structure observed for the Shurum-Wonaka anomaly in the Ediacaran. In our model, the carbon isotope excursions were driven by methane from sediment-hosted clathrate hydrate deposits. Being a powerful greenhouse gas, methane increased temperature and melted icecaps. These combined to produce a negative 18O

  8. Global Plate Motions and Their Impact on the Earth's Surface Area Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Shuai; Zhang Keliang; Wei Dongping

    2010-01-01

    Based on their Euler polea,we calculated the relative velocities between every two plates in the typical global plate motion models,respectively,and estimated the area change along these boundaries.In our calculations.plates on both sides accommodated area changes depending on the boundary types:extensional,convergent or transform,so we can estimate area change of each plate and then globally.Our preliminary results show that the area of the southern hemisphere increased while that of the northern hemisphere decreased over the past 1 million years,and global area has increased by 26,000km2 to 36,000km2,which corresponds to the 160m~250m increment on the Earth's radius if all these area increments are attributed to Earth's expansion.Taking the NUVEL-1 model as an example,of the 14 plates in this model,11 are decreasing,but the global area has increased because of the larger increment amount from Africa,North America and Antarctica.Finally,we also discussed factors affecting the global area change such as subduction zone retreating and back-arc spreading.

  9. Recent Changes in Earth Oblateness: Causes and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; de Viron, O.; Fukumori, I.

    2002-12-01

    Fluctuations in the Earth's dynamic oblateness (J2) as measured by space geodetic technique over more than two decades, are dominated by a seasonal cycle and a negative trend induced mostly by post-glacial rebound. However, since 1998 the Earth's J2 has begun to increase, indicating a pronounced global-scale mass redistribution within the Earth system from high to low latitudes. Cox and Chao reported this discovery in Science (August 2, 2002) and left the sources of this anomaly unresolved. Here, we present the results of our analysis, identifying the source and discussing the implications.

  10. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Richard L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ilyasad, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identified. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have contributed to delineating regional and temporal differences due to aerosols, clouds, and ozone. Improvements in radiative transfer modelling capability now enable more accurate characterization of clouds, snow-cover, and topographical effects. A standardized scale for reporting UV to the public has gained wide acceptance. There has been increased use of satellite data to estimate geographic variability and trends in UV. Progress has been made in assessing the utility of satellite retrievals of UV radiation by comparison with measurements at the Earth's surface. Global climatologies of UV radiation are now available on the Internet. Anthropogenic aerosols play a more important role in attenuating UV irradiances than has been assumed previously, and this will have implications for the accuracy of UV retrievals from satellite data. Progress has been made inferring historical levels of UV radiation using measurements of ozone (from satellites or from ground-based networks) in conjunction with measurements of total solar radiation obtained from extensive meteorological networks. We cannot yet be sure whether global ozone has reached a minimum. Atmospheric chlorine concentrations are beginning to decrease. However, bromine concentrations are still increasing. While these halogen concentrations remain high, the ozone layer remains vulnerable to further depletion from events such as volcanic eruptions that inject material into the stratosphere. Interactions between global warming and

  11. Earth System Governance: Facing the Challenges of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Camargo Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available YOUNG, Oran R. Institutional Dynamics: Emergent Patterns in International Environmental Governance. Cambridge (Massachusets, USA: The MIT Press, 2010. Earth System Governance Series. 225p. (Paperback; alkaline paper. ISBN 978-0-262-51440-8.

  12. Price changes of Chinese rare earth products since 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lihua; LIU Ying; LIU Xiaofang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Affected by economy recession started since 2008, global consumption became weak. Chinese rare earth industry, which has high dependence on the consumption from outside China, experienced a tough period of time led by an abrupt decrease in demand. Prices of rare earth products dropped rapidly and significantly and fluctuated at a low level near the cost line persistently. The market was very grim in 2009.

  13. DOE SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-09-27

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate

  14. What can the surface of the Earth tell us about environmental changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel MENTLIK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphology is a science dealing with the landforms of the Earth. Origin and development of the landforms are influenced by many factors which are dependent on climate and strongly influenced by its change. Therefore, analysis of the surface of the Earth provides relevant information about climate and environmental changes in the past.

  15. What can the surface of the Earth tell us about environmental changes?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel MENTLIK

    2012-01-01

    Geomorphology is a science dealing with the landforms of the Earth. Origin and development of the landforms are influenced by many factors which are dependent on climate and strongly influenced by its change. Therefore, analysis of the surface of the Earth provides relevant information about climate and environmental changes in the past.

  16. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  17. Near-Earth asteroid flyby trajectories from the Sun-Earth L2 for Chang'e-2's extended flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Driven by curiosity about possible flight options for the Chang'e-2 spacecraft after it remains at the Sun-Earth L2 point,effective approaches were developed for designing preliminary fuel-optimal near-Earth asteroid flyby trajectories.The approaches include the use of modified unstable manifolds,grid search of the manifolds' parameters,and a two-impulse maneuver for orbital phase matching and z-axis bias change,and are demonstrated to be effective in asteroid target screening and trajectory optimization.Asteroid flybys are expected to be within a distance of 2 × 107 km from the Earth owing to the constrained Earth-spacecraft communication range.In this case,the spacecraft's orbital motion is significantly affected by the gravities of both the Sun and the Earth,and therefore,the concept of the“heliocentric oscillating-Kepler orbit” is proposed,because the classical orbital elements of the flyby trajectories referenced in the heliocentric inertial frame oscillate significantly with respect to time.The analysis and results presented in this study show that,among the asteroids whose orbits are the most accurately predicted,“Toutatis”,“2005 NZ6”,or “2010CL19” might be encountered by Chang'e-2 in late 2012 or 2013 with total impulses less than 100 m/s.

  18. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX): Earth science collaborative for global change science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Global change research is conducted in a highly collaborative manner by teams of researchers including climate scientists, hydrologists, biologists, economists, social scientists and resource managers distributed around the world. Their work is characterized by use of community-developed models and analysis codes and by a need to access a broad range of large datasets found in geographically distributed research and data centers. Stovepipes and segmentation currently limit collaboration and often lead to duplication of efforts. As we move forward, we can be more effective and efficient, both scientifically and fiscally. For example, as the length and diversity of the hydrologic observations grow, modeling and analyses of hydrospheric conditions increasingly requires multiple terabytes of data from a diversity of models and sensors. With network bandwidth beginning to flatten, transmission of these data from centralized data archives presents an increasing challenge, and costs associated with local storage and management of data and compute resources are often significant for individual research and application development efforts. Sharing community valued intermediary data sets, results and codes from individual efforts with others that are not in direct funded collaboration can also be a challenge with respect to time, cost and expertise. Over the past two years, we have been working on the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), a data, modeling and knowledge center that houses NASA satellite data, climate data and ancillary data where a focused community may come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform. NEX tries to accomplish this by providing scientists with four key capabilities: 1) A web-based collaborative environment that includes, among others, social networking and publication tools. 2) A data management environment providing streamlined discovery and access to key datasets, both

  19. The Characteristics of Earth System Thinking of Science Gifted Students in relation to Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Cho, Kyu Seong; Hong, Deok Pyo; Park, Kyeong Jin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perception of earth system thinking of science gifted students in future problem solving (FPS) in relation to climate changes. In order to this study, the research problem associated with climate changes was developed through a literature review. The thirty seven science gifted students participated in lessons. The ideas in problem solving process of science gifted students were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. In the problem solving processes, science gifted students are ''changes of the sunlight by water layer'', ''changes of the Earth''s temperature'', ''changes of the air pressure'', '' change of the wind and weather''were represented in order. On other hand, regard to earth system thinking for climate changes, while science gifted students were used sub components related to atmospheres frequently, they were used sub components related to biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere a little. But, the analytical results of the structural relationship between the sub components related to earth system, they were recognised that biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere used very important in network structures. In conclusion, science gifted students were understood well that components of the earth system are influencing each other. Keywords : Science gifted students, Future problem solving, Climate change, Earth system thinking

  20. Geostationary orbit Earth science platform concepts for global change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jeffery T.; Campbell, Thomas G.; Davis, William T.; Garn, Paul A.; King, Charles B.; Jackson, Cheryl C.

    1991-01-01

    Functionality of a geostationary spacecraft to support Earth science regional process research is identified. Most regional process studies require high spatial and temporal resolution. These high temporal resolutions are on the order of 30 minutes and may be achievable with instruments positioned in a geostationary orbit. A complement of typical existing or near term instruments are identified to take advantage of this altitude. This set of instruments is listed, and the requirements these instruments impose on a spacecraft are discussed. A brief description of the geostationary spacecraft concepts which support these instruments is presented.

  1. Mining the Final Frontier: Keeping Earth's Asteroid Mining Ventures from Becoming the Next Gold Rush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Feinman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “Space: The Final Frontier.”  While that phrase has been a call to arms for generations of science fiction fans and space enthusiasts to look up at the night sky in wonder and amazement, it has increasingly become a siren call for private space pioneers. Since man first went to space, humankind has been pushing the boundaries of experimentation, research, and exploration into the cosmos. Even though Earth’s supply of certain rare and precious metals may be reaching depletion, researchers have found that asteroids are likely to contain vast quantities of these resources.  Today, several companies are attempting to tap into this potential wealth of resources for use, both on Earth and in space.  Before these companies can begin mining, however, stronger property laws are needed to ensure the Asteroid Belt of our solar system is not described as the next California Gold Rush.  This Article argues that the international community must be united on the policies and customs surrounding property ownership in space so these mining operations can be performed in a peaceful and safe manner.

  2. Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prather, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Hsu, Juno [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nicolau, Alex [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Veidenbaum, Alex [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Smith, Philip Cameron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergmann, Dan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  3. The Finnish research programme on climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, J. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This is the final report of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU). This report includes the final results and conclusions made by the individual research groups. The aim of this report is to lay out the research work, and to present the main results and conclusions obtained during the six-year work. The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) was a multidisciplinary national research programme on climate and global change. The principal goals of SILMU were: (1) to increase our knowledge on climate change, its causes, mechanisms and consequences, (2) to strengthen the research on climate change in Finland, (3) to increase the participation of Finnish researchers in international research programmes, and (4) to prepare and disseminate information for policy makers on adaptation and mitigation. The key areas of the research were: (1) quantification of the greenhouse effect and the magnitude of anticipated climatic changes,(2) assessment of the effects of changing climate on ecosystems, and (3) development of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The research programme started in June 1990, and it comprised more than 80 individual research projects, ranging from atmospheric chemistry to economics. There were approximately two hundred scientists working within the programme in seven universities and eleven research institutions. The research activities that comprise SILMU were grouped into four interdisciplinary subprogrammes: atmosphere, waters, terrestrial ecosystems and integration and human interactions

  4. How is water-use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems distributed and changing on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuguang; Li, Hengpeng; Desai, Ankur R; Nagy, Zoltan; Luo, Juhua; Kolb, Thomas E; Olioso, Albert; Xu, Xibao; Yao, Li; Kutsch, Werner; Pilegaard, Kim; Köstner, Barbara; Ammann, Christof

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUE) will help us improve ecosystem management for mitigation as well as adaption to global hydrological change. Here, long-term flux tower observations of productivity and evapotranspiration allow us to detect a consistent latitudinal trend in WUE, rising from the subtropics to the northern high-latitudes. The trend peaks at approximately 51°N, and then declines toward higher latitudes. These ground-based observations are consistent with global-scale estimates of WUE. Global analysis of WUE reveals existence of strong regional variations that correspond to global climate patterns. The latitudinal trends of global WUE for Earth's major plant functional types reveal two peaks in the Northern Hemisphere not detected by ground-based measurements. One peak is located at 20° ~ 30°N and the other extends a little farther north than 51°N. Finally, long-term spatiotemporal trend analysis using satellite-based remote sensing data reveals that land-cover and land-use change in recent years has led to a decline in global WUE. Our study provides a new framework for global research on the interactions between carbon and water cycles as well as responses to natural and human impacts. PMID:25500908

  5. Earth-moving equipment as base machines in forest work. Final report of an NSR project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Jerry [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Excavators have been used for forest draining for a long time in the Nordic countries. Only during the 1980s they were introduced as base machines for other forest operations, such as mounding, processing, harvesting, and road construction and road maintenance. Backhoe loaders were introduced in forestry at a somewhat later stage and to a smaller degree. The number of this type of base machines in forestry is so far small and is increasing very slowly. The NSR project `Earth moving equipment as base machines in forest work` started in 1993 and the project ended in 1995. The objective of the project was to obtain an overall picture of this type of machines up to a point where the logs are at landing site, ready for transportation to the industry. The project should cover as many aspects as possible. In order to obtain this picture, the main project was divided into sub projects. The sub projects separately described in this volume are (1) Excavators in ditching operations and site preparation, (2) Backhoe loaders in harvesting operations, (3) Excavators in wood cutting operations, (4) Tracked excavators in forestry operations, (5) Crawler versus wheeled base machines for single-grip harvester, and (6) Soil changes - A comparison between a wheeled and a tracked forest machine

  6. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  7. GRACE, time-varying gravity, Earth system dynamics and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous observations of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field have recently become available at an unprecedented resolution of a few hundreds of kilometers. The gravity field is a product of the Earth's mass distribution, and these data—provided by the satellites of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE)—can be used to study the exchange of mass both within the Earth and at its surface. Since the launch of the mission in 2002, GRACE data has evolved from being an experimental measurement needing validation from ground truth, to a respected tool for Earth scientists representing a fixed bound on the total change and is now an important tool to help unravel the complex dynamics of the Earth system and climate change. In this review, we present the mission concept and its theoretical background, discuss the data and give an overview of the major advances GRACE has provided in Earth science, with a focus on hydrology, solid Earth sciences, glaciology and oceanography. (review article)

  8. The Influence of Water Level Change in Slope Stability of Earth Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Zheng-hua; Han Bo; Liao Hong-jian; Gao Xiao-yu

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of seepage flow and slope stability to earth dam in water level change is performed. FEM is used to analyzing the influence of percolation and the results including the pore water head of any point, seepage discharge and so on are obtained. The method of slices is introduced to calculating the slope stability of the earth dam. Through an example it is separately discussed the influence of seepage flow when water level is changed in earth dam slope and the effects of percolation in the stability of the earth dam slope. Some helpful conclusions are gained.This can be making the best of the tow methods and the results can be used in engineering for reference.

  9. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Richard L.; Björn, Lars Olof; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ilyasd, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Since publication of the 1998 UNEP Assessment, there has been continued rapid expansion of the literature on UV-B radiation. Many measurements have demonstrated the inverse relationship between column ozone amount and UV radiation, and in a few cases long-term increases due to ozone decreases have been identified. The quantity, quality and availability of ground-based UV measurements relevant to assessing the environmental impacts of ozone changes continue to improve. Recent studies have cont...

  10. Solar Induced Climate Changes and Cooling of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Shahinaz M.

    2011-06-01

    Evidences are given for the cooling effect induced by solar weak cycles. It is forecasted that the coming solar cycle number 24, which has started on January 2008, would be very weak. This cycle would be followed by several weak cycles. Its very start on January 2008 have induced a climate change that forced global cooling, Indeed all global temperature monitors have shown temperature drops. The GISS monitor showed a 0.75°C drop between January 2007 and January 2008. This sharp temperature drop characterizes cooling induced by weak cycles as was evident by historical temperature records. It also happened in the right exact timing of the start of cycle 24. This cooling is real and could last for some time. The cooling well width is location dependant. Last January cooling left many countries in deep freeze. Cooling is very serious and can destroy crops and cause famines. This cooling is instrumentally recorded. This is an appeal to scientists to consider the present cooling seriously, after all the truth ought to be followed. Alert is also given to the reaponsible authorities to work promptly to choose the proper crops that can tolerate the cold otherwise it would be a disaster worldwide.

  11. A possible explanation for Earth's climatic changes in the past few million years

    CERN Document Server

    Wölfli, W

    1999-01-01

    The astronomical theory of Milankovitch relates the changes of Earth's past climate to variations in insolation caused by oscillations of the orbital parameters. However, this theory causes serious problems if used to account for some major observed phenomena of the past few million years. Here, we present an alternative explanation for these phenomena. It is based on the idea that the solar system until quite recently contained an additional massive object of planetary size. This object, called Z, is assumed to have moved on a highly eccentric orbit bound to the sun. It influenced Earth's climate through a gas cloud of evaporated material. Calculations show that more than once during the last 3.2 Myr it even approached the Earth close enough to provoke a significant shift of the geographic position of the poles. The last of these shifts terminated the Earth's Ice Age epoch. The origin and fate of Z is also discussed.

  12. Variations in the angular velocity of the earth rotation and the rate of change of the pulsar period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Y.F.; Rong, J.X.

    1981-09-01

    The effects of the variations in the angular velocity of earth rotation on observed changes in pulsar periods are discussed. It is suggested that the variations are influential when the arrival times of the pulses are reduced from the topocenter to the barycenter of the solar system. The change in the observed pulsar period is noted to be possibly larger than the period itself. The magnitude of the effect depends on the declination of the pulsar and the altitude of the observing station, and higher declinations and latitudes result in smaller magnitudes. Finally, it is cautioned that while observing at upper or lower culmination, the effect on the rate of change of the pulsar period becomes larger.

  13. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Richard

    2007-05-01

    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  14. Effective and responsible teaching of climate change in Earth Science-related disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Z. P.; Greenhough, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is a core topic within Earth Science-related courses. This vast topic covers a wide array of different aspects that could be covered, from past climatic change across a vast range of scales to environmental (and social and economic) impacts of future climatic change and strategies for reducing anthropogenic climate change. The Earth Science disciplines play a crucial role in our understanding of past, present and future climate change and the Earth system in addition to understanding leading to development of strategies and technological solutions to achieve sustainability. However, an increased knowledge of the occurrence and causes of past (natural) climate changes can lead to a lessened concern and sense of urgency and responsibility amongst students in relation to anthropogenic causes of climatic change. Two concepts integral to the teaching of climate change are those of scientific uncertainty and complexity, yet an emphasis on these concepts can lead to scepticism about future predictions and a further loss of sense of urgency. The requirement to understand the nature of scientific uncertainty and think and move between different scales in particular relating an increased knowledge of longer timescale climatic change to recent (industrialised) climate change, are clearly areas of troublesome knowledge that affect students' sense of responsibility towards their role in achieving a sustainable society. Study of the attitudes of university students in a UK HE institution on a range of Earth Science-related programmes highlights a range of different attitudes in the student body towards the subject of climate change. Students express varied amounts of ‘climate change saturation' resulting from both media and curriculum coverage, a range of views relating to the significance of humans to the global climate and a range of opinions about the relevance of environmental citizenship to their degree programme. Climate change is therefore a challenging

  15. Earth rotation changes since -500 CE driven by ice mass variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carling; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E.; Huybers, Peter; Alley, Richard B.

    2016-08-01

    We predict the perturbation to the Earth's length-of-day (LOD) over the Common Era using a recently derived estimate of global sea-level change for this time period. We use this estimate to derive a time series of "clock error", defined as the difference in timing of two clocks, one based on a theoretically invariant time scale (terrestrial time) and one fixed to Earth rotation (universal time), and compare this time series to millennial scale variability in clock error inferred from ancient eclipse records. Under the assumption that global sea-level change over the Common Era is driven by ice mass flux alone, we find that this flux can reconcile a significant fraction of the discrepancies between clock error computed assuming constant slowing of Earth's rotation and that inferred from eclipse records since 700 CE. In contrast, ice mass flux cannot reconcile the temporal variability prior to 700 CE.

  16. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  17. Global changes in intensity of the Earth's magnetic field during the past 800kyr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyodo, Yohan; Valet, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in palaeomagnetic and dating techniques have led to increasingly precise records of the relative intensity of the Earth’s past magnetic field at numerous field sites. The compilation and analysis of these records can provide important constraints on changes in global magnetic field i

  18. Sunshine, Earthshine and Climate Change: II. Solar Origins of Variations in the Earth's Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, P. R.; Pallé, E.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Qiu, J.; Hickey, J.; Rodriguez, P. Montañés; Chu, M.-C.; Kolbe, E.; Brown, C. T.; Koonin, S. E.

    2003-06-01

    There are terrestrial signatures of the solar activity cycle in ice core data (Ram & Stoltz 1999), but the variations in the sun's irradiance over the cycle seem too small to account for the signature (Lean 1997; Goode & Dziembowski 2003). Thus, one would expect that the signature must arise from an indirect effect(s) of solar activity. Such an indirect effect would be expected to manifest itself in the earth's reflectance. Further, the earth's climate depends directly on the albedo. Continuous observations of the earthshine have been carried out from Big Bear Solar Observatory since December 1998, with some more sporadic measurements made during the years 1994 and 1995. We have determined the annual albedos both from our observations and from simulations utilizing the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scene model and various datasets for the cloud cover, as well as snow and ice cover. With these, we look for inter-annual and longer-term changes in the earth's total reflectance, or Bond albedo. We find that both our observations and simulations indicate that the albedo was significantly higher during 1994-1995 (activity minimum) than for the more recent period covering 1999-2001 (activity maximum). However, the sizes of the changes seem somewhat discrepant. Possible indirect solar influences on the earth's Bond albedo are discussed to emphasize that our earthshine data are already sufficiently precise to detect, if they occur, any meaningful changes in the earth's reflectance. Still greater precision will occur as we expand our single site observations to a global network.

  19. Final Environmental Statement related to the decommissioning of the Rare Earths Facility, West Chicago, Illinois. Docket No. 40-2061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Final Environmental Statement is issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to the plan proposed by Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation for the decommissioning of their Rare Earths Facility located in West Chicago, Illinois. The statement considers the Kerr-McGee preferred plan and various alternatives to that plan. The action proposed by the Commission is the renewal of the Kerr-McGee license to allow stabilization of wastes onsite and for possession of the wastes under license for an indeterminate time. The license could be terminated at a later date if certain specified requirements were met

  20. Rates of change of the earth's magnetic field measured by recent analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Huang, Qilin

    1990-01-01

    Typical rates of change of the earth's magnetic field are presented as a function of the earth's spherical harmonics. Harmonics up to the eight degree are analyzed. With the increase in the degree of the harmonics an increase in the relative rate of change can be observed. For higher degrees, the rate of change can be predicted. This enables a differentiation between harmonics originating in the core and harmonics caused by crustal magnetization. The westward drift of the magnetic field depends on the longitudinal gradient of the field. In order to determine the longitudinal motions, harmonics up to degree 20 can be utilized. The average rate of secular acceleration increases with the degree of harmonics from 0.001 deg/sq yr for a dipole term to an average of 0.05 deg/sq yr for degree eight harmonics.

  1. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  2. Final Report Collaborative Project. Improving the Representation of Coastal and Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Frank [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Dennis, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); MacCready, Parker [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Whitney, Michael [Univ. of Connecticut

    2015-11-20

    This project aimed to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving and enhancing the representation of the processes involved in the cycling of freshwater through estuaries and coastal regions. This was a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of physical oceanographers, climate model developers, and computational scientists. It specifically targeted the DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation. The main computational objectives were: 1. To develop computationally efficient, but physically based, parameterizations of estuary and continental shelf mixing processes for use in an Earth System Model (CESM). 2. To develop a two-way nested regional modeling framework in order to dynamically downscale the climate response of particular coastal ocean regions and to upscale the impact of the regional coastal processes to the global climate in an Earth System Model (CESM). 3. To develop computational infrastructure to enhance the efficiency of data transfer between specific sources and destinations, i.e., a point-to-point communication capability, (used in objective 1) within POP, the ocean component of CESM.

  3. Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

  4. JPL's Role in Advancing Earth System Science to Meet the Challenges of Climate and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Objective 2.1.1: Improve understanding of and improve the predictive capability for changes in the ozone layer, climate forcing, and air quality associated with changes in atmospheric composition. Objective 2.1.2: Enable improved predictive capability for weather and extreme weather events. Objective 2.1.3: Quantify, understand, and predict changes in Earth s ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, including the global carbon cycle, land cover, and biodiversity. Objective 2.1.4: Quantify the key reservoirs and fluxes in the global water cycle and assess water cycle change and water quality. Objective 2.1.5: Improve understanding of the roles of the ocean, atmosphere, land and ice in the climate system and improve predictive capability for its future evolution. Objective 2.1.6: Characterize the dynamics of Earth s surface and interior and form the scientific basis for the assessment and mitigation of natural hazards and response to rare and extreme events. Objective 2.1.7: Enable the broad use of Earth system science observations and results in decision-making activities for societal benefits.

  5. Mapping landcover distribution over Canada from Earth Observation data for climate change studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, R.; Pouilot, D.

    2004-05-01

    We describe the application of earth observation (EO) data for land use and land cover change. Land cover change is identified by IPCC among the causes, or key forcing factors of global change. It is representative of the means by which human adaptation to these changes will occur. This research is part of the Earth Science for National Action on Climate Change project integrated into the NRCan/ESS Climate Change Program and supported by the Canadian Space Agency through Government Related Initiatives Program. The analysis of land-use & land cover changes is approached from three complementary perspectives: 1) monitoring, 2) providing earth observation based spatially explicit input for modeling of processes and 3) assessment of impact on ecological functions. The research is conducted at two spatial scales: regional scale based on 1km resolution data (AVHRR, SPOT VEGETATION, MODIS) and landscape scale, based on medium resolution 30 m data (Landsat ETM/TM and ASTER). The results presented here allow for qualitative assessment of changes in land cover over the Canadian landmass for period 1990-2000. Three land cover maps were produced from enhanced AVHRR surface reflectance time series data. The base map derived from 1995 AVHRR seasonal data was updated backward to produce 1990 and forwarded to produce 2000 land cover maps using a change detection and local classification methodology. Changes for 1990-1995 and 1995-2000 were generated using temporal change detection that employs 10-day composites for the summer seasons. Areas of significant change were extracted using ecoprovince specific thresholds set by comparison with Landsat and provincial fire databases. To classify change areas, local spectral signatures were generated around the change area based on the 1995 landcover map and spectral data for the year to be updated. The pixels within the change area were then classified using these signatures. The approach taken for producing these land cover data ensures

  6. A statistical study of magnetic field magnitude changes during substorms in the near earth tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R. E.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Mcentire, R. W.; Potemra, T. A.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Using AMPTE/CCE data taken in 1985 and 1986 when the CCE apogee (8.8 earth radii) was within 4.5 hours of midnight, 167 injection events in the near-earth magnetotail have been cataloged. These events are exactly or nearly dispersionless on a 72-sec time scale from 25 keV to 285 keV. The changes in the field magnitude are found to be consistent with the expected effects of the diversion/disruption of the cross-tail current during a substorm, and the latitudinal position of the current sheet is highly variable within the orbit of CCE. The local time variation of the magnetic-field changes implies that the substorm current wedge is composed of longitudinally broad Birkeland currents.

  7. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two

  8. Earthquake Weather: Linking Seismicity to Changes in Barometric Pressure, Earth Tides, and Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. D.; Garnero, E.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    It has been widely observed that earthquakes can be triggered due to changes in stress induced by the passage of surface waves from remote earthquakes. These stress changes are typically on the order of a few kiloPascals and occur over time spans of seconds. Less well investigated is the question of whether triggering of seismic activity can result from similar stress changes occurring over periods of hours or days due to changing barometric pressure, rainfall, and Earth tides. Past studies have shown a possible link between these stress sources and slow earthquakes in Taiwan (Hsu et al., 2015). Here, we investigate the relationship between seismicity and changing barometric pressure, Earth tides, and rainfall for four regions of the western United States where regional seismic networks provide high-quality seismic catalogs over relatively long time periods: Southern California, Northern California, the Pacific Northwest, and Utah. For each region we obtained seismic catalogs from January 2001 through September 2014 and acquired hourly data for barometric pressure and rainfall across the regions from the National Climatic Data Center. The vertical stress time series due to Earth tides was computed for the location of each weather station in the study areas. We summed the stresses from these 3 sources and looked for variations in seismicity correlated to the stress changes. We show that seismicity rates increase with increasing magnitude of stress change. In many cases the increase in seismicity is larger for reductions in vertical stress than it is for stress increases. We speculate that the dependency of seismic rate on combined vertical stress is acting through a combination of two mechanisms: (1) Reduced stresses reduce the normal force on faults, triggering failure in critically-stressed faults. (2) Increased stresses may similarly reduce the normal force on faults due to increases in pore pressure induced in the fault region.

  9. Land Management for Climate Change Mitigation and Geoengineering - Are Earth System Models up to the Challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the terrestrial models included in Earth system models simulate changes to the land surface from human activities. In the Community Land Model (CLM), for example, irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, soil tillage, wood harvesting, and numerous crop types are represented in addition to anthropogenic land-cover change (e.g., deforestation, reforestation, and afforestation). These land uses are included in the models because they have a strong influence on the hydrological cycle (irrigation), crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions (nitrogen fertilization, crop type), and carbon storage (wood harvesting, tillage). However, the representation of these processes in Earth system models is uncertain, as is the specification of transient changes from 1850 through the historical era and into the future. A more fundamental aspect of land surface models is the coupling of land and atmosphere through exchanges of energy, mass, and momentum. Here, too, anthropogenic activities can affect climate through land-cover change and land management. Eddy covariance flux tower analyses suggest that the land management effects are as significant as the land-cover change effects. These analyses pose a challenge to land surface models - How well do the models simulate the effects of land management (e.g., changes in leaf area index or community composition) on surface flux exchange with the atmosphere? Here I use the CLM and a new, advanced multilayer canopy flux model to illustrate challenges in model surface fluxes and the influence of land management on surface fluxes.

  10. A Test to Verify the Speed Change of Light in the Gravitational Field of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun, Mei

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein equation of gravitational field, it is proved that the speed of light speed would change and isotropy of light speed would be violated in gravitational field with spherical symmetry. On the surface of the earth, the speed of light vertical to the surface is 0.2m/s less than that parallel to the surface. It is suggested to use the method of the Michelson Morley interference to verify the change of light speed and the violation of isotropy in ...

  11. Implementation of the BDFGEOTHERM Database (Geothermal Fluids in Switzerland) on Google Earth - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonney, R.; Vuataz, F.-D.; Cattin, S.

    2008-12-15

    The database BDFGeotherm compiled in 2007 on ACCESS code was modified to improve its availability and attractivity by using Google Earth free software and the CREGE web site. This database allows gathering existing geothermal data, generally widely dispersed and often difficult to reach, towards a user's friendly tool. Downloading the file 'BDFGeotherm.kmz' from the CREGE web site makes possible to visualize a total of 84 geothermal sites from Switzerland and neighbouring areas. Each one is represented with a pinpoint of different colour, for different temperature ranges. A large majority of sites is located in the northern part of the Jura Mountain and in the upper Rhone Valley. General information about water use, geology, flow rate, temperature and mineralization are given in a small window by clicking on the desired pinpoint. Moreover, two links to an Internet address are available for each site in each window, allowing returning to the CREGE web site and providing more details on each sampling point such as: geographical description, reservoir geology, hydraulics, hydrochemistry, isotopes and geothermal parameters. For a limited number of sites, photos and a geological log can be viewed and exported. (author)

  12. Big Earth observation data analytics for land use and land cover change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Gilberto

    2015-04-01

    Current scientific methods for extracting information for Earth observation data lag far behind our capacity to build complex satellites. In response to this challenge, our work explores a new type of knowledge platform to improve the extraction of land use and land cover change information from big Earth Observation data sets. We take a space-time perspective of Earth Observation data, considering that each sensor revisits the same place at regular intervals. Sensor data can, in principle, be calibrated so that observations of the same place in different times are comparable and each measure from a sensor is mapped into a three dimensional array in space-time. To fully enable the use of space-time arrays for working with Earth Observation data, we use the SciDB array database. Arrays naturally fit the data structure of Earth Observation images, breaking the image-as-a-snapshot paradigm. Thus, entire collections of images can be stored as multidimensional arrays. However, array databases do not understand the specific nature of geographical data, and do not capture the meaning and the differences between spatial and temporal dimensions. In our work, we have extended SciDB to include additional information about satellite image metadata, cartographical projections, and time. We are currently developing methods to extract land use and land cover information based on space-time analysis on array databases. Our experiments show these space-time methods give us significant improvements over current space-only remote sensing image processing methods. We have been able to capture tropical forest degradation and forest regrowth and also to distinguish between single-cropping and double-cropping practices in tropical agriculture.

  13. Learning in Earth and space science: a review of conceptual change instructional approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-03-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the general characteristics of the research, the conceptual change instructional approaches that were used, and the methods employed to evaluate the effectiveness of these approaches. The findings of this review support four assertions about the existing research: (1) astronomical phenomena have received greater attention than geological phenomena; (2) most studies have viewed conceptual change from a cognitive perspective only; (3) data about conceptual change were generated pre- and post-intervention only; and (4) the interventions reviewed presented limited opportunities to involve students in the construction and manipulation of multiple representations of the phenomenon being investigated. Based upon these assertions, the authors recommend that new research in the Earth and space science disciplines challenges traditional notions of conceptual change by exploring the role of affective variables on learning, focuses on the learning of geological phenomena through the construction of multiple representations, and employs qualitative data collection throughout the implementation of an instructional approach.

  14. Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

  15. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  16. Solar heating system installed at Telex Communications, Inc. , Blue Earth, Minnesota. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEver, William S.

    1979-10-26

    The final results are summarized of a contract for space heating a 97,000 square foot building which houses administrative offices, assembly areas and warehouse space. Information is also provided on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature, and as-built drawings. The system began delivering space heating in February 1978. The Telex solar system is composed of four main subsystems; they are the solar collectors, controls, thermal storage and heat distribution. The ITC/Solar Mark III collector was used. The collector array consists of 10 rows of 36 collectors each. The control subsystem controls the operation of the system pumps and control valves. Thermal storage for the system is provided by a 20,000 gallon water storage tank located inside the building. Heating is accomplished by water-to-air heat exchangers and controlled by thermostats.

  17. Future Earth -- New Approaches to address Climate Change and Sustainability in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred; Abu Alhaija, Rana

    2016-04-01

    Interactions and feedbacks between rapidly increasing multiple pressures on water, energy and food security drive social-ecological systems at multiple scales towards critical thresholds in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA Region). These pressures, including climate change, the growing demand on resources and resource degradation, urbanization and globalization, cause unprecedented challenges for countries and communities in the region. Responding to these challenges requires integrated science and a closer relationship with policy makers and stakeholders. Future Earth has been designed to respond to these urgent needs. In order to pursue such objectives, Future Earth is becoming the host organization for some 23 programs that were previously run under four global environmental change programmes, DIVERSITAS, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Some further projects arose out of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP). It thus brings together a wide spectrum of expertise and knowledge that will be instrumental in tackling urgent problems in the MENA region and the wider Mediterranean Basin. Future Earth is being administered by a globally distributed secretariat that also includes a series of Regional Centers, which will be the nuclei for the development of new regional networks. The Cyprus Institute in Nicosia, Cyprus (CyI; www.cyi.ac.cy) is hosting the Regional Center for the MENA Region. The CyI is a non-profit research and post-graduate education institution with a strong scientific and technological orientation and a distinctive regional, Eastern Mediterranean scope. Cyprus at the crossroads of three continents and open to all nations in the region provides excellent conditions for advancing the research agenda of Future Earth in the MENA Region. Given the recent and ongoing major political

  18. The Changes of China's Policy on Rare Earths and its Impacts on Rare Earth Industry%中国稀土政策的变迁及对稀土产业的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱南平; 徐海申; 李颖; 周艳晶

    2014-01-01

    稀土是我国重要的战略性矿产资源。为促进稀土产业的健康可持续发展,近年来,政府出台了许多稀土政策,主要包括资源开发政策、税收政策、出口政策、产业政策、环保政策,这些政策的变迁对稀土产业产生了重大影响:降低了资源消耗速度、改变了全球稀土供需格局、提高稀土产业集中度、使得企业外部成本内部化,实现了部分目标。政策建议:根据供需格局变化,适度放松轻稀土管控;发挥资源优势,确保中国稀土利益;实施差别化和精细化管理;加快提高产业集中度步伐,减少政府对出口的直接干预;加大稀土应用研发,促进战略性新兴产业发展。%Rare earth is important strategic mineral resources in our country. In recent years, in order to promote the healthy and sustainable development of rare earth industry, the government has introduced many rare earth policies, such as policy on resource development, tax policy, export policy, industrial policy, and environmental policy. In accordance with these policies, we have reduced the resource consumption, changed the world's rare earth supply and demand pattern, and improved the rare earth industrial concentration. All of these efforts that we have made help to internalize external cost and achieve some goals. On this basis, this paper suggests that we should moderately relax the rare earth control with the change of supply and demand pattern, make full use of the advantages in resources so as to ensure China's rare earth interests. At the same time, we will devote our efforts to implement different and ifne management, work faster to promote industrial concentration, and reduce the government interference over export. Finally, we should step up efforts to research application of rare earth, and give priority to strategic emerging industries.

  19. MANAGING PLANET EARTH TO MAKE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT MORE SUSTAINABLE: CLIMATE CHANGE AND HONG KONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.W.-S.Yim; C.D.Ollier

    2009-01-01

    School of Earth and Geographical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia)Selected recent findings related to climate change in Hong Kong include: (1)The Hong Kong seafloor has yielded a ca.0.5-million year record of climate and sea-level changes.(2)Greenhouse gases produced naturally from sub-aerially exposed continental shelves and oceanic islands were a probable forcing mechanism in triggering the abrupt termination of past ice ages. (3)An analysis of annual mean temperature records has revealed that the urban heat island effect has contributed ca.75% of the warming. (4)Past volcanic eruptions are found to lower Hong Kong's temperature and to cause extremely dry and wet years. (5)No evidence can be found for an increase in frequency and intensity of typhoons based on the instrumental record since the end of the Second World War. (6)The observed rate of sea-level rise in the South China Sea is much slower than the predictions of the IPCC Fourth Assessment. For the Earth's management, population growth and the depletion of non-renewable resources must be recognized as unsustainable. The human impact on the natural hydrological cycle is an important forcing mechanism in climate change. In order to delay the demise of the human race, management must include curbing population growth and much more waste recycling than at present.

  20. Pressure-induced valence change in the rare earth metals:The case of Praseodymium

    OpenAIRE

    Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Nakagawa, Akitoshi; Fujio, Kazuhiko; Kawae, Tatsuya; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The rare earth metal praseodymium (Pr) transforms from the d-fcc crystal structure (Pr-III) to {$\\alpha$}-U one (Pr-IV) at 20 GPa with a large volume collapse (${\\rm\\Delta} V/V$ = 0.16), which is associated with the valence change of the Pr ion. The two 4{\\it f} electrons in the Pr ion is supposed to be itinerant in the Pr-IV phase. In order to investigate the electronic state of the phase IV, we performed the high pressure electrical resistance measurement using the diamond anvil cell up to ...

  1. Rare earths & climate change,new energy,energy conservation and pollution reduction(continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅲ.Contribution of rare earths to energy conservation Rechargeable batteries and rare earth permanent magnetic motor matching with batteries in every Prius car consume approximately 10 kg of rare-earth hydro-gen storage materials and 2 kg of rare earth permanent magnetic materials respectively.

  2. The Teaching of Anthropogenic Climate Change and Earth Science via Technology-Enabled Inquiry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A gap has existed between the tools and processes of scientists working on anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) and the technologies and curricula available to educators teaching the subject through student inquiry. Designing realistic scientific inquiry into AGCC poses a challenge because research on it relies on complex computer models, globally distributed data sets, and complex laboratory and data collection procedures. Here we examine efforts by the scientific community and educational researchers to design new curricula and technology that close this gap and impart robust AGCC and Earth Science understanding. We find technology-based teaching shows promise in promoting robust AGCC understandings if associated curricula address mitigating factors such as time constraints in incorporating technology and the need to support teachers implementing AGCC and Earth Science inquiry. We recommend the scientific community continue to collaborate with educational researchers to focus on developing those inquiry technologies and curricula that use realistic scientific processes from AGCC research and/or the methods for determining how human society should respond to global change.

  3. On the occurrence of Earth's magnetic field changes during the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo; Campuzano, Saioa A.; Qamili, Enkelejda

    2016-04-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is characterized by different temporal chaotic fluctuations such as reversals, excursions, archeomagnetic and geomagnetic jerks. During the last decades the number of geomagnetic jerks has increased up to recent rates of one jerk every 3 years. In addition, the dipolar field is continuously decreasing since the time we had geomagnetic instrumental or historical measurements and the non-dipolar harmonic contributions are taking an important role in the present geomagnetic field behaviour, as reflected by the rapid growth of the region covered by the South Atlantic Anomaly. These mentioned facts seem to indicate that something is changing in the Earth's outer core where the main part of the geomagnetic field has its origin, pointing out a possible imminent reversal or excursion. In this work we analyse with different techniques the occurrence of this geomagnetic changes during the last decades, paying attention to the most recent years, thanks to the most accurate geomagnetic data provided by the ESA's Swarm satellite mission

  4. Slow differential rotation of the Earth's inner core indicated by temporal changes in scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale; Dodge; Earle

    2000-05-25

    The finding that the Earth's inner core might be rotating faster than the mantle has important implications for our understanding of core processes, including the generation of the Earth's magnetic field. But the reported signal is subtle--a change of about 0.01 s per year in the separation of two seismic waves with differing paths through the core. Subsequent studies of such data have generally supported the conclusion that differential rotation exists, but the difficulty of accurately locating historic earthquakes and possible biases induced by strong lateral variations in structure near the core-mantle boundary have raised doubt regarding the proposed inner-core motion. Also, a study of free oscillations constrained the motion to be relatively small compared to previous estimates and it has been proposed that the interaction of inner-core boundary topography and mantle heterogeneity might lock the inner core to the mantle. The recent detection of seismic waves scattered in the inner core suggests a simple test of inner-core motion. Here we compare scattered waves recorded in Montana, USA, from two closely located nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya, USSR, in 1971 and 1974. The data show small but coherent changes in scattering which point toward an inner-core differential rotation rate of 0.15 degrees per year--consistent with constraints imposed by the free-oscillation data.

  5. Data Mining for Global Change: A Vision for "Big Data" in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaeuser, K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the Earth sciences have undergone a rapid transformation from a historically data-poor to a relatively data-rich environment. This development is largely due to significant improvements in observation technologies (notably satellites since the 1970s) on one hand, and advances in computational tools (both hardware and software) on the other. As a result the Earth sciences are primed to enter the Fourth Paradigm, a term coined by the late Jim Gray to describe a new realm of scientific discovery driven by data analysis - the other three being theory, experimentation, and computer simulation. In particular, observations from remote sensors on satellites and weather radars, in situ sensors and sensor networks, along with outputs of global climate or Earth system models from large-scale simulations as well as regional modeling studies, produce data approaching the Tera- and Petabyte scales. These massive and information-rich datasets offer a significant opportunity for advancing our understanding of the global climate system and in turn our ability to make better informed projections of future climate change, yet current data analysis techniques are not able to realize their full potential. We will outline a vision for the application of "Big Data" tools and technologies in the Earth sciences, which have the potential to make a transformative impact on the toolbox available to the scientist as well as the way science is conducted. For instance, data mining and machine learning could provide novel computational tools that empower scientists to perform analyses more efficiently and effectively than ever before: tedious routine tasks become automated, existing methods scale to significantly larger datasets, and innovative methods may provide new capabilities altogether. Most notably we are not interested in leveraging computation for simulations of increasing scale or resolution but rather in the analysis of datasets of increasing size and

  6. Progress Report 2008: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, John B [ORNL; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jones, Phil [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2009-01-01

    This project employs multi-disciplinary teams to accelerate development of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), based at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). A consortium of eight Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories collaborate with NCAR and the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). The laboratories are Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL) Los Alamos (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), Pacific Northwest (PNNL) and Sandia (SNL). The work plan focuses on scalablity for petascale computation and extensibility to a more comprehensive earth system model. Our stated goal is to support the DOE mission in climate change research by helping ... To determine the range of possible climate changes over the 21st century and beyond through simulations using a more accurate climate system model that includes the full range of human and natural climate feedbacks with increased realism and spatial resolution.

  7. Climate change : we are at risk : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period November 2002 to May 2003, the effects of climate change on Canada's agricultural and forestry sectors and rural communities were investigated by the Senate Standing Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. The Saguenay flood of 1996, the Red River flood of 1997, and the 1998 ice storm were reviewed, along with the forest fires in Western Canada during the summer of 2003 and the unusual succession of dry years. This paper includes a discussion on climate change, agriculture, forests, water, rural communities, Aboriginal people, and potential adaptation options. Seven recommendations were made: (1) climate change impacts and adaptation efforts should be coordinated by the Government of Canada, (2) substantial increase in funding and allocation of resources for climate change impacts and adaptation research is required, (3) make water research a national priority, with emphasis on water supply and demand, (4) expand and increase the role and resources of the Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN), (5) develop and quickly implement an education and communication strategy concerning risks and challenges associated with climate change and its impacts on agriculture and forests, (6) develop a long term safety net to allow farmers the opportunity to take advantage of possible opportunities resulting from climate change, and (7) implement a systematic review of existing and new programs and policies to assess climate change risks and opportunities. refs., figs

  8. Thermohaline circulations and global climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, H.P.

    1996-10-01

    This report discusses results from the project entitled Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change. Results are discussed in three sections related to the development of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), surface forcing of the ocean by the atmosphere, and experiments with the MICOM related to the problem of the ocean`s response to global climate change. It will require the use of a global, coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model to quantify the feedbacks between ocean and atmosphere associated with climate changes. The results presented here do provide guidance for such studies in the future.

  9. Using Copernicus earth observation services to monitor climate change impacts and adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel; Zebisch, Marc; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Schönthaler, Konstanze; von Andrian-Werburg, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, earth observation made a big leap towards an operational monitoring of the state of environment. Remote sensing provides for instance information on the dynamics, trends and anomalies of snow and glaciers, vegetation, soil moisture or water temperature. In particular, the European Copernicus initiative offers new opportunities through new satellites with a higher temporal and spatial resolution, operational services for environmental monitoring and an open data access policy. With the Copernicus climate change service and the ESA climate change initiative, specific earth observation programs are in place to address the impacts of climate change. However, such products and services are until now rarely picked up in the field of policy or decision making oriented climate impact or climate risk assessments. In this talk, we will present results of a study, which focus on the question, if and how remote sensing approaches could be integrated into operational monitoring activities of climate impacts and response measures on a national and subnational scale. We assessed all existing and planned Copernicus services regarding their relevance for climate impact monitoring by comparing them against the indication fields from an indicator system for climate impact and response monitoring in Germany, which has lately been developed in the framework of the German national adaptation strategy. For several climate impact or response indicators, an immediate integration of remote sensing data could be identified and been recommended. For these cases, we will show practical examples on the benefit of remote sensing data. For other indication fields, promising approaches were found, which need further development. We argue that remote sensing is a very valuable complement to the existing indicator schemes by contributing with spatial explicit, timely information but not always easy to integrate with classical approaches, which are oriented towards consistent long

  10. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  11. Solar Irradiance Changes And Photobiological Effects At Earth's Surface Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian; Neale, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth for decades. Although there is some direct biological damage on the surface from redistributed radiation several studies have indicated that the greatest long term threat is from ozone depletion and subsequent heightened solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is known that organisms exposed to this irradiation experience harmful effects such as sunburn and even direct damage to DNA, proteins, or other cellular structures. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In the present work, we employed a radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light). Using biological weighting functions we have considered a wide range of effects, including: erythema and skin cancer in humans; inhibition of photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum sp. and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans inhibition of carbon fixation in Antarctic phytoplankton; inhibition of growth of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Otana) seedlings; and cataracts. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in

  12. Industrial Change and Black Men's Relative Earnings: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroman, Wayne

    This study examines the relative earnings of black men from a time series perspective covering 1930 to 1990. Regression analyses were fitted to annual data to isolate factors responsible for changes in relative earnings. National and regional data on population growth and employment growth by industry were analyzed to determine the degree of…

  13. Novel Tools for Climate Change Learning and Responding in Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Brunacini, Jessica; Pfirman, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    Several innovative, polar focused activities and tools including a polar hub website (http://thepolarhub.org) have been developed for use in formal and informal earth science or STEM education by the Polar Learning and Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership (consisting of climate scientists, experts in the learning sciences and education practitioners). In seeking to inform understanding of and response to climate change, these tools and activities range from increasing awareness to informing decisions about climate change, from being used in classrooms (by undergraduate students as well as by pre-college students or by teachers taking online climate graduate courses) to being used in the public arena (by stakeholders, community members and the general public), and from using low technology (card games such as EcoChains- Arctic Crisis, a food web game or SMARTIC - Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change, an Arctic marine spatial planning game) to high technology (Greenify Network - a mobile real world action game that fosters sustainability and allows players to meaningfully address climate change in their daily lives, or the Polar Explorer Data Visualization Tablet App that allows individuals to explore data collected by scientists and presented for the everyday user through interactive maps and visualizations, to ask questions and go on an individualized tour of polar regions and their connections to the rest of the world). Games are useful tools in integrative and applied learning, in gaining practical and intellectual skills, and in systems thinking. Also, as part of the PoLAR Partnership, a Signs of the Land Climate Change Camp was collaboratively developed and conducted, that can be used as a model for engaging and representing indigenous communities in the co-production of climate change knowledge, communication tools and solutions building. Future camps are planned with Alaska Native Elders, educators including classroom

  14. Interdisciplinary Climate Change Curriculum Materials based on the Next Generation Science Standards and The Earth Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A.; Robertson, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2012, the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies' reported that one of the major issues associated with the development of climate change curriculum was the lack of interdisciplinary materials that also promoted a correlation between science standards and content. Therefore, in order to respond to this need, our group has developed an interdisciplinary climate change curriculum that has had as its fundamental basis the alignment with the guidelines presented by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the ones presented by the international document entitled The Earth Charter. In this regards, while the alignment with NGSS disciplinary core ideas, cross-concepts and students' expectations intended to fulfill the need for the development of climate change curriculum activities that were directly associated with the appropriate set of NGSS guidelines, the alignment with The Earth Charter document intended to reinforce the need the for the integration of sociological, philosophical and intercultural analysis of the theme 'climate change'. Additionally, our curriculum was also developed as part of a collaborative project between climate scientists and engineers, who are responsible for the development of a Regional Arctic Simulation Model (RASM). Hence, another important curriculum constituent was the feedback, suggestions and reviews provided by these professionals, who have also contributed to these pedagogical materials' scientific accuracy by facilitating the integration of datasets and visualizations developed by RASM. Furthermore, our group has developed a climate change curriculum for two types of audience: high school and early undergraduate students. Each curriculum unit is divided into modules and each module contains a set of lesson plans. The topics selected to compose each unit and module were designated according to the surveys conducted with scientists and engineers involved with the development of the climate change

  15. Solar irradiance changes and phytoplankton productivity in Earth's ocean following astrophysical ionizing radiation events

    CERN Document Server

    Neale, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer ( > 600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400 -700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short wavelength PAR. Here we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in Terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and remote-sensing based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed and mixed...

  16. Changes in terrestrial aridity for the period 850-2080 from the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Lin, Lei; Huang, Jianping; Feng, Song; Gettelman, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    This study examines changes in terrestrial aridity due to both natural and anthropogenic forcing for the period 850-2080 by analyzing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Last Millennium Ensemble simulations for 850-2005 and the CESM Large Ensemble simulations for 1920-2080. We compare terrestrial aridity in the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) (950-1250) with that in the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1550-1850), present day (PD) (1950-2005) with the last millennium (LM) (850-1850), and the future (F8.5) (2050-2080) with the LM, to place anthropogenic changes in the context of changes due to natural forcings. The aridity index defined as the ratio of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration, averaged over land, becomes smaller (i.e., a drier terrestrial climate) by 0.34% for MWP versus LIA (MWP-LIA), 1.4% for PD versus LM (PD-LM), and 7.8% for F8.5 versus LM (F8.5-LM). The change of terrestrial-mean aridity in PD-LM and F8.5-LM due to anthropogenic forcing is thus 4 and 20 times of that from MWP-LIA due to natural forcing, respectively. It is shown that a drier climate in PD than LM is largely due to a decrease of precipitation while a drier climate in F8.5 than LM, and MWP than LIA, is mainly caused by an increase of temperature. The terrestrial-mean aridity change in PD-LM is, however, largely driven by greenhouse gas increases as in F8.5-LM. This is because anthropogenic aerosols have a small effect on terrestrial-mean aridity but at the same time they totally alter the attributions of aridity changes to meteorological variables by causing large negative anomalies in surface air temperature, available energy, and precipitation. Different from MWP-LIA and F8.5-LM, there are large spatial inhomogeneities in P/PET changes for PD-LM in both magnitudes and signs, caused by anthropogenic aerosols, greenhouse gases, and land surface changes. The changes of terrestrial-mean P and P - E (precipitation minus evaporation) for 850-2080 are also examined. The relative

  17. Enabling Long-Term Earth Science Research: Changing Data Practices (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Data stewardship plans are shaped by our shared experiences. As a result, community engagement and collaborative activities are central to the stewardship of data. Since modes and mechanisms of engagement have changed, we benefit from asking anew: ';Who are the communities?' and ';What are the lessons learned?'. Data stewardship with its long-term care perspective, is enriched by reflection on community experience. This presentation draws on data management issues and strategies originating from within long-term research communities as well as on recent studies informed by library and information science. Ethnographic case studies that capture project activities and histories are presented as resources for comparative analysis. Agency requirements and funding opportunities are stimulating collaborative endeavors focused on data re-use and archiving. Research groups including earth scientists, information professionals, and data systems designers are recognizing the possibilities for new ways of thinking about data in the digital arena. Together, these groups are re-conceptualizing and reconfiguring for data management and data curation. A differentiation between managing data for local use and production of data for re-use remotely in locations and fields remote from the data origin is just one example of the concepts emerging to facilitate development of data management. While earth scientists as data generators have the responsibility to plan new workflows and documentation practices, data and information specialists have responsibility to promote best practices as well as to facilitate the development of community resources such as controlled vocabularies and data dictionaries. With data-centric activities and changing data practices, the potential for creating dynamic community information environments in conjunction with development of data facilities exists but remains elusive.

  18. Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX): A Public-Private Partnership for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R. R.; Lee, T. J.; Michaelis, A.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, computing and knowledge collaborative that houses satellite, climate and ancillary data where a community of researchers can come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform with access to large supercomputing resources. As a part of broadening the community beyond NASA-funded researchers, NASA through an agreement with Amazon Inc. made available to the public a large collection of Climate and Earth Sciences satellite data. The data, available through the Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX) platform hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud, consists of large amounts of global land surface imaging, vegetation conditions, climate observations and climate projections. In addition to the data, users of OpenNEX platform can also watch lectures from leading experts, learn basic access and use of the available data sets. In order to advance White House initiatives such as Open Data, Big Data and Climate Data and the Climate Action Plan, NASA over the past six months conducted the OpenNEX Challenge. The two-part challenge was designed to engage the public in creating innovative ways to use NASA data and address climate change impacts on economic growth, health and livelihood. Our intention was that the challenges allow citizen scientists to realize the value of NASA data assets and offers NASA new ideas on how to share and use that data. The first "ideation" challenge, closed on July 31st attracted over 450 participants consisting of climate scientists, hobbyists, citizen scientists, IT experts and App developers. Winning ideas from the first challenge will be incorporated into the second "builder" challenge currently targeted to launch mid-August and close by mid-November. The winner(s) will be formally announced at AGU in December of 2014. We will share our experiences and lessons learned over the past year from OpenNEX, a public-private partnership for

  19. Automated baseline change detection - Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust

  20. Automated baseline change detection -- Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byler, E.

    1997-10-31

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust.

  1. Solar assisted absorption or motor driven heat pump with earth seasonal storage. Final report. Pt. 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A plant composed of an energy roof, a seasonal earth storage and an absorption heat pump has been experimented. The purpose was to study the behaviour of the various components and their interaction. The surveys went on during two years. The following operations are considered: The charging of the earth storage by the energy roof and the working of an absorption heat pump connected either to the energy roof or to the earth storage.

  2. Industrially induced changes in Earth structure at the geysers geothermal area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.; Grant, C.C.; Ross, A.; Julian, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial exploitation is causing clearly-measurable changes in Earth structure at The Geysers geothermal area, California. Production at The Geysers peaked in the late 1980s at ???3.5 ?? 103 kg s-1 of steam and 1800 MW of electricity. It subsequently decreased by about 10% per year [Barker et al., 1992] because of declining reservoir pressure. The steam reservoir coincides with a strong negative anomaly (???0.16, ???9%) in the compressional-to-shear seismic wave speed ratio vP/vS, consistent with the expected effects of low-pressure vapor-phase pore fluid [Julian et al., 1996]. Between 1991 and 1994 this anomaly increased in amplitude by up to about 0.07 (???4%). This is consistent with the expected effects of continued pressure reduction and conversion of pore water to steam as a result of exploitation. These unique results show that vP/vS tomography can easily detect saturation changes caused by exploitation of reservoirs, and is a potentially valuable technique for monitoring environmental change. They also provide geophysical observational evidence that geothermal energy is not a renewable energy source.

  3. Angular momentum from CMIP5 climate change simulations, as related to Earth rotation excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salstein, D.; Quinn, K.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric angular momentum parameters are calculated from revised scenarios of greenhouse gas concentration in use in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5, which investigates expected climate change. This phase includes new estimates for the so-called Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP), designed to simulate more realistically the future path of emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases throughout the 21st century. From time series of atmosphere-ocean models that adopt these parameters, we calculate the impact on the excitations for length of day and polar motion through the course of the current century, and hence portions of the expected changes in the ERP's due to the atmosphere. We diagnose the most important geographic areas as regional sources of such variations; earlier such models revealed the particular importance of resulting relevant wind changes in the upper atmosphere of the middle latitudes and the southern hemisphere high latitudes. The spread among the RCP scenarios and among a number of different models gives us an understanding of possible uncertainties in the estimates. Earlier calculations were for the 20th and 21st centuries with less sophisticated greenhouse gas concentration scenarios. We can compare the Earth rotation excitations from the retrospective portions of the model-based estimates with atmospheric reanalyses that are in archives at the IERS Special Bureau for the Atmosphere.

  4. Assessing Student Learning About Climate Change With Earth System Place-Based Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Krumhansl, R. A.; Acker, J. G.; Manitakos, J.; Elston, A.

    2012-12-01

    Powerful web-based data sets about geospatially situated Earth system phenomena are now available for analysis by the general public, including for any teacher or set of students who have the requisite skills to partake in the analyses. Unfortunately there exist impediments to successful use of these data. Teachers and students may lack (1) readiness to use the software interfaces for querying and representing the data, (2) needed scientific practice skills such as interpreting geographic information system-based maps and time series plots, and (3) needed understandings of the fundamental scientific concepts to make sense of the data. Hence, to evaluate any program designed to engage students and teachers with these data resources, there need to be assessment strategies to check for understanding. Assessment becomes the key to identifying learning needs and intervening appropriately with additional task scaffolding or other forms of instructional support. The paper will describe contrasting assessment strategies being carried out in two climate change education projects funded by NASA and NSF. The NASA project, Data Enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE), brings data from NASA satellite missions to the classroom. A bank of DICCE assessment items is being developed to measure students' abilities to transfer their skills in analyzing data about their local region to other regions of the world. Teachers choose pre-post assessment items for variables of Earth system phenomena that they target in their instruction. The data vary depending on what courses the teachers are teaching. For example, Earth science teachers are likely to choose data about atmospheric phenomena and biology teachers are more likely to choose land cover data. The NSF project, Studying Topography, Orographic Rainfall, and Ecosystems with Geospatial Information Technology (STORE), provides to teachers recent climatological and vegetation data about "study areas" in Central

  5. How Blogging on Earth and Environmental Science Changed One Student's Passion, Perception, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoe, A.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, I started a WordPress blog to engage more with my undergraduate education field of study - communications. Starting out with blog posts about social media, this blog's initial goal was to showcase my interest in the media as well as to blog about my first conference attendance and presentations. However, blogging turned into more than that for me. As I was pursuing a minor in Environmental Inquiry and therefore taking more Earth and environmental science classes, I learned that I love to write about environmental issues, particularly about how issues can be addressed and resolved. Because of this shift in my personal and professional interests, I began to blog about global topics such as global water consumption, environmental conservation and arctic sea ice. This change in direction was unprecedented, but helped define my online presence. Over the two years I have been writing my blog, the science posts have been the most successful, with WordPress.com users liking and reading the posts. Readers from all over the globe are brought to my blog from search engines, as shown through the analytics on the WordPress dashboard. However, the impact of my blog on others is challenging to quantify apart from the analytics, because most people do not comment on the posts. Regardless, and most importantly, my blog has changed MY perception of science. Before I started blogging about science topics, I was unaware of how complicated and connected Earth's processes are, including climate change, natural disasters, human actions and pollution. Overall, this blog has been important to me because it helped define my interests academically, leading me to apply and be accepted to a Masters program at the University of Montana starting in August 2013. The program in Environmental Science and Natural Resource Journalism umbrellas over both my training in communications and my love for the environment. Because of my personal growth through my blog, I am also motivated to create

  6. Solar assisted absorption or motor driven heat pump with earth seasonal storage: Part 2, Tables and figures: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A plant composed of an energy roof, a seasonal earth storage and an absorption heat pump has been tested. The purpose was to study the behavior of the various components and their interaction. The surveys went on during two years. The following operations are considered: the charging of the earth storage by the energy roof and the working of an absorption heat pump connected either to the energy roof or to the earth storage. This volume contains all the figures and tables for the report. 77 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Investigation of radon, thoron, and their progeny near the earth's surface. Final report, 1 January 1994 - 31 December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report for DOE Grant DE-FG03-94ER6178, covering a performance period of 1 January 1994 through 31 December 1997. The DOE award amount for this period was $547,495. The objective of the project as stated in its proposal was open-quotes to improve our understanding of the physical processes controlling the concentration of radon, thoron, and their progeny in the atmospheric environment.close quotes The original project was directed at developing underlying science that would help with evaluation of the health hazard from indoor radon in the United States and implementation of corrective measures that might be employed to reduce the health hazard. As priorities within the Office of Health and Environment (OHER) changed, and the radon research program was phased out, emphasis of the project was shifted somewhat to be also relevant to other interests of the OHER, namely global pollution and climate change and pollution resulting from energy production. This final report is brief, since by reference it can direct the reader to the comprehensive research publications that have been generated by the project. In section 2, we summarize the main accomplishments of the project and reference the primary publications. There were seven students who received support from the project and their names are listed in section 3. One of these students (Fred Yarger, Ph.D. candidate) continues to work on research initiated through this project. No post-docs received support from the project, although one of the co-principal investigators (Dr. Piotr Wasiolek) received the majority of his salary from the project. The project also provided part-time support for a laboratory manager (Dr. Maryla Wasiolek). Section 4 lists chronologically the reports and publications resulting from the project (references 1 through 12), and the Appendix provides abstracts of major publications and reports

  8. Against the Grain: The Influence of Changing Agricultural Management on the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The rise of modern agriculture was one of the most transformative events in human history, and has forever changed our relationship to the natural world. By clearing tropical forests, practicing subsistence agriculture on marginal lands and intensifying industrialized farmland production, agricultural practices are changing the worldês landscapes in pervasive ways. In the past decade, we have made tremendous progress in monitoring agricultural expansion from satellites, and modeling associated environmental impacts. In the past decade, the Earth System Science research community has begun to recognize the importance of agricultural lands, particularly as they continue expanding at the expense of important natural ecosystems, potentially altering the planetês carbon cycle and climate. With the advent of new remote sensing and global modeling methods, several efforts have documented the expansion of agricultural lands, the corresponding loss of natural ecosystems, and how this may influence the earth system. But the geographic expansion of agricultural lands is not the whole story. While significant agricultural expansion (or extensification) has occurred in the past few decades, the intensification of agricultural practices Ð under the aegis of the -Green Revolution" Ð has dramatically altered the relationship between humans and environmental systems across the world. Simply put, many of the worldês existing agricultural lands are being used much more intensively as opportunities for agricultural expansion are being exhausted elsewhere. In the last 40 years, global agricultural production has more than doubled Ð although global cropland has increased by only 12% Ð mainly through the use of high yielding varieties of grain, increased reliance on irrigation, massive increases in chemical fertilization, and increased mechanization. Indeed, in the past 40 years there has been a 700% increase in global fertilizer use and a 70% increase in irrigated cropland area

  9. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  10. A comprehensive view on climate change: coupling of earth system and integrated assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several reasons to strengthen the cooperation between the integrated assessment (IA) and earth system (ES) modeling teams in order to better understand the joint development of environmental and human systems. This cooperation can take many different forms, ranging from information exchange between research communities to fully coupled modeling approaches. Here, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and try to establish some guidelines for their applicability, based mainly on the type of interaction between the model components (including the role of feedback), possibilities for simplification and the importance of uncertainty. We also discuss several important areas of joint IA–ES research, such as land use/land cover dynamics and the interaction between climate change and air pollution, and indicate the type of collaboration that seems to be most appropriate in each case. We find that full coupling of IA–ES models might not always be the most desirable form of cooperation, since in some cases the direct feedbacks between IA and ES may be too weak or subject to considerable process or scenario uncertainty. However, when local processes are important, it could be important to consider full integration. By encouraging cooperation between the IA and ES communities in the future more consistent insights can be developed. (letter)

  11. Solar Irradiance Changes and Phytoplankton Productivity in Earth's Ocean Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Patrick J.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2016-04-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer ( > 600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400 -700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short wavelength PAR. Here we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in Terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and remote-sensing based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed and mixed layer depth. Predicted productivity declined after a simulated ionizing event, but the effect integrated over the water column was small. For integrations taking into account the full depth range of PAR transmission (down to 0.1% of utilizable PAR), the decrease was at most 2-3% (depending on strain), with larger effects (5-7%) for integrations just to the depth of the surface mixed layer. The deeper integrations were most affected by the decreased utilizable PAR at depth due to the NO2 haze, whereas shallower integrations were most affected by the increased surface UV.

  12. A comprehensive view on climate change: coupling of earth system and integrated assessment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Batlle Bayer, Laura; Chuwah, Clifford; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hazeleger, Wilco; van den Hurk, Bart; van Noije, Twan; O'Neill, Brian; Strengers, Bart J.

    2012-06-01

    There are several reasons to strengthen the cooperation between the integrated assessment (IA) and earth system (ES) modeling teams in order to better understand the joint development of environmental and human systems. This cooperation can take many different forms, ranging from information exchange between research communities to fully coupled modeling approaches. Here, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and try to establish some guidelines for their applicability, based mainly on the type of interaction between the model components (including the role of feedback), possibilities for simplification and the importance of uncertainty. We also discuss several important areas of joint IA-ES research, such as land use/land cover dynamics and the interaction between climate change and air pollution, and indicate the type of collaboration that seems to be most appropriate in each case. We find that full coupling of IA-ES models might not always be the most desirable form of cooperation, since in some cases the direct feedbacks between IA and ES may be too weak or subject to considerable process or scenario uncertainty. However, when local processes are important, it could be important to consider full integration. By encouraging cooperation between the IA and ES communities in the future more consistent insights can be developed.

  13. Influence of Sudden Change of Solar Mass in the PN Stage on the Orbit of Earth-Like Planet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yunfeng Zhu; Caijuan Pan; Dasheng Pan; Hongqiang Huang; Zhi-Fu Chen

    2014-09-01

    Assuming that the terminated mass is confined within the range 0.4551-0.5813⊙ when the sun is going to evolve into a white dwarf, the velocity of the sun projecting the shell in the PN stage is much greater than the revolving velocity of the earth-like planet, therefore, we think that the solar mass change is instantaneous.

  14. Climate and ozone change effects on ultraviolet radiation and risks (COEUR). Using and validating earth observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, A; Den Outer, P.N.; Slaper, H.

    2008-06-15

    The AMOUR2.0 (Assessment Model for Ultraviolet radiation and Risks) model is presented. With this model it is possible to relate ozone depletion scenarios to (changes in) skin cancer incidence. The estimation of UV maps is integrated in the model. The satellite-based method to estimate UV maps is validated for EPTOMS (Earth Probe - Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data against ground measurements for 17 locations in Europe. For most ground stations the estimates for the yeardose agree within 5%. Deviations are related to high ground albedo. A suggestion has been made for improvement of the albedo-correction. The AMOUR2.0 UV estimate was found to correspond better with ground measurements than the models from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the USA), TEMIS (Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service of the European Space Agency ESA) and FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute). The EPTOMS-UV product and the FMI model overestimate the UV dose. The TEMIS model has a good clear-sky correspondence with ground measurement, but overestimates UV in clouded situations. Satellite measurements of ozone and historic chlorine level have been used to make global estimates for future ozone levels for a collection of emission scenarios for ozone depleting substances. Analysis of the 'best guess' scenario, shows that the minimum in ozone level will be reached within 15 years from now. In 2050 the UV dose for Europe will to a large extent have returned to the values observed in 1980 if there is no climate-change driven alteration in cloud patterns. Future incidence maps up to the year 2100 are estimated with the dose-effect relation presented in an earlier study. This is done for three UV related types of skin-cancer: Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC), Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma (CMM). For a stationary population, global incidences of BCC and CMM are expected to peak around the year 2065 and for SCC around 2040.

  15. Discover Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  16. South Pacific Decadal Variability Since the 1790s and Changes in Earth Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsley, B. K.; Wu, H. C.; Dassie, E. P.; Schrag, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in oceanic heat storage may be partly responsible for the most recent stall (or hiatus) in rising Earth surface temperatures since ~2000 C.E. Instrumental data indicates that this most recent stall is coincident with a phase reversal of the North Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The main locations for this heat exchange with the atmosphere appear to be the tropical and mid-latitude regions of the surface ocean, primarily in the Pacific. We have been investigating poorly understood decadal surface ocean variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) region. Despite very sparse instrumental water temperature data in the South Pacific to define the decadal changes at the sea surface and in the upper water column, the available data suggests a disproportionately large role of the Southwest Pacific in decadal-scale changes in heat sequestration. We have generated coral Sr/Ca-derived sea surface temperature (SST) time-series extending back to 1791 C.E. from Fiji, Tonga and Rarotonga (FTR) in the SPCZ region of the subtropical Southwest Pacific and show that decadal-scale SST fluctuations in this broad region are concurrent with the PDO at least since ~1930 C.E. Beginning in the mid-20th century, when more reliable instrumental temperature and ocean heat content data exist, decades of warmer South Pacific subtropical SST co-occur with elevated South Pacific upper ocean (0-700m) heat content. These decadal-scale South Pacific warming events coincide with decadal-scale stalls or plateaus in rising global temperatures. Cross wavelet coherence analysis reveals an increase in the frequency of decadal SST variability from a period near 30 years throughout the 1800s to ~20 years in the later half of the 20th century. Our results provide strong supporting evidence that decadal-scale changes in global surface temperatures are in-part, related to heat storage in the upper water column in the subtropical Pacific. Our results also suggest that decadal-scale stalls

  17. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth System and Integrated Assessment Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbard, K.; Janetos, A.; Vuuren, van, T.; Pongratz, J; Rose, S.; Betts, R.; Herold, M; Feddema, J.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-...

  18. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted... Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR 44229 (July 28... of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR 16436 (Apr. 1, 2010). On April 19 and June...

  19. Response of Soil Temperature to Climate Change in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. L.; Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Predictions of soil temperature changes are as critical to policy development and climate change adaptation as predictions of air temperature, but have received comparatively little attention. Soil temperature determines seed germination and growth of wild and agricultural plants, and impacts climate through both geophysical and carbon-cycle feedbacks. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report does not report soil temperature predictions, but focuses instead on surface air temperatures, despite the fact that mean annual soil temperatures and mean surface air temperatures are often different from each other. Here we aim to fill this important knowledge gap by reporting soil temperature and moisture predictions for 15 earth system models (ESMs) that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 Project (CMIP5). Under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios, soil warming is predicted to almost keep pace with soil air warming, with about 10% less warming in soil than air, globally. The slower warming of soil compared to air is likely related to predictions of soil drying, with drier soils having reduced soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Mollisol soils, which are typically regarded as the most productive soil order for cultivating cereal crops, are anticipated to see warming in North America of 3.5 to 5.5 °C at the end of the 21st century (2080-2100) compared to 1986-2005. One impact of soil warming is likely to be an acceleration of germination timing, with the 3°C temperature threshold for wheat germination anticipated to advance by several weeks in Mollisol regions. Furthermore, soil warming at 1 m depth is predicted to be almost equivalent to warming at 1 cm depth in frost-free regions, indicating vulnerability of deep soil carbon pools to destabilization. To assess model performance we compare the models' predictions with observations of damping depth, and offsets between mean annual soil and air temperature

  20. Data on the Earth's Magnetic Field and its Secular Change since 1800

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information on the past and present orientation of the Earth's magnetic field is available from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) which serves as the...

  1. Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Brian C.; Neale, Patrick J.; Snyder II, Brock R.

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer mo...

  2. Testing the Value of Information of Climate Change Indicators that use Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    . Such a result would mean that the indicator has a negative value of information. Granted the value of information depends on the intended audience(s), with some groups being able to understand and want more technically sophisticated and detailed information presented as an indicator. However, if the goal of an indicator is to provide information to a wide range of groups, it is essential to assure that these groups have a correct understanding of the indicator, its assumptions, and the ability to use the indicator (as presented or modified) for decision-making contexts. In this talk, I will present the preliminary results of a study that is testing the value of information of a range of climate change indicators, and I will focus on indicators that use earth observations. Such results contribute to a richer understanding of the value of information of indicators, and can shape the development of both individual indicators and systems of indicators, such as the development of the indicator system for the U.S. Global Change Research Program, National Climate Assessment.

  3. Solar Irradiance Changes and Phytoplankton Productivity in Earth's Ocean Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Patrick J; Thomas, Brian C

    2016-04-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer (>600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short-wavelength PAR. Here, we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response, which was developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and on remote-sensing-based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed, and mixed layer depth. Predicted productivity declined after a simulated ionizing event, but the effect integrated over the water column was small. For integrations taking into account the full depth range of PAR transmission (down to 0.1% of utilizable PAR), the decrease was at most 2-3% (depending on strain), with larger effects (5-7%) for integrations just to the depth of the surface mixed layer. The deeper integrations were most affected by the decreased utilizable PAR at depth due to the NO2 haze, whereas shallower integrations were most affected by the increased surface UV. Several factors tended to dampen the magnitude of productivity responses relative to increases in surface-damaging radiation, for example, most inhibition in the modeled strains is caused by UVA and PAR, and the greatest relative increase in damaging exposure is predicted to occur in the winter when UV and productivity are low. PMID:27027533

  4. Data gaps in anthropogenically driven local-scale species richness change studies across the Earth's terrestrial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Grace E P; Romanuk, Tamara N

    2016-05-01

    There have been numerous attempts to synthesize the results of local-scale biodiversity change studies, yet several geographic data gaps exist. These data gaps have hindered ecologist's ability to make strong conclusions about how local-scale species richness is changing around the globe. Research on four of the major drivers of global change is unevenly distributed across the Earth's biomes. Here, we use a dataset of 638 anthropogenically driven species richness change studies to identify where data gaps exist across the Earth's terrestrial biomes based on land area, future change in drivers, and the impact of drivers on biodiversity, and make recommendations for where future studies should focus their efforts. Across all drivers of change, the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and the tropical moist broadleaf forests are the best studied. The biome-driver combinations we have identified as most critical in terms of where local-scale species richness change studies are lacking include the following: land-use change studies in tropical and temperate coniferous forests, species invasion and nutrient addition studies in the boreal forest, and warming studies in the boreal forest and tropics. Gaining more information on the local-scale effects of the specific human drivers of change in these biomes will allow for better predictions of how human activity impacts species richness around the globe.

  5. “Concrete” Testimony to Milankovitch Cycle in Earth's changing obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Chao, Benjamin

    The present-day obliquity of the ecliptic of the Earth is γ = 23°26‧ 22″ and is decreasing by about 0″.5 a year. This article reports a “concrete” terrestrial testimony to this time variation, which plays a major part in the Milankovitch cycles.The obliquity is the angle between the equatorial plane, which is determined by Earth's rotation, and the ecliptic plane, defined as Earth's orbital plane around the Sun. It gives rise to the seasons; the two parallels of latitudee, the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere, mark the limits of highest latitudes that the subsolar point reaches at solstices each year.

  6. Social-Ecological Controls Over Earth-System Stewardship: a Framework for Sustainability in a Rapidly Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S.; Power, M. E.; Pickett, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Carter, D.; Harden, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Human actions are having large and accelerating effects on Earth’s climate, environment, and ecosystems, thereby degrading ecosystem services required by society. This unsustainable trajectory demands a dramatic change in the relationship of humans with the environment and life-support systems of the planet. Earth-system stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing world. This builds on problem-relevant research about the social-ecological interactions that drive earth-system change. These include spiraling consumption in developed nations and the broadening gap between the livelihoods of rich and poor people within and among countries. Science that contributes effectively to reversing these trends requires an ongoing dialogue between scientists and users at multiple scales, communicated with sensitivity to social and cultural norms. Such science must motivate behavioral change and deliver information that is perceived as objective, timely, and useful to problem-solving. Recent developments identify four strategies that use current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: (1) reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; (2) focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and (3) avoiding or escaping unsustainable social-ecological traps. All social-ecological systems are vulnerable to change but have sources of adaptive capacity and resilience that can sustain ecosystem services and human well-being. Discovering and nurturing these sources of adaptive capacity requires, and defines active ecosystem stewardship.

  7. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the

  8. Data base of climatic change simulations for the impact studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data used for the study of the climatic change impact on the environment and the society come from climate models and are affected by uncertainties. It is necessary to quantify the resulting errors in the models. The data base provides a comparison of simulations of climatic change in France. The final report presents the project methodology. Three projects using the distributed simulations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Changes in 5d band polarization in rare-earth compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langridge, S.; Paixao, J.A.; Bernhoeft, N.;

    1999-01-01

    X-ray resonant magnetic scattering has been used to examine the magnetic interactions coupling the rare earth and iron sublattices in the antiferromagnetic compound DyFe4Al8. Dramatic differences are observed in the temperature dependencies of the energy profiles at resonance depending on whether...

  10. Sensitivity of Biomarkers to Changes in Chemical Emissions in the Earth's Proterozoic Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Grenfell, John Lee; von Paris, Philip; Godolt, Mareike; Hedelt, Pascal; Patzer, Beate; Stracke, Barbara; Rauer, Heike

    2010-01-01

    The search for life beyond the Solar System is a major activity in exoplanet science. However, even if an Earth-like planet were to be found, it is unlikely to be at a similar stage of evolution as the modern Earth. It is therefore of interest to investigate the sensitivity of biomarker signals for life as we know it for an Earth-like planet but at earlier stages of evolution. Here, we assess biomarkers i.e. species almost exclusively associated with life, in present-day and in 10% present atmospheric level oxygen atmospheres corresponding to the Earth's Proterozoic period. We investigate the impact of proposed enhanced microbial emissions of the biomarker nitrous oxide, which photolyses to form nitrogen oxides which can destroy the biomarker ozone. A major result of our work is regardless of the microbial activity producing nitrous oxide in the early anoxic ocean, a certain minimum ozone column can be expected to persist in Proterozoic-type atmospheres due to a stabilising feedback loop between ozone, nitrou...

  11. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  12. Implications of Climate Change for State Bioassessment Programs and Approaches to Account for Effects (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report uses biological data collected by four states in wadeable rivers and streams to examine the components of state and tribal bioassessment and biomonitoring programs that may be vulnerable to climate change. The study investigates the potential to identify biologi...

  13. 76 FR 27634 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... and Amended Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination: Certain Pasta From Italy, 61 FR 38544...: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review and Intent To Revoke, In Part, 75 FR... Revocation of Order, in Part, 75 FR 56992 (September 17, 2010). \\6\\ Id. 75 FR at 56993-94. \\7\\ See...

  14. 75 FR 39208 - Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Final Results of Changed-Circumstances Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 4044 (January 26, 2010). We did not receive any comments from... Review, 74 FR 18348 (April 22, 2009). Notification This notice serves as a reminder to parties subject to... International Trade Administration Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Final Results of Changed-...

  15. New findings on increasing solar trend that can change Earth climate: are we entering new great solar minima?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozelot, J. P.

    2009-10-01

    Studies of the Sun-Earth relationships during the past years have dramatically changed our view on Solar- Terrestrial Physics. Neither is the interplanetary medium unstructured or quasi-static, nor is it a simple magnetic stratified object. Thus, the interaction of the solar electromagnetic radiation (photons), hot plasma (electrons, protons and other ions), cosmic rays, microscopic dust particles, and magnetic fields (primarily from the Sun) with the upper environment of our Earth leads to a complex physics which is far to be understandable. This new science is growing rapidly, as well as for the physical problems which arise as for its growing impact on our societies. This last case is well illustrated by the emergence of the so-called Space Weather. In spite of a great number of papers and books written on this subject and on a broader one devoted to Solar-Terrestrial links, the different terms deserve to be clarified. In this paper, we will first establish a clear distinction between Space Weather, Space Climate, Space Physics, Sun-Earth connections, and Helioclimatology, this last word being introduced to describe the role of the Sun in the Earth's climate forcing. In a second step, we will emphasize the key role of the ranging time on which the effects may act. We will then underline the necessity to better predict solar activity showing the physical difficulties for such an exercise, yielding the extreme complexity for forecasting specific events. The three dataset, past Earth's temperature (since AD 630), solar shape variability (since AD 1600) and strength of umbral/sunspots magnetic field (since AD 1995) lead all to a Next Grand Minima predictable for 2015-2018. We will conclude by giving some imprints for the future.

  16. Vocational rehabilitation and employment program--changes to subsistence allowance. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    This document adopts as final, without change, the interim final rule amending regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to reflect changes made by the Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Improvements Act of 2010, effective August 1, 2011, that affect payment of vocational rehabilitation benefits for certain service-disabled veterans. Pursuant to these changes, a veteran, who is eligible for a subsistence allowance under chapter 31 of title 38, United States Code, and educational assistance under chapter 33 of title 38, United States Code, may participate in a rehabilitation program under chapter 31 and elect to receive a payment equal in amount to an applicable military housing allowance payable under title 37, United States Code, instead of the regular subsistence allowance under chapter 31. In addition, payments of subsistence allowances during periods between school terms are discontinued, and payments during periods of temporary school closings are modified.

  17. Research Spotlight: Ozone recovery and climate change will affect the atmosphere near Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi; Tretkoff, Ernie

    Ozone in the stratosphere (˜10-50 kilometers in altitude) helps protect life on Earth from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. But at the lower altitudes in the troposphere, (0-10 kilometers in altitude), ozone is a major constituent of smog and has detrimental health effects. The stratospheric ozone layer had been depleted but recently has started to recover due to efforts to limit emissions of ozone- depleting chemicals.

  18. Solar irradiance changes and phytoplankton productivity in Earth's ocean following astrophysical ionizing radiation events

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, Patrick J.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer ( > 600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400 -700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (...

  19. Changes in the manner of tectonic movements under the Earth's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, M. I.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Variations in the O, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic compositions in rocks of various ages, minerals, and mantle temperature in the geological history are considered. Two periods in the Earth's history are studied: the beginning of the formation of the planet until the turn of (3.4) 2.7-2.5 Ga and the tectonic movement period in the last 2 Ga, and also the transitional period within 2.7-2.0 Ga.

  20. Earth Systems Questions in Experimental Climate Change Science: Pressing Questions and Necessary Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmond, B.

    2002-05-20

    Sixty-four scientists from universities, national laboratories, and other research institutions worldwide met to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Biosphere2 Laboratory (B2L) as an inclusive multi-user scientific facility (i.e., a facility open to researchers from all institutions, according to agreed principles of access) for earth system studies and engineering research, education, and training relevant to the mission of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. The Surface Temperatures of the Earth: Steps towards Integrated Understanding of Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Stephan; Merchant, Chris; Rayner, Nick; Remedios, John; Høyer, Jacob L.; Jones, Phil; Olesen, Folke; Roquet, Hervé; Sobrino, José; Thorne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, relevant to human health, agriculture and leisure, ecosystem services, infrastructure development and economic activity. In a community-based activity, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from 5 continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The Network idenitified key needs for progress towards meeting societal needs for surface temperature understanding and information, which will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships of different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information. Steps are also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  2. An Approach to Model Earth Conductivity Structures with Lateral Changes for Calculating Induced Currents and Geoelectric Fields during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During geomagnetic disturbances, the telluric currents which are driven by the induced electric fields will flow in conductive Earth. An approach to model the Earth conductivity structures with lateral conductivity changes for calculating geoelectric fields is presented in this paper. Numerical results, which are obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM with a planar grid in two-dimensional modelling and a solid grid in three-dimensional modelling, are compared, and the flow of induced telluric currents in different conductivity regions is demonstrated. Then a three-dimensional conductivity structure is modelled and the induced currents in different depths and the geoelectric field at the Earth’s surface are shown. The geovoltages by integrating the geoelectric field along specific paths can be obtained, which are very important regarding calculations of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in ground-based technical networks, such as power systems.

  3. A Generalized Stability Analysis of the AMOC in Earth System Models: Implication for Decadal Variability and Abrupt Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Alexey V. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-01-14

    The central goal of this research project was to understand the mechanisms of decadal and multi-decadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as related to climate variability and abrupt climate change within a hierarchy of climate models ranging from realistic ocean models to comprehensive Earth system models. Generalized Stability Analysis, a method that quantifies the transient and asymptotic growth of perturbations in the system, is one of the main approaches used throughout this project. The topics we have explored range from physical mechanisms that control AMOC variability to the factors that determine AMOC predictability in the Earth system models, to the stability and variability of the AMOC in past climates.

  4. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  5. TEWS'98. Final report [5th annual International Science Camp: The Earth We Share 1998, Golden, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mae C. Jemison

    1999-04-06

    The fifth annual International Science Camp The Earth We Share 1998 (TEWS'98) was held at the Colorado School of Mines located in Goldez Colorado. TEWS98 was a four week residential program which focused on providing a meaningful science education experience while developing critical thinking skills. Thirty three students, three teachers, four college interns and the camp administrator lived and worked together while developing solutions to several worldwide problems. These problems are called the Discovery Topics and they are: (1) design the worlds perfect house; (2) how many people can the world hold; and (3) predict the hot stocks for the year 2030. The participants, both students and staff came from different countries all over the world The following countries were represented: The United Kingdom, Sierra Leone (West Africa), Ireland, USA Nigeria, West Indies and Barbados.

  6. ERCA 2008 - From the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change to the Observation of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutron, Claude

    2009-02-01

    This book is the eighth volume in the series of books published within the framework of the European Research Course on Atmospheres ("ERCA"). ERCA was initiated in 1993 by the University Joseph Fourier of Grenoble, in order to provide PhD students and scientists from Europe and the rest of the world with a multidisciplinary course, which covers especially: the climate system and climate change; the physics and chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere; the human dimensions of environmental change; the other planets and satellites in the solar system and beyond. Since 1993, sixteen sessions have been attended by more 800 participants from 50 countries. The seventeenth session will take place from 12 January to 13 February 2009. This new volume contains twenty two chapters dealing with a wide range of topics. The following subjects are covered: the human dimensions of global environmental change; climate change and cryospheric evolution in China; the projections of twenty-first century climate over Europe; the understanding of the health impacts of air pollutants; air quality and human welfare; photocatalytic self-cleaning materials; radiative transfer in the cloudy atmosphere; laboratory modelling of atmospheric dynamical processes; stratospheric ozone; the applications of stable isotope analysis to atmospheric trace gas budgets; nitrogen oxides in the troposphere; the observation of the solid Earth, the oceans and land waters; the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet; sea surface salinity reconstruction as seen with foraminifera shells; sources markers in aerosols, oceanic particles and sediments; the nucleation of atmospheric particles; the characterization of atmospheric aerosol episodes in China; the solar magnetic activity; the present and past climates of planet Mars; the outer solar system; Titan as an analog of Earth's past and future; the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets.

  7. Plant functional type classification for Earth System Models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poulter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land-cover datasets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI, with land cover (LC_CCI as one of thirteen Essential Climate Variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases, first responding to a survey of user needs, then developing a global, moderate resolution, land-cover dataset for three time periods, or epochs, 2000, 2005, and 2010, and the last phase resulting in a user-tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFT. The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three-earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT dataset and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land–atmosphere interactions. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as Phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  8. Earth as humans’ habitat: global climate change and the health of populations

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced climate change, with such rapid and continuing global-scale warming, is historically unprecedented and signifies that human pressures on Earth’s life-supporting natural systems now exceed the planet’s bio-geo-capacity. The risks from climate change to health and survival in populations are diverse, as are the social and political ramifications. Although attributing observed health changes in a population to the recent climatic change is difficult, a coherent pattern of climate- ...

  9. What Makes Earth and Space Science Sexy? A Model for Developing Systemic Change in Earth and Space Systems Science Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutskin, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Earth and Space Science may be the neglected child in the family of high school sciences. In this session, we examine the strategies that Anne Arundel County Public Schools and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center used to develop a dynamic and highly engaging program which follows the vision of the National Science Education Standards, is grounded in key concepts of NASA's Earth Science Directorate, and allows students to examine and apply the current research of NASA scientists. Find out why Earth/Space Systems Science seems to have usurped biology and has made students, principals, and teachers clamor for similar instructional practices in what is traditionally thought of as the "glamorous" course.

  10. Satellite soil moisture for advancing our understanding of earth system processes and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, Wouter; de Jeu, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Soil moisture products obtained from active and passive microwave satellites have reached maturity during the last decade (De Jeu and Dorigo, 2016): On the one hand, research algorithms that were initially applied to sensors designed for other purposes, e.g., for measuring wind speed (e.g. the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT)), sea ice, or atmospheric parameters (e.g. the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System AMSR-E), have developed into fully operational products. On the other hand, dedicated soil moisture satellite missions were designed and launched by ESA (the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission) and NASA (the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission).

  11. Tracing Forest Change through 40 Years on Two Continents with the BULC Algorithm and Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    With the opening of the Landsat archive, researchers have a vast new data source teeming with imagery and potential. Beyond Landsat, data from other sensors is newly available as well: these include ALOS/PALSAR, Sentinel-1 and -2, MERIS, and many more. Google Earth Engine, developed to organize and provide analysis tools for these immense data sets, is an ideal platform for researchers trying to sift through huge image stacks. It offers nearly unlimited processing power and storage with a straightforward programming interface. Yet labeling forest change through time remains challenging given the current state of the art for interpreting remote sensing image sequences. Moreover, combining data from very different image platforms remains quite difficult. To address these challenges, we developed the BULC algorithm (Bayesian Updating of Land Cover), designed for the continuous updating of land-cover classifications through time in large data sets. The algorithm ingests data from any of the wide variety of earth-resources sensors; it maintains a running estimate of land-cover probabilities and the most probable class at all time points along a sequence of events. Here we compare BULC results from two study sites that witnessed considerable forest change in the last 40 years: the Pacific Northwest of the United States and the Mato Grosso region of Brazil. In Brazil, we incorporated rough classifications from more than 100 images of varying quality, mixing imagery from more than 10 different sensors. In the Pacific Northwest, we used BULC to identify forest changes due to logging and urbanization from 1973 to the present. Both regions had classification sequences that were better than many of the component days, effectively ignoring clouds and other unwanted signal while fusing the information contained on several platforms. As we leave remote sensing's data-poor era and enter a period with multiple looks at Earth's surface from multiple sensors over a short period of

  12. On the nature of gravity and possible change of Earth mass during geological time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    A number of circumstances can't be explained based on view of the constant force of gravity on the Earth: 1. Dimensions of fossil animals and plants. According to the laws of biomechanics of the giant dinosaurs could not move and fly. 2. The movement of continents, reliably described by A.Vegener, can only be explained on the basis of the model increasing the Earth. Gravity is only one of the fields that define the existence of the world. Field and matter are forms that can be converted into each other. Transition is described, in particular, by Poincare, perhaps not quite accurate: E = (K) mc2. There are indications of the existence of the time field (Kozyrev, 1978), which generates energy, and then the following conditional equation: T, where T is a time. Through this relationship generated energy glow of stars and planets, the mass increases. In particular, there is an increase in the mass of the Earth. This confirms the divergence of the continents and reducing the size of the animals and plants in the Earth's history. According to presented model, the size of Earth increased during 100 millions years two times in linear scale and 8 times in volume and mass scales. Understanding of general principle of space development needs collaboration of different specialists and branches of geosciences. The basis of possible scheme is: 1. The nature of gravity is not explained by science, although some of its properties are described with high accuracy, and these descriptions have predictive power. Indeed, what attracted threads of the body without physical contact? 2. The velocity of propagation of gravitational forces in the universe is many times the speed of light. Perhaps it is infinite, although it is not proven. 3. The universe is infinite, as is clear from logical calculations thinkers more ancient period. However, our universe, i.e. of the universe, available to our senses and instruments, is finite. The volume of our universe is 1070 cubic kilometers. The total

  13. Changing Permafrost in a Warming World and Feedbacks to the Earth system

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse, GUido; Goetz, Scott; McGuire, A. D.; Romanovsky, V. E.; E. A. G. Schuur

    2016-01-01

    The permafrost component of the cryosphere is changing dramatically, but the permafrost region is not well monitored and the consequences of change are not well understood. Changing permafrost interacts with ecosystems and climate on various spatial and temporal scales. The feedbacks resulting from these interactions range from local impacts on topography, hydrology, and biology to complex influences on global scale biogeochemical cycling. This review contributes to this focus issue by synthe...

  14. Risks to coral reefs from ocean carbonate chemistry changes in recent earth system model projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. Today they are threatened by numerous stressors, including warming ocean waters and coastal pollution. Here we focus on the implications of ocean acidification for the open ocean chemistry surrounding coral reefs, as estimated from earth system models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5). We project risks to reefs in the context of three potential aragonite saturation (Ωa) thresholds. We find that in preindustrial times, 99.9% of reefs adjacent to open ocean in the CMIP5 ensemble were located in regions with Ωa > 3.5. Under a business-as-usual scenario (RCP 8.5), every coral reef considered will be surrounded by water with Ωa 2 emissions abatement, the Ωa threshold for reefs is critical to projecting their fate. Our results indicate that to maintain a majority of reefs surrounded by waters with Ωa > 3.5 to the end of the century, very aggressive reductions in emissions are required. The spread of Ωa projections across models in the CMIP5 ensemble is narrow, justifying a high level of confidence in these results. (letter)

  15. Muscle changes with eccentric exercise: Implications on earth and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Parazynski, Scott; Aratow, Michael; Friden, Jan

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of fluid pressure, morpholo gy, and enzyme activities of skeletal muscle exercised eccentrically or concentrically in normal human subjects are reviewed. Intramuscular pressures were measured before, during, and after submaximal exercise and correlated with subjective muscle soreness, fiber size, water content, and blood indices of muscle enzymes. High intensity eccentric exercise is characterized by post exercise pain, elevated intramuscular pressures, and swelling of both type 1 and 2 fibers as compared to concentric exercise. Thus, long periods of unaccustomed, high level eccentric contraction may cause muscle injury, fiber swelling, fluid accumulation, elevated intramuscular pressure, and delayed muscle soreness. Training regimens of progressively increasing eccentric exercise, however, cause less soreness and are extremely efficacious in increasing muscle mass and strength. It is proposed that on Earth, postural muscles are uniquely adapted to low levels of prolonged eccentric contraction that are absent during weightlessness. The almost complete absence of eccentric exercise in space may be an important contributor to muscle atrophy and therefore equipment should be designed to integrate eccentric contractions into exercise protocols for long-term spaceflight.

  16. Risks to coral reefs from ocean carbonate chemistry changes in recent earth system model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K. L.; Orr, J. C.; Schneider, K.; Caldeira, K.

    2013-09-01

    Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. Today they are threatened by numerous stressors, including warming ocean waters and coastal pollution. Here we focus on the implications of ocean acidification for the open ocean chemistry surrounding coral reefs, as estimated from earth system models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5). We project risks to reefs in the context of three potential aragonite saturation (Ωa) thresholds. We find that in preindustrial times, 99.9% of reefs adjacent to open ocean in the CMIP5 ensemble were located in regions with Ωa > 3.5. Under a business-as-usual scenario (RCP 8.5), every coral reef considered will be surrounded by water with Ωa 3.5 to the end of the century, very aggressive reductions in emissions are required. The spread of Ωa projections across models in the CMIP5 ensemble is narrow, justifying a high level of confidence in these results.

  17. Characterizing post-industrial changes in the ocean carbon cycle in an Earth system model

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy S.; Chikamoto, Megumi O.; Ridgwell, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the oceanic uptake of carbon from the atmosphere is essential for better constraining the global budget, as well as for predicting the air-borne fraction of CO2 emissions and thus degree of climate change. Gaining this understanding is difficult, because the ‘natural’ carbon cycle, the part of the global carbon cycle unaltered by CO2 emissions, also responds to climate change and ocean acidification. Using a global climate model of intermediate complexity, we assess the evolutio...

  18. Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement related to the decommissioning of the Rare Earths Facility, West Chicago, Illinois (Docket No. 40-2061): Volume 2, Appendix H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement is issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board's ruling that the staff must supplement the Final Environmental Statement in order to evaluate the impact of permanent disposal of the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility wastes located at West Chicago, Illinois. The statement considers the Kerr-McGee preferred plan and various alternatives to the plan. The action proposed by the Commission is the renewal of the Kerr-McGee license to allow disposal of wastes onsite and for possession of the wastes under license for an indeterminate time. The license could be terminated at a later date if certain specified requirements were met. NUREG-0904 was published in draft for comment in June 1987. Comments have been received and are published with their responses in this report. Volume 1 contains the main text and Appendices A thru G. Volume 2 contains the comments received and their responses

  19. Some reflections on researches of Future Earth changes in air quality and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of our current research and understanding of climate change, decisionmakers are particularly concerned with the extent of future climate change, its comprehensive impact, and the types of socioeconomic pathways available with respect to mitigation and adaptation. Among the factors contributing to these important issues, the role of air pollution in global and regional climate warming remains as one of the largest uncertainties. On the basis of understanding of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, specifically, in the role of air pollution in climate change, scenarios establishment, and relationship between the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. Weaknesses and reflections were discussed here especially in strengthening impact, adaptation and mitigation research that related with changes in air pollution and climate. In the future, there are needs to in-depth understand how and why the air pollution in China is so serious and changing; to understand the likely future changes in air pollution and climate; to strengthen comprehensive impact research and selective reduction strategies related to changes in air pollution and climate. Furthermore, this study outlines the needs to develop strategies to close the loop of differential impacts and costs; to establish co-benefits and sustainable development goals, to identify the crucial risks and options for synergies/trade-offs; to integrate sector-specific details with macro-economics, and to integrate the assessments of the various policy instruments. All these focus areas will help to facilitate the transition of economic development patterns towards green and low-carbon development.

  20. Some reflections on researches of Future Earth changes in air quality and climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiao-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of our current research and understanding of climate change,decisionmakers are particularly concerned with the extent of future climate change,its comprehensive impact,and the types of socioeconomic pathways available with respect to mitigation and adaptation.Among the factors contributing to these important issues,the role of air pollution in global and regional climate warming remains as one of the largest uncertainties.On the basis of understanding of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report,specifically,in the role of air pollution in climate change,scenarios establishment,and relationship between the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways(SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways(RCPs).Weaknesses and reflections were discussed here especially in strengthening impact,adaptation and mitigation research that related with changes in air pollution and climate.In the future,there are needs to in-depth understand how and why the air pollution in China is so serious and changing; to understand the likely future changes in air pollution and climate; to strengthen comprehensive impact research and selective reduction strategies related to changes in air pollution and climate.Furthermore,this study outlines the needs to develop strategies to close the loop of differential impacts and costs; to establish co-benefits and sustainable development goals,to identify the crucial risks and options for synergies/trade-offs; to integrate sector-specific details with macro-economics,and to integrate the assessments of the various policy instruments.All these focus areas will help to facilitate the transition of economic development patterns towards green and low-carbon development.

  1. The Vulnerability of Earth Systems to Human-Induced Global Change and Strategies for Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Since the IGY, there has been growing evidence that climate is changing in response to human activities. The overwhelming majority of scientific experts, whilst recognizing that scientific uncertainties exist, nonetheless believe that human-induced climate change is inevitable. Indeed, during the last few years, many parts of the world have suffered major heat waves, floods, droughts, fires and extreme weather events leading to significant economic losses and loss of life. While individual events cannot be directly linked to human-induced climate change, the frequency and magnitude of these types of events are predicted to increase in a warmer world. The question is not whether climate will change, but rather how much (magnitude), how fast (the rate of change) and where (regional patterns). It is also clear that climate change and other human-induced modifications to the environment will, in many parts of the world, adversely affect socio-economic sectors, including water resources, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and human settlements, ecological systems (particularly forests and coral reefs), and human health (particularly diseases spread by insects), with developing countries being the most vulnerable. Environmental degradation of all types (i.e., climate change, loss of biodiversity, land degradation, air and water quality) all undermine the challenge of poverty alleviation and sustainable economic growth. One of the major challenges facing humankind is to provide an equitable standard of living for this and future generations: adequate food, water and energy, safe shelter and a healthy environment (e.g., clean air and water). Unfortunately, human-induced climate change, as well as other global environmental issues such as land degradation, loss of biological diversity and stratospheric ozone depletion, threatens our ability to meet these basic human needs. The good news is, however, that the majority of experts believe that significant reductions in net

  2. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahrens, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bell, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Brown, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Cinquini, L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Harper, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Hook, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, D. E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Miller, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nienhouse, E. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States). Information Science Institute; Shipman, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilcox, H. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center for Atmospheric Reserch, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-08-16

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  3. Review and synthesis: Changing permafrost in a warming world and feedbacks to the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Goetz, Scott; McGuire, Anthony; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schuur, Edward A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The permafrost component of the cryosphere is changing dramatically, but the permafrost region is not well monitored and the consequences of change are not well understood. Changing permafrost interacts with ecosystems and climate on various spatial and temporal scales. The feedbacks resulting from these interactions range from local impacts on topography, hydrology, and biology to complex influences on global scale biogeochemical cycling. This review contributes to this focus issue by synthesizing its 28 multidisciplinary studies which provide field evidence, remote sensing observations, and modeling results on various scales. We synthesize study results from a diverse range of permafrost landscapes and ecosystems by reporting key observations and modeling outcomes for permafrost thaw dynamics, identifying feedbacks between permafrost and ecosystem processes, and highlighting biogeochemical feedbacks from permafrost thaw. We complete our synthesis by discussing the progress made, stressing remaining challenges and knowledge gaps, and providing an outlook on future needs and research opportunities in the study of permafrost–ecosystem–climate interactions.

  4. Changing permafrost in a warming world and feedbacks to the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Goetz, Scott; McGuire, A. Dave; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Schuur, Edward A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The permafrost component of the cryosphere is changing dramatically, but the permafrost region is not well monitored and the consequences of change are not well understood. Changing permafrost interacts with ecosystems and climate on various spatial and temporal scales. The feedbacks resulting from these interactions range from local impacts on topography, hydrology, and biology to complex influences on global scale biogeochemical cycling. This review contributes to this focus issue by synthesizing its 28 multidisciplinary studies which provide field evidence, remote sensing observations, and modeling results on various scales. We synthesize study results from a diverse range of permafrost landscapes and ecosystems by reporting key observations and modeling outcomes for permafrost thaw dynamics, identifying feedbacks between permafrost and ecosystem processes, and highlighting biogeochemical feedbacks from permafrost thaw. We complete our synthesis by discussing the progress made, stressing remaining challenges and knowledge gaps, and providing an outlook on future needs and research opportunities in the study of permafrost-ecosystem-climate interactions.

  5. The Pleistocene vermicular red earth in South China signaling the global climatic change: The molecular fossil record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢树成; 易轶; 刘育燕; 顾延生; 马振兴; 林文姣; 王先彦; 刘刚; 梁斌; 朱宗敏

    2003-01-01

    The trace molecular fossils identified in the Pleistocene vermicular red earth by using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis include n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols and n-alkan-2-ones. The variations of the n-alkane parameters appear to bear significant climate information, in striking contrast to the oxygen-bearing molecules (n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols) believed to be more easily reworked by post-depositional processes. Of importance in paleoclimate reconstruction are the ratios of C27/C31 n-alkane indicative of the replacement of woody plants by grassy vegetation, and C15-21/C22-33 n-alkane representative of the relative abundance between microorganisms and higher plants. The profile trends of the two n-alkane ratios are comparable to the marine oxygen isotope record among stages 4-20. These molecular fossil records implicate that the Pleistocene vermicular red earth widespread in South China was formed in coupling to the global climatic change and could be an important climate carrier.

  6. Long-Term Audience Impacts of Live Fulldome Planetarium Lectures for Earth Science and Global Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K. C.; Champlin, D. M.; Goldsworth, D. A.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2011-09-01

    Digital Earth visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. At the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), we have used such visualization technologies, including real-time virtual reality software running in the immersive digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium, to impact the community through topical policy presentations. DMNS public lectures have covered regional issues like water resources, as well as global topics such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion. The Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience-similar to virtual reality "CAVE" environments found in academia-that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. Surveys and interviews show that these talks are effective in heightening visitor interest in the subjects weeks or months after the presentation. Many visitors take additional steps to learn more, while one was so inspired that she actively worked to bring the same programming to her children's school. These preliminary findings suggest that fulldome real-time visualizations can have a substantial long-term impact on an audience's engagement and interest in science topics.

  7. DOE SBIR Phase II Final Technical Report - Assessing Climate Change Effects on Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, Cameron; Capps, Scott

    2014-11-05

    Specialized Vertum Partners software tools were prototyped, tested and commercialized to allow wind energy stakeholders to assess the uncertainties of climate change on wind power production and distribution. This project resulted in three commercially proven products and a marketing tool. The first was a Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) based resource evaluation system. The second was a web-based service providing global 10m wind data from multiple sources to wind industry subscription customers. The third product addressed the needs of our utility clients looking at climate change effects on electricity distribution. For this we collaborated on the Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index (SAWTi), which was released publicly last quarter. Finally to promote these products and educate potential users we released “Gust or Bust”, a graphic-novel styled marketing publication.

  8. Boundary layer stability and Arctic climate change: a feedback study using EC-Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bintanja, R.; Linden, van der E.C.; Hazeleger, W.

    2012-01-01

    Amplified Arctic warming is one of the key features of climate change. It is evident in observations as well as in climate model simulations. Usually referred to as Arctic amplification, it is generally recognized that the surface albedo feedback governs the response. However, a number of feedback m

  9. Three Connected Climate Education Interactives: Carbon Cycle, Earth System Energy Flows, and Climate Change Impacts/Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai'i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. Unfortunately the vast majority of the science texts used in schools come from the US mainland and feature contexts that do not relate to the lives of Pacific island students. The curricular materials also tend to be older and to have very weak climate science content, especially with respect to tropical islands and climate change. In collaboration with public broadcast station WGBH, PCEP has developed three climate education interactives that sequentially provide an introduction to key climate change education concepts. The first in the series focuses on the global carbon cycle and connects increased atmospheric CO2 with rising global temperatures. The second analyzes Earth system energy flows to explain the key role of the increased greenhouse effect. The third focuses on four climate change impacts (higher temperatures, rising sea level, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification), and adaptation strategies to increase resiliency of local ecosystems and human systems. While the interactives have a Pacific island visual and text perspective, they are broadly applicable for other education audiences. Learners can use the interactives to engage with the basic science concepts, and then apply the climate change impacts to their own contexts.

  10. Studies of transport pathways of Th, U, rare earths, Ra-228, and Ra-226 from soil to plants and farm animals: Final progress report, 1983-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsalata, P

    1988-07-01

    This report consists of three parts. Part 1 discusses a field study conducted in an area of enhanced, natural radioactivity to assess the soil to edible vegetable concentration ratios (CR = concentration in dry vegetable/concentration in dry soil) of Th-232, Th-230, Ra-226, Ra-228, and the light rare earth elements (REE's), La, Ce, and Nd. Twenty-eight soil, and approximately 42 vegetable samples consisting of relatively equal numbers of seven varieties, were obtained from 11 farms on the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This region is the site of a major natural analogue study to assess the mobilization and retardation processes affecting thorium and the REE's at the Morro do Ferro ore body, and uranium series radionuclides at the Osamu Utsumi open pit uranium mine. Thorium (IV) serves as a chemical analogue for quadrivalent plutonium, the light REE's (III) as chemical analogues for trivalent americium and curium, and uranium (VI) as an analogue for transuranics with stable oxidation states above IV, e.g., Pu(VI). Part 2 includes our final measurement results for naturally occurring light rare earth elements (REE's include La, Ce, Nd, and SM), U-series and Th-series radionuclides in adult farm animal tissues, feeds and soils. Our findings on soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CR's) and the comparative behavior of these elements in farm animals raised under natural conditions by local farmers are presented. Part 3 summarizes our findings to date on the distribution and mobilization of Th-232, light rare earth elements (LREE), U-238 and Ra-228 in the MF basin. Estimates of first order, present day, mobilization rate constants resulting from ground water solubilization and seepage/stream transport are calculated using revised inventory estimates for the occurrence of these elements in the ore body and annual flux estimates for the transport of these elements away from the ore body. 151 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. Mapping of land use changes in Poland using Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolkosz, A.

    2012-06-01

    Mapping of land use for the needs of reconstruction of the country was one of the main tasks of the Head Office of the Land Surveying set up after the Second World War. Up to present day such map has not been made despite of many attempts and the high demand for this type of map primarily by the spatial economy. The main reason was the lack of raw materials and high cost of f eld works. The situation changed with the launch of Landsat satellite. Images taken by this satellite were used for the preparation of land use map covering the entire country. They were also used to compilation the land cover databases developed within the three CORINE Land Cover (CLC) projects in 1990, 2000 and 2006. Comparison of these databases allowed an analysis of land use changes occurred within 16 years. These changes were relatively small, far below expectations. CLC database was also compared with a map of land use developed on the basis of topographic maps from the 1930's. The comparison showed changes that have occurred on the surface representing almost 10% of the total area of the country. They reveal both some effects of hostilities, the current expansion of the country, as well as the effects of natural disasters which hit Poland in recent years. Images taken by Landsat have also been applied to study the damage of forests in the Sudety Mountains. Several degrees of damage to spruce stands have been distinguished on the basis of satellite images. They were also used to study the development of brown coal mine and its impact on dropping the groundwater level in the vicinity of mine as well as to determine the development of Warsaw built-up areas in the last 80 years.

  12. Activation changes in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata brain areas evoked by alterations of the earth magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Keary

    Full Text Available Many animals are able to perceive the earth magnetic field and to use it for orientation and navigation within the environment. The mechanisms underlying the perception and processing of magnetic field information within the brain have been thoroughly studied, especially in birds, but are still obscure. Three hypotheses are currently discussed, dealing with ferromagnetic particles in the beak of birds, with the same sort of particles within the lagena organs, or describing magnetically influenced radical-pair processes within retinal photopigments. Each hypothesis is related to a well-known sensory organ and claims parallel processing of magnetic field information with somatosensory, vestibular and visual input, respectively. Changes in activation within nuclei of the respective sensory systems have been shown previously. Most of these previous experiments employed intensity enhanced magnetic stimuli or lesions. We here exposed unrestrained zebra finches to either a stationary or a rotating magnetic field of the local intensity and inclination. C-Fos was used as an activity marker to examine whether the two treatments led to differences in fourteen brain areas including nuclei of the somatosensory, vestibular and visual system. An ANOVA revealed an overall effect of treatment, indicating that the magnetic field change was perceived by the birds. While the differences were too small to be significant in most areas, a significant enhancement of activation by the rotating stimulus was found in a hippocampal subdivision. Part of the hyperpallium showed a strong, nearly significant, increase. Our results are compatible with previous studies demonstrating an involvement of at least three different sensory systems in earth magnetic field perception and suggest that these systems, probably less elaborated, may also be found in nonmigrating birds.

  13. Climatic change on earth - the planetary disease; Klimawandel auf der Erde - die planetare Krankheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, H.; Kuehr, H. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    At present the film of Roland Emmerich 'The day after tommorrow' causes a sensation. The scientific background of this horror scenario is quite serious. The climatic change can't be denied. Some examples like storms, floods and melting of glaciers and ice in polar regions are presented in this contribution. (GL) [German] Derzeit sorgt Roland Emmerichs 'The day after tomorrow' fuer Furore. Der wissenschaftliche Hintergrund dieses Horrorszenarios ist durchaus serioes. Denn dass sich unser Klima dramatisch wandelt, laesst sich nicht mehr bestreiten. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of malaria transmission changes in Africa, due to the climate impact of land use change using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 earth system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Caporaso, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Using mathematical modelling tools, we assessed the potential for land use change (LUC) associated with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change low- and high-end emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5) to impact malaria transmission in Africa. To drive a spatially explicit, dynamical malaria model, data from the four available earth system models (ESMs) that contributed to the LUC experiment of the Fifth Climate Model Intercomparison Project are used. Despite the limited size of the ESM ensemble, stark differences in the assessment of how LUC can impact climate are revealed. In three out of four ESMs, the impact of LUC on precipitation and temperature over the next century is limited, resulting in no significant change in malaria transmission. However, in one ESM, LUC leads to increases in precipitation under scenario RCP2.6, and increases in temperature in areas of land use conversion to farmland under both scenarios. The result is a more intense transmission and longer transmission seasons in the southeast of the continent, most notably in Mozambique and southern Tanzania. In contrast, warming associated with LUC in the Sahel region reduces risk in this model, as temperatures are already above the 25-30°C threshold at which transmission peaks. The differences between the ESMs emphasise the uncertainty in such assessments. It is also recalled that the modelling framework is unable to adequately represent local-scale changes in climate due to LUC, which some field studies indicate could be significant. PMID:27063732

  15. Detecting supernovae neutrino with Earth matter effect

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We study Earth matter effect in oscillation of supernovae neutrinos. We show that detecting Earth matter effect gives an independent measurement of spectra of supernovae neutrinos, i.e. the flavor difference of the spectra of supernovae neutrinos. We study the effect of energy resolution and angular resolution of final electron or positron on detecting the signal of Earth matter effect. We show that varying the widths of energy bins in analysis can change the signal strength of Earth matter effect and the statistical fluctuation. A reasonable choice of energy bins can both suppress the statistical fluctuation and make out a good signal strength relative to the statistical fluctuation. Neutrino detectors with good energy resolution and good angular resolution are therefore preferred so that there are more freedom to vary energy bins and to optimize the signal of Earth matter effect in analyzing events of supernovae neutrinos.

  16. Climate and Land Use Change Effects on Ecological Resources in Three Watersheds: A Synthesis Report (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this final report is to provide a summary of climate change impacts to selected watersheds and recommendations for how to improve the process of conducting watershed assessments in the future.

  17. Supplement to the final environmental statement related to the decommissioning of the rare earths facility, West Chicago, Illinois: Volume 1: Main test and appendices A-G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement (SFES) assesses the impacts of permanent disposal of wastes located at the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility in West Chicago, Illinois. In this SFES, additional alternative sites are analyzed, the analysis is more detailed, and the NRC expressly considers the suitability of these sites for permanent waste disposal. The analysis describes the Proposed Action, which is permanent disposal of the wastes in an above-grade disposal cell at the West Chicago site, and four alternatives for permanent disposal at other sites in Illinois. The four alternatives are: Alternative A, disposal at an active surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative B, disposal in a reclaimed surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative C, disposal in an underground coal mine in a worked-out panel; and Alternative D, disposal on a farmland site in a partially above-grade disposal cell. The environmental issues considered in the impact assessment are topography, air quality, socioeconomics, land resources, archaeology, mineral resources, water resources, ecology, and radiation exposure. A cost-benefit analysis of the Proposed Action and its alternatives is also presented. Based on the information and analysis given within this SFES, the NRC concluded that the Proposed Action is the preferred course of action. 220 refs., 7 figs., 125 Tabs

  18. Exploitation of multi-temporal Earth Observation imagery for monitoring land cover change in mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, G.; Partsinevelos, P.; Mitraka, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Surface mining has been shown to cause intensive environmental degradation in terms of landscape, vegetation and biological communities. Nowadays, the commercial availability of remote sensing imagery at high spatiotemporal scales, has improved dramatically our ability to monitor surface mining activity and evaluate its impact on the environment and society. In this study we investigate the potential use of Landsat TM imagery combined with diverse classification techniques, namely artificial neural networks and support vector machines for delineating mining exploration and assessing its effect on vegetation in various surface mining sites in the Greek island of Milos. Assessment of the mining impact in the study area is validated through the analysis of available QuickBird imagery acquired nearly concurrently to the TM overpasses. Results indicate the capability of the TM sensor combined with the image analysis applied herein as a potential economically viable solution to provide rapidly and at regular time intervals information on mining activity and its impact to the local environment. KEYWORDS: mining environmental impact, remote sensing, image classification, change detection, land reclamation, support vector machines, neural networks

  19. Changes in ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality and quantity of UV measurements have increased greatly in the last few years. Variations among measurements from different instruments are diminishing toward the 5 level. Long-term trend detection is still a problem, with little historical data available for baseline estimations. Enhanced UV levels are clearly associated with the antartic springtime ozone reductions. Measurements show that maximum UV levels at the South Pole are reached well before the summer solstice, and DNA-damaging radiation at Palmer Station, Antarctica (64§S) during the springtime ozone depletion can exceed maximum summer values at San Diego, USA (32§N). UV increases al mid-latitudes are smaller. However, increases associated with the record low ozone column of 1992-93 in the Northern Hemisphere are evident when examined on a wavelength-specific basis. Measurements in Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, and Australia show relatively high spheric latitudes, with differences in both stratospheric ozone and tropospheric pollutants likely to be playing a role. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols can reduce global UV-B irradiances appreciably. At some locations, tropospheric pollution has increased since pre-industrial times, leading to decreases in surface UV radiation. However, recent trends in tropospheric pollution probably had only minor effects on UV trends relative to the effect of stratospheric ozone reductions. Global ozone measurements from satellites over the period 1979-1993 imply significant UV-B increases at high and mid-latitudes of both hemispheres, but only small changes in the tropics. Such estimates however assume that cloud cover and tropospheric pollution have remained constant over this time period. Under the current CFC phase-out schedules, global UV levels are predicted to peak around the turn of the century in association with peak loading of chlorine in the stratosphere and the concomitant ozone reductions. The recovery to pre-ozone depletion levels is expected to

  20. Charles Lyell and 'Modern changes of the Earth': the Milledgeville Gully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Barbara A.

    2001-09-01

    One major emphasis of Lyell's Principles of Geology was on the abundance and efficacy of 'present' or 'modern' causes in producing geologic change. He was also determined that the evidence given for the activity of such causes should be scientific and reliable: to that end, he expended tremendous efforts to make his own observations. Perhaps inevitably, he stressed the operation of relatively high magnitude, low frequency events—storms, floods and earthquakes—especially those whose dates of onset were known. A key example of Lyell's interest in the 'modern' was his examination of a 20-year-old gully at Milledgeville, GA, in January 1846. He explicitly related its ultimate cause to the laying bare of the clayey surface horizons as a result of recent forest clearance and its proximate formation to sunbaked cracks in the clay and erosion by rainfall-induced runoff. He also saw this example as merely one of hundreds in the region. Over the 140 years since Lyell's visit, the gully has been repeatedly revisited and even surveyed (by H.A. Ireland in 1937). Its development shows continued growth, followed by increasing stabilisation. This seems to match evidence for the general behaviour of such landforms and the gully, therefore, may serve as a well-documented exemplar for the nature of localised accelerated erosion, regardless of the ultimate initiating factors. Lyell's interest in such short-term erosional features—as indicating the efficacy of modern causes—stands in contrast to his successors' focus on 'geological' scale features such as Niagara Falls.

  1. The Earth at a glance 2010: cities, changing trajectory;Regards sur la Terre 2010: Villes, changer de trajectoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.; Pachauri, R.K.; Tubiana, L.

    2010-07-01

    The 2010 issue of 'the Earth at a glance' yearly publication is devoted to cities, areas and actors at the forefront of sustainable development. Beyond the status of stakes and obstacles to overcome, the ambition is to identify the dynamics carrying an indispensable trajectory change. More than half of the worldwide population lives in urban areas. Cities generate the most part of the prosperity and knowledge but are also the places where the most fragile populations concentrate and very often in precarious conditions. They are also at the origin of a large part of environment degradations. And yet, it is in the cities that the political, social and environmental questions of the 21. century are debated. In this framework, the cities of emerging countries may open the ways towards a new urbanism by developing new standards. Contents: status of 2009 events; calendar of main 2010 meetings; dossier: 'cities: changing the trajectory'; landmarks: maps, diagrams, world synthesis of sustainable development. (J.S.)

  2. Medicare determinations and income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare Part B premiums; conforming changes to regulations. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This final rule adopts, without change, the interim final rule with request for comments we published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013. The interim final rule modified our rules regarding Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amounts to conform to changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) and Internal Revenue Code by the Affordable Care Act. We also removed provisions that phased in income-related monthly adjustment amounts between 2007 and 2009 and updated a citation to reflect the transfer of authority for hearing appeals under title XVIII of the Act from the Social Security Administration to the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  4. Change of roles and attitudes in the Swedish localisation process for a final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early research activities in the mid seventies related to a final repository for spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes, much has changed in a direction that allows a more open and transparent decision-making process. Important changes have been noted in the legal framework - including EIA and financing - and in the roles of the Swedish authorities, local politicians, NGO's, and media. Trust and credibility is of course crucial for all actors in the decision-making process, but the ways to gain trust is different depending on which role to play in the process. A higher degree of trust in the different actors, and in the process itself, could be gained from a better distinction between facts and value judgements, but also if the roles of different actors are better clarified. To understand the roles of the different actors, it is important to define each actor's 'arena' in terms of responsibilities, goals, standpoints etc. in several dimensions. These dimensions could for example be geographic or the base for decisions (scientific - political)

  5. Change of roles and attitudes in the Swedish localisation process for a final repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Bjoern [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Since the early research activities in the mid seventies related to a final repository for spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes, much has changed in a direction that allows a more open and transparent decision-making process. Important changes have been noted in the legal framework - including EIA and financing - and in the roles of the Swedish authorities, local politicians, NGO's, and media. Trust and credibility is of course crucial for all actors in the decision-making process, but the ways to gain trust is different depending on which role to play in the process. A higher degree of trust in the different actors, and in the process itself, could be gained from a better distinction between facts and value judgements, but also if the roles of different actors are better clarified. To understand the roles of the different actors, it is important to define each actor's 'arena' in terms of responsibilities, goals, standpoints etc. in several dimensions. These dimensions could for example be geographic or the base for decisions (scientific - political)

  6. Solar assisted absorption or motor driven heat pump with earth seasonal storage: Part 1, Final report, 1 July 1982-30 June 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A plant composed of an energy roof, a seasonal earth storage and an absorption heat pump has been tested. The purpose was to study the behavior of the various components and their interaction. The surveys went on during two years. The following operations are considered: the charging of the earth storage by the energy roof and the working of an absorption heat pump connected either to the energy roof or to the earth storage.

  7. DOE SciDAC’s Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report for University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervenak, Ann Louise [University of Southern California

    2013-12-19

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate Computing

  8. Global, long-term Earth Science Data Records of forest cover, change, and fragmentation from Landsat: the Global Forest Cover Change Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J.; Huang, C.; Channan, S.; Feng, M.; Song, X.; Kim, D.; Song, D.; Vermote, E.; Masek, J.; Townshend, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring, analysis, and management of forests require measurements of forest cover that are both spatio-temporally consistent and resolved globally at sub-hectare resolution. The Global Forest Cover Change project, a cooperation between the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, is providing the first long-term, sub-hectare, globally consistent data records of forest cover, change, and fragmentation in circa-1975, -1990, -2000, and -2005 epochs. These data are derived from the Global Land Survey collection of Landsat images in the respective epochs, atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance in 1990, 2000, and 2005 using the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) implementation of the 6S radiative transfer algorithm, with ancillary information from MODIS Land products, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), and climatological data layers. Forest cover and change were estimated by a novel continuous-field approach, which produced for the 2000 and 2005 epochs the world's first global, 30-m resolution database of tree cover. Surface reflectance estimates were validated against coincident MODIS measurements, the results of which have been corroborated by subsequent, independent validations against measurements from AERONET sites. Uncertainties in tree- and forest-cover values were estimated in each pixel as a compounding of within-sample uncertainty and accuracy relative to a sample of independent measurements from small-footprint lidar. Accuracy of forest cover and change estimates was further validated relative to expert-interpreted high-resolution imagery, from which unbiased estimates of forest cover and change have been produced at national and eco-regional scales. These first-of-kind Earth Science Data Records--surface reflectance in 1990, 2000, and 2005 and forest cover, change, and fragmentation in and between 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2005--are hosted at native, Landsat

  9. Toward server-side, high performance climate change data analytics in the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) eco-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Sandro; Williams, Dean; Aloisio, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    In many scientific domains such as climate, data is often n-dimensional and requires tools that support specialized data types and primitives to be properly stored, accessed, analysed and visualized. Moreover, new challenges arise in large-scale scenarios and eco-systems where petabytes (PB) of data can be available and data can be distributed and/or replicated (e.g., the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) serving the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) experiment, providing access to 2.5PB of data for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Most of the tools currently available for scientific data analysis in the climate domain fail at large scale since they: (1) are desktop based and need the data locally; (2) are sequential, so do not benefit from available multicore/parallel machines; (3) do not provide declarative languages to express scientific data analysis tasks; (4) are domain-specific, which ties their adoption to a specific domain; and (5) do not provide a workflow support, to enable the definition of complex "experiments". The Ophidia project aims at facing most of the challenges highlighted above by providing a big data analytics framework for eScience. Ophidia provides declarative, server-side, and parallel data analysis, jointly with an internal storage model able to efficiently deal with multidimensional data and a hierarchical data organization to manage large data volumes ("datacubes"). The project relies on a strong background of high performance database management and OLAP systems to manage large scientific data sets. It also provides a native workflow management support, to define processing chains and workflows with tens to hundreds of data analytics operators to build real scientific use cases. With regard to interoperability aspects, the talk will present the contribution provided both to the RDA Working Group on Array Databases, and the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF

  10. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  11. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed regenerative life support system for future space flights developed by the European Space Agency. It consists of interconnected processes (i.e. bioreactors, higher plant compartments, filtration units,..) targeting the total recycling of organic waste into oxygen, water and food. Within the MELiSSA loop, the purple non-sulfur alpha-proteobacterium R. rubrum ATCC25903 is used to convert fatty acids released from the upstream raw waste digesting reactor to CO2 and biomass, and to complete the mineralization of aminoacids into NH4+ that will be forwarded to the nitrifying compartment. Among the numerous challenges of the project, the functional stability of the bioreactors in long term and under space flight conditions is of paramount importance for the efficiency of the life support system and consequently the crew safety. Therefore, the physiological and metabolic changes induced by space flight were investigated for R. rubrum. The bacterium grown on solid medium during 2 different 10-day space flights to the ISS (MES- SAGE2, BASE-A experiments) were compared to cells grown on Earth 1 g gravity or modeled microgravity and normal Earth radiation or simulated space flight radiation conditions in order to relate each single stress to its respective cellular response. For simulating the radiation environment, pure gamma and neutron sources were combined, while simulation of changes in gravity where performed using the Random Positioning Machine technology. Transcriptome analysis using R. rubrum total genome DNA-chip showed up-regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress response after a 10-day mission inside the ISS, without loss of viability. As an example, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, thioredoxin reductase and bacterioferritin genes are least 2 fold induced although the radiation dose experienced by the bacterium (4 mSv) is very low compared to its radiotolerance (D10 = 100 Sv

  12. Systematic Structural Change in Selected Rare Earth Oxide Pyrochlores as Determined by Wide-Angle CBED and a Comparison with the Results of Atomistic Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabira, Yasunori; Withers, Ray L.; Minervini, Licia; Grimes, Robin W.

    2000-08-01

    An unknown oxygen atom fractional co-ordinate characteristic of the pyrochlore structure type has been determined for selected rare earth zirconate and titanate pyrochlores via a systematic row wide-angle CBED technique and shown to vary systematically with rare earth ion size. In the case of the titanate pyrochlore Gd2Ti2O7, the obtained results contrast with previously published X-ray results. Atomistic computer simulation is used to predict the value of the same parameter for a wide range of oxide pyrochlores. Comparison of calculated values with experimentally determined values shows that the general trends are correctly predicted although there appears to be systematic underestimation of both the observed values (by approximately 0.007) as well as their rate of change with rare earth ion size. Cation anti-site disorder is proposed as the origin of these discrepancies.

  13. Downscaling land use and land cover from the Global Change Assessment Model for coupling with Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Yannick; West, Tris O.; Link, Robert; Patel, Pralit

    2016-09-01

    The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is a global integrated assessment model used to project future societal and environmental scenarios, based on economic modeling and on a detailed representation of food and energy production systems. The terrestrial module in GCAM represents agricultural activities and ecosystems dynamics at the subregional scale, and must be downscaled to be used for impact assessments in gridded models (e.g., climate models). In this study, we present the downscaling algorithm of the GCAM model, which generates gridded time series of global land use and land cover (LULC) from any GCAM scenario. The downscaling is based on a number of user-defined rules and drivers, including transition priorities (e.g., crop expansion preferentially into grasslands rather than forests) and spatial constraints (e.g., nutrient availability). The default parameterization is evaluated using historical LULC change data, and a sensitivity experiment provides insights on the most critical parameters and how their influence changes regionally and in time. Finally, a reference scenario and a climate mitigation scenario are downscaled to illustrate the gridded land use outcomes of different policies on agricultural expansion and forest management. Several features of the downscaling can be modified by providing new input data or changing the parameterization, without any edits to the code. Those features include spatial resolution as well as the number and type of land classes being downscaled, thereby providing flexibility to adapt GCAM LULC scenarios to the requirements of a wide range of models and applications. The downscaling system is version controlled and freely available.

  14. Fully coupled ice sheet-earth system model: How does the Greenlandic ice sheet interact in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehacke, C.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Vizcaino, M.

    2012-04-01

    As ice sheets belong to the slowest climate components, they are usually not interactively coupled in current climate models. Therefore, long-term climate projections are incomplete and only the consideration of ice sheet interactions allows tackling fundamental questions, such as how do ice sheets modify the reaction of the climate systems under a strong CO2 forcing? The earth system model MPI-ESM, with the atmosphere model ECHAM6 and ocean model MPIOM, is coupled to the modified ice sheet model PISM. This ice sheet model, which is developed at the University of Fairbanks, represents the ice sheet of Greenland at a horizontal resolution of 10 km. The coupling is performed by calculating the surface mass balance based on 6-hourly atmospheric data to determine the boundary condition for the ice sheet model. The response of the ice sheet to this forcing, which includes orographic changes and fresh water fluxes, are passed back to the ESM. In contrast to commonly used strategies, we use a mass conserving scheme and do therefore neither apply flux corrections nor utilize anomaly coupling. Under a strong CO2 forcing a disintegrating Greenlandic ice sheet contributes to a rising sea level and has the potential to alter the formation of deep water masses in the adjacent formation sites Labrador Sea and Nordic Seas. We will present results for an idealized forcing with a growing atmospheric CO2 concentration that rises by 1% per year until four-times the pre-industrial level has been reached. We will discuss the reaction of the ice sheet and immediate responses of the ocean to ice loss.

  15. Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthakrishnan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bernholdt, D. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bharathi, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Brown, D. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chervenak, A. L. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Cinquini, L. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Drach, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fox, P. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Fraser, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Halliday, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hankin, S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kesselman, C. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Middleton, J. E. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Schwidder, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schweitzer, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (PMEL), Seattle, WA (United States); Schuler, R. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siebenlist, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, W. G. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wilhelmi, N. [National Center Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Su, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Ray, CA (United States); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-07-13

    The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report (AR4) has generated significant media attention. Much has been said about the U.S. role in this report, which included significant support from the Department of Energy through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) and other Department of Energy (DOE) programs for climate model development and the production execution of simulations. The SciDAC-supported Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) also played a major role in the IPCC AR4: all of the simulation data that went into the report was made available to climate scientists worldwide exclusively via the ESG-CET. At the same time as the IPCC AR4 database was being developed, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a leading U.S. climate science laboratory and a ESG participant, began publishing model runs from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), and its predecessor the Parallel Coupled Model (PCM) through ESG. In aggregate, ESG-CET provides seamless access to over 250 terabytes of distributed climate simulation data to over 6,000 registered users worldwide, who have taken delivery of more than 280 terabytes from the archive. Not only does this represent a substantial advance in scientific knowledge, it is also a major step forward in how we conduct the research process on a global scale. Moving forward, the next IPCC assessment report, AR5, will demand multi-site metadata federation for data discovery and cross-domain identity management for single signon of users in a more diverse federation enterprise environment. Towards this aim, ESG is leading the effort in the climate community towards standardization of material for the global federation of metadata, security, and data services required to standardize, analyze, and access data worldwide.

  16. Risk management. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Interim rule adopted as final with changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-22

    This is a final rule amending the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to emphasize considerations of risk management, including safety, security (including information technology security), health, export control, and damage to the environment, within the acquisition process. This final rule addresses risk management within the context of acquisition planning, selecting sources, choosing contract type, structuring award fee incentives, administering contracts, and conducting contractor surveillance.

  17. Great Lakes Instructional Materials for the Changing Earth System: An Earth Systems Education Effort of the Ohio Sea Grant College Program and the Ohio State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy, Ed.

    This activity book was developed because of the importance of understanding both our water resources and the impact of global change. The materials in this set were designed to use current data and information access skills, offer productive collaboration experiences, and provide critical science decision-making opportunities. Activities are…

  18. Land use change detection and prediction using high spatial resolution Google Earth imagery and GIS techniques: a study on El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaty, Emad Fawzy Saad

    2016-08-01

    Land Use change has become a vital component in current strategies for monitoring environmental changes and managing natural resources. Urban growth has brought serious losses of cultivated land, vegetation land and water bodies. In this study, we have taken North of Damanhour city as a case study to determine the land use change that took place in a period of time about of 6 years from 2008 to 2014 for investigation of changes after the revolution of January 25. The approach used in this study is the integration between Remote Sensing and GIS whereas the Google Earth was the source of data, while ArcGIS for further analysis of the digitized data. Google Earth has positioned itself at the forefront of a spatial information wave through providing free access to high-resolution imagery with simple, user friendly interface. The change detection is performed using historical imagery as a new tool in Google Earth program. Change detection rate shows that built-up area has been increased by 107.22 % between 2008 and 2014 whereas the urban area was 62.07 ha in 2008 and became 128.62 ha in 2014, on the other side the cultivated area has been decreased by 11.15 % between 2008 and 2014 whereas it changed from 596.74 ha in 2008 to 530.19 in 2014. The forecast function was used to predict land use changes between 2014 and 2032 based on 2008-2014 trends. Between 2014 and 2032, it was predicted that agricultural lands would decrease by 37.15% and built-up would increase by 40.70%.

  19. Applying the Science of Science Communication to Climate Change and Clean Energy: Lessons Learned from the NSF- and PBS-supported "Earth: The Operators' Manual"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Akuginow, E.; Sanford, C.

    2014-12-01

    Yale legal scholar and professor of psychology Dan Kahan has criticized the climate change science community for not applying what's known about effective communications strategies to topics with potentially controversial content. "Earth: The Operators' Manual," funded by NSF's Informal Science Education program and appearing on PBS was hosted by Penn State geoscientist Richard Alley. From the initial proposal forward into airing on public television in 2011 and 2012, ETOM aimed to be authoritative and apolitical while still being engaging to general audiences. Based on social scientific insights from project Advisor, Suzanne Moser, and others, ETOM aimed to avoid "climate porn" scare tactics and over-used footage, and to enlist a diverse group of "messengers" in addition to Alley. An important design criterion was to give equal time to clean energy solutions while pulling no punches as to the consensus findings of leading climate scientists. With the ETOM project now completed and final reports submitted to NSF, what results can be shared to inform future efforts? And how did ETOM compare in audience impact with other major media efforts such as Al Gore's "An Inconvenient Truth" or Showtime's more recent "Years of Living Dangerously"? Results reported draw on the external evaluation by Rockman Et Al, and include both quantitative and qualitative data. Key findings are the importance of including Texan ranchers enthusiastic about wind power alongside Navy Admirals adamant that climate change is human-caused and Marines implementing solar energy to reduce casualties incurred while transporting fossil fuels. In-person presentations by Alley and others at science centers served as de facto focus groups for scripting the TV programs, along with actual focus groups convened by Rockman. The 3rd program, ENERGY QUEST USA, documented 5 quite different communities, from Alaska to Forth Worth, Baltimore, Portland and Kansas, all using competition, local values, and economic

  20. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  1. Assessing Future Changes in Climate Extremes using the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Heat waves will become more frequent in the future under a warming climate. Their duration and intensity will increase as well. In order to get a better understanding of the trend of heat wave occurrence and intensity over the US, this study systematically analyzes daily maximum temperatures from an ensemble of 21 CMIP5 GCMs from the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) datasets. We define the occurance of a heat wave as a period of 3 (or more) consecutive days with daily maximum temperature above a threshold, and the intensity of the heat wave is the accumulated daily maximum temperatures over its duration. We calculated the two metrics for the period 1950-2099 over US for all models under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). We also test two different approaches to estimate the ensemble means of the heat wave metrics. The first approach calculates the numbers and intensity of heat waves for each individual model and then calculated the ensemble mean over 21 models of these two metrics, while the second approach first calculates the ensemble mean of the maximum temperatures over 21 different models and then estimates the annually heat wave numbers and heat wave intensity. The two approaches lead to remarkably different results: The results from the first method detect significant increasing trend of annually heat wave frequency and intensity in each individual GCMs. The mean durations of the heat waves are also found to be steadly increasing during the rest of the 21st century. The results from the second method show less-significant increasing trend of annually heat wave numbers. However the intensity of heat waves in the second approach is much larger than that calculated from the first way. These results confirms our hypothesis that both the occurance and the intensity of heat waves will increase in the future. They also emphasize that caution must be taken in processing high-frequency (daily or above) climate data in

  2. ‘Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History’: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely ‘Big Ideas’ with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation

  3. Plant functional type classification for earth system models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, C.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-01-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land cover data sets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily trans

  4. Research Agenda and Policy Input of the Earth System Science Partnership for Coping with Global Environmental Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, R.; Rice, M.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Noone, K.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities now match (and often exceed) the natural forces of the Earth System (Steffen/Sanderson/ Tyson/Jäger/Matson/Moore/Oldfield/Richardson/ Schellnhuber/Turner/Wasson 2004). Recent ice core data show that current levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane are well outside the range of nat

  5. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850–2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokohata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280–315 nm radiation through 1850–2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface all-sky UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N–60° N and 120° E–150° E, where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70% dominates the total UV-B change.

  6. Anthropogenic changes in the surface all-sky UV-B radiation through 1850–2005 simulated by an Earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Watanabe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The historical anthropogenic change in the surface all-sky UV-B (solar ultraviolet: 280–315 nm radiation through 1850–2005 is evaluated using an Earth system model. Responses of UV-B dose to anthropogenic changes in ozone and aerosols are separately evaluated using a series of historical simulations including/excluding these changes. Increases in these air pollutants cause reductions in UV-B transmittance, which occur gradually/rapidly before/after 1950 in and downwind of industrial and deforestation regions. Furthermore, changes in ozone transport in the lower stratosphere, which is induced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, increase ozone concentration in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These transient changes work to decrease the amount of UV-B reaching the Earth's surface, counteracting the well-known effect increasing UV-B due to stratospheric ozone depletion, which developed rapidly after ca. 1980. As a consequence, the surface UV-B radiation change between 1850 and 2000 is negative in the tropics and NH extratropics and positive in the SH extratropics. Comparing the contributions of ozone and aerosol changes to the UV-B change, the transient change in ozone absorption of UV-B mainly determines the total change in the surface UV-B radiation at most locations. On the other hand, the aerosol direct and indirect effects on UV-B play an equally important role to that of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes and tropics. A typical example is East Asia (25° N–60° N and 120° E–150° E, where the effect of aerosols (ca. 70% dominates the total UV-B change.

  7. Earth Observation in Support of the Development of the Adaptation Plans for Climate Change in Cities: An Application for the Thermal Environment in Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartalis, C.; Polydoros, A.; Mavrakou, Th.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.

    2014-11-01

    The development of adaptation plans for climate change in cities need to reflect how urban mechanisms are influenced by the transfer of heat and the reflection/emission of electromagnetic radiation. For doing so, a thorough knowledge of a number of urban parameters is needed, namely of the land surface albedo, the land surface emissivity and the land surface temperature. Furthermore, information on land use and land cover as well as a Digital Elevation Model of the area concerned are needed. In this paper, the potential of Earth Observation to support the extraction and spatial/temporal representation of the above parameters, in support of adaptation plans for climate change is examined.

  8. 77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India, 77 FR 64953 (Oct. 24, 2012) (Initiation and... Results, 77 FR at 64955. In the Initiation and Preliminary Results, we provided all interested parties... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Final No Shipment Determination, 77 FR 40848,...

  9. Our Changing Planet: The FY 1993 US Global Change Research Program. A report by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences, a supplement to the US President's fiscal year 1993 budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Reasearch Program (USGCRP) was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY-1990 Budget to help develop sound national and international policies related to global environmental issues, particularly global climate change. The USGCRP is implemented through a priority-driven scientific research agenda that is designed to be integrated, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary. It is designed explicitly to address scientific uncertainties in such areas as climate change, ozone depletion, changes in terrestrial and marine productivity, global water and energy cycles, sea level changes, the impact of global changes on human health and activities, and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the Earth system. The USGCRP addresses three parallel but interconnected streams of activity: documenting global change (observations); enhancing understanding of key processes (process research); and predicting global and regional environmental change (integrated modeling and prediction).

  10. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on "pure change" condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change.

  11. Limits to the expansion of Earth, Moon, Mars and Mercury and to changes in the gravitational constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that new estimates of the palaeoradius of the Earth for the past 400 Myr from palaeomagnetic data limit possible expansion to less than 0.8%, sufficient to exclude any current theory of Earth expansion. The lunar surface has remained static for 4,000 Myr with possible expansion limited to 0.06%, the Martian surface suggests a small possible expansion of 0.6%, while the surface of Mercury supports a small contraction. Observations of Mercury, together with reasonable assumptions about its internal structure, indicate that G decreased at a rate of less than 8 x 10-12 yr-1, in constant mass cosmologies, and 2.5 x 10-11 yr-1 in Dirac's multiplicative creation cosmology. (author)

  12. MM5 Simulations of the China Regional Climate During the LGM.Ⅰ: Influence of CO2 and Earth Orbit Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU yu; HE Jinhai; LI Weiliang; CHEN Longxun

    2008-01-01

    Using a regional climate model MM5 nested to an atmospheric global climate model CCM3, a series of simulations and sensitivity experiments have been performed to investigate the relative Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate response to different mechanisms over China. Model simulations of the present day (PD) climate and the LGM climate change are in good agreement with the observation data and geological records, especially in the simulation of precipitation change. Under the PD and LGM climate, changes of earth orbital parameters have a small influence on the annual mean temperature over China.However, the magnitude of the effect shows a seasonal pattern, with a significant response in winter. Thus,this influence cannot be neglected. During the LGM, CO2 concentration reached its lowest point to 200 ppmv. This results in a temperature decrease over China. The influences of CO2 concentration on climate show seasonal and regional patterns as well, with a significant influence in winter. On the contrary, CO2concentration has less impact in summer season. In some cases, temperature even increases with decreasing in CO2 concentration. This temperature increase is the outcome of decrease in cloud amount; hence increase the solar radiation that reached the earth's surface. This result suggests that cloud amount plays a very important role in climate change and could direct the response patterns of some climate variables such as temperature during certain periods and over certain regions. In the Tibetan Plateau, the temperature responses to changes of the above two factors are generally weaker than those in other regions because the cloud amount in this area is generally more than in the other areas. Relative to the current climate, changes in orbital parameters have less impact on the LGM climate than changes in CO2 concentration. However,both factors have rather less contributions to the climate change in the LGM. About 3%-10% changes in the annual mean temperature are

  13. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The word planet comes from Greek planetes, wanderers, because the planets appear to wander across the celestial sphere, contrary to the fixed stars. This thesis presents several methods for using this motion to distinguish between stars and solar system objects in order to detect and track NEOs......, Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...

  14. Developing Industry-Special Education's Joint Response To Changing Demographics in the Workforce. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donald M.

    This paper examines changing demographics in the American work force during the 1990s and implications for the economy, for America's ability to compete globally, and for industry and education. In response to these workplace and demographic changes, the National Association for Industry-Education Cooperation utilized the technique of networking…

  15. The Dean's Grant Program: An Approach to Academic Change in Higher Education. Final Program Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Angela Manetti

    An onsite study of two major program areas (faculty development and curriculum revision) in a national sample of 11 Dean's Grant Program projects sought to increase understanding of how academic innovation and change occur in higher education, and the processes for effectively managing change. Case study methodology was used, and data were…

  16. Final Report. Evaluating the Climate Sensitivity of Dissipative Subgrid-Scale Mixing Processes and Variable Resolution in NCAR's Community Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonowski, Christiane [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-12-14

    The goals of this project were to (1) assess and quantify the sensitivity and scale-dependency of unresolved subgrid-scale mixing processes in NCAR’s Community Earth System Model (CESM), and (2) to improve the accuracy and skill of forthcoming CESM configurations on modern cubed-sphere and variable-resolution computational grids. The research thereby contributed to the description and quantification of uncertainties in CESM’s dynamical cores and their physics-dynamics interactions.

  17. Earth from Above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    Earth from Above provides an easy introduction to understanding and interpreting satellite images, using illustrative examples to instruct on the fantastically informative new global data sets. Beginning with two short chapters on visible satellite images and radiation, the book then covers six key Earth-atmosphere variables on such environmentally important topics as the Antarctic ozone hole, El Nino, deforestation, the missing carbon dilemma, and the effects of sea ice, snow cover, and volcanoes on atmospheric temperatures. A final chapter broadens the discussion to consider satellite Earth observations in general.

  18. EarthCARE/CPR design results and PFM development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kenta; Tomita, Eiichi; Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Aida, Yoshihisa; Seki, Yoshihiro; Okada, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Tomiyama, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Ohno, Yuichi; Horie, Hiroaki; Sato, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) is a Japanese-European collaborative earth observation satellite mission aimed to deepen understanding of the interaction process between clouds and aerosols and their effects on the Earth's radiation. The outcome of this mission is expected to improve the accuracy of global climate change prediction. As one of instruments for EarthCARE, the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) is the world's first space-borne Doppler cloud radar jointly developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). In Japan, the critical design review of the CPR has been completed in 2013, and CPR proto-flight model was manufactured and integrated until summer in 2015. Finally, the proto-flight test have been just started. This paper describes the design results and current status of CPR proto-flight test.

  19. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the world’s great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most

  20. Final report: The effect of climate change on the Norwegian Energy System towards 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljom, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Fidje, A.; Meir, M.; Haugen, J.E.; Jarlseth, T.

    2010-08-15

    The climate impact on the renewable resources, end use demand, and on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050 is identified. Climate change will reduce the heat demand, increase the cooling demand, result in no impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro power potential. The total impact is reduced energy system costs, and lower Norwegian electricity prices. The net electricity export will increase, and national investments in new renewable power production like offshore wind- , tidal- and wave power will decrease due to climate change. Additionally, the electricity consumption in the residential and in the commercial sector will decrease, and climate change will lead to an earlier profitable implementation of electric based vehicles in Norway. Despite great uncertainties in the future climate, various future emission scenarios are compatible regarding the Norwegian climate impact, although the magnitude of the impact varies. (Author)

  1. Final Report on Hierarchical Coupled Modeling and Prediction of Regional Climate Change in the Atlantic Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam [Texas A& M University

    2011-10-30

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: a) Carried out studies of climate changes in the past using a hierarchy of intermediate coupled models (Chang et al., 2008; Wan et al 2009; Wen et al., 2010a,b) b) Completed the development of a Coupled Regional Climate Model (CRCM; Patricola et al., 2011a,b) c) Carried out studies testing hypotheses testing the origin of systematic errors in the CRCM (Patricola et al., 2011a,b) d) Carried out studies of the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, in the context of barrier layer interactions (Balaguru et al)

  2. Monsoon response to changes in Earth's orbital parameters: comparisons between simulations of the Eemian and of the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Braconnot

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Monsoon is the major manifestation of the seasonal cycle in the tropical regions, and there is a wide range of evidence from marine and terrestrial data that monsoon characteristics are affected by changes in the Earth's orbital parameters. We consider 3 periods in the Eemian and in the Holocene that present some analogy in the Earth's orbital configuration in terms of obliquity and precession. Simulations with the IPSL_CM4 ocean-atmosphere coupled model allow us to discuss the response of the Indian and African monsoon in terms of amplitude and response to the insolation forcing. Results show that precession plays a large role in shaping the seasonal timing of the monsoon system. Differences are found in the response of the two sub-systems. They result from the phase relationship between the insolation forcing and the seasonal characteristics of each sub-system. Also the response of the Indian Ocean is very different in terms of temperature and salinity when the change in insolation occurs at the summer solstice or later in the year. Monsoon has a large contribution to heat and water transports. It is shown that the relative importance of monsoon on the change in the energetic of the tropical regions also vary with precession.

  3. Monsoon response to changes in Earth's orbital parameters: comparisons between simulations of the Eemian and of the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Braconnot

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Monsoon is the major manifestation of the seasonal cycle in the tropical regions, and there is a wide range of evidence from marine and terrestrial data that monsoon characteristics are affected by changes in the Earth's orbital parameters. We consider 3 periods in the Eemian and 3 in the Holocene that present some analogy in the Earth's orbital configuration in terms of obliquity and precession. Simulations with the IPSL_CM4 ocean-atmosphere coupled model allow us to discuss the response of the Indian and African monsoon in terms of amplitude and response to the insolation forcing. Results show that precession plays a large role in shaping the seasonal timing of the monsoon system. Differences are found in the response of the two sub-systems. They result from the phase relationship between the insolation forcing and the seasonal characteristics of each sub-system. Also the response of the Indian Ocean is very different in terms of temperature and salinity when the change in insolation occurs at the summer solstice or later in the year. Monsoon has a large contribution to heat and water transports. It is shown that the relative importance of monsoon on the change in the energetic of the tropical regions also vary with precession.

  4. 78 FR 66898 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., and Preliminary Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 78 FR 52905 (August 27, 2013) (Preliminary... uranium. Low- enriched uranium is enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) with a U\\235\\ product assay of... outside the scope of the order. Specifically, the order does not cover enriched uranium hexafluoride...

  5. The impacts of regional climate changes on large conurbations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In close cooperation with the project of GROss and JUeRRENS (University of Hannover) the effects of the global emission of greenhouse gases and local changes in land use on the mesoscale urban climate are assessed for the city of Berlin. With the application of the three-dimensional and non-hydrostatic version of the mesoscale model FITNAH driven by simulation results of the global climate model ECHAM-1 of the Max-Planck-Institute in Hamburg it was possible to derive scenarios of the urban climate. Furthermore, the recent climate changes in the city of Berlin are analysed. According to the principles of the standard statistical theory of extremes a statistical model has been developed assessing the frequency of extreme temperature events under the current and future climate conditions. Assuming a future increase in the relevant greenhouse gases according to the IPCC-Scenario A the simulation results indicate an increase in the mean near-surface temperature up to 2 K in the city of Berlin in the next century. Further, the probability of the occurrence of extreme hot days is expected to rise significantly in the summer season. The future changes in land use will lead to an additional warming. With the aid of an empirical impact model the socio-economic effects of the simulated climate changes have been assessed. (orig.)

  6. 77 FR 54900 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ..., including, but not limited to, window frames, door frames, solar panels, curtain walls, or furniture. Such... glass pane and backing material, and solar panels. The scope also excludes finished goods containing... Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 77...

  7. 75 FR 7566 - Saccharin from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    .... There are four primary chemical compositions of saccharin: (1) Sodium saccharin (American Chemical Society Chemical Abstract Service (``CAS'') Registry 128-44-9); (2) calcium saccharin (CAS Registry 6485... from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 74 FR...

  8. More future for the earth - long-lasting energy policy for a permanent protection of the climate. Final report of the Inquiry-Commission 'Protection of the Earth Atmosphere' of the 12th German Bundestag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the latest scientific facts about the anthropogene green house effect with its consequences for the climate of the earth are presented. From the point of view of the commission the present state of knowledge already demands political actions today. The largest field/best possibilities for reforms in order to protect our climate can be found in the energy sector. The rational energy conversion plays a very special role in this respect. First of all the efficiency at the conversion of fossil energy carriers into collectible energy must be increased. In this respect the report shows all possible technical potential for a reduction of emissions which can be realised at present. In order to exhaust all potentials the commission recommends to support an energy economy with a low demand in material and a low energy intensity. It further recommends to support highly efficient technologies which guarantee the highest standard of energy service along with a minimum use of collectible energy. This applies for all energy consumers in households, small consumers, consumers in the economy and above all in the traffic sector. (orig./KW)

  9. Climate change impacts on water for irrigated horticulture in the Vale of Evesham. Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Jerry W.; Rodriguez-Diaz, J. A.; Weatherhead, E. K.; Khan, K

    2007-01-01

    This project has undertaken a scoping review and assessment of the impacts of climate change on irrigated horticulture in the Vale of Evesham, an area of intense irrigated production located within the Environment Agency’s Warwickshire Avon CAMS Catchment. The research was based on a combination of methodologies including desk-based review of published and grey literature, computer agroclimatic and water balance modelling, GIS mapping, meetings with key informants and a stakeho...

  10. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  11. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mecha...

  12. Varying the counter ion changes the kinetics, but not the final structure of colloidal gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Mikhailovskaya, Alesya; Constantin, Doru; Foffi, Giuseppe; Tavacoli, Joseph; Schmitt, Julien; Muller, François; Rochas, Cyrille; Wang, Nan; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina

    2016-02-01

    We show that, while the gelation of colloidal silica proceeds much faster in the presence of added KCl than NaCl, the final gels are very similar in structure and properties. We have studied the gelation process by visual inspection and by small angle X-ray scattering for a range of salt and silica particle concentrations. The characteristic times of the early aggregation process and the formation of a stress-bearing structure with both salts are shown to collapse onto master curves with single multiplicative constants, linked to the stability ratio of the colloidal suspensions. The influence of the salt type and concentration is confirmed to be mainly kinetic, as the static structure factors and viscoelastic moduli of the gels are shown to be equivalent at normalized times. While there is strong variation in the kinetics, the structure and properties of the gel at long-times are shown to be mainly controlled by the concentration of particles, and hardly influenced by the type or the concentration of salt. This suggests that the differences between gels generated by different salts are only transient in time. PMID:26520820

  13. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  14. Environmental stress-mediated changes in transcriptional and translational regulation of protein synthesis in crop plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The research described in this final report focused on the influence of stress agents on protein synthesis in crop plants (primarily soybean). Investigations into the `heat shock` (HS) stress mediated changes in transcriptional and translocational regulation of protein synthesis coupled with studies on anaerobic water deficit and other stress mediated alterations in protein synthesis in plants provided the basis of the research. Understanding of the HS gene expression and function(s) of the HSPs may clarify regulatory mechanisms operative in development. Since the reproductive systems of plants if often very temperature sensitive, it may be that the system could be manipulated to provide greater thermotolerance.

  15. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Final Technical Report 1990-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasios Toulopoulos

    2007-11-01

    Research conducted by the six NIGEC Regional Centers during recent years is reported. An overview of the NIGEC program from its beginnings provides a description and evaluation of the program's vision, strategy and major accomplishments. The program's purpose was to support academic research on environmental change in regions of the country that had historically received relatively little federal funding. The overall vision of NIGEC may be stated as the performance of academic research on the regional interactions between ecosystems and climate. NIGEC's research presents important evidence on the impacts of climate variability and change, and in some cases adaptability, for a broad range of both managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and has thereby documented significant regional issues on the environmental responses to climate change. NIGEC's research has demonstrated large regional differences in the atmospheric carbon exchange budgets of croplands and forests, that there are significant variations of this exchange on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales due to atmospheric variability (including temperature, precipitation and cloudiness), and that management practices and past history have predominant effects in grasslands and croplands. It is the mid-latitude forests, however, that have received more attention in NIGEC than any other specific ecosystem, and NIGEC's initiation of and participation in the AmeriFlux program, network of carbon flux measurement sites in North American old-growth forests, is generally considered to be its most significant single accomplishment. By including appendices with complete listings of NIGEC publications, principal investigators and participating institutions, this report may also serve as a useful comprehensive documentation of NIGEC.

  16. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stanley D. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Nowak, Robert S. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2007-11-30

    Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypothesis include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production thorugh an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plan production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plan and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most processes responded slowly or in a lag fashion to N-deposition and with no significant response to crust disturbance. Therefore, the primary objectives of this renewal grant were to: (1) continue ongoing measurements of soil and plant parameters that assess primary treatment responses; (2) address the potential heterogeneity of soil properties and (3) initiate a new suite of measurements that will provide data necessary for scaling/modeling of whole-plot to ecosystem-level responses. Our experimental approach included soil plan-water interactions using TDR, neutron probe, and miniaturized soil matric potential and moisture sensors, plant ecophysiological and productivity responses to water and nitrogen treatments and remote sensing methodologies deployed on a radio control platform.

  17. Climate change: The necessary, the possible and the desirable Earth League climate statement on the implications for climate policy from the 5th IPCC Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, Johan; Brasseur, Guy; Hoskins, Brian; Lucht, Wolfgang; Schellnhuber, John; Kabat, Pavel; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Gong, Peng; Schlosser, Peter; Máñez Costa, Maria; Humble, April; Eyre, Nick; Gleick, Peter; James, Rachel; Lucena, Andre; Masera, Omar; Moench, Marcus; Schaeffer, Roberto; Seitzinger, Sybil; van der Leeuw, Sander; Ward, Bob; Stern, Nicholas; Hurrell, James; Srivastava, Leena; Morgan, Jennifer; Nobre, Carlos; Sokona, Youba; Cremades, Roger; Roth, Ellinor; Liverman, Diana; Arnott, James

    2014-12-01

    The development of human civilisations has occurred at a time of stable climate. This climate stability is now threatened by human activity. The rising global climate risk occurs at a decisive moment for world development. World nations are currently discussing a global development agenda consequent to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which ends in 2015. It is increasingly possible to envisage a world where absolute poverty is largely eradicated within one generation and where ambitious goals on universal access and equal opportunities for dignified lives are adopted. These grand aspirations for a world population approaching or even exceeding nine billion in 2050 is threatened by substantial global environmental risks and by rising inequality. Research shows that development gains, in both rich and poor nations, can be undermined by social, economic and ecological problems caused by human-induced global environmental change. Climate risks, and associated changes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems that regulate the resilience of the climate system, are at the forefront of these global risks. We, as citizens with a strong engagement in Earth system science and socio-ecological dynamics, share the vision of a more equitable and prosperous future for the world, yet we also see threats to this future from shifts in climate and environmental processes. Without collaborative action now, our shared Earth system may not be able to sustainably support a large proportion of humanity in the decades ahead.

  18. Grassland/atmosphere response to changing climate: Coupling regional and local scales. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughenour, M.B.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Pielke, R.A.; Eastman, J.

    1993-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the response of grassland ecosystems to atmospheric change at regional and site scales, and to develop multiscaled modeling systems to relate ecological and atmospheric models with different spatial and temporal resolutions. A menu-driven shell was developed to facilitate use of models at different temporal scales and to facilitate exchange information between models at different temporal scales. A detailed ecosystem model predicted that C{sub 3} temperate grasslands wig respond more strongly to elevated CO{sub 2} than temperate C{sub 4} grasslands in the short-term while a large positive N-PP response was predicted for a C{sub 4} Kenyan grassland. Long-term climate change scenarios produced either decreases or increases in Colorado plant productivity (NPP) depending on rainfall, but uniform increases in N-PP were predicted in Kenya. Elevated CO{sub 2} is likely to have little effect on ecosystem carbon storage in Colorado while it will increase carbon storage in Kenya. A synoptic climate classification processor (SCP) was developed to evaluate results of GCM climate sensitivity experiments. Roughly 80% agreement was achieved with manual classifications. Comparison of lx and 2xCO{sub 2} GCM Simulations revealed relatively small differences.

  19. Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Songgang

    2013-05-15

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop and validate an innovative, scalable phase change salt thermal energy storage (TES) system that can interface with Infinia’s family of free-piston Stirling engines (FPSE). This TES technology is also appropriate for Rankine and Brayton power converters. Solar TES systems based on latent heat of fusion rather than molten salt temperature differences, have many advantages that include up to an order of magnitude higher energy storage density, much higher temperature operation, and elimination of pumped loops for most of Infinia’s design options. DOE has funded four different concepts for solar phase change TES, including one other Infinia awarded project using heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the salt. The unique innovation in this project is an integrated TES/pool boiler heat transfer system that is the simplest approach identified to date and arguably has the best potential for minimizing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The Phase 1 objectives are to design, build and test a 1-hour TES proof-of-concept lab demonstrator integrated with an Infinia 3 kW Stirling engine, and to conduct a preliminary design of a 12-hour TES on-sun prototype.

  20. The Mechanisms of Natural Variability and its Interaction with Anthropogenic Climate Change Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallis, Geoffrey K.

    2015-02-01

    The project had two main components. The first concerns estimating the climate sensitivity in the presence of forcing uncertainty and natural variability. Climate sensitivity is the increase in the average surface temperature for a given increase in greenhouse gases, for example a doubling of carbon dioxide. We have provided new, probabilistic estimates of climate sensitivity using a simple climate model an the observed warming in the 20th century, in conjunction with ideas in data assimilation and parameter estimation developed in the engineering community. The estimates combine the uncertainty in the anthropogenic aerosols with the uncertainty arising because of natural variability. The second component concerns how the atmospheric circulation itself might change with anthropogenic global warming. We have shown that GCMs robustly predict an increase in the length scale of eddies, and we have also explored the dynamical mechanisms whereby there might be a shift in the latitude of the jet stream associated with anthropogenic warming. Such shifts in the jet might cause large changes in regional climate, potentially larger than the globally-averaged signal itself. We have also shown that the tropopause robustly increases in height with global warming, and that the Hadley Cell expands, and that the expansion of the Hadley Cell is correlated with the polewards movement of the mid-latitude jet.

  1. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  2. Bridging the Divide: Linking Genomics to Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Melinda D.

    2014-03-15

    Over the project period, we have addressed the following objectives: 1) assess the effects of altered precipitation patterns (i.e., increased variability in growing season precipitation) on genetic diversity of the dominant C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii, and 2) experimentally assess the impacts of extreme climatic events (heat wave, drought) on responses of the dominant C4 grasses, A. gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, and the consequences of these response for community and ecosystem structure and function. Below is a summary of how we have addressed these objectives. Objective 1 After ten years of altered precipitation, we found the number of genotypes of A. gerardii was significantly reduced compared to the ambient precipitation treatments (Avolio et al., 2013a). Although genotype number was reduced, the remaining genotypes were less related to one another indicating that the altered precipitation treatment was selecting for increasingly dissimilar genomes (based on mean pairwise Dice distance among individuals). For the four key genotypes that displayed differential abundances depending on the precipitation treatment (G1, G4, and G11 in the altered plots and G2 in the ambient plots), we identified phenotypic differences in the field that could account for ecological sorting (Avolio & Smith, 2013a). The three altered rainfall genotypes also have very different phenotypic traits in the greenhouse in response to different soil moisture availabilities (Avolio and Smith, 2013c). Two of the genotypes that increased in abundance in the altered precipitation plots had greater allocation to root biomass (G4 and G11), while G1 allocated more biomass aboveground. These phenotypic differences among genotypes suggests that changes in genotypic structure between the altered and the ambient treatments has likely occurred via niche differentiation, driven by changes in soil moisture dynamics (reduced mean, increased variability and changes in the depth distribution of

  3. The Economics of Climate Change in Kenya: Final Report submitted in advance of COP15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Tom; Watkiss, Paul; Dyszynski, Jillian; Butterfield, Ruth; Devisscher, Tahia; Pye, Steve; Droogers, Peter; Ali, Basra; Harding, Brian; Tas, Adriaan; Blois, Mark de; Tadege, Abebe; Hunt, Alistair; Taylor, Tim; Bouma, Menno; Kovats, Sari; Maitima, Joseph; Mugatha, Simon; Kariuki, Patrick; Mariene, Lea; Worden, Jeff; Western, David; Waruingi, Lucy; Brown, Sally; Kebede, Abiy; Nicholls, Robert; Lager, Bo; Otiende, Brian; Chambwera, Muyeye; Birch, Tom; Mutimba, Stephen; Sang, Joan

    2009-12-15

    Existing climate variability has significant economic costs in Kenya. Periodic floods and droughts (extremes) cause major macro-economic costs and reductions in economic growth. Future climate change will lead to additional and potentially very large economic costs. These are uncertain. However, aggregate models indicate additional net economic costs (on top of existing climate variability) could be equivalent to a loss of almost 3% of GDP each year by 2030 in Kenya. Costs include potential threats to coastal zones (sea-level rise), health burdens, energy demand, infrastructure, water resources, agriculture and loss of ecosystem services. The study has addressed the potential impacts and economic costs in these sectors. These highlight the importance of preparing for future climate change. While it is difficult to predict effects with confidence, there is a need to plan robust strategies to prepare for the future, rather than using uncertainty as a reason for inaction. Adaptation can reduce the economic costs of climate change but it has a cost. The costs of adaptation are still emerging. A number of categories of adaptation have been identified that relate to the balance between development and climate change. An initial estimate of immediate needs for addressing current climate as well as preparing for future climate change for Kenya is USD 500 million/year (for 2012). The cost of adaptation by 2030 will increase: an upper estimate of the cost is likely to be in the range of USD 1 to 2 billion/year. The study has also prioritised early adaptation across the sectors. These studies demonstrate that adaptation has potentially very large benefits in reducing present and future damages. However, while adaptation reduces damages, it does not remove them entirely. Residual impacts in Kenya, particularly for some regions and groups are expected and need to be managed. The analysis has considered future emissions for Kenya, consistent with planned development. Emissions

  4. Mass Extinctions in Earth's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. D.

    2002-12-01

    Mass extinctions are short intervals of elevated species death. Possible causes of Earth's mass extinctions are both external (astronomical) and internal (tectonic and biotic changes from planetary mechanisms). Paleontologists have identified five "major" mass extinctions (>50 die-off in less than a million years) and more than 20 other minor events over the past 550 million years. Earlier major extinction events undoubtedly also occurred, but we have no fossil record; these were probably associated with, for example, the early heavy bombardment that cleared out the solar system, the advent of oxygen in the atmosphere, and various "snowball Earth" events. Mass extinctions are viewed as both destructive (species death ) and constructive, in that they allow evolutionary innovation in the wake of species disappearances. From an astrobiological perspective, mass extinctions must be considered as able both to reduce biodiversity and even potentially end life on any planet. Of the five major mass extinctions identified on Earth, only one (the Cretaceous/Tertiary event 65 million years ago that famously killed off the dinosaurs ) is unambiguously related to the impact of an asteroid or comet ( 10-km diameter). The Permian/Triassic (250 Myr ago) and Triassic/Jurassic (202 Myr ago) events are now the center of debate between those favoring impact and those suggesting large volume flooding by basaltic lavas. The final two events, Ordovician (440 Myr ago) and Devonian (370 Myr ago) have no accepted causal mechanisms.

  5. Carbon Policy and Technical Change: Market Structure, Increasing Returns, and Secondary Benefits. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P.; Smith, V. K.

    2001-11-19

    An economic evaluation of the impact of policies intended to control emissions of CO{sub 2} and other ''greenhouse gases'' (GHGS) depends on the net costs of these controls and their distribution throughout the production sectors of developed and developing economics. The answers derived from appraisals of these net costs, in turn, stem from what is assumed about the timing of the controls, the pace of technological change, and any short-term secondary benefits from their control. There have only been a few serious attempts to estimate the economic benefits from the policies associated with such long run outcomes. All of the approaches to date have made fairly strong assumptions or relied on contingent valuation estimates of hypothetical situations.

  6. Soil and soil cover changes in spruce forests after final logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Lapteva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil cover transformation and changes of morphological and chemical properties of Albeluvisols in clear-cuttings of middle taiga spruce forests were studied. The observed changes in structure and properties of podzolic texturally-differentiated soils at cuttings of spruce forests in the middle taiga subzone do not cause their transition to any other soil type. Soil cover of secondary deciduous-coniferous forests which replace cut forests are characterized with a varied soil contour and a combination of the main type of podzolic soils under undisturbed spruce forests. The increased surface hydromorphism in cut areas causes formation of complicated sub-types of podzolic texturally differentiated soils (podzolic surface-gley soils with microprofile of podzol and enlarges their ratio (up to 35–38 % in soil cover structure. Temporary soil over-wetting at the initial (5–10 years stage of after-cutting self-restoring vegetation succession provides for soil gleyzation, improves yield and segregation of iron compounds, increases the migratory activity of humic substances. Low content and resources of total nitrogen in forest litters mark anthropogenic transformation processes of podzolic soils at this stage. Later (in 30–40 years after logging, soils in cut areas still retain signs of hydromorphism. Forest litters are denser, less acidic and thick with a low weight ratio of organic carbon as compared with Albeluvisols of undisturbed spruce forest. The upper mineral soil horizons under secondary deciduous-coniferous forests contain larger amounts of total iron, its mobile (oxalate-dissolvable components, and Fe-Mn-concretions.

  7. Pelletized vs. natural iron ore technology: energy, labor, and capital changes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakela, P.

    1978-09-01

    Total energy requirements per ton of iron-in-ore for natural and pelletized ore were calculated by a hybrid energy analysis. Energy requirements for ore preparation were subsequently considered as one energy input (embodied) to blast furnaces. Total energy requirements per ton molten iron were calculated for each year from 1955 through 1975 to identify changes attributable to the shift in iron ore preparation. Four results were found. (1) In practice, the lean ores are energetically superior. Pelletized ore requires more energy at the mine than natural ore, but pellets produce offsetting energy savings in the blast furnace. (2) Labor changes followed a similar pattern: man-hours per ton of molten iron increased at the mine with pelletization, but decreased at the blast furnance. Net labor required per ton of molten iron has decreased with pelletization. (3) Capital investments per ton of molten iron have increased greatly at iron ore mines with pelletization and decreased moderately at blast furnaces. New capital investment per ton of molten iron has increased with pelletization. (4) In the iron and steel industry, relatively low-priced energy held a substantial advantage over high-priced labor between 1950 and 1969. The industry, however, discovered that capital investments in pellet plants could save both labor and energy up to 1963; after 1963 capital and energy weresubstituted for labor. A sharp reversal of substitutional advantage occurred in 1970; energy jumped to the most costly factor. Thus capital presently shows a strong substitutional advantage over high-priced energy and intermediately-priced labor.

  8. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Science 2015 (AeroEarth 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2016-02-01

    The 3rd International Conferences on Geological, Geographical, Aerospaces and Earth Sciences 2015 (AeroEarth 2015), was held at The DoubleTree Hilton, Jakarta, Indonesia during 26 - 27 September 2015. The 1st AeoroEarth was held succefully in Jakarta in 2013. The success continued to The 2nd AeroEarth 2014 that was held in Kuta Bali, Indonesia. The publications were published by EES IOP in http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/19/1 and http://iopscience.iop.org/1755-1315/23/1 respectively. The AeroEarth 2015 conference aims to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. Through research and development, Earth's scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. The theme of AeroEarth 2015 is ''Earth and Aerospace Sciences : Challenges and Opportunities'' Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 78 papers and after rigorous review, 18 papers were accepted. The participants

  9. The whole atmosphere response to changes in the Earth's magnetic field from 1900 to 2000: An example of "top-down" vertical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnossen, Ingrid; Liu, Hanli; Lu, Hua

    2016-07-01

    We study the effects of changes in the Earth's magnetic field between 1900 and 2000 on the whole atmosphere (0-500 km altitude), based on simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model eXtension. Magnetic field changes directly affect the temperature and wind in the upper atmosphere (> ~110 km) via Joule heating and the ion drag force. However, we also find significant responses in zonal mean temperature and zonal wind in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) middle- to high-latitude troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere of up to ±2 K and ±2 m/s, as well as regionally significant changes in Northern Hemisphere (NH) polar surface temperatures of up to ±1.3 K, in December-January-February. In the SH, changes in gravity wave filtering in the thermosphere induce a change in the residual circulation that extends down into the upper mesosphere, where further changes in the mean wind climatology are generated, together with changes in local planetary wave generation and/or amplification and gravity wave filtering. This induces further changes to a residual circulation cell extending down into the troposphere. However, inaccuracies in the simulated SH upper mesospheric wind climatology probably mean that the simulated temperature and wind responses in the SH lower and middle atmosphere are also inaccurate. The NH middle atmosphere response is zonally asymmetric, consisting of a significant change in the positioning and shape of the upper stratospheric polar vortex, which is dynamically consistent with the surface temperature response. However, the downward coupling mechanism in the NH is generally less clear.

  10. Can a reduction of solar irradiance counteract CO2-induced climate change? – Results from four Earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the response of four state-of-the-art Earth system models to climate engineering under scenario G1 of the GeoMIP and IMPLICC model intercomparison projects. In G1, the radiative forcing from an instantaneous quadrupling of the CO2 concentration, starting from the preindustrial level, is balanced by a reduction of the solar constant. Model responses to the two counteracting forcings in G1 are compared to the preindustrial climate in terms of global means and regional patterns and their robustness. While the global mean surface air temperature in G1 remains almost unchanged, the meridional temperature gradient is reduced in all models compared to the control simulation. Another robust response is the global reduction of precipitation with strong effects in particular over North and South America and northern Eurasia. It is shown that this reduction is only partly compensated by a reduction in evaporation so that large continental regions are drier in the engineered climate. In comparison to the climate response to a quadrupling of CO2 alone the temperature responses are small in experiment G1. Precipitation responses are, however, of comparable magnitude but in many regions of opposite sign.

  11. The Most Resilient Show on Earth: The Circus as a Model for Viewing Identity, Change, and Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Loring

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resilience, adaptability, and transformability are all tightly linked to the notion of change, whether in respect to coping with, adapting to, or harnessing it. But in order to understand these forces of change, we first need to recognize its counterpart: identity. Identity of a social-ecological system is not merely a static set of quantifiable feedbacks or indicators, but a more qualitative characterization of what results from the overlap of the social and the ecological. To fully articulate these ideas, I turn to a unique and enduring phenomenon: the traveling circus. Through the many forms they have taken over the last 150 yr, circuses have changed significantly while sustaining a singular identity. As a successful and enduring social system, their intriguing history exposes the nuances of sustainability theory, from resilience to pathologies, and illustrates that sustainability requires a complex dynamic between identity, tradition, and change.

  12. Earth\\'s Mass Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mawad, Ramy

    2014-01-01

    The perturbation of the Earth caused by variability of mass of Earth as additional reason with gravity of celestial bodies and shape of the Earth. The Earth eating and collecting matters from space and loss or eject matters to space through its flying in the space around the Sun. The source of the rising in the global sea level is not closed in global warming and icebergs, but the outer space is the additional important source for this rising. The Earth eats waters from space in unknown mechanism. The mass of the Earth become greater in November i.e. before transit apoapsis two months, and become latter in February i.e. after transit apoapsis to two months.

  13. The interaction of tradable instruments in renewable energy and climate change markets: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet renewable energy targets, establishing a market for tradable green certificates (TGC) is a relevant instrument to use. Within the past few years green certificate markets have gained extensive interest in Europe and elsewhere, and markets seem to be appearing in a number of countries, among these the UK, Australia, Italy, Belgium (Flanders), Sweden and Denmark. The main objective of the InTraCert project is to examine the potential and implications of establishing such an international tradable green certificate system with respect to the European Union (EU) and national renewable energy policies as well as climate change policies. Particular attention is paid to: the possibilities for establishing an EU-wide market for tradable green certificates to promote an efficient deployment of renewables across the borders of the Member States, to expand the TGC market to include not only renewable power production, but also the production of biogas and green heat, to analyse the interactions between TGC and other market instruments of the EU and Member States, especially tradable emission permits (TEP) for the power industry, to investigate interactions and implications for national and EU GHG (greenhouse gases) reduction policies, to clarify potential market distortions, trade-offs and other implications for renewable and GHG reduction policies if the TGC and TEP-systems are not designed appropriately. Analyses were performed for approaching optimal designs of TGC systems, including implications of different national systems with regard to penalties, tradability and system boundaries, aiming at guidelines for establishing a common EU TGC system. A number of scenarios outlines the possible interactions between the TGC-approach and tradable emission permits and the implications for applying these instruments in reaching national GHG reduction targets. One of the major outcomes of the project is a comprehensive list of policy recommendations for implementing

  14. Application of phase-change materials in passive solar systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliwkowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The Institute of Energy Conversion of the University of Delaware has designed and constructed a modular, hybrid passive solar energy collection and storage unit called the Thermal Wall Panel. The Thermal Wall Panel uses the concept of energy storage in phase change materials combined with direct solar gain. In the winter of 1977-78, the Thermal Wall Panel was tested at Solar One, the Institute's solar house and laboratory. The key results and conclusions from this testing and analysis program include the following: (1) Based on measurements, a Thermal Wall Panel with movable nighttime insulation (R = 6.80) between the storage components and the outside can retain and deliver as heat an average of 45 percent of the sun's energy which falls on it during the day. (2) Based on calculations, a 120 square foot wall can provide about 25 percent of the heating needs of a 1100 square foot house. Analysis indicates that when the Thermal Wall Panel (R = 6.00 nighttime insulation) is combined with other direct gain passive solar energy systems as large, south-facing windows, 56 percent of a home's heating needs can be provided. (3) A Thermal Wall Panel can be installed into a typical home in the Mid-Atlantic Region for an incremental cost of from $6 to $8 per square foot beyond the cost of the normal wall and pay for itself in 5 to 9 years at 1978 energy costs. Also, the Thermal Wall Panel does not require any additional foundation support. (4) A computer model has been developed for the Thermal Wall Panel which shows good agreement with predicted and measured performance. Based on these results, it is recommended that full-scale testing of the system be initiated at multiple sites in the Mid-Atlantic Region.

  15. 地球横向不均匀结构对地表以及空间固定点同震重力变化的影响%Effects of earth's lateral heterogeneity on co-seismic gravity changes at deformed earth surface and space-fixed point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付广裕; 孙文科

    2012-01-01

    We present new formulae to study the co-seismic gravity changes on both the deformed earth surface and the space-fixed point caused by point dislocations buried in a 3-D heterogeneous, spherical earth model. Specifically, first we express the solutions by the sum of unperturbed gravity changes on a spherically symmetric earth model and the effects of earth' s laterally inhomogeneous structures (3-D effect). Because that the unperturbed solutions can be calculated directly using spherical dislocation theory for a layered earth model, the arm of this paper is to calculate the 3-D effects. Then we deliberately decompose the 3-D effects into two contributions: the effect of seismic sources and the effect of earth s laterally increments, which are obtainable respectively by perturbations of seismic source functions and equilibrium equation. Next,we present formulations for six point seismic sources: one vertical strike-slip, two vertical dip-slips perpendicular to each other, and three tensile openings on three perpendicular planes. A combination of the six dislocations is useful to compute the 3-D effect resulting from an arbitrary seismic source at an arbitrary position, which is also presented in this paper. Then, using the experience relations of rock testing we deduce density model and S-wave velocity model based on 3-D P-wave velocity model (36 degrees). We also deduce potential model and gravity model from the deduced density model. Finally, based on above 3-D models we calculate the co-seismic gravity changes resulting from three types point dislocations. Results show that the maximum 3-D effect on co-seismic gravity changes, which varies concomitantly with the dislocation types, is about 0. 5% of the corresponding unperturbed solutions. Among those parameters the effect of S-wave velocity is biggest. For the 3-D effects, our numerical results show that the contributions of effect of earth' s laterally increments are of the same level as those of dislocation

  16. Paleoclimate change recorded in the red earth and brown-yellow sediment of Late Quaternary for northeastern part of Guangdong Province, south to the Nanling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI BaoSheng; NIU DongFeng; YANG Yi; WEN XiaoHao; DAVID DianZhang; QIU ShiFan; DONG YüXiang; LI ZhiWen; DU ShuHuan; QIU XianJiao; LI HouXin

    2008-01-01

    The paleoenvironment indicated by the geochronology, major oxides-SiO2, AI203 and TOFE (Fe203 +FeO), and CIA (Chemical Index of Alteration) value of the red earth and brown-yellow silt primarily characterized by the Linjiang stratigraphic section, based on the geological investigation of Late Quaternary along the river banks of northeastern part of China's Guangdong Province, south to the Nanling Mountains, allow us to hypothesize that the red earth on the first terrace in northeastern part of Guangdong belongs to reticulated red clay developed in a hot-wet environment of the last interglacial period (132-73 ka BP), similar to the monsoon environment in the northern margin of modern tropical zone, while the overlying brown-yellow silt layer mainly accumulated in a monsoon environment of warm temperate zone in the last glacial period (73-11 ka BP), with the aeolian sand LJ3 representing an extreme period of worsening climate. Such a hypothesis corresponds well with predecessors' research on the paleoenvironment indicated by abundant fossils in both south and east to the Nanling Mountains. Hence, it follows that the bioclimatic zone did experience a large and rapid vicissitude in northeastern part of China's Guangdong Province, and even in the full extent of the region south to the Nanling Mountains from the last interglacial period to the last glacial period, with the red earth being replaced by the brown-yellow silty sediment, and even maybe with the Ailuropoda-Stegodon Fauna being replaced by the Penghu Fauna. This study may provide an important geological demonstration for the environmental response to global change in China's low latitudes on a 10 ka scale.

  17. Estimating time-lapse velocity changes in the earth by full waveform inversion of repeating seismic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, R.; Lumley, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Passive seismic monitoring of natural or induced seismicity can provide important information about time-variant subsurface phenomena, especially concerning fluid flow and stress-strain conditions. Traditional monitoring focuses on locating seismic events, and interpreting the results in terms of changes to subsurface properties. Instead, we directly estimate the subsurface velocity changes, which can be more quantitatively related to changes in fluid and stress states via rock physics and geomechanical relationships. The expected velocity changes are often so small that conventional traveltime tomography has difficulty in providing reliable detailed estimates. Our method is based on full waveform inversion (FWI) of the seismic data. FWI estimates a high-resolution subsurface model by fitting waveforms in the data domain based on a numerical solution to the wave equation. We evaluate the performance of our FWI by using a synthetic set of a limited number (up to three) repeating events recorded at a surface array of sensors. We use a realistic complex velocity model which includes fine-scale heterogeneity, and consider the case where fluid pore pressure has changed the stress state leading to a small velocity increase in two distinct thin layers. We assume that we have reasonable estimates of the event locations and the background velocity model before starting the inversion. We compare parallel, double-difference and bootstrapping techniques, and analyse effects of accuracy in the background velocity model to the inversion. FWI retrieves the correct velocity change with excellent accuracy at a high spatial resolution less than one wavelength. This is due to the ability of FWI to invert the full waveform data, rather than traveltime arrivals only. We analyse the inversion sensitivity kernels and show that the spatial resolution improves, and the required density of the sensor array reduces, for velocity changes nearer to the seismic source location.

  18. Outer Banks Climate - Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Establish a Methodology for Assessing Coastal Change in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, M. A.; Morgan, K.; Doddridge, D.; Norman, D.; Burns, C.; Collins, C.; Warren, J.

    2010-12-01

    North Carolina’s dynamic and ever changing coastal region, defined by the Outer Banks and nearby estuarine systems, is especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In addition to the shoreline transformations resultant from erosion and the natural processes of land subsistence, this coastal zone is experiencing increased effects of global climate change. Accelerated rates of rising temperatures in recent years have contributed to thermal expansion, melting ice and thus, a rising sea level that is especially stressful for these low lying coastal regions. Current trends in human behavior are predicted to only accelerate the process of climate change, making the future of this region all the more uncertain. With higher temperatures and added water volume, more frequent and intense storms can be expected to make landfall on or near the North Carolina coast that present hazards threatening entire communities. This study first applied remote sensing tools and techniques to delineate an accurate shoreline envelope. Then, through examination of Landsat imagery taken before and after named storms, observation of images at nine year intervals, and a process of acquiring NDVI values, short and long term vegetative differences were identified. Models based on historical data were also produced with the intention of forecasting future sea level rise along North Carolina’s estuary and coastal shorelines; a particular focus on sea level changes surrounding hurricane episodes corresponds to rates discerned in existing studies. This project will provide a methodology using NASA satellite instrumentation to analyze and delineation shoreline change and measure erosion. Including vegetation loss, sea level rise and the effects of natural and anthropogenic climate change in the study will supplement explanations of current shoreline loss, highest risk areas, and forecasts of future impacts. This information will assist officials in their strategic planning and policy

  19. Development and sustainability of NSF-funded climate change education efforts: lessons learned and strategies used to develop the Reconstructing Earth's Climate History (REaCH) curriculum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, K. K.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The context for understanding modern global climate change lies in the records of Earth's past. This is demonstrated by decades of paleoclimate research by scientists in organizations such as IODP and ANDRILL, yet making that science accessible to educators has been a long-standing challenge. Furthermore, content transfer is not enough; in science education, addressing how we know is as important as addressing what we know about science. To that end, our initial NSF-CCLI/TUES objective of Teaching Anchor Concepts of Climate Change (NSF #0737335) was to put authentic data and published case studies of past climate change at students' fingertips in a series of 7 multipart inquiry-based exercise modules for undergraduate classroom and lab use. After 4 years of funding (incl. 2 no-cost extensions) we surpassed our project objective and established an avenue for sustainability that is proving successful. The purpose of this presentation is to share (1) the process by which we developed the curriculum and (2) the strategies used to ensure sustainability. The curriculum development process reflected many of the same successful strategies used in scientific research. It drew on the knowledge and skills of the team; it was collaborative, iterative, and primarily distributive, yet at times directive. The team included paleoclimate researchers and educators from a broad range of undergraduate institutions. We evaluated published data from scientific reports and peer-reviewed journal articles, and used these as the foundation for writing curriculum that was data-rich and inquiry-based. In total 14 multipart exercise modules were developed. The feedback from early and frequent meeting presentations, from formative evaluation by students in courses and by faculty in workshops, and from peer-review by paleoclimate scientists and undergraduate educators helped us fine-tune the materials to the needs of the education and paleoclimate science communities. It additionally helped us

  20. Geochemistry of rare-earth elements and its significance in the study of climatic and environmental change in Barrow, Arctic Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical characteristics of rare-earth elements (REE) and sedimentary features were studied in the borehole 96-7-1 from Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Arctic Alaska. The results show that total contents of REE (∑ REE) are lower, suggesting that physical weathering is dominate, therefore, concentrations of rare-earth elements are lower in the paleosediment environment. The chondrite-normalized distribution patterns of RE,Es are characterized by light REE (LREE) enrichment and Eu-depletion with the terrestrial sedimentary rock as the parent materials. In comparison with the borecore AB-67 in Elson Lagoon, the main conclusions for climatic and environmental changes are similar: before 1740 A. D. , it was cold and dry with terrestrial properties,but the comparatively warming around 1400 A.D. and 1550 A. D. ; after 1740 A. D. ,it became warming, or markedly after 1821 A.D. ; but it was cold around 1890 A. D.From 1904 A. D. , it got warm again, but it was relatively cold around 1971 A. D..

  1. The Younger Dryas climate change: was it caused by an extraterrestrial impact? (Utrecht Studies in Earth Sciences 054)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Younger Dryas is an abrupt cooling event at the end of the last Glacial associated to a change in ocean circulation. According to the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, however, one or more extraterrestrial airbursts or impacts occuring around 12.8 ka caused the Younger Dryas cooling, extensive wi

  2. Long-Term Changes in Stratospheric Age Spectra in the 21st Century in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan E.; Ma, Jun; Nielsen, J. Eric; Liang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the long-term variations in the stratospheric age spectra using simulations of the 21st century with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry- Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Our purposes are to characterize the long-term changes in the age spectra and identify processes that cause the decrease of the mean age in a warming climate. Changes in the age spectra in the 21st century simulations are characterized by decreases in the modal age, the mean age, the spectral width, and the tail decay timescale. Our analyses show that the decrease in the mean age is caused by two processes: the acceleration of the residual circulation that increases the young air masses in the stratosphere, and the weakening of the recirculation that leads to the decrease of tail of the age spectra and the decrease of the old air masses. The weakening of the stratospheric recirculation is also strongly correlated with the increase of the residual circulation. One important result of this study is that the decrease of the tail of the age spectra makes an important contribution to the decrease of the main age. Long-term changes in the stratospheric isentropic mixing are investigated. Mixing increases in the subtropical lower stratosphere, but its impact on the age spectra is outweighed by the increase of the residual circulation. The impacts of the long-term changes in the age spectra on long-lived chemical traces are also investigated. 37 2

  3. 变化中的地球所面临的挑战:全球变化的科学理解(英文)%CHALLENGES OF A CHANGING EARTH:TOWARDS A SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF GLOBAL CHANGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    简要介绍了变化中的地球所面临的挑战,并在描述地球系统科学近年来所取得成就的基础上给出了全球变化的科学理解.同时也简要介绍了世界正在面临的主要环境问题;描述了气候系统研究所达成的共识、面临的挑战及所取得的研究进展;并从大气、海洋和陆地间的CO2交换、转换、不确定性等方面阐述了碳循环;然后,简单描述了全球水循环研究进展;最后,展望了在变化的地球中生存所要面临的挑战与机遇.%This paper introduces the challenges of a changing Earth and gives a scientific understanding of global change basing on the description of scientific accomplishment about the Earth System. Firstly, the significant environmental problems the world facing are introduced briefly. Secondly, the consensus, challenge, and advancement of climate system research are described. Thirdly, the carbon cycle is elaborated from its transition, uncertainty, and CO2 exchange among atmosphere, ocean, and land. Fourthly, global hydrological cycle is displayed. Lastly, the challenges and opportunities of living with a changing Earth are expected.

  4. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on ''pure change'' condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change

  5. Taming Typhon: Advancing Climate Literacy by Coordinating Federal Earth System Science Education Investments Through the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, J. L.; Niepold, F.; Wei, M.; Waple, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    consensus framework to define climate literacy; (2) a protocol and process for vetting, reviewing, and assuring scientific quality of educational materials related to climate change; (3) a Federal network of professionals who can share, access, and identify complementary educational materials; (4) a suite of evaluation tools to gauge effectiveness of interagency programs related to climate change education; (5) a clearinghouse or central repository of climate change education resources and expertise; and (6) professional development resources for educators seeking to improve their understanding of climate change and related Earth system science principles.

  6. Pacific plate-motion change at the time of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend constrains the viscosity of Earth's asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Lambeck, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    Important constraints on asthenospheric viscosity come primarily from modeling the glacial rebound of the past 20 kyr, but remain somewhat loose because of the intrinsic resolving power of these models. We obtain narrower bounds by building on the notion that the asthenosphere also controls the ability to change plate motions over Myr. We focus on the Pacific kinematic change at the time of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend event, which is linked to the coeval inception of subduction in the Western Pacific. We sample plausible asthenospheric viscosity and thickness values by requiring the rate at which torque varied to generate the observed kinematics consistent with the nature of subduction initiation. Uncertainties on the bend event duration and the occurrence of Pacific hot spots drift do not hamper our results that suggest that the asthenosphere viscous response to vertical shear over kyr is consistent with that to horizontal shear over Myr.

  7. School, Earth and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity

  8. Helping young children to see what is relevant and why: supporting cognitive change in earth science using analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Anthony

    This experimental study explores how 60 primary-age children's (9-11 years old) understanding of rocks was effected by instruction that used the conceptual structure of the rock cycle together with the analogy of aluminium can recycling. Using a combination of probes into children's understanding, including concept maps and semi-structured interviews, changes to the content of their knowledge (description and classification of rocks) as categorized by membership of particular hierarchical explanatory frameworks (constructed from children's pre-intervention responses), and how such knowledge appears be organized into possible networks of information, are described. Results are then discussed in terms of the impact of the rock cycle, with or without the use of the analogy, on children's existing conceptions, followed by observations on the positive role of the analogy in supporting understanding. In conclusion, the implications for the nature of cognitive change in this domain as revealed by children's explanatory frameworks and the potential value of the aluminium can analogy in supporting children's understanding are addressed.

  9. For the love of Earth: Report of the commission on developing countries and the changes in planetary environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A purely third-world program for studying changes in the planetary environment is proposed. This program rejects the idea that world ecological problems can be solved by simply readjusting the economies of developed countries, and affirms that sustainable development requires more fundamental modifications. A sustainable future is advocated on the basis of equity, economy, and ecology. The work conducted by the commission proposing the program is reviewed. This work rests on three basic propositions: that the problems of the planetary environment can be catastrophic for a number of developing countries; that the points of view of third-world countries must be integrated into any international program concerned with changes in the planetary environment; and that the social problems linked to such questions must be understood and resolved. The work presented is the result of a 10-month study program in the Caribbean and Central America, South America, Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. The first part of the review describes the point of view of those countries on the crisis in the planetary environment and development, and its national and global causes. The second part concerns the roles, problems, and possibilities of social research on the questions of environment and development, in particular those appropriate to the developing world. The third part exposes the research program itself, including poverty, abundance, and needs; economic order and modes of development; political order; systems and technologies; and processes of cultural evolution. 151 refs

  10. Global sea level change and the response of solid earth; Kaisuijun hendo ni taisuru kotai chikyu no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A review was given on the theory that sea level change having occurred in the past 20,000 years has given a great impact on patterns of upheaval and subsidence of the islands of Japan. Nakada has summarized distribution of underwater remains in the western part of Kyushu and estimated values of sea surface altitude in 6000 years ago, and used this conceptional chart to propose a crust upheaval mechanism by using hydroisostasy. More specifically, this is a model that crust which has subsided due to rise in the sea level has created flows of mantle, causing upheaval of the crust in land areas. This viewpoint requires further accumulation of data and verification of the theory in areas other than the western part of Kyushu. It is important to consider the effect of sea level change also in studying processes of subsidence and sedimentation in sedimentary basins including Osaka Bay. The currently available theories use analysis solutions on stratified ground, but does not consider topographical profiles from land areas to sea areas. As this topographical effect is thought extremely important, it is necessary to develop a two-dimensional cross section analyzing method by using the finite element method. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Final Technical Report. Supporting carbon cycle and earth systems modeling with measurements and analysis from the Howland AmeriFlux Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, David [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Davidson, E. [Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States); Dail, D. B. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Richardson, A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    This report provides and overview of the work carried out and lists the products produced under the terms of agreement SC0005578 with the USDA Forest Service. This relates to scientific investigation of the carbon cycle at the Howland Forest AmeriFlux site located in central Maine, USDA. The overall goal of this work was to understand the various (and interacting) impacts of a changing climate on carbon cycling at the Howland AmeriFlux site, representative of an important component of the North American boreal forest.

  12. Earth rotation and geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Brzezinski, Aleksander; Kosek, Wieslaw; Nastula, Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011-2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth' magnetic field.

  13. CERES Top-of-Atmosphere Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record: Accounting for in-Orbit Changes in Instrument Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman G. Loeb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES project provides observations of Earth’s radiation budget using measurements from CERES instruments onboard the Terra, Aqua and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellites. As the objective is to create a long-term climate data record, it is necessary to periodically reprocess the data in order to incorporate the latest calibration changes and algorithm improvements. Here, we focus on the improvements and validation of CERES Terra and Aqua radiances in Edition 4, which are used to generate higher-level climate data products. Onboard sources indicate that the total (TOT channel response to longwave (LW radiation has increased relative to the start of the missions by 0.4% to 1%. In the shortwave (SW, the sensor response change ranges from −0.4% to 0.6%. To account for in-orbit changes in SW spectral response function (SRF, direct nadir radiance comparisons between instrument pairs on the same satellite are made and an improved wavelength dependent degradation model is used to adjust the SRF of the instrument operating in a rotating azimuth plane scan mode. After applying SRF corrections independently to CERES Terra and Aqua, monthly variations amongst these instruments are highly correlated and the standard deviation in the difference of monthly anomalies is 0.2 Wm−2 for ocean and 0.3 Wm−2 for land/desert. Additionally, trends in CERES Terra and Aqua monthly anomalies are consistent to 0.21 Wm−2 per decade for ocean and 0.31 Wm−2 per decade for land/desert. In the LW, adjustments to the TOT channel SRF are made to ensure that removal of the contribution from the SW portion of the TOT channel with SW channel radiance measurements during daytime is consistent throughout the mission. Accordingly, anomalies in day–night LW difference in Edition 4 are more consistent compared to Edition 3, particularly for the Aqua land/desert case.

  14. The role of large and small cometary showers in the changes of living conditions on the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Stepahno, I. V.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.

    2016-10-01

    Kyiv of specialized yachts with photorecorder, implemented by assistant professor G.N. Dashkiev. That's why we build big plans in this direction with the creation of several specialized yachts, which can be used in Kiev, Odessa, Nikolaev, where there is an astronomical observatory and meteor patrols. A large comet showers have to capture still far enough in space because they are deadly to of life on Earth. 3.4. Special AAO TAMS our services. Traditional Astronomical observatories (AO Kiev University. Shevchenko, MAO NASU, etc.) in need of of specialized aerial astronomical observatories (AAO) TAMS services based on of use drones, quadrocopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with reliable PGAU [ 4, 6]. This is another important area for scientific and technical development services in TAMS "Churyumov Unified Network". 4. The International Academic Senate (IAS) and its role in the coordination of terrestrial services and networks, mobile, airborne and orbital space monitoring. Chief Scientific Secretary of the IAS Dashkiev GN not just passionate about photo-shoot on all kinds of dangerous intrusion into the sky over our cities, as has already been a great experience and significant progress in our common cause. Therefore, we hope not only to support the leadership of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences, Security Service of Ukraine, the Emergencies Ministry, but also in the constructive and mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries

  15. Using earth observation-based dry season NDVI trends for assessment of changes in tree cover in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Fensholt, Rasmus; Tagesson, Håkan Torbern;

    2014-01-01

    as a proxy for tree cover in the Sahel, two factors that could potentially influence dry season NDVImin estimates were analysed: the total biomass accumulated during the preceding growing season and the percentage of burned area observed during the dry season. Time series of dry season NDVImin derived from...... low-resolution satellite time series were found to be uncorrelated to dry grass residues from the preceding growing season and to seasonal fire frequency and timing over most of the Sahel (88%), suggesting that NDVImin can serve as a proxy for assessing changes in tree cover. Good agreement (R2= 0.......79) between significant NDVImin trends (ptime series over the Western Sahel, whereas trends based on GIMMS data were negative for the greater part of the Sahel. EO...

  16. Environmental transformations and cultural changes: A multidisciplinary case study for the Late Glacial and Final Palaeolithic from Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, F.; Tolksdorf, J. F.; Viehberg, F.; Schwarz, A.; von Bramann, U.; Bittmann, F.; Kaiser, K.; Schwalb, A.; Staesche, U.; Breest, K.; Pott, R.; Veil, S.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to younger periods, studies integrating archaeological and environmental records for the Palaeolithic are still rare. Especially our knowledge about interactions between the drastic climatic/environmental changes and cultural developments during the Late Glacial is very limited. This multidisciplinary case study from river Jeetzel, a western Elbe tributary in Northern Germany, combines high resolution palaeoenvironmental investigations with fine-scaled archaeological research on stratified and surface sites. Various dating methods (palynostratigraphy, radiocarbon- and OSL-dating) and analyses of environmental and climatological proxies (pollen and plant macro-remains, ostracods, diatoms and green algae) on river palaeochannel sediments allow detailed reconstruction of interactions between Late Glacial climate, vegetation and fluvial developments. Biostratigraphical analyses on stratified archaeological sites and dating of charcoal / bone fragments from artefact scatters place the Late Palaeolithic occupation of Early Federmesser groups in an environmental context. Thus the former production of hitherto unknown amber art (amongst others a figurine representing a moose) can be ascribed to the Older Dryas and Early Allerød, which are the periods of main Late Glacial afforestation. Therewith our investigations suggest that Final Palaeolithic cultural changes may have been triggered by climatic and environmental transformations.

  17. Living with grace on the earth: the poetic voice in Antjie Krog’s A change of tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Polatinsky

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available “A change of tongue”, Antjie Krog’s second creative non-fiction, articulates experiences of the postapartheid quotidian in two tongues: that of the journalist and that of the poet. This article examines Krog’s various instantiations of the poetic voice, and argues that the site of the body is crucial to Krog’s understanding of how languages and landscapes are translated into human experiences of belonging, alienation and self-expression. The voice that is inspired by, and best conjures these acts of somatic translation is the poetic voice, Krog suggests. The article argues that Krog endows the poetic tongue with particular capacities for synaesthetic perception and for modes of imagining that surrender many of the limitations we ascribe to other registers and grammars. Despite the profusion of challenges and setbacks expressed by the evidence-oriented journalist, the three poetic strands in the text, which are identified and explored in this article, provide a space of meditation and of refreshed language in which processes of hopeful revivification can occur.

  18. Lunar And Planetary Perspectives On The Geological History Of The Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W., III

    During the latter part of the last century, a profound change took place in our perception of the Earth. First, this change was holistic: Plate tectonic theory provided a unifying theme that seems to explain disparate observations about the Earth and how it works, and lets us see the Earth as a planet. Secondly, actually seeing the Earth from the Moon, and exploring the other planets provided additional perspectives on our own home planet and hastened the decline of scientific terracentrism. Thirdly, learning that the uniqueness of the Moon in terms of size and aspects of its chemistry may be due to its derivation from the Earth as the result of a giant impact, provided a concrete filial link. Finally, the geological record revealed by exploration of the Moon and planets has provided us with the missing chapters in the dynamic history of the Earth. We now know that gargantuan impact basins formed in Earth's formative years and that impact events are likely to be the cause of many punctuations in Earth's biological evolution. Perspectives on ancient tectonic activity are provided by Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon, and show that the Earth has changed considerably since its youth. Widely varying volcanic eruption styles are seen on the planets, providing insight into how puzzling rocks from early Earth history formed. The composition of planetary atmospheres has revealed the unusual nature of Earth's, and its link to the evolution of life. The atmospheres of the planets have undergone radical changes with time, providing clues to Earth's history and destiny. Fundamentally different hydrological cycles on Earth, Venus, Europa and Mars, and evidence for significant changes with time, have provided insight into Earth's history. The probable presence of oceans on Europa and Mars has changed our thinking about the origin and evolution of life on Earth. We no longer think of the Earth in isolation. Instead, Earth is now perceived of as a member of a family of planets

  19. An Overview of the Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Data Products and Availability for Environmental Applications and Global Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. The Terra MODIS is in a sun-synchronous orbit going north to south in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at about 1030 hours local time. The spacecraft, instrument, and data systems are performing well and are producing a wide variety of data products useful for scientific and applications studies in relatively consistent fashion extending from November 2000 to the present. Within the approximately 40 MODIS data products, several are new and represent powerful and exciting capabilities such the ability to provide observations over the globe of fire occurrences, microphysical properties of clouds and sun-stimulated fluorescence from phytoplankton in the surface waters of the ocean. The remainder of the MODIS products exceeds or, at a minimum, matches the capabilities of products from heritage sensors such as, for example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) or through Direct Broadcast (DB) stations. The EOS Aqua mission was launched successfully May 4,2002 with another MODIS on it. The Aqua spacecraft operates in a sun-synchronous orbit going south to north in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at approximately 1330 hours local time. Subsequently the Aqua MODIS observations will substantially add to the capabilities of the Terra MODIS for environmental applications and global change studies.

  20. An Overview of the Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Data Products Status and Availability for Environmental Applications and Global Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. The Terra MODIS is in a sun-synchronous orbit going north to south in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at about 1030 hours local time. The spacecraft, instrument, and data systems are performing well and are producing a wide variety of data products useful for scientific and applications studies in relatively consistent fashion extending from November 2000 to the present. Within the approximately 40 MODIS data products, several are new and represent powerful and exciting capabilities such the ability to provide observations over the globe of fire occurrences, microphysical properties of clouds and sun-stimulated fluorescence from phytoplankton in the surface waters of the ocean. The remainder of the MODIS products exceed or, at a minimum, match the capabilities of products from heritage sensors such as, for example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) or through Direct Broadcast (DB) stations. The MODIS instrument on the EOS Aqua mission should also be expected to be in orbit and functioning in the Spring of 2002. The Aqua spacecraft will operate in a sun-synchronous orbit going south to north in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at approximately 1330 hours local time. Subsequently the Aqua MODIS observations will substantially add to the capabilities of the Terra MODIS for environmental applications and global change studies.

  1. Data base of climatic change simulations for the impact studies. Final report; Base de donnees des simulations de changement climatique a l'usage des etudes d'impact. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcher, J.; Leboucher, V.; Planton, S.; Valcke, S

    2003-12-15

    Data used for the study of the climatic change impact on the environment and the society come from climate models and are affected by uncertainties. It is necessary to quantify the resulting errors in the models. The data base provides a comparison of simulations of climatic change in France. The final report presents the project methodology. Three projects using the distributed simulations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  2. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  3. The Earth We are Creating

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Moriarty; Damon Honnery

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, a number of Earth System scientists have advocated that we need a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, to describe the changes to Earth that have occurred since the 1800s. The preceding epoch, the Holocene (the period from the end of Earth's last glaciation about 12 millennia ago), has offered an unusually stable physical environment for human civilisations. In the new Anthropocene epoch, however, we can no longer count on this climate stability which we have long tak...

  4. China Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Rare earth market was relatively stable recently. There was not much change to the quotations by suppliers. Inquiries for most products increased in spot market and so did to the transactions. Recently, rare earth special invoices attracted the attention in the industry again. It is likely to result in price rise of many rare earth products if the special invoice system can put into effect in the near term.

  5. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  6. On the reduced lifetime of nitrous oxide due to climate change induced acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation as simulated by the MPI Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, D.; Manzini, E.; Reick, C. H.; Schultz, M. G.; Stein, O.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse gas induced climate change will modify the physical conditions of the atmosphere. One of the projected changes is an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere, as it has been shown in many model studies. This change in the stratospheric circulation consequently bears an effect on the transport and distribution of atmospheric components such as N2O. Since N2O is involved in ozone destruction, a modified distribution of N2O can be of importance for ozone chemistry. N2O is inert in the troposphere and decays only in the stratosphere. Thus, changes in the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere can also affect the stratospheric sink of N2O, and consequently its atmospheric lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of currently approximately 300 CO2-equivalents in a 100-year perspective. A faster decay in atmospheric N2O mixing ratios, i.e. a decreased atmospheric lifetime of N2O, will also reduce its global warming potential. In order to assess the impact of climate change on atmospheric circulation and implied effects on the distribution and lifetime of atmospheric N2O, we apply the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, MPI-ESM. MPI-ESM consists of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM, the land surface model JSBACH, and MPIOM/HAMOCC representing ocean circulation and ocean biogeochemistry. Prognostic atmospheric N2O concentrations in MPI-ESM are determined by land N2O emissions, ocean-atmosphere N2O exchange and atmospheric tracer transport. As stratospheric chemistry is not explicitly represented in MPI-ESM, stratospheric decay rates of N2O are prescribed from a MACC MOZART simulation. Increasing surface temperatures and CO2 concentrations in the stratosphere impact atmospheric circulation differently. Thus, we conduct a series of transient runs with the atmospheric model of MPI-ESM to isolate different factors governing a shift in atmospheric circulation. From those transient

  7. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  8. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  9. Modeling Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallant, Amy; Lee, Hee-Sun; Pryputniewicz, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Systems thinking suggests that one can best understand a complex system by studying the interrelationships of its component parts rather than looking at the individual parts in isolation. With ongoing concern about the effects of climate change, using innovative materials to help students understand how Earth's systems connect with each other is…

  10. Simulation of climate change effects on streamflow, groundwater, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP in the Black Earth Creek Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Regan, R. Steven; Leaf, Andrew T.; Saad, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A groundwater/surface-water model was constructed and calibrated for the Black Earth Creek watershed in south-central Wisconsin. The model was then run to simulate scenarios representing common societal concerns in the basin, focusing on maintaining a cold-water resource in an urbanizing fringe near its upper stream reaches and minimizing downstream flooding. Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, many hydrologic models simplistically simulate feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system; however, computer models can now routinely and iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems—albeit with longer model run times. In this study, preliminary calibrations of uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to form the starting point for final calibration of one transient computer simulation that iteratively couples groundwater and surface water. The computer code GSFLOW (Groundwater/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and streams. The coupled GSFLOW model was run on a daily time step during water years 1985–2007. Early simulation times (1985–2000) were used for spin-up to make the simulation results less sensitive to initial conditions specified; the spin-up period was not included in the model calibration. Model calibration used observed heads, streamflows, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements from 2000 to 2007 for history matching. Calibration was performed by using the PEST parameter estimation software suite.

  11. Simulation of climate change effects on streamflow, groundwater, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP in the Black Earth Creek Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Regan, R. Steven; Leaf, Andrew T.; Saad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A groundwater/surface-water model was constructed and calibrated for the Black Earth Creek watershed in south-central Wisconsin. The model was then run to simulate scenarios representing common societal concerns in the basin, focusing on maintaining a cold-water resource in an urbanizing fringe near its upper stream reaches and minimizing downstream flooding. Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, many hydrologic models simplistically simulate feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system; however, computer models can now routinely and iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems—albeit with longer model run times. In this study, preliminary calibrations of uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to form the starting point for final calibration of one transient computer simulation that iteratively couples groundwater and surface water. The computer code GSFLOW (Groundwater/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and streams. The coupled GSFLOW model was run on a daily time step during water years 1985–2007. Early simulation times (1985–2000) were used for spin-up to make the simulation results less sensitive to initial conditions specified; the spin-up period was not included in the model calibration. Model calibration used observed heads, streamflows, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements from 2000 to 2007 for history matching. Calibration was performed by using the PEST parameter estimation software suite.

  12. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  13. Climate. The earth and its atmosphere in the changing times. 3. upd. ed.; Klima. Die Erde und ihre Atmosphaere im Wandel der Zeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchal, Christoph [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Peter-Gruenberg-Institut PGI-9; Schoenwiese, Christian-Dietrich [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt

    2016-08-01

    The Climate Change Challenge. Throughout the world, great efforts are being made to better understanding the development of the global climate and to model future trends. What characterizes the weather what the climate? How did the climate history of the Earth? What factors are affecting the climate? In the third, updated edition 2016 of the widespread attractive and scientifically-based four-volume nonfiction series ENERGY, AIR, POWER and MOBILITY which clearly explained basic knowledge of the climate system is expanded to include the latest information about the IPCC and keep up-to-date insight into modern research, especially the REKLIM project of the Helmholtz Association of German research Centres. [German] Herausforderung Klimawandel. Ueberall auf der Welt werden grosse Anstrengungen unternommen, um die Entwicklung des Weltklimas genauer zu verstehen und zukuenftige Trends zu modellieren. Was kennzeichnet das Wetter, was das Klima? Wie verlief die Klimageschichte der Erde? Welche Faktoren beeinflussen das Klima? In der dritten, aktualisierten Auflage 2016 der weit verbreiteten attraktiven und wissenschaftlich fundierten vierbaendigen Sachbuchreihe ENERGIE, KLIMA, STROM und MOBILITAeT wird das verstaendlich erlaeuterte Basiswissen zum Klimageschehen erweitert um die neusten Daten des IPCC sowie um up-to-date Einblicke in die moderne Forschung, insbesondere auch das REKLIM-Projekt der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft deutscher Forschungszentren.

  14. Draft supplement to the final environmental statement related to the decommissioning of the Rare Earths Facility, West Chicago, Illinois (Docket No. 40-2061): Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Draft Supplemental Environmental Statement (DSES) assesses the impacts of permanent disposal of wastes located at the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility in West Chicago, Illinois. The assessments presented in the DSES augment and update those described in the Final Environmental Statement (FES) that was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1983. In this DSES, additional alternative sites are analyzed, the analysis is more detailed, and the NRC expressly considers the suitability of these sites for permanent waste disposal. The analysis describes the Proposed Action, which is permanent disposal of the wastes in an above-grade disposal cell at the West Chicago site, and four alternatives for permanent disposal at other sites in Illinois. The four alternatives are: Alternative A, disposal at an active surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative B, disposal in a reclaimed surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative C, disposal in an underground coal mine in a worked-out panel; and Alternative D, disposal on a farmland site in a partially above-grade disposal cell. The environmental issues considered in the impact assessment are topography, air quality, socioeconomics, land resources, archaeology, mineral resources, water resources, ecology, and radiation exposure. A cost-benefit analysis of the Proposed Action and its alternatives is also presented. Based on the information and analysis given within this DSES, the NRC concluded that the Proposed Action is the preferred course of action

  15. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Wei, G.; Chen, T.; Sun, W.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Shen, C.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g-1 in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g-1 in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a-1 from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a-1 from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m-3 a-1, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A change of course in research on the greenhouse effect on earth. Towards a scientific climatology; Een koersverlegging in het onderzoek naar het aardse broeikaseffect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roersch, A.

    2009-07-01

    The convergence of global warming and the increase of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over one hundred years and more accurately determined for the last thirty years does not necessarily point towards a causal connection given the irregularities that emerge in both trends. A correlation that is assumed up to now is based on the assumption that CO2 would provide a significant contribution to the so-called greenhouse effect on earth. The extent of an assumed effect could be questioned though. Moreover, there is rising doubt about whether or not the observed rise in temperature in the last century, on a time scale of 1000 years is really special, as recently assumed. Elaborate study of paleobiological data shows that the so-called warm Middle Ages cannot be ignored. A previous article in this magazine suggested that new pathways for study will follow that may shed a new light on the functioning of the Earth's greenhouse. A new paradigm will have to be formulated after that to test the observations. The basis and desirability of a paradigm change is elaborated in this article. [Dutch] Het samenvallen van mondiale opwarming en stijging van de CO2-concentratie in de atmosfeer over honderd jaar, meer nauwkeurig vastgesteld over de laatste dertig jaar, wijst niet noodzakelijk op een causaal verband, gezien de onregelmatigheden die zich in beide trends voordoen. Een tot op heden veronderstelde correlatie is gebaseerd op de aanname dat CO2 een belangrijke bijdrage zou leveren aan het zogenaamde aardse broeikaseffect. De omvang van een te verwachten effect kan echter ter discussie worden gesteld. Voorts rijst twijfel of de waargenomen opwarming in de vorige eeuw, op een tijdschaal van 1000 jaar, wel zo bijzonder is, zoals recentelijk werd verondersteld. Nader onderzoek van onder andere paleobiologische gegevens wijst uit dat de zogenaamde Warme Middeleeuwen niet genegeerd kunnen worden. In een voorgaand artikel in dit tijdschrift is gesuggereerd dat hieruit

  17. Large magnetic entropy change and relative cooling power in the rare earth intermetallic HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Rajib [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Nirmala, R., E-mail: nirmala@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Arout Chelvane, J. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Malik, S.K. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59082 -970 (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of cubic Laves phase rare earth intermetallic HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} compound have been investigated. Magnetization measurements show that HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} orders ferromagnetically at 22 K (T{sub C}). The magnetization vs field (M–μ{sub 0}H) isotherm at 2 K shows negligible hysteresis. The isothermal magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) is calculated from the measured M–µ{sub 0}H data near T{sub C.} The maximum value of ΔS{sub m}, ΔS{sub m}{sup max}, is about −18.9 J/kg-K at T{sub C} for a field change of 5 T with a refrigerant capacity of 572 J/kg. The material exhibits large ΔS{sub m}{sup max} of −9.4 J/kg-K even for a low field change of 2 T. Universal master curve is constructed by rescaling ΔS{sub m} vs T curves for various fields to confirm the second order nature of the magnetic transition at T{sub C}. Large ΔS{sub m}{sup max} value, wide temperature span of cooling and high relative cooling power make HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} a potential magnetic refrigerant for low temperature applications such as hydrogen liquefaction. - Highlights: • A large magnetocaloric effect is observed in Laves phase HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} compound. • The isothermal magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub m} vs T of HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75} is broad near T{sub C}. • The magnetization vs field isotherms have negligible hysteresis. • A large relative cooling power is realized in HoCo{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 1.75}. • Universal master curve is constructed by rescaling ΔS{sub m} vs T data.

  18. Monitoring the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2003-02-01

    Monitoring the Earth is the first book to review the recent advances in satellite technology, computing and mass spectrometry that are opening up completely new avenues of enquiry to Earth scientists. Among the geological changes that were previously considered too slow or too extensive for direct measurements and that can now be monitored directly are continental displacements, mountain uplift, the growth and decay of icesheets and glaciers, the faulting and folding of rocks, the progress of weathering and sedimentation, and the growth of coral reefs. In addition to these developments, the book assesses progress in fields not normally considered part of physical geology, such as the shape and orbit of the gravity and the terrestrial magnetic field. The results from the new findings are already helping Earth scientists analyze and explain the underlying mechanisms, notably with regard to the storage and release of strain during earthquakes and the interaction of glacial history with the Earth's rate of rotation. The outcoe is a foretaste of the physical geology of the space age.^Fully illustrated with line drawings and photographs, and with a bibliography that encompasses the scattered and disparate litarature, Monitoring the Earth is intended for undergraduates in geology, geomorphology, geomatic engineering and planetary science, but it should also be of interest to astronomers and historians of science.

  19. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  20. Maximizing the ExoEarth Candidate Yield from a Future Direct Imaging Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Christopher C; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D

    2014-01-01

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagrap...

  1. Quantifying the response of climate to changes in land cover : can we separate direct effects from feedbacks in earth system models' outputs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, Narayanappa; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Regional and global climate responses to biophysical effects of land use and land cover changes (LULCC) still largely differ among the models used in the LUCID intercomparison project, despite some constrained protocol (Boisier et al. 2012). de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. (2012) have shown that ~1/3rd of the differences can be attributed to the lack of consistent implementation of land uses in earth system models (ESM), while the remaining 2/3rd result from differences between land-surface models as well as from the climate feedbacks simulated in each ESM. However, to our knowledge, no study has yet tried to i) disentangle direct effects from feedbacks, and ii) see whether regional sensitivity can be assessed rather than the more traditional global one. In this study we focus on the spatially distributed biophysical effects of LULCC. The important contributors to spatially distributed effects are inhomogeneous changes in direct effects (albedo, evapotranspiration efficiency, surface roughness), and their atmospheric feedbacks. Among those feedbacks one can cite changes in air humidity, air temperature, cloud cover, water vapor and planetary boundary layer height. Direct effects from feedbacks are separated by solving the surface energy budget equation. We have first applied this method to quantify regional and global land surface temperature changes in IPSL-CM5 and NCAR CAM5.0 ESMs that have simulated the effects of idealized global deforestation. In IPSL-CM5, direct effects over land south of latitude 20°N are stronger (warming of 2.26 K in JJA and 1.28 K in DJF) when compared to CAM5.0 (cooling of 0.05 K in JJA and 0.06 K in DJF). In contrast, feedbacks over land north of latitude 20°N are stronger in CAM5.0 (cooling of 4.4 K in JJA and 3.9 K in DJF) when compared to IPSL-CM5 (cooling of 1.9 K in JJA and 3.0 K in DJF). However, on average over global land in both the models we find that direct effects (eg. JJA: 0.55 K in IPSL-CM5 and -0.8 K in CAM5.0) are weaker

  2. Change in contrast enhancement of HCC on 1-month follow-up CT after local radiotherapy: An early predictor of final treatment response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dichoi@skku.edu; Lim, Do Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jae [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byung Chul; Paik, Seung Woon [Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in contrast enhancement of HCC on 1-month follow-up CT after local radiotherapy (RT) as an early predictor of final treatment response. Materials: Fifty patients who underwent local RT for HCCs had both pre-RT and post-RT CT scans including 1-month follow-up CT. We assessed the final treatment response by using the change in maximal tumor size on 6-12-month follow-up CT scan after RT. We also evaluated the change in tumor enhancement between pre-RT and 1-month follow-up CT scans. Results: A final treatment response was achieved in 27 (54%) of 50 patients, who showed either a complete response (n = 11) or a partial response (n = 16). Compared with non-responsive patients (n = 23), responsive patients showed a significant decrease in tumor enhancement on 1-month follow-up CT after RT in both objective and subjective analyses (each P < 0.001). Conclusion: The change in contrast enhancement of HCC seen on the 1-month follow-up CT in patients after local RT may be used as an early predictor of final treatment response.

  3. Final report for DOE Award # DE- SC0010039*: Carbon dynamics of forest recovery under a changing climate: Forcings, feedbacks, and implications for earth system modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. [Smithsonian, Washington, D.C. (United States); DeLucia, Evan H. [Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL (United States); Duval, Benjamin D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-29

    To advance understanding of C dynamics of forests globally, we compiled a new database, the Forest C database (ForC-db), which contains data on ground-based measurements of ecosystem-level C stocks and annual fluxes along with disturbance history. This database currently contains 18,791 records from 2009 sites, making it the largest and most comprehensive database of C stocks and flows in forest ecosystems globally. The tropical component of the database will be published in conjunction with a manuscript that is currently under review (Anderson-Teixeira et al., in review). Database development continues, and we hope to maintain a dynamic instance of the entire (global) database.

  4. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General mineralogical-geochemical and analytical characteristics of (lanthanides and yttrium) are presented. It is pointed out that individual RE in complex chemical composition samples are successfully determined by physical methods of the analysis (emission spectral method, spark mass spectrometry method, neutron + activation analysis). RE sum determination is performed by spectrophotometric titrimetric or gravimetric methods. Principal methods of RE separation and concentration, methods of analytical samples dissolution are considered. Detailed descriptions of some specific techniques of determining rare earths in rocks, ores and minerals are presented

  5. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  7. The climate: Earth and men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book, the authors first present the climate system as it operates under the influence of the atmosphere and oceans: Earth heated by the Sun, temperatures and movements within the atmosphere, surface and deep circulation in the oceans, exchanges between the atmosphere and the oceans. They present the various actors of climate and their interactions: water cycle, carbon cycle, greenhouse effect, clouds, aerosols, ocean, cryosphere-climate interaction, interaction between continental biosphere and climate, interactions between climate, continents and lithosphere, feedbacks and climate sensitivity. They comment the variety of climates and their variability when considered on a large scale (role of the Sun, ocean-atmosphere oscillations in El Nino and La Nina, North Atlantic oscillation, other examples of oscillations). The next part addresses climate modelling: model fundamentals (parameters and other components, coupling between components), model adjustment (simulation types, multi-model sets, and model assessment), models of intermediate complexity, regional models. The authors discuss the warming phenomenon: history of temperature measurements, clues of global warming, how to make climate change. They propose a presentation and discussion of anthropogenic and natural factors which disturb the climate: CO2 and other greenhouse gases, changes in soil uses, other possible causes of climate disturbance (aerosol, aircraft wakes, volcanoes, and sun), combination of these disturbances, and identification of anthropogenic disturbances. They discuss past climate evolutions, and finally discuss how the climate could evolve in the future

  8. 75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Circumstances Review, 75 FR 52930 (August 30, 2010). Although we gave interested parties an opportunity to... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 38076 (July 1, 2010). Notification This notice serves as a... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping...

  9. Earth architecture: An alternative for sustainable construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Zuleta Roa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest on the sustainability of the architecture done with earth becomes the departure point of this article on the use of earth as an option for sustainable constructions. It begins with an historical review of the use of earth as a building material in the World and specifically in Colombia; its characteristics in relation to the sustainability of the constructive processes and finally its contextualization within the regulations that govern the building processes.

  10. Earth architecture: An alternative for sustainable construction

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Zuleta Roa

    2012-01-01

    The interest on the sustainability of the architecture done with earth becomes the departure point of this article on the use of earth as an option for sustainable constructions. It begins with an historical review of the use of earth as a building material in the World and specifically in Colombia; its characteristics in relation to the sustainability of the constructive processes and finally its contextualization within the regulations that govern the building processes.

  11. "EARTH: The Operators' Manual" - a hybrid model (TV+online+in-person) to effectively communicate climate change science alongside sustainable energy solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent public opinion surveys have found that Americans underestimate the degree of agreement by climate scientists about global warming and climate change, and - despite growing evidence of ice sheet loss, ocean acidification, sea level rise and extreme weather events - believe less in warming trends in 2011 than they did earlier. The issue has become politicized and controversial. "EARTH: The Operators' Manual" is an informal science education project supported by NSF, the National Science Foundation. Its ambitious goal is to use a hybrid mix of broadcast programs appearing on public television and hosted by Penn State geoscientist, Richard Alley, together with on-site outreach events and online resources and tools, to present core climate science in engaging ways, and to combine that presentation of objective research with an overview of sustainable energy solutions. The project's content and communication strategies have been shaped in response to analyses of public opinion such as the SIX AMERICAS study and aim to address common "skeptic" arguments and share essential climate science. Social science research has also found that audiences seem more open to scientific information where the possibility of a positive response is also offered. The first hour-long PBS program aired nationally in April 2011, has since been re-broadcast, and is also available online. Two more programs will air in 2012, and the presentation at the Fall AGU Conference will preview segments from both programs. Five regionally-diverse science centers (in San Diego, Raleigh NC, St. Paul MN, Fort Worth TX and Portland OR) have hosted outreach events, with Richard Alley and other project participants, and will continue with additional activities through summer 2012. The project's website includes video clips, case studies of energy-saving initiatives world-wide and across the USA, plus an interactive "Energy Gauge" inviting users to assess their current Home, Travel, Food, and Goods and

  12. Glacial–interglacial changes of H218O, HDO and deuterium excess – results from the fully coupled Earth System Model ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Werner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present first results of a new isotope-enabled general circulation model setup. The model consists of a fully coupled atmosphere–ocean model ECHAM5/MPI-OM, enhanced by the interactive land surface scheme JSBACH and an explicit hydrological discharge scheme to close the global water budget. Stable water isotopes H218O and HDO have been incorporated into all relevant model components. Results of two equilibrium simulations under pre-industrial and last glacial maximum conditions are analysed and compared to observational data and paleoclimate records for evaluating the model's performance of simulating spatial and temporal variations in the isotopic composition of the Earth's water cycle. For the pre-industrial climate, many aspects of the simulation results of meteoric waters are in good to very good agreement with both observations and earlier atmosphere-only simulations. The model is capable of adequately simulating the large spread in the isotopic composition of precipitation between low and high latitudes. A comparison to available ocean data also shows a good model-data agreement, however a strong bias of too depleted ocean surface waters is detected for the Arctic region. Simulation results under last glacial maximum boundary conditions also fit to the wealth of available isotope records from polar ice cores, speleothems, as well as marine calcite data. Data-model evaluation of the isotopic composition in precipitation reveals a good match of the model results and indicates that the temporal glacial–interglacial isotope–temperature relation was substantially lower than the present spatial gradient for most mid- to high-latitudinal regions. As compared to older atmosphere-only simulations, a remarkable improvement is achieved for the modelling of the deuterium excess signal in Antarctic ice cores. Our simulation results indicate that cool sub-tropical and mid-latitudinal sea surface temperatures are key for this

  13. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  14. 75 FR 34688 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France: Final Results of Changed-Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Bearings and Parts Thereof From France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review, 74 FR...: Preliminary Results of Changed- Circumstances Review, 74 FR 60242 (November 20, 2009). We received case briefs... Reviews and Rescission of Review in Part, 72 FR 58053, 58054 (October 12, 2007). Notification This...

  15. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order... Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances Review, 75 FR... Changed Circumstances Review, 68 FR 25327 (May 12, 2003). This determination and this notice are...

  16. Final technical report. Can microbial functional traits predict the response and resilience of decomposition to global change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Steven D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The role of specific micro-organisms in the carbon cycle, and their responses to environmental change, are unknown in most ecosystems. This knowledge gap limits scientists’ ability to predict how important ecosystem processes, like soil carbon storage and loss, will change with climate and other environmental factors. The investigators addressed this knowledge gap by transplanting microbial communities from different environments into new environments and measuring the response of community composition and carbon cycling over time. Using state-of-the-art sequencing techniques, computational tools, and nanotechnology, the investigators showed that microbial communities on decomposing plant material shift dramatically with natural and experimentally-imposed drought. Microbial communities also shifted in response to added nitrogen, but the effects were smaller. These changes had implications for carbon cycling, with lower rates of carbon loss under drought conditions, and changes in the efficiency of decomposition with nitrogen addition. Even when transplanted into the same conditions, microbial communities from different environments remained distinct in composition and functioning for up to one year. Changes in functioning were related to differences in enzyme gene content across different microbial groups. Computational approaches developed for this project allowed the conclusions to be tested more broadly in other ecosystems, and new computer models will facilitate the prediction of microbial traits and functioning across environments. The data and models resulting from this project benefit the public by improving the ability to predict how microbial communities and carbon cycling functions respond to climate change, nutrient enrichment, and other large-scale environmental changes.

  17. The Earth We are Creating

    OpenAIRE

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Over the past decade, a number of Earth System scientists have advocated that we need a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, to describe the changes to Earth that have occurred since the 1800s. The preceding epoch, the Holocene (the period from the end of Earth’s last glaciation about 12 millennia ago), has offered an unusually stable physical environment for human civilisations. In the new Anthropocene epoch, however, we can no longer count on this climate stability which we hav...

  18. Study on cause of formation in Earth's climatic changes%全球气候变化的成因初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬红; 杨学祥

    2013-01-01

    of solar energy in to different layeres of the earth,such as energy leak in ozonosphere and magnetic sphere.The climatic changes have an approximately-60-year oscillation,an approximately 200-year oscillation,an approximately-1800-year oscillation,et al.,which are corresponded with tides circle.Therein,lunar oscillation circle with a 179-200-year has a significant function in sunspot,tide oscillations and the circles of climatic change.The research results show that climatic changes are not only the result of the atmosphere itself,but also related to someinformation on variation of planet movement which could be used for climate forecasting.The sunspot prolonged minimum began in 2007,the regulation shows that global changes may enter into low temperature and chilliness flood from 2007,and achieve climax from 2020,the protection against low temperature should be ready.A 10-year prediction has the sun devoid of sunspots when it should be covered with them.Sunspots might disappear entirely for the first time in approximately 400 years,a hibernating sun would have only a slight cooling effect on climate.

  19. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  20. Program GICC - AQUABIO. Possible consequences of the climatic change on the aquatic and river french biocenoses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the climatic change can modify the ecosystems. The aim of this research program is to analyze the impacts of the climatic change on the propagation of the exotic species in France in aquatic and river environment, the population of macro invertebrates and fishes in the french rivers and the socio economic challenges. The methodology is based on the simulation from the exploitation of great data bases and the combination of many approaches at different scales. (A.L.B.)

  1. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  2. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  3. EarthCubed: Community Convergence and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Black, R.; Davis, R.; Dick, C.; Lee, T.; Allison, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    What drives engagement across a diverse community with the common goal of creating a robust cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences? Which applications, social media venues and outreach mechanisms solicit the most valuable feedback? Of the dizzying toolkit available for community-building, which tools should receive time, attention and dedication? Finally, how does it all relate to better geoscience research? Research projects in the geosciences are rapidly becoming more interdisciplinary, requiring use of broader data-sets and a multitude of data-types in an effort to explain questions important to both the scientific community and the general public. Effective use of the data and tools available requires excellent community communication and engagement across disciplines, as well as a manner to easily obtain and access those data and tools. For over two years, the EarthCube project has sought to create the most active and engaged community possible, bringing together experts from all across the NSF GEO directorate and its many-faceted disciplines. Initial efforts focused on collecting insight and opinions at in-person "end-user workshops," and informal organization of interest groups and teams. Today, efforts feature an organizational structure with dedicated internal communication and outreach groups. The EarthCube Office has been largely responsible for coordination of these groups and the social media and Internet presence of the project to date, through the creation and curation of the EarthCube.org website, social media channels, live-streaming of meetings, and newsletters. Measures of the effectiveness of these efforts will be presented, to serve as potential reference and guidance for other projects seeking to grow their own communities. In addition, we will discuss how the Office's role in outreach and engagement has changed over the past year with the creation of the Engagement and Liaison Teams, and what it signifies for the Office's role in Earth

  4. Climate change impacts on runoff and hydropower in the Nordic countries. Final report from the project 'Climate change and energy production'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nordic research program 'Climate change and energy production' has been carried out in co-operation between the Nordic hydrological services and the Nordic hydroelectric power industry with funding from the Nordic Council of Ministers and participating institutions. The program has been running for the period 1991-1996. The main objective of the research program was to analyse the effects of a future global climate change on the Nordic system for hydroelectric power production due to increased anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The main parts of the program have been: A. Testing and improvements of hydrological models, with special emphasis on evapotranspiration, snow melt and glacier mass balance submodels. B. Assessment of the capability of existing energy planning models to analyse climate change impacts. C. Establishment of state-of-art scenarios for meteorological variables. Estimation of runoff scenarios. D. Analysis of climate change impacts on electricity consumption. E. Analysis of impacts on the hydropower systems, on national and regional scale, including effects on floods and dam safety issues. F. Analysis of climatic variability and climatic trends of hydrological records, including annual, seasonal and extreme values. (au) 171 refs

  5. 77 FR 38271 - Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Orders: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India, and Japan, 60 FR 9661 (February 21, 1995). \\3\\ See...-Circumstances Review and Revocation of Order in Part: Stainless Steel Bar from Japan, 71 FR 70959, 70960... Duty Changed-Circumstances Review, and Intent To Revoke Order in Part, 77 FR 31578 (May 29,...

  6. Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change. Final report, July 15, 1990--January 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.L.

    1993-04-01

    Altering the natural disturbance regime of a landscape produces changes in the structure of that landscape as the landscape adjusts to the new disturbance regime. A computer simulation model was designed to enable analyses of the longterm changes to be expected in landscapes as their disturbance regime changes. The model, DISPATCH, is the first dynamic spatial simulation model built around a geographical information system (GIS). The model also includes a new set of programs, the r.le programs, that is the first set of programs designed for calculating landscape structure measures within a GIS. The DISPATCH model was used, to analyze the effects of human alterations of disturbance regimes and global change on landscape structure. Landscapes do not adjust quickly to these alterations based on available data. Landscapes subjected to warming or to longterm fire suppression experience a decline in patch richness, Shannon diversity, the amount of edge and contrast, but an increase in distance between patches, angular second moment (texture measure) and patch size. In contrast, landscapes subjected to cooling, the short-term effects of fire suppression, fragmentation, or traditional prescribed burning tend to respond with increasing richness, Shannon diversity, edge, and contrast, but declining distance, angular second moment, and size. The pattern of response is different at different scales, with important implications for species.

  7. An Assessment of Decision-Making Processes: Evaluation of Where Land Protection Planning Can Incorporate Climate Change Information (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, prepared by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP) in the National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is a review of decision-making processes of selected la...

  8. Aquatic Ecosystems, Water Quality, and Global Change: Challenges of Conducting Multi-Stressor Vulnerability Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report investigates the issues and challenges associated with identifying, calculating, and mapping indicators of the relative vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, across the United States, to the potential impacts of global change. Using a large set of en...

  9. An Astronomer's View of Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes some of the astronomical effects that could be important for understanding the ice ages, historic climate changes and the recent temperature increase. These include changes in the sun's luminosity, periodic changes in the earth's orbital parameters, the sun's orbit around our galaxy, the variability of solar activity and the anticorrelation of cosmic ray flux with that activity. Finally recent trends in solar activity and global temperatures are compared with the predictions of climate models.

  10. 2011 Review and outlook of China rare earth market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lihua; Bai Jinlong

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the start year of the "Twelfth-Five Year Plan" program, a series of policies were issued targeting on rare earth industry. Price of rare earths fluctuated sharply during 2011 and consumers were concerned about the supply of rare earth. There was a big change in rare earth industry.

  11. Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Oversupply of rare earths led to the significant price drop of rare earth mineral products and separated products in Chinese domestic market. To stabilize the price, prevent waste of resources, further improve regulation capability on domestic rare earth market and rare earth price and maintain sustaining and healthy development of rare earth industry, partial rare earth producers in Baotou and Jiangxi province projected to cease the production for one month.

  12. The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David

    1989-01-01

    Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)

  13. Physical and chemical changes of water in the deep interior of the Earth-Decrepitation-style mud -volcano-earthquake-A bright lamp to shed light on the mysteries of the deep interior of the Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Mingguo

    2010-01-01

    The 2008-05-12 Wenchuan mud-volcano-earthquake was accompanied with eruption of a huge volume of gas and stone, revealing that earthquakes generally result from instant reverse phase explosion of supercritical water (SCW) at the supercritical point. In the deep parts of the crust and mantle there still exists a large amount of supercritical water equivalent in order of magnitude to that of the Earth's hydrosphere. Soft fluids which exist in the MOHO at the top of the upper mantle are the so-called deep supercritical fluids (SCWD). Supercritical water (SCW) has n×103 times strong capability to dissolve gas. Its viscosity is extremely low and its diffusivity is extremely strong. Therefore, it can naturally migrate toward a region with relatively negative pressure. In the steep break zone of the MOHO at the 57-65 km depth beneath the earthquake belt, due to mutation of overburden pressure, SCWD can automatically separate out CaSiO3 and other inorganic salts, evolving into the SCW (H2O-CO2-CH4O system. In going upwards to the 10-20-km depth of the crust SCW will be accumulated as an earthquake-pregnant reservoir in the broken terrain. The phase-transition heat of SCW is estimated at 606.62 kJ/kg and the reverse phasing kinetic energy is 2350.8 kJ/kg. When automatic exhaust at the time of decompression reaches the critical pressure (Pc), the instant explosion reverse phase will be normal-state air water. It will release a huge volume of energy and high-kinetic-energy gas which has been expanded by a factor of 1000, leading to the breaking of the country rocks overlying the earthquake-pregnant reservoir, thus giving rise to a Ms 8.0 earthquake. As a result, there were formed eruptive and air-driven (pneumatic) debris flows whose volumatric flow rate reaches n×1014 m3/s, and their force greatly exceeds the power of INT explosive of the same equivalent value.

  14. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  15. DE-SC0004118 (Wong & Lindquist). Final Report: Changes of Porosity, Permeability and Mechanical Strength Induced by Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WONG, TENG-FONG; Lindquist, Brent

    2014-09-22

    In the context of CO{sub 2} sequestration, the overall objective of this project is to conduct a systematic investigation of how the flow of the acidic, CO{sub 2} saturated, single phase component of the injected/sequestered fluid changes the microstructure, permeability and strength of sedimentary rocks, specifically limestone and sandstone samples. Hydromechanical experiments, microstructural observations and theoretical modeling on multiple scales were conducted.

  16. Fast sensory–motor reactions in echolocating bats to sudden changes during the final buzz and prey intercept

    OpenAIRE

    Geberl, Cornelia; Brinkløv, Signe; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating bats and toothed whales emit a terminal buzz right before capture. The high call rate (≥180 Hz) and short duration should preclude informed reactions, leaving the ubiquitous buzz an enigma. By removing prey from bats right before capture, we showed that the buzz is not inflexible but adaptable and that bats react on a very fast time scale to sudden changes in perceptual feedback. Acoustic and behavioral reactions differed, indicating separate central control of echolocation and c...

  17. Influence of changing particle structure on the rate of gas-solid gasification reactions. Final report, July 1981-March 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-04

    The objetive of this work is to determine the changes in the particle structure of coal as it undergoes the carbon/carbon dioxide reaction (C + CO/sub 2/ ..-->.. 2CO). Char was produced by heating the coal at a rate of 25/sup 0/C/min to the reaction temperatures of 800/sup 0/C, 900/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/C and 1100/sup 0/C. The changes in surface area and effective diffusivity as a result of devolitization were determined. Changes in effective diffusivity and surface area as a function of conversion have been measured for reactions conducted at 800, 900, 1000 and 1100/sup 0/C for Wyodak coal char. The surface areas exhibit a maximum as a function of conversion in all cases. For the reaction at 1000/sup 0/C the maximum in surface area is greater than the maxima determined at all other reaction temperatures. Thermogravimetric rate data were obtained for five coal chars; Wyodak, Wilcox, Cimmeron, Illinois number 6 and Pittsburgh number 6 over the temperature range 800-1100/sup 0/C. All coal chars exhibit a maximum in reaction rate. Five different models for gas-solid reactions were evaluated. The Bhatia/Perlmutter model seems to best represent the data. 129 references, 67 figures, 37 tables.

  18. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  19. Solid Earth: The priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, P.

    1991-10-01

    The European Space Agency's strategy concerning the solid Earth program is reviewed. Improvement of current knowledge of the global geopotential fields, both gravity and magnetic, was stressed as the highest priority. It was agreed that the objectives and goals of the planned Aristoteles mission correspond to this priority, and the need to realize this part of the program was stated. The interdisciplinary links of the program were identified, and it was decided that this program could make substantial contributions to research of oceans, climate and global change, atmosphere, ice and land surfaces.

  20. Earth's surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Davies

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux that is based upon a heat flow data-set with 38 347 measurements, which is 55% more than used in previous estimates. Our methodology, like others, accounts for hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust by utilising a half-space cooling approximation. For the rest of Earth's surface, we estimate the average heat flow for different geologic domains as defined by global digital geology maps; and then produce the global estimate by multiplying it by the total global area of that geologic domain. The averaging is done on a polygon set which results from an intersection of a 1 degree equal area grid with the original geology polygons; this minimises the adverse influence of clustering. These operations and estimates are derived accurately using methodologies from Geographical Information Science. We consider the virtually un-sampled Antarctica separately and also make a small correction for hot-spots in young oceanic lithosphere. A range of analyses is presented. These, combined with statistical estimates of the error, provide a measure of robustness. Our final preferred estimate is 47±2 TW, which is greater than previous estimates.

  1. Skylab and Earth Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An overhead view of the Skylab Orbital Workshop in Earth orbit as photographed from the Skylab 4 Command and Service Modules (CSM) during the final fly-around by the CSM before returning home. The space station is contrasted against the pale blue Earth. During launch on May 14, 1973, some 63 seconds into flight, the micrometeor shield on the Orbital Workshop (OWS) experienced a failure that caused it to be caught up in the supersonic air flow during ascent. This ripped the shield from the OWS and damaged the tie downs that secured one of the solar array systems. Complete loss of one of the solar arrays happened at 593 seconds when the exhaust plume from the S-II's separation rockets impacted the partially deployed solar array system. Without the micrometeoroid shield that was to protect against solar heating as well, temperatures inside the OWS rose to 126 degrees fahrenheit. The gold 'parasol' clearly visible in the photo, was designed to replace the missing micrometeoroid shield, protecting the workshop against solar heating. The replacement solar shield was deployed by the Skylab I crew. This enabled the Skylab Orbital Workshop to fulfill all its mission objects serving as home to additional crews before being deorbited in 1978.

  2. Educator Uses of Data-Enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE), An Online System for Accessing a Vast Portal of NASA Earth System Data Known As the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE) has made it easier and more technologically feasible for secondary and post-secondary instructors and students to study climate change and related Earth system phenomena using data products from the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI), a powerful portal of Earth observation data that provides access to numerous data products on Earth system phenomena representing the land biosphere, physical land, ocean biosphere, physical ocean, physical atmosphere, atmospheric gases, and energy and radiation system. These data products are derived from remote-sensing instruments on satellites, ground stations, and data assimilation models. Instructors and students can query the GIOVANNI data archive, then save the results as map images, time series plots, vertical profiles of the atmosphere, and data tables. Any part of the world can be selected for analysis. The project has also produced a tool for instructors to author and adapt standards-based lesson plans, student data investigation activities, and presentations around visualizations they make available to their students via DICCE-G. Supports are provided to students and teachers about how to interpret trends in data products of their choice at the regional level and a schema has been developed to help them understand how those data products fit into current scientific thinking about the certainties and uncertainties of climate change. The presentation will (1) describe the features of DICCE, (2) examples of curricula developed to make use of DICCE in classrooms, (3) how these curricula align to Next Generation Science Standards, and (4) how they align to science education research literature about how to make school science more engaging. Recently-analyzed teacher and student outcomes from DICCE use will also be reported.

  3. Integrating components of the earth system to model global climate changes: implications for the simulation of the climate of the next million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate system is complex because it is made up of several components (atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, continental surface, ice sheets), each of which has its own response time. The paleo-climate record provides ample evidence that these components interact nonlinearly with each other and also with global biogeochemical cycles, which drive greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere. Forecasting the evolution of future climate is therefore an extremely complex problem. In addition, since the nineteenth century, human activities are releasing great quantities of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, CFC, etc.) into the atmosphere. As a consequence, the atmospheric content of these gases has tremendously increased. As they have a strong greenhouse effect, their concentration is now large enough to perturb the natural evolution of the earth's climate. In this paper, we shall review the strategy which has been used to develop and validate tools that would allow to simulate the future long-term behaviour of the Earth's climate. This strategy rests on two complementary approaches: developing numerical models of the climate system and validating them by comparing their output with present-day meteorological data and paleo-climatic reconstructions. We shall then evaluate the methods available to simulate climate at the regional scale and the major uncertainties that must be solved to reasonable estimate the long-term evolution of a region, which would receive a geological repository for nuclear wastes. (author)

  4. Final Technical Report for "Collaborative Research. Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Robertson, Andrew W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Ghil, Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smyth, Padhraic J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2011-04-08

    This project was a continuation of previous work under DOE CCPP funding in which we developed a twin approach of non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. We have developed a family of latent-variable NHMMs to simulate historical records of daily rainfall, and used them to downscale seasonal predictions. We have also developed empirical mode reduction (EMR) models for gaining insight into the underlying dynamics in observational data and general circulation model (GCM) simulations. Using coupled O-A ICMs, we have identified a new mechanism of interdecadal climate variability, involving the midlatitude oceans mesoscale eddy field and nonlinear, persistent atmospheric response to the oceanic anomalies. A related decadal mode is also identified, associated with the oceans thermohaline circulation. The goal of the continuation was to build on these ICM results and NHMM/EMR model developments and software to strengthen two key pillars of support for the development and application of climate models for climate change projections on time scales of decades to centuries, namely: (a) dynamical and theoretical understanding of decadal-to-interdecadal oscillations and their predictability; and (b) an interface from climate models to applications, in order to inform societal adaptation strategies to climate change at the regional scale, including model calibration, correction, downscaling and, most importantly, assessment and interpretation of spread and uncertainties in multi-model ensembles. Our main results from the grant consist of extensive further development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to

  5. Final Technical Report for "Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.W.; Ghil, M.; Kravtsov, K.; Smyth, P.J.

    2011-04-08

    This project was a continuation of previous work under DOE CCPP funding in which we developed a twin approach of non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. We have developed a family of latent-variable NHMMs to simulate historical records of daily rainfall, and used them to downscale seasonal predictions. We have also developed empirical mode reduction (EMR) models for gaining insight into the underlying dynamics in observational data and general circulation model (GCM) simulations. Using coupled O-A ICMs, we have identified a new mechanism of interdecadal climate variability, involving the midlatitude oceans mesoscale eddy field and nonlinear, persistent atmospheric response to the oceanic anomalies. A related decadal mode is also identified, associated with the oceans thermohaline circulation. The goal of the continuation was to build on these ICM results and NHMM/EMR model developments and software to strengthen two key pillars of support for the development and application of climate models for climate change projections on time scales of decades to centuries, namely: (a) dynamical and theoretical understanding of decadal-to-interdecadal oscillations and their predictability; and (b) an interface from climate models to applications, in order to inform societal adaptation strategies to climate change at the regional scale, including model calibration, correction, downscaling and, most importantly, assessment and interpretation of spread and uncertainties in multi-model ensembles. Our main results from the grant consist of extensive further development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to

  6. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained

  7. Maximizing the ExoEarth candidate yield from a future direct imaging mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Christopher C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Robinson, Tyler D., E-mail: christopher.c.stark@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.

  8. Rare Earth Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    BEFORE the early 1970s, China had no rare earth exports, and the world rare earth market was dominated by the United States, Europe and Japan. In the 1970s, China began to enter the world rare earth market and its share has picked up sharply in the following decades. Today, having the monopoly over global rare earth production, China must improve the benefits from rare earth production, not only from producing individual rare earth products, but also from mastering the intensive processing of rare earth products.

  9. Changes in the Game Characteristics of a Badminton Match: A Longitudinal Study through the Olympic Game Finals Analysis in Men’s Singles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Laffaye, Michael Phomsoupha, Frédéric Dor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze, through a longitudinal study, the Olympic Badminton Men’s singles finals from the Barcelona Games (1992 to the London Games (2012 to assess some changes of the Badminton game characteristics. Six Olympic finals have been analyzed based on the official video of the Olympic Games (OG through the temporal structure and with a notational approach. In total, 537 rallies and 5537 strokes have been analyzed. The results show a change in the game’s temporal structure: a significant difference in the rally time, rest time and number of shots per rally (all p<0.0001; 0.09 < η2 < 0.16. Moreover, the shot frequency shows a 34.0% increase (p<0.000001; η2 = 0.17, whereas the work density revealed a 58.2% decrease (from 78% to 30.8% as well as the effective playing time (-34.5% from 34.7±1.4% to 22.7±1.4%. This argues for an increase in the intensity of the game and a necessity for the player to use a longer resting time to recover. Lastly, the strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced mistakes did not show any differences throughout the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear. This results impact on the way the training of Badminton players should be designed, especially in the temporal structure and intensity.

  10. Changes in the Game Characteristics of a Badminton Match: A Longitudinal Study through the Olympic Game Finals Analysis in Men's Singles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaye, Guillaume; Phomsoupha, Michael; Dor, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze, through a longitudinal study, the Olympic Badminton Men's singles finals from the Barcelona Games (1992) to the London Games (2012) to assess some changes of the Badminton game characteristics. Six Olympic finals have been analyzed based on the official video of the Olympic Games (OG) through the temporal structure and with a notational approach. In total, 537 rallies and 5537 strokes have been analyzed. The results show a change in the game's temporal structure: a significant difference in the rally time, rest time and number of shots per rally (all pgame and a necessity for the player to use a longer resting time to recover. Lastly, the strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced mistakes did not show any differences throughout the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear. This results impact on the way the training of Badminton players should be designed, especially in the temporal structure and intensity. Key pointsBadminton game has become faster, with an important increase in the shot frequency (+34%)The effective playing time has decreased between first to last Olympic Games (-34.5%)The strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced errors show no differences through the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear. PMID:26335338

  11. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

  12. Tissue-specific changes of glutamine synthetase activity in oats after rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, T.J. [Univ. of Southern Maine, Portland, ME (United States); Temple, S.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Curces, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-15

    Oats (Avena sativa L. lodi) tolerant of rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci when challenged by the pathogen experience tissue-specific alterations of ammonia assimilatory capabilities. Altered ammonia assimilatory potentials between root and leaf tissue result from selective inactivation of glutamine synthetase (GS) by the toxin Tabtoxinine-B-lactam (TBL). Root GS is sensitive and leaf GSs are resistant to TBL inactivation. With prolonged challenge by the pathogen root GS activity decreases but leaf GS specific activity increase. Higher leaf GS activity is due to decreased rates of degradation rather than increased GS synthesis. Higher leaf GS activity and elevated levels of GS polypeptide appear to result from a limited interaction between GS and TBL leading to the accumulation of a less active but more stable GS holoenzyme. Tolerant challenged oats besides surviving rhizosphere infestation, experience enhanced growth. A strong correlation exists between leaf GS activity and whole plant fresh weight, suggesting that tissue-specific changes in ammonia assimilatory capability provides the plant a more efficient mechanism for uptake and utilization of nitrogen.

  13. Research on Earth Sciences in the CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    García-Guinea, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The studies on Earth Sciences are developed in different Institutes of CSIC: Institute Jaume Almera investigates on (I) Earth's structure and Dynamics. (2) Environmental change in the geological record, (3) Geophysical and geochemical modeling of geohazard processes and subsurface resources, (4) Crystallography and Optical Properties. National Museum of Natural Sciences works on (1) Geomorphology and Geoenvironmental Analyses, e.g., the general configuration of the Earth's surface, descriptio...

  14. Final Technical Report: Response of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Associated Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, Walter C

    2002-08-15

    This research incorporated an integrated hierarchical approach in space, time, and levels of biological/ecological organization to help understand and predict ecosystem response to elevated CO{sub 2} and concomitant environmental change. The research utilized a number of different approaches, and collaboration of both PER and non-PER investigators to arrive at a comprehensive, integrative understanding. Central to the work were the CO{sub 2}-controlled, ambient Lit, Temperature controlled (CO{sub 2}LT) null-balance chambers originally developed in the arctic tundra, which were re-engineered for the chaparral with treatment CO{sub 2} concentrations of from 250 to 750 ppm CO{sub 2} in 100 ppm increments, replicated twice to allow for a regression analysis. Each chamber was 2 meters on a side and 2 meters tall, which were installed over an individual shrub reprouting after a fire. This manipulation allowed study of the response of native chaparral to varying levels of CO{sub 2}, while regenerating from an experimental burn. Results from these highly-controlled manipulations were compared against Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulations, in an area adjacent to the CO{sub 2}LT null balance greenhouses. These relatively short-term results (5-7 years) were compared to long-term results from Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) surrounding natural CO{sub 2} springs in northern Italy, near Laiatico, Italy. The springs lack the controlled experimental rigor of our CO{sub 2}LT and FACE manipulation, but provide invaluable validation of our long-term predictions.

  15. DOE-EMSP Final Report: Characterization of Changes in Colloid and DNAPL Affecting Surface Chemistry and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan E. Powers; Stefan J. Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2007-02-07

    The waste disposal to the M-area basin and A-14 outfall at the Savannah River Department of Energy facility in Aiken SC (USA) included a wide variety of inorganic aqueous flows and organic solvents in the form of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). The DNAPL has migrated through the subsurface resulting in widespread groundwater contamination. The goal of this research was to identify and quantify processes that could have affected the migration and remediation of the DNAPL in the subsurface. It was hypothesized that the variety of waste disposed at this site could have altered the mineral, microbial and DNAPL properties at this site relative to other DNAPL sites. The DNAPL was determined to have a very low interfacial tension and is suspected to be distributed in fine grained media, thereby reducing the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation efforts. Although the DNAPL is primarily comprised of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethane, it also contains organic acids and several heavy metals. Experimental results suggest that iron from the aqueous and DNAPL phases undergoes precipitation and dechlorination reactions at the DNAPL-water interface, contributing to the low interfacial tension and acidity of the DNAPL. Biological activity in the contaminated region can also contribute to the low interfacial tension. PCE degrading bacteria produce biosurfactants and adhere to the DNAPL-water interface when stressed by high tetrachloroethene or low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The presence of iron can reduce the interfacial tension by nearly an order of magnitude, while the PCE degraders reduced the interfacial tension by nearly 50%. Abiotic changes in the mineral characteristics were not found to be substantially different between contaminated and background samples. The research completed here begins to shed some insight into the complexities of DNAPL fate and migration at sites where co-disposal of many different waste products occurred. Quantifying

  16. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    observations and data collection, and end with an engineering application. English language arts and mathematics skills are developed through performance assessments that include written arguments that require students to state a claim and support the claim with evidence, analysis, and reasoning. Student selected capstone projects are completed during the final three weeks of the school year. Partnerships with universities, research scientists, and science centers are essential to the development of unit challenges. Collaborative projects have included studies of iron cycling in the Ross Sea with scientists from Rutgers University, climate and climate change using NASA data and resources from Liberty Science Center, human and natural impacts on endangered species with San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, and air quality monitoring with the University of Northern Iowa. Grant funds have supported student research projects involving air quality improvement, urban heat island mitigation, alternative energies, and sustainability.

  17. Tidal effects on Earth, Planets, Sun by far visiting moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The Earth has been formed by a huge mini-planet collision forming our Earth surface and our Moon today. Such a central collision hit was statistically rare. A much probable skimming or nearby encounter by other moons or planets had to occur. Indeed Recent observations suggest that many planetary-mass objects may be present in the outer solar system between the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud. Gravitational perturbations may occasionally bring them into the inner solar system. Their passage near Earth could have generated gigantic tidal waves, large volcanic eruptions, sea regressions, large meteoritic impacts and drastic changes in global climate. They could have caused the major biological mass extinctions in the past in the geological records. For instance a ten times a terrestrial radius nearby impact scattering by a peripherical encounter by a small moon-like object will force huge tidal waves (hundred meter height), able to lead to huge tsunami and Earth-quake. Moreover the historical cumulative planet hits in larger and wider planets as Juppiter, Saturn, Uranus will leave a trace, as observed, in their tilted spin axis. Finally a large fraction of counter rotating moons in our solar system probe and test such a visiting mini-planet captur origination. In addition the Earth day duration variability in the early past did show a rare discountinuity, very probably indebt to such a visiting planet crossing event. These far planets in rare trajectory to our Sun may, in thousands event capture, also explain sudden historical and recent temperature changes.

  18. The Earth We are Creating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a number of Earth System scientists have advocated that we need a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, to describe the changes to Earth that have occurred since the 1800s. The preceding epoch, the Holocene (the period from the end of Earth's last glaciation about 12 millennia ago, has offered an unusually stable physical environment for human civilisations. In the new Anthropocene epoch, however, we can no longer count on this climate stability which we have long taken for granted. Paradoxically, it is our own actions that are undermining this stability—for the first time in history, human civilisation is now capable of decisively influencing the energy and material flows of our planet. Particularly since the 1950s, under the twin drivers of growth in population and per capita income, we have seen unprecedented growth in oil use and energy use overall, vehicle numbers, air travel and so on. This unprecedented growth has resulted in us heading toward physical thresholds or tipping points in a number of areas, points that once crossed could irreversibly lead to structural change in vital Earth systems such as climate or ecosystems. We may have already passed three limits: climate change; rate of biodiversity loss; and alterations to the global nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. The solutions usually proposed for our predicament are yet more technical fixes, often relying on greater use of the Earth's ecosystems, biomass for bioenergy being one example of this, and one we explore in this paper. We argue that these are unlikely to work, and will merely replace one set of problems by another. We conclude that an important approach for achieving a more sustainable and equitable world is to reorient our future toward satisfying the basic human needs of all humanity, and at the same time minimising both our use of non-renewable resources and pollution of the Earth's soil, air and water.

  19. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Ellen [National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  20. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Ellen

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  1. Earth Science Education in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullatif, Osman M.; Farwa, Abdalla G.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes Earth Science Education in Sudan, with particular emphasis on the University of Khartoum. The first geological department in Sudan was founded in 1958 in the University of Khartoum. In the 1980s, six more geological departments have been added in the newer universities. The types of courses offered include Diploma, B.Sc. (General), B.Sc. (Honours), M.Sc. and Ph.D. The Geology programmes are strongly supported by field work training and mapping. Final-year students follow specialised training in one of the following topics: hydrogeology, geophysics, economic geology, sedimentology and engineering geology. A graduation report, written in the final year, represents 30-40% of the total marks. The final assessment and grading are decided with the help of internal and external examiners. Entry into the Geology programmes is based on merit and performance. The number of students who graduate with Honours and become geologists is between 20% to 40% of the initial intake at the beginning of the second year. Employment opportunities are limited and are found mainly in the Government's geological offices, the universities and research centres, and private companies. The Department of Geology at the University of Khartoum has long-standing internal and external links with outside partners. This has been manifested in the training of staff members, the donation of teaching materials and laboratory facilities. The chief problems currently facing Earth Science Education in Sudan are underfunding, poor equipment, laboratory facilities and logistics. Other problems include a shortage of staff, absence of research, lack of supervision and emigration of staff members. Urgent measures are needed to assess and evaluate the status of Earth Science Education in terms of objectives, needs and difficulties encountered. Earth Science Education is expected to contribute significantly to the exploitation of mineral resources and socio-economic development in the Sudan.

  2. Fossils, frogs, floating islands and expanding Earth in changing-radius cartography A comment to a discussion on Journal of Biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    G. Scalera

    2007-01-01

    In this short note I have tried to make clear the issues surrounding a recent discussion on changing-radius paleobiogeographical problems of the Pacific Ocean biotic distribution. It is stressed that such an important discussion cannot be developed in the absence of proper cartographic methods that must necessarily introduce an increasing radius parameter, highlighting the effects of a changing curvature in the continental/oceanic plates in their movements from a globe of ...

  3. Fossils, frogs, floating islands and expanding Earth in changing-radius cartography – A comment to a discussion on Journal of Biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Scalera, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2007-01-01

    In this short note I have tried to make clear the issues surrounding a recent discussion on changing-radius paleobiogeographical problems of the Pacific Ocean biotic distribution. It is stressed that such an important discussion cannot be developed in the absence of proper cartographic methods that must necessarily introduce an increasing radius parameter, highlighting the effects of a changing curvature in the continental/oceanic plates in their movements from a globe of a given ...

  4. Role of vegetation change in future climate under the A1B scenario and a climate stabilisation scenario, using the HadCM3C earth system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Falloon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to use the coupled climate-carbon cycle model HadCM3C to quantify climate impact of ecosystem changes over recent decades and under future scenarios, due to changes in both atmospheric CO2 and surface albedo. We use two future scenarios – the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, and a climate stabilisation scenario (2C20, allowing us to assess the impact of climate mitigation on results. We performed a pair of simulations under each scenario – one in which vegetation was fixed at the initial state and one in which vegetation changes dynamically in response to climate change, as determined by the interactive vegetation model within HadCM3C.

    In our simulations with interactive vegetation, relatively small changes in global vegetation coverage were found, mainly dominated by increases in scrub and needleleaf trees at high latitudes and losses of broadleaf trees and grasses across the Amazon. Globally this led to a loss of terrestrial carbon, mainly from the soil. Global changes in carbon storage were related to the regional losses from the Amazon and gains at high latitude. Regional differences in carbon storage between the two scenarios were largely driven by the balance between warming-enhanced decomposition and altered vegetation growth. Globally, interactive vegetation reduced albedo acting to enhance albedo changes due to climate change. This was mainly related to the darker land surface over high latitudes (due to vegetation expansion, particularly during winter and spring; small increases in albedo occurred over the Amazon. As a result, there was a relatively small impact of vegetation change on most global annual mean climate variables, which was generally greater under A1B than 2C20, with markedly stronger local-to-regional and seasonal impacts. Globally, vegetation change amplified future annual temperature increases by 0.24 and 0.15 K (under A1B and 2C20, respectively and increased global precipitation

  5. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  6. Final Technical Report for Collaborative Research: Regional climate-change projections through next-generation empirical and dynamical models, DE-FG02-07ER64429

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, Padhraic [University of California, Irvine

    2013-07-22

    This is the final report for a DOE-funded research project describing the outcome of research on non-homogeneous hidden Markov models (NHMMs) and coupled ocean-atmosphere (O-A) intermediate-complexity models (ICMs) to identify the potentially predictable modes of climate variability, and to investigate their impacts on the regional-scale. The main results consist of extensive development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling specifically within the non-stationary climate change context together with the development of parallelized software; application of NHMMs to downscaling of rainfall projections over India; identification and analysis of decadal climate signals in data and models; and, studies of climate variability in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric flow regimes.

  7. An application of input-output analysis in analyzing the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors: A further study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous study which discussed the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors. More specifically, this study aims to conduct a deeper analysis regarding these impacts. This study employs a demand-pull Input- Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in IO analysis, as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on two sectors, namely (1) petroleum refinery products, and (2) non-ferrous metals. Two conditions are considered in the analysis part, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. The results show that in both conditions, both discussed sectors have similar patterns. The results also explain that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the sector of petroleum refinery products is given by scenario 4, the modification of consumption expenditures of private.

  8. Earth Gravitational Model 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Factor, J. K.; Holmes, S. A.; Ingalls, S.; Presicci, M. R.; Beale, J.; Fecher, T.

    2015-12-01

    The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency [NGA], in conjunction with its U.S. and international partners, has begun preliminary work on its next Earth Gravitational Model, to replace EGM2008. The new 'Earth Gravitational Model 2020' [EGM2020] has an expected public release date of 2020, and will likely retain the same harmonic basis and resolution as EGM2008. As such, EGM2020 will be essentially an ellipsoidal harmonic model up to degree (n) and order (m) 2159, but will be released as a spherical harmonic model to degree 2190 and order 2159. EGM2020 will benefit from new data sources and procedures. Updated satellite gravity information from the GOCE and GRACE mission, will better support the lower harmonics, globally. Multiple new acquisitions (terrestrial, airborne and shipborne) of gravimetric data over specific geographical areas, will provide improved global coverage and resolution over the land, as well as for coastal and some ocean areas. Ongoing accumulation of satellite altimetry data as well as improvements in the treatment of this data, will better define the marine gravity field, most notably in polar and near-coastal regions. NGA and partners are evaluating different approaches for optimally combining the new GOCE/GRACE satellite gravity models with the terrestrial data. These include the latest methods employing a full covariance adjustment. NGA is also working to assess systematically the quality of its entire gravimetry database, towards correcting biases and other egregious errors where possible, and generating improved error models that will inform the final combination with the latest satellite gravity models. Outdated data gridding procedures have been replaced with improved approaches. For EGM2020, NGA intends to extract maximum value from the proprietary data that overlaps geographically with unrestricted data, whilst also making sure to respect and honor its proprietary agreements with its data-sharing partners.

  9. Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The focus was on scientists' data requirements, as well as constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival systems. The workshop consisted of several invited papers; two described information systems for space and Earth science data, four depicted analysis scenarios for extracting information of scientific interest from data collected by Earth orbiting and deep space platforms, and a final one was a general tutorial on image data compression.

  10. A View of Earth System Model Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tianjun; YU Yongqiang; WANG Bin

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a definition of earth system model and shows three development phases of it, including physical climate system model, earth climate system model, and earth system model, based on an inves-tigation of climate system models in the world. It provides an expatiation on the strategic significance of future development of earth system model, an introduction of some representative scientific research plans on development of earth system model home and abroad, and a review of its status and trends based on the models of the fourth assessment report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).Some suggestions on future development of earth system model in China are given, which are expected to be helpful to advance the development.

  11. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  12. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge...

  13. EarthKAM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sponsored by NASA, EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students) is an educational outreach program allowing middle school students to take pictures...

  14. One Day on Earth

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See www.onedayonearth.org for details on how to participate.

  15. Earth Abides Arsenic Biotransformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic element and causes health problems throughout the world. The toxicity, mobility, and fate of arsenic in the environment are largely determined by its speciation, and arsenic speciation changes are driven, at least to some extent, by biological processes. In this article, biotransformation of arsenic is reviewed from the perspective of the formation of Earth and the evolution of life, and the connection between arsenic geochemistry and biology is described. The article provides a comprehensive overview of molecular mechanisms of arsenic redox and methylation cycles as well as other arsenic biotransformations. It also discusses the implications of arsenic biotransformation in environmental remediation and food safety, with particular emphasis on groundwater arsenic contamination and arsenic accumulation in rice.

  16. ALOS Earth Observation Program in the Context of Global Change%全球变化背景下的ALOS对地观测计划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙; 石敬

    2011-01-01

    全球变化是一个跨界、多尺度问题.有必要执行系统性数据观测计划,以满足全球变化问题的研究.本文介绍了全球变化对遥感数据的需求和日本ALOS卫星的系统性数据观测计划,并指出随着我国经济发展以及卫星资源的日益丰富,有必要开展系统性数据观测计划,以提高我国在全球变化和环境保护方面的话语权.%Global change has cross-border and multi -scale characteristics and needs the development of s stematic data observation program to acquire consistent data so as to meet the requirements of global change research. Requirements of global change for remote sensing data and systematic data observation program of ALOS are dealt with in this paper. Studies show that, with the development of China's economy and the enrichment of China' s satellite data, it is necessary to implement systematic data observation program so as to lift China' s voice in the aspect of global change and environmental protection.

  17. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    for the Baltic Sea 1960-2100 • Outreach and Communication • Education The issue of anthropogenic changes and impacts on the Earth system of the Baltic Sea region is recognized as a major topic, and shall receive special attention. The intention of the "Outreach and Communication" and "Education" groups will be to initiate and design potential outreach activities and to provide an arena for scientific exchange and discussion around the Baltic Sea, to communicate findings and exchange views within the Baltic Earth research community internally and to other researchers and society, both professionals and non-professionals. A regular international Baltic Earth Summer School shall be established from 2015. There will be a strong continuity related to BALTEX in infrastructure (secretariat, conferences, publications) and the network (people and institutions).

  18. The Age-of-the-Earth-Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the development of the Earth's age calculation including the work of Archbishop Ussher, James Hutton, Lord Kelvin, Ernest Rutherford, Bertram Boltwood, and Arthur Holmes. Describes the changes in radioisotope dating methods. (YP)

  19. Earth-Observation based mapping and monitoring of exposure change in the megacity of Istanbul: open-source tools from the MARSITE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 MARSITE project aims at assessing the "state of the art" of seismic risk evaluation and management at European level, as a starting point to move a "step forward" towards new concepts of risk mitigation and management by long-term monitoring activities carried out both on land and at sea. Spaceborne Earth Observation (EO) is one of the means through which MARSITE is accomplishing this commitment, whose importance is growing as a consequence of the operational unfolding of the Copernicus initiative. Sentinel-2 data, with its open-data policy, represents an unprecedented opportunity to access global spaceborne multispectral data for various purposes including risk monitoring. In the framework of EU FP7 projects MARSITE, RASOR and SENSUM, our group has developed a suite of geospatial software tools to automatically extract risk-related features from EO data, especially on the exposure and vulnerability side of the "risk equation" [1]. These are for example the extension of a built-up area or the distribution of building density. These tools are available open-source as QGIS plug-ins [2] and their source code can be freely downloaded from GitHub [3]. A test case on the risk-prone mega city of Istanbul has been set up, and preliminary results will be presented in this paper. The output of the algorithms can be incorporated into a risk modeling process, whose output is very useful to stakeholders and decision makers who intend to assess and mitigate the risk level across the giant urban agglomerate. Keywords - Remote Sensing, Copernicus, Istanbul megacity, seismic risk, multi-risk, exposure, open-source References [1] Harb, M.M.; De Vecchi, D.; Dell'Acqua, F., "Physical Vulnerability Proxies from Remotes Sensing: Reviewing, Implementing and Disseminating Selected Techniques," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, IEEE , vol.3, no.1, pp.20,33, March 2015. doi: 10.1109/MGRS.2015.2398672 [2] SENSUM QGIS plugin, 2016, available online at: https

  20. CHAMBARA: The changing hydrography and man made biomass burning in Africa: a concept for earth observations from the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christian

    2010-05-01

    south latitude, 27.4 degrees east longitude, NASA document). This image is a unique representation of the start of a slash and burn process on several agricultural plots, it exemplifies the requirement for a rapid camera able to follow the evolution of plumes and other variable earth surface phenomena. This communication describes the integrated concept proposed from image collecting operations to data distribution.

  1. Sun-Earth Connection EPO's with Multiple Uses and Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Russell, R.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A.; Maute, A.; Haller, D.; Conery, C.; Bintner, G.; Kiessling, D.; Hughes, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    The three-year life of an EPO grant can be a journey guided by clear goals and enriched by collaborative and outreach opportunities connecting Space sciences to Earth sciences for both K-12 and public audiences. This point is illustrated by two EPO projects funded by NASA Sun-Earth Connection research grants to the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. They are entering their final year coordinated by the Office of Education and Outreach at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The content focus of both projects is well aligned with HAO's research mission and the expertise of our scientists, addressing solar dynamics, space weather, and the impacts of solar events on the magnetosphere, as well as societies inhabiting Earth's surface. The first project (Gang Lu, PI) develops presentation resources, inquiry activities, and tips that will help HAO scientists be better prepared to visit K-12 classrooms. Unexpectedly, the simultaneous development of a Teachers' Guide to NCAR's new Climate Discovery exhibit, which takes an Earth system approach to climate and global change, has created a niche for this EPO resource to be revised and repurposed for a needed unit in the guide about the exhibit's graphic panels on Sun-Earth connections. The second project (Art Richmond, PI) engages two high school "Teachers in Residence" to develop resources they can utilize with their students. Excited by exceptional educational graphics and animations in the new Physics of the Aurora: Earth Systems module co-produced by HAO and the COMET Program for advanced undergraduate courses, they chose to adapt appropriate sections of the module to enrich Earth science and math concepts addressed in their 9th and 10th grade astronomy and general physics classes. Simultaneously, the Windows to the Universe web site, which continuously updates space science content and is now developing a new Space Weather section with support from the Center for

  2. Our sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as oceans are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880, and can be associated with the industrial revolution. The climactic consequences of this human dominated increase in atmospheric CO2 define a geologic epoch that has been termed the 'Anthropocene.' The issue is whether this is a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. Eight 'myths' that posit the former are examined in light of known data. The analysis strongly suggests the latter. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO2 emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. Two examples of economically sustainable CO2 emission reduction demonstrate that technological innovation has the potential to maintain our standard of living while stabilizing global temperatures.

  3. Our sustainable Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbach, Raymond L, E-mail: orbach@energy.utexas.edu [Director Energy Institute, Cockrell Family Regents Chair in Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Flawn Academic Center, FAC 428, 2 West Mall C2400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as oceans are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880, and can be associated with the industrial revolution. The climactic consequences of this human dominated increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} define a geologic epoch that has been termed the 'Anthropocene.' The issue is whether this is a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. Eight 'myths' that posit the former are examined in light of known data. The analysis strongly suggests the latter. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. Two examples of economically sustainable CO{sub 2} emission reduction demonstrate that technological innovation has the potential to maintain our standard of living while stabilizing global temperatures.

  4. Bitwise identical compiling setup: prospective for reproducibility and reliability of earth system modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility and reliability are fundamental principles of scientific research. A compiling setup that includes a specific compiler version and compiler flags is essential technical supports for Earth system modeling. With the fast development of computer software and hardware, compiling setup has to be updated frequently, which challenges the reproducibility and reliability of Earth system modeling. The existing results of a simulation using an original compiling setup may be irreproducible by a newer compiling setup because trivial round-off errors introduced by the change of compiling setup can potentially trigger significant changes in simulation results. Regarding the reliability, a compiler with millions of lines of codes may have bugs that are easily overlooked due to the uncertainties or unknowns in Earth system modeling. To address these challenges, this study shows that different compiling setups can achieve exactly the same (bitwise identical results in Earth system modeling, and a set of bitwise identical compiling setups of a model can be used across different compiler versions and different compiler flags. As a result, the original results can be more easily reproduced; for example, the original results with an older compiler version can be reproduced exactly with a newer compiler version. Moreover, this study shows that new test cases can be generated based on the differences of bitwise identical compiling setups between different models, which can help detect software bugs or risks in the codes of models and compilers and finally improve the reliability of Earth system modeling.

  5. Dam safety and climate change - Final Report of the Committee for 'design flows' for dams in a climate change perspective; Dammsaekerhet och klimatfoeraendringar - Slutrapport fraan Kommitten foer dimensionerande floeden foer dammanlaeggningar i ett klimatfoeraendringsperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The Committee for design floods for dams in a climate change perspective was formed in 2008 through an agreement between the Swedish Kraftnaet Swedish Energy, SveMins and SMHI. The Committee's mission is to lead a program to analyze and evaluate the state of climate impact on dam safety with respect to the flow design and take initiatives to the required studies comes about. The assignment includes the issues concerning climate on design floods and dam safety as Swedish Kraftnaet in accordance with appropriations in 2008 received a mandate to monitor and analyze, in cooperation with the power industry, mining industry and SMHI. When issues are interrelated and to various part is handled by aforementioned actors, a committee was formed with representatives who possess special expertise in the area. This final report represents an overall account of the Committee's mandate.

  6. 2007 China Rare Earths Import & Export Analysis and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Chinese rare earth import & export status in 2007 China further strengthened regulations on import & export of rare earth products in 2007. Firstly, NDRC changed the guidance for rare earth production from guiding plan into mandatory plan at the year beginning.

  7. Solar influence on Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that variations in solar activity have had a significant influence on Earth's climate. However, the mechanisms responsible for a solar influence are still not known. One possibility is that atmospheric transparency is influenced by changing cloud properties...... via cosmic ray ionisation (the latter being modulated by solar activity). Support for this idea is found from satellite observations of cloud cover. Such data have revealed a striking correlation between the intensity of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and low liquid clouds (... and thereby influence the radiative properties of clouds. If the GCR-Cloud link is confirmed variations in galactic cosmic ray flux, caused by changes in solar activity and the space environment, could influence Earth's radiation budget....

  8. Partners in Earth System Science: a Field, Laboratory and Classroom Based Professional Development Program for K-12 Teachers Designed to Build Scientific and Pedagogical Understandings of Teaching Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Lunsford, S.; Diedrick, A.; Crane, C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the Partners in Earth System Science summer and academic year professional development program for Ohio K-12 teachers is to build their understandings of the scientific observations, methods and resources that scientists use when studying past and present climate change. Participants then use these tools to develop inquiry-based activities to teach their K-12 students how the scientific method and data are used to understand the effects of global climate change. The summer portion of the program takes teachers from throughout Ohio to the Duke University Marine Laboratory in Beaufort, North Carolina. There they engage in a physical and biological exploration of the modern and ancient ocean. For example, they collect samples of sediment and test water samples collected from modern coastal environments and connect their findings with evidence of the fauna living in those environments. Then, using observations from the geological record of the Eocene through Pleistocene sediments exposed in eastern North Carolina and inferences from observations made from the modern ocean they seek to answer scientifically testable questions regarding the physical and biological characteristics of the ocean during Cenozoic climate change events. During the academic year participants connect with each other and project faculty online to support the development of inquiry based science activities for their K-12 students. These activities focus on how evidence and observations such as outcrop extent, sediment type and biological assemblages can be used to infer past climates. The activities are taught in participant's classrooms and discussed with other participants in an online discussion space. Assessment of both teachers and K-12 students document significant positive changes in science knowledge, their confidence in being able to do science and a clearer understanding of how oceans are impacted by global climate change.

  9. Early Earth differentiation [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michael J.; Trønnes, Reidar G.

    2004-09-01

    The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation ( t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years of t0. The final stages of terrestrial planetary accretion involved violent and tremendously energetic giant impacts among core-segregated Mercury- to Mars-sized objects and planetary embryos. As a consequence of impact heating, the early Earth was at times partially or wholly molten, increasing the likelihood for high-pressure and high-temperature equilibration among core- and mantle-forming materials. The Earth's silicate mantle harmoniously possesses abundance levels of the siderophile elements Ni and Co that can be reconciled by equilibration between iron alloy and silicate at conditions comparable to those expected for a deep magma ocean. Solidification of a deep magma ocean possibly involved crystal-melt segregation at high pressures, but subsequent convective stirring of the mantle could have largely erased nascent layering. However, primitive upper mantle rocks apparently have some nonchondritic major and trace element refractory lithophile element ratios that can be plausibly linked to early mantle differentiation of ultra-high-pressure mantle phases. The geochemical effects of crystal fractionation in a deep magma ocean are partly constrained by high-pressure experimentation. Comparison between compositional models for the primitive convecting mantle and bulk silicate Earth generally allows, and possibly favors, 10-15% total fractionation of a deep mantle assemblage comprised predominantly of Mg-perovskite and with minor but geochemically important amounts of Ca-perovskite and ferropericlase. Long-term isolation of such a crystal pile is generally

  10. Land degradation in a semi-urban catchment in Burkina Faso: monitoring land use change and soil erosion with earth observations and field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Vezza, Paolo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Steffenino, Sara; Magloire Koussoubé, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is currently menacing the availability of arable land in various countries worldwide. In particular the countries located in the Sahel area of Sub-Saharan Africa are extremely prone to this type of environmental degradation. The same countries rely traditionally upon subsistence farming, which makes the population more vulnerable to environmental changes. The study here presented exploits remote sensed data for identifying the main degradation processes occurring in a small catchment of central Burkina Faso (i.e., Boulbi watershed). This catchment, approximately 100 square km large, is characterized by the presence of a 30 years old dam, whose reservoir feeds 80 ha of rice-fields. This produce contributes up to 13% of the regional rice production. Nonetheless other crops, along with rain-fed rice, are grown all across the Boulbi catchment during the rainy season. Both the increasing gully erosion and the urbanization of the capital city pushing from the North are significantly threatening the farming activities. By using aerial frames acquired with a 16 years' time interval (i.e., 1996, 2012), free satellite imagery, and field surveys, the base cartography of the investigated area was updated and the most active gullies were identified. Moreover a change detection analysis was performed on both artifacts and land use features. More than 200.000 square m of erosion areas and an increase of nearly 90% in built-up areas were detected. In addition, the importance of producing up-to-date base data was proven by the exploitation of the outcomes for the production of a catchment land and water management plan.

  11. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  12. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  13. Orbital perturbation analysis of earth-crossing asteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Knudson, Wade E.

    1995-01-01

    Earth Crossing Asteroids (ECAs) are those asteroids whose orbit cross section can intersect the capture cross section of the Earth as a result of secular gravitational perturbations. This thesis provides a framework for understanding the origin, nature, and types of ECAs. The change in velocity requirements to achieve a two Earth radii deflection for long and short term warning scenarios are developed. Next, a method of developing hypothetical Earth colliding asteroid orbits is presented. The...

  14. On the role of atmosphere-ocean interactions in the expected long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer caused by greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    It is well known that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere produce a global warming of the troposphere and a global cooling of the stratosphere. The expected stratospheric cooling essentially influences the ozone layer via increased polar stratospheric cloud formation and via temperature dependences of the gas phase reaction rates. One more mechanism of how greenhouse gases influences the ozone layer is enhanced water evaporation from the oceans into the atmosphere because of increasing temperatures of the ocean surface due to greenhouse effect. The subject of this paper is a study of the influence of anthropogenic pollution of the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and ozone-depleting chlorine and bromine compounds on the expected long-term changes of the ozone layer with taking into account an increase of water vapour content in the atmosphere due to greenhouse effect. The study based on 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the troposphere and stratosphere. The model allows to self-consistently calculating diabatic circulation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the South to North Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds of two types. It was supposed in the model that an increase of the ocean surface temperature caused by greenhouse effect is similar to calculated increase of atmospheric surface temperature. Evaporation rate from the ocean surface was computed in dependence of latitude. The model time-dependent runs were made for the period from 1975 to 2100 using two IPCC scenarios depicting maximum and average expected increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The model calculations show that anthropogenic increasing of water vapour abundance in the atmosphere due to heating of the ocean surface caused by greenhouse effect gives a sensible contribution to the expected ozone

  15. Astronauts Share the Art and Science of Earth, in their Photographs from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts have taken over 1 million photographs of Earth. Many of them directly support science research by documenting ephemeral events or showing Earth changes over the 50 year history of astronaut photography. And yet, even more of them are simply beautiful images of our wonderful planet. Astronauts love to look at the Earth from this 370km high vantage point. And they're constantly taking pictures - typically over 500 pictures each day. 'Oh, look at that' - click! 'And that' - click! Then they share them with scientists, other astronauts, and the public - as a way to help other people experience this transformative view of home planet Earth. Astronaut Chris Hadfield had 1.2 million followers on his tweeter feed from orbit, through which he sent hundreds of photographs. The yellows and oranges of the Sahara; serene islands in the middle of the Pacific; looking out over the snow-covered Alps; the night lights of Paris; looking straight down into an erupting volcano. What drama, what story, what a remarkable way to learn about Earth from the perspective of science and art. Each of these 1.2 million pictures was taken by a human, an astronaut who felt this awe and respect for Earth, who melded this art and science and pressed the button at the decisive moment. This session features dozens of these photographs, each selected as an all-time favorite by the astronauts after they returned to Earth. We will present the photos, as well as the astronauts' commentary, and an over-arching analysis of insights gained from the orbital perspective. We also will demonstrate the Windows on Earth software that the astronauts use on-orbit to plan their photographic opportunities and identify specific targets and features of interest, while orbiting at 17,000 mph. Finally, we will provide links to web-based resources for the public to get access to this entire archive of Earth photographs, so that they can pick their own favorites, download them, and explore creative ways to

  16. Tremendous change of the earth surface system and tectonic setting of salt-lake formation in Yuncheng Basin since 7.1 Ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 李彩光; 田国强; 张文治; 刘椿; 宁联元; 岳军; 程自刚; 何翠英

    2002-01-01

    The Yuncheng salt lake has formed under the setting of stepped subsidence of fault-blocks from the north to the south in Yuncheng Basin. In the phase of red clay accumulation during 7.1-3.6 Ma, the size of palaeo-lake was larger than the present salt lake, and palaeo-monsoon had formed. At 3.6 Ma, the northern basement in the basin raised abruptly due to the radiative effect of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplifting, and palaeo-lake was contracting southwards. At ca. 2.6 Ma ancient river flowed into the northern part of the basin. During ca. 2.0-1.9 Ma aerolian effect strengthened and loess started to accumulate on the most part of the basin. Since ca. 1.8-1.0 Ma the subsidence of the lake fault-block has been speeding up abruptly. As under the natural hydrogradient the salt lake received enough groundwater supply, and the rate of loess accumulation in the lake area was lower than that of subsidence of the lake fault-block, the lake could be preserved and becomes the only modern lake on Chinese Loess Plateau. Four large strengthening change records of the monsoon were found in the lake sequence of 5.8-1.9 Ma B.P.

  17. Changes in endogenous hormone levels and redox status during enhanced adventitious rooting by rare earth element neodymium of Dendrobium densiflorum shoot cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jianping; ZHANG Jingcheng; WANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    The effects of neodymium nitrate (Nd3+) on the adventitious rooting of Dendrobium densiflorum shoot cuttings were studied. The addition of Nd3+ (5 μmol/L) to culture medium significantly increased rooting frequency. Histological investigation showed that Nd3+ did not change the process of root initiation. Nd3+ did not influence total endogenous cytokinin levels, but significantly increased the level of en-dogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the base of shoot cuttings. Compared to the control, the ratio of IAA/cytokinins was very high in the Nd3+ treatment. These results suggested that the enhanced rooting frequency may be related to the increase in endogenous IAA level in Nd3+ treatment. Analysis of enzyme activities showed that the enhanced accumulation of the endogenous IAA by Nd3+ should not be attributed to inhibition of IAA decomposition by IAA oxidase or promotion of cytokinin decomposition by cytokinin oxidase. Besides, Nd3+ increased the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the process of adventitious rooting while the ratio of ascorbate (ASC) to dehydroascorbate (DHA) was not affected.

  18. Using earth-tide induced water pressure changes to measure in situ permeability: A comparison with long-term pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allègre, Vincent; Brodsky, Emily E.; Xue, Lian; Nale, Stephanie M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Good constraints on hydrogeological properties are an important first step in any quantitative model of groundwater flow. Field estimation of permeability is difficult as it varies over orders of magnitude in natural systems and is scale-dependent. Here we directly compare permeabilities inferred from tidal responses with conventional large-scale, long-term pumping tests at the same site. Tidally induced water pressure changes recorded in wells are used to infer permeability at ten locations in a densely fractured sandstone unit. Each location is either an open-hole well or a port in a multilevel monitoring well. Tidal response is compared at each location to the results of two conventional, long-term and large scale pumping tests performed at the same site. We obtained consistent values between the methods for a range of site-specific permeabilities varying from ˜10-15 m2 to 10-13 m2 for both open wells with large open intervals and multilevel monitoring well. We conclude that the tidal analysis is able to capture passive and accurate estimates of permeability.

  19. Climate and land use change impacts on global terrestrial ecosystems, fire, and river flows in the HadGEM2-ES Earth System Model using the Representative Concentration Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Betts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of an Earth System Model now includes a number of land surface processes directly relevant to analyzing potential impacts of climate change. This model, HadGEM2-ES, allows us to assess the impacts of climate change, multiple interactions, and feedbacks as the model is run. This paper discusses the results of century-scale HadGEM2-ES simulations from an impacts perspective–specifically, terrestrial ecosystems and water resources–for four different scenarios following the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs, being used for next assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Over the 21st Century, simulated changes in global and continential-scale terrestrial ecosystems due to climate change appear to be very similar in all 4 RCPs, even though the level of global warming by the end of the 21st Century ranges from 2 °C in the lowest scenario to 5.5° in the highest. A warming climate generally favours broadleaf trees over needleleaf, needleleaf trees over shrubs, and shrubs over herbaceous vegetation, resulting in a poleward shift of temperate and boreal forests and woody tundra in all scenarios. Although climate related changes are slightly larger in scenarios of greater warming, the largest differences between scenarios arise at regional scales as a consequence of different patterns of anthropogenic land cover change. In the model, the scenario with the lowest global warming results in the most extensive decline in tropical forest cover due to a large expansion of agriculture. Under all four RCPs, fire potential could increase across extensive land areas, particularly tropical and sub-tropical latitudes. River outflows are simulated to increase with higher levels of CO2 and global warming in all projections, with outflow increasing with mean temperature at the end of the 21st Century at the global scale and in North America, Asia, and Africa. In South America, Europe, and Australia, the

  20. Case study Sylt - Consequences and integrated assessment of climate change. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Kueste. Fallstudie Sylt - Integrative Analyse und Bewertung der Folgen von Klimaaenderungen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenzle, O.; Sterr, H.; Daschkeit, A.

    2001-05-01

    This final report deals with the structure of the 'case study Sylt' against the background of climate change and possible consequences. In cooperation with the other projects of the case study an instrument is developed which maintains interdisciplinary communication and cooperation. First the 'System Sylt' is described to identify and specify the relevant aspects of functional relationships between the natural and the social system. The focal points are (1) the first-order impacts of climate change, (2) the potential ecological changes in the near future and (3) the image of the North-Sea island Sylt. With regard to the image of Sylt we find some discrepancies existing between a statical respectively a dynamical view; these discrepancies are inherent parts of the future development. All results are seen in the context of 'Integrated Coastal Zone Management' (ICZM) to derive general and specific recommendations for political action and further research. (orig.) [German] Vor dem Hintergrund von Annahmen bezueglich der zukuenftigen klimatischen Entwicklung werden die Konzeption sowie die Vorgehensweise der integrativen Analyse im Rahmen der Fallstudie Sylt dargestellt. Unter Anbindung an das Sylt-GIS wird ein Instrument entwickelt und erprobt, das die (bislang seltene) fachuebergreifende Analyse von Klimafolgen unterstuetzt. Diese muendet zunaechst in eine Darstellung des 'Systems Sylt' auf der Grundlage der wichtigsten Prozesse und Randbedingungen. Die auf dieser Basis identifizierten Kernberichte des 'Systems Sylt' werden in einem weiteren exemplarisch und unter Einbezug des in den disziplinaeren Teilvorhaben der Fallstudie erarbeiteten Wissens einer vertiefenden Analyse unterzogen. Dabei wird erstens auf den Bereich der Folgen eines moeglichen Klimawandels eingegangen, zweitens auf vergangene und zukuenftig moegliche oekologische Veraenderungen und drittens auf das Sylt-Image. Durch eine detailliertere Analyse des

  1. Not So Rare Earth? New Developments in Understanding the Origin of the Earth and Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted model for the origin of the Earth and Moon has been a somewhat specific giant impact scenario involving an impactor to proto-Earth mass ratio of 3:7, occurring 50-60 Ma after T(sub 0), when the Earth was only half accreted, with the majority of Earth's water then accreted after the main stage of growth, perhaps from comets. There have been many changes to this specific scenario, due to advances in isotopic and trace element geochemistry, more detailed, improved, and realistic giant impact and terrestrial planet accretion modeling, and consideration of terrestrial water sources other than high D/H comets. The current scenario is that the Earth accreted faster and differentiated quickly, the Moon-forming impact could have been mid to late in the accretion process, and water may have been present during accretion. These new developments have broadened the range of conditions required to make an Earth-Moon system, and suggests there may be many new fruitful avenues of research. There are also some classic and unresolved problems such as the significance of the identical O isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, the depletion of volatiles on the lunar mantle relative to Earth's, the relative contribution of the impactor and proto-Earth to the Moon's mass, and the timing of Earth's possible atmospheric loss relative to the giant impact.

  2. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  3. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaétan Chevalier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and unwellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding refers to the discovery of benefits—including better sleep and reduced pain—from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance.

  4. Tremendous change of the earth surface system and tectonic setting of salt-lake formation in Yuncheng Basin since 7.1 Ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qiang

    2002-01-01

    [1]Yue Leping, Palaeomagnetic polarity boundary recorded in Chinese loess and red clay, and geological significance, Acta Geophysica Sinica (in Chinese), 1995, 38(3): 311-320.[2]Zhang Yunxiang, Cheng Danling, Xue Xiangxu et al., The genetic types of the Late Neogene red clay in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, Journal of Stratigraphy (in Chinese), 1998, 22(1): 10-15.[3]Cande, S. C., Kent, D. V., A new geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, Journal of Geo-physical Research, 1992, 97(13): 917-951.[4]Cande, S. C., Kent, D. V., Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timesacle for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1995, 100(6): 93-95.[5]Sun Donghuai, Liu Tungsheng, Chen Mingyang et al., Magnetostratigraphy and climate of the red clay sequence from Chinese Loess Plateau, Science in China, Ser. D, 1997, 40: 339-343.[6]Sun Donghuai, Chen Mingyang, John, S. et al., The age of magnetostratigraphy and palaeoclimatic record for Late Ceno-zoic aeolian accumulation sequence on China Loess Plateau, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1998, 28(1): 79-84.[7]Zhu Zhaoyu, Ding Zhongli, The Climatic and Tectonic Evolution in the Loess Plateau of China during the Quaternary (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1994, 145-154.[8]Sun Jianzhong, Zhao Jingbo et al., Quaternary of Loess Plateau of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1991, 89-112.[9]Yue Jun, Wen Qizhong, Analytical models for the palaeoenvironmental evolution in the Nihewan beds, Acta Geological Sinica (in Chinese), 1990, 64: 249-256.[10]Wang Sumin, Yu Yuansheng, Wu Ruijin et al., Daihai-Lake Environment and Climate Change, Hefei: China Science and Tectonology University Press, 1990, 191.[11]De Deckker, P., Ostracods of athalassic saline lakes, Hydrobiologia, 1981, 81: 131-144.[12]Anadón, P., Utrilla, R., Julia, R., Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of a

  5. Earth System Oxygenation: Toward an Integrated Theory of Earth Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The cause of the progressive oxygenation of Earth's biosphere remains poorly understood. The problem is bounded by the interplay of three irreversible, secular changes: the escape of H to space, which makes the planet more oxidized; the evolution of photoautotrophy - which converts solar energy into redox disequilbrium - and related metabolisms; and the cooling of the planet, which affects the exchange of material between Earth's reduced interior and relatively oxidized surface through a variety of processes. The first of these changes is quantitatively considered elsewhere, and is connected to the other two because H escape depends on atmospheric H2 and CH4 contents. The second of these changes is an area of vigorous research, particularly over the past decade. Important work included efforts to constrain the timing of key evolutionary events using organic geochemical and genomic records, and to understand the timing and tempo of environmental oxidation, particularly preceding the "Great Oxidation Event" (GOE) at ~2.4 Ga. As the community sorts through various debates, evidence is accumulating that the pre-GOE period was a dynamic era of transient "whiffs" of oxidation, most likely due to small amounts of biogenic O2 that appeared as early as ~3.0 Ga. The implication is that O2 sinks generally overwhelmed substantial O2 sources through the first half of Earth history, and that a decrease in sink strength and/or increase in source strength could have resulted in increasing instability of trace pO2 in the runup to the GOE. The most likely sinks are coupled to reductants in Earth's interior, which leads us to the third major change—secular cooling of the planet. It is almost certain that this cooling led to changes in mantle dynamics, rates of plate motion, and melting behaviors, which in turn affected volcanism, crust composition, hydrothermal and metamorphic alteration, ocean nutrient budgets, and recycling at subduction zones. These factors have all been

  6. Factors Influencing the Earth's Magnetic Field Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kurazhkovskii, A Yu; Klain, B I

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the behavior of an ancient geomagnetic field characteristics (paleointensity and frequency of inversions) and cyclic recurrence of endogenic and cosmogeneous processes which are conceivably connected with radial mantle heat transmission and the Earth rotation speed has been studied. It is shown that endogenic processes affect the behavior of the paleointensity and frequency of inversions. Large basalt effusions identified with plumes are accompanied by the changes in paleointensity (by 30-40)% and the frequency of inversions. Characteristic time intervals of paleointensity variations caused by the formation of plumes makes up 10-20 Ma. The paleointensity varies (by 15-30)% according to phases of the riftogenesis activization and tension - compression cycles. The dependence of geomagnetic field behavior on changes of the Earth rotation speed which occurred as a result of the Earth - Moon - Sun system evolution has been analyzed. Thus, in accordance with phases of the Earth - Moon dista...

  7. The detectability of asteroids and comets before earth impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, J.

    1996-09-01

    In this final report of a 1-y LDRD project at LANL, requirements were investigated for detecting asteroids and comets in the final years before they impact Earth. Equipment and strategies were determined for detecting impacting asteroids and comets in all their permitted orbits. When this information is combined with possible mechanisms for diverting asteroids, it will determine the degree of readiness and minimum capability of deflection mechanisms required to prevent impact of these objects with Earth.

  8. Medicare program; Contract Year 2015 Policy and Technical Changes to the Medicare Advantage and the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-23

    The final rule will revise the Medicare Advantage (MA) program (Part C) regulations and prescription drug benefit program (Part D) regulations to implement statutory requirements; improve program efficiencies; and clarify program requirements. The final rule also includes several provisions designed to improve payment accuracy.

  9. The Earth Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Humanity is part of a vast evolving universe. Earth is alive with a unique community of life. The forces of nature make existence a demanding and uncertain adventure, but Earth has provided the conditions essential to life's evolution. The resilience of the community of life and the well-being of humanity depend upon preserving a healthy biosphere…

  10. Earth System Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  11. Research on the Earth system multi-body force system dynamical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaofei; BI Siwen; WU Fei; DONG Qianlin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the binding force and freedom force of Earth system, and describes force moment to point and line and force system in the Earth system. It introduces the force theory of the Earth system multi-body force system from special or equivalent force system of Earth system mechanics, general force and no-power force of Earth system. Finally it describes the force and moment of nodes of Earth system and provides basic model for the research of the Earth system multi-body dynamics.

  12. Solid Earth: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, R.

    1991-10-01

    The principles of the solid Earth program are introduced. When considering the study of solid Earth from space, satellites are used as beacons, inertial references, free fall probes and carrying platforms. The phenomenon measured by these satellites and the processes which can be studied as a result of these measurements are tabulated. The NASA solid Earth program focusses on research into surface kinematics, Earth rotation, land, ice, and ocean monitoring. The ESA solid Earth program identifies as its priority the Aristoteles mission for determining the gravity and magnetic field globally, with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. The Aristoteles mission characteristics and goals are listed. The benefits of the improved gravity information that will be provided by this mission are highlighted. This information will help in the following research: geodesy, orbit mechanics, geodynamics, oceanography, climate sea level, and the atmosphere.

  13. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes nearly 150 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies. Remote Sensing; Earth Science Informatics, Data Systems; Data Services; Metadata

  14. UT/CSR analysis of earth rotation from Lageos SLR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Schutz, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    The 1983-1984 data collected by NASA and stations participating in the Crustal Dynamics Project from satellite laser ranging (SLR) systems are used to generate solutions for the earth polar motion. Solutions obtained using the MERIT Lageos standard data set are compared to operational results based on quick-look data and generated in near real-time, and the capability of Lageos SLR for the determination of earth orientation parameters (EOP) with high temporal resolution is investigated. Finally, the sensitivity of the MERIT campaign results to the number of tracking stations and to changes in the MERIT standard model is evaluated. It is concluded that the departures from the IAU/IUGG MERIT standards do not significantly change the solution and that solutions accurate at the 2 milliarcsec level can be maintained with a network of fewer than 10 appropriately selected stations.

  15. Rare earth industries: Upstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidently, many factors contribute to the rush to invest in the unprecedented revival of rare earths. One major reason has to do with the rapidly growing world demand. The other reason relates to the attractive price of rare earths which is projected to stay strong in the coming years. This is because supply is predicted to have difficulty keeping pace with demand. Experts believe a major driver of global rare earths demand is the forecasted expansion in the green economy. Climate change is a major driver of the green economy. With climate change, there is concern that the uncontrolled emission of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, can lead to catastrophic consequences for the world. This has been documented in countless studies and reports. Another important driver of the green economy is the growing shortfall in many resources. The world is now experiencing declines in key resources to meet a growing global demand. With more than 6 billion people now in the world and growing, the pressure exerted on global resources including energy, water and food is a major concern. Recent demand surge in China and India has dented the supply position of major world resources. The much quoted Stern Report from the UK has warned that, unless immediate steps are taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it may be a costly exercise to undertake the corrections later. Since energy use, especially fossil fuels, is a major contributor to climate change, greener options are being sought. Add to that the fact that the fossil energy resources of the world are declining, the need to seek alternatives becomes even more urgent. One option is to change to renewable energy sources. These include such potentials as solar, wind and biomass. Rare earths have somehow become a critical feature of the technologies in such renewable. Another option is to improve the efficient use of energy in transport, buildings and all the other energy intensive industries. Again the technologies in

  16. Research on the Gaming of the Players’ Action Sets Changing:A Case Study of the Rare Earth Trade%博弈方的行动集合变化的博弈运动研究--以稀土出口贸易为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐寅峰; 文生威

    2015-01-01

    Considering the export of rare earth as background, this paper analyzes the gaming model in which the players’ action sets are changing over time.First, we define three changing styles for action set: action set heightening, action set shrinking, and action set changing indeterminacy.Then we investigate the track of the equilibrium solution in which only one player’s action set will change over time.The results show that the tracks of the equilibrium solution when the action set heightening and shrinking are opposite, and the stationary strategy is strictly superior to conservative strategy and risky strategy which are equivalent in this situation.Moreover, this single action set changing model is applied to both two action sets changing over time and the results still hold trne for the new model.Finally, the rationality and feasibility of the gaming model and solution are validated by a case study of the rare earth export of China and Malaysia from June 2012 to March 2013.%文章以稀土出口贸易为背景,分析了博弈方的行动集合随时间变化的博弈运动。首先定义了行动集合的三种变化情形:集合变大、集合变小和集合变化不确定。然后针对单个博弈方行动集合的三种变化情形,分别讨论了均衡解的运动轨迹,分析表明:在行动集合变大和变小两种情形下,均衡解的轨迹呈现互逆的运动特性;在行动集合变化不确定的情形下,保守和冒险策略等价,固定策略严格优于保守、冒险策略。在此基础上,将模型推广到博弈双方的行动集合均发生变化的博弈运动模型,分析表明上述结论仍然成立。最后,以中国同马来西亚在2012年6月到2013年3月间的稀土出口贸易为例,验证了本文模型和求解方法的合理性与可行性。

  17. The Magnetic Field of Planet Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Finlay, Chris; Constable, C. G.;

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth is by far the best documented magnetic field of all known planets. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of its characteristics and properties, thanks to the convergence of many different approaches and to the remarkable fact that surface rocks...... yr) to the longest (virtually the age of the Earth) time scales are finally reviewed, underlining the respective roles of the magnetohydodynamics at work in the core, and of the slow dynamic evolution of the planet as a whole....

  18. Earth and Sky, Unit 1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The assignment known as ‘Earth and sky’ is the final first year course at Unit 1a. The aim of the assignment is to strengthen the student’s abilities to manage a project process individu- ally. The process involves develop- ing the ability to make independent decisions.The point of departure...... for the ‘Earth and sky’ assignment is ex- perience students acquired during their group study tour to Austra- lia. Building in particular on the re- search conducted on the Sydney Opera House and the architectur- al principles of spatial creation that this building represents....

  19. Axions from the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of axion production in the Earth's interior due to natural radioactive decay is considered. Axions, or axion-like particles, could be created in nuclear disintegrations and deexitations of natural radionuclides present in the Earth's crust and mantle, as well as due to photon to axion conversion of the emitted gamma rays via the Primakoff effect. The estimated geo-axion production rates and fluxes on the Earth's surface are given along with the axion coupling to ordinary matter in the frame of the simple axion models as well as for axion-like particles with stronger couplings

  20. Giant Impacts on Earth-Like Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Earth has experienced a large number of impacts, from the cratering events that may have caused mass extinctions to the enormous impact believed to have formed the Moon. A new study examines whether our planets impact history is typical for Earth-like worlds.N-Body ChallengesTimeline placing the authors simulations in context of the history of our solar system (click for a closer look). [Quintana et al. 2016]The final stages of terrestrial planet formation are thought to be dominated by giant impacts of bodies in the protoplanetary disk. During this stage, protoplanets smash into one another and accrete, greatly influencing the growth, composition, and habitability of the final planets.There are two major challenges when simulating this N-body planet formation. The first is fragmentation: since computational time scales as N^2, simulating lots of bodies that split into many more bodies is very computationally intensive. For this reason, fragmentation is usually ignored; simulations instead assume perfect accretion during collisions.Total number of bodies remaining within the authors simulations over time, with fragmentation included (grey) and ignored (red). Both simulations result in the same final number of bodies, but the ones that include fragmentation take more time to reach that final number. [Quintana et al. 2016]The second challengeis that many-body systems are chaotic, which means its necessary to do a large number of simulations to make statistical statements about outcomes.Adding FragmentationA team of scientists led by Elisa Quintana (NASA NPP Senior Fellow at the Ames Research Center) has recently pushed at these challenges by modeling inner-planet formation using a code that does include fragmentation. The team ran 140 simulations with and 140 without the effects of fragmentation using similar initial conditions to understand how including fragmentation affects the outcome.Quintana and collaborators then used the fragmentation-inclusive simulations to

  1. Program GICC - AQUABIO. Possible consequences of the climatic change on the aquatic and river french biocenoses. Final report; Programme GICC - AQUABIO. Consequences potentielles du changement climatique sur les biocenoses aquatiques et riveraines francaises. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pont, D. [Lyon-1 Univ., CNRS UMR 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Fluviaux, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2003-11-15

    The consequences of the climatic change can modify the ecosystems. The aim of this research program is to analyze the impacts of the climatic change on the propagation of the exotic species in France in aquatic and river environment, the population of macro invertebrates and fishes in the french rivers and the socio economic challenges. The methodology is based on the simulation from the exploitation of great data bases and the combination of many approaches at different scales. (A.L.B.)

  2. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  3. Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

  4. Preparing the Next Generation of Earth Scientists: An Examination of 25 Federal Earth Science Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, A. M.; Goldstein, A.; Manduca, C. A.; Pyle, E. J.; Asher, P. M.; White, L. D.; Riggs, E. M.; Cozzens, S.; Glickson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Federal agencies play a key role in educating the next generation of earth scientists, offering programs that attract students to the field, support them through formal education, and provide training for an earth science career. In a time of reduced budgets, it is important for federal agencies to invest in education programs that are effective. A National Research Council committee examined 25 federal earth science education programs and described ways to evaluate the success of these programs and opportunities for leveraging federal education resources. Although the programs cover a wide range of objectives and audiences, they are part of a system of opportunities and experiences that attract individuals to the field and prepare them for employment. In this conceptual framework, individuals become aware of earth science, then engage in learning about the Earth and the nature of earth science, and finally prepare for a career by acquiring specialized knowledge, skills, and expertise and by exploring different employment options. The federal education programs considered in this report provide a range of opportunities for raising awareness of earth science (e.g., USDA 4-H Club), nurturing that interest to engage students in the field (e.g., USGS Youth Internship Program), and preparing students for earth science careers (NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates, DOE Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships). These efforts can also contribute toward the development of a robust earth science workforce by connecting programs and providing pathways for students to move through informal and formal education to careers. The conceptual framework shows how the various education opportunities fit together and where connections are needed to move students along earth science pathways. The framework can also be used by federal agencies to identify gaps, overlaps, and imbalances in existing programs; to identify potential partners in other agencies or organizations

  5. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2005-01-01

    The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The i...

  6. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H

    2000-01-01

    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  7. Observing earth from Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  8. Earth science: Extraordinary world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M. D.

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic compositions of objects that formed early in the evolution of the Solar System have been found to be similar to Earth's composition -- overturning notions of our planet's chemical distinctiveness. See Letters p.394 & p.399

  9. Earth Sciences Today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book intents to present a sample of some aspects of the Earth sciences that are studied at the moment in Mexico. In the context of the International research. The first chapter describes some of the aspects of seismology, considering the study of natural and artificial seismic waves. The more important applications in Mexico are also discussed. The risk associated with the earthquakes and the structures that govern the transmission of seismic signals. In later chapters other signs of the internal dynamic of Earth and other planets are described, such as volcanism, which allow a comparative analysis. This discussions are complemented with three chapters that synthesize aspects of the internal composition of the Earth and the nature and consequences of the magnetic field fluctuations. In the last chapters, the Earth sciences are related with the ecology, by means of the study of that one fragile layer, the soil. (Author)

  10. 离子型稀土浸矿过程中渗透性变化规律的试验研究%Permeability change rule of ion-adsorption rare-earth in ore leaching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗嗣海; 黄群群; 王观石; 胡世丽; 洪本根

    2014-01-01

    The permeability of ionic rare earth ore has a significant impact on leaching process and slope stability changes caused by leaching. Therefore , the indoor column leaching tests are used to study variation of rare earth ion permeability in percolation process. By comparing the permeability variation of ore and screening sample, the mechanism of permeability variation in leaching is explored . The results show that in water percolation process, micro-particles migration increases the seepage stability time and the range of seepage. With the increase of hydraulic gradient , the seepage field stable time decreases and flow range ability increases. In the process of leaching , the ion adsorption and the ion exchange reduces the permeability coefficient, micro-particles migrate increases the permeability coefficient , and two opposite effects coexist. When the hydraulic gradient is less than a critical value , Ion adsorption and ion exchange is the main reason changes permeability coefficient. When the hydraulic gradient is more than a critical value ,micro-particles migration is the main reason changes permeability coefficient. The impact of micro-particles migration on permeability coefficient increases with increasing of hydraulic gradient. As ore ’s particle size distribution is dispersed and graded better, the seepage filed of ore has longer stable time than screening sample.%离子型稀土矿体的渗透性对浸矿工艺和浸矿引起边坡稳定变化具有重要影响,为此,采用室内柱浸试验研究渗流过程离子型稀土渗透性变化规律,通过对比原矿和筛分样的渗透系数变化,探讨了浸矿过程渗透系数的变化机理。结果表明:在清水渗流过程中,微颗粒迁移引起渗流稳定时间增长、渗流变化幅度增大,随着水力梯度的增大,流场稳定时间减小、流量变化幅度增加;浸矿过程中,离子吸附和离子交换使渗透系数减小,微颗粒迁移引起渗透

  11. Mathematics of Planet Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Tutek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the December 2013, it was announced that the successful year-long world-wide project Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013 (MPE2013 under the patronage of UNESCO will continue as Mathematics of Planet Earth (MPE! The idea of Christiane Rousseau, the past president of the Canadian Mathematical Society, about uniting the world’s mathematicians in an effort to bring awareness to global issues has been worked out far beyond what she could have hoped.

  12. Afganistan and rare earths

    OpenAIRE

    Emilian M. Dobrescu; Edith Mihaela Dobre

    2013-01-01

    On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted ...

  13. Fuller's earth (montmorillonite) pneumoconiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, A R; Pooley, F D

    1994-01-01

    A fuller's earth worker developed signs of pneumoconiosis. Pathological examination of the lung tissues showed interstitial collections of dust laden macrophages associated with mild fibrosis. Mineralogical analysis showed a high content of montmorillonite. This study shows that a pneumoconiosis can result from prolonged heavy exposure to calcium montmorillonite (fuller's earth) in the absence of quartz. The disease is relatively mild and associated with little clinical disability.

  14. Mathematics of Planet Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Željka Tutek

    2013-01-01

    At the beginning of the December 2013, it was announced that the successful year-long world-wide project Mathematics of Planet Earth 2013 (MPE2013) under the patronage of UNESCO will continue as Mathematics of Planet Earth (MPE)! The idea of Christiane Rousseau, the past president of the Canadian Mathematical Society, about uniting the world’s mathematicians in an effort to bring awareness to global issues has been worked out far beyond what she could have hoped.

  15. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  16. Toward other Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    2016-04-01

    How common are habitable Earth-like planets? This is a key question that drives much of current research in exoplanets. To date, we have discovered over one thousand exoplanets, mostly through the transit method. Among these are Earth-size planets, but these orbit very close to the star (semi-major axis approximately 0.01 Astronomical Units). Potentially rocky planets have also been discovered in a star's habitable zone, but these have approximately twice the radius of the Earth. These certainly do not qualify as Earth "twins". Several hundreds of multi-planet systems have also been discovered, but these are mostly ultra-compact systems with up to seven planets all with orbital distances less than that of Mercury in our solar system. The detection of a planetary system that is the direct analog of our solar system still eludes us. After an overview of the current status of exoplanet discoveries I will discuss the prospects and challenges of finding such Earth analogs from the ground and from future space missions like PLATO. After over two decades of searching, we may well be on the brink of finding other Earths.

  17. On Neutrino Absorption Tomography of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Reynoso, M M; Reynoso, Matias M.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the passage of UHE neutrinos through the Earth in order to perform an absorption tomography of its inner structure. The aim of this work is to study the extraction methods of the Earth's density, in this conditions, we do not need to implement a realistic Monte Carlo simulation, as we are only interested in comparing the goodness of a standard method \\cite{ralston} with the one we propose. The Earth's density is reconstructed using the 2-d Radon transform and we compare the density obtained considering neutral current regeneration through the complete transport equation, with the one obtained making use of the effective cross section approximation (standard method). We see that the effective cross section leads in general to inaccurate results, especially for flat initial neutrino fluxes, while the full transport equation method works regardless of the initial flux. Finally, an error propagation analysis made for different uncertainties in the surviving neutrino flux shows that the recovered density ...

  18. Ringberg15: Earth's Climate Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bjorn; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Bony, Sandrine; Hegerl, Gabi; Schmidt, Gavin; Sherwood, Steven; Webb, Mark

    2015-01-01

    To assess gaps in understanding of Earth's climate sensitivities a workshop was organised under the auspices of the WCRP (World Climate Research Programme) Grand Science Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity (Ringberg15). The workshop took place in March 2015 and gathered together over thirty experts from around the world for one week. Attendees each gave short presentations and participated in moderated discussions of specific questions related to understanding Earth's climate sensitivities. Most of the time was focused on understanding of the equilibrium climate sensitivity, defined as the equilibrium near-surface warming associated with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The workshop produced nine recommendations, many of them focusing on specific research avenues that could be exploited to advance understanding of climate sensitivity. Many of these dealt, in one fashion or another, with the need to more sharply focus research on identifying and testing story lines for a high (larger than 4 degrees Kelvin) or low (less than 2 degrees Kelvin) equilibrium climate sensitivity. Additionally, a subset of model intercomparison projects (CFMIP (Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project), PMIP (Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project), PDRMIP (Precipitation Driver and Response Model Intercomparison Project), RFMIP (Radiative Forcing Model Intercomparison Project) and VolMIP (Volcanic Forcings Model Intercomparison Project)) that have been proposed for inclusion within CMIP were identified as being central to resolving important issues raised at the workshop; for this reason modelling groups were strongly encouraged to participate in these projects. Finally the workshop participants encouraged the WCRP to initiate and support an assessment process lead by the Grand Science Challenge on Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity on the topic of Earth's Climate Sensitivities, culminating in a report that will be published in 2019

  19. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  20. Earth in the balance - ecology and the human spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book by Senator Albert Gore presents a global prospective on the environmental crisis facing the Earth. The chapters are framed in the twin ideas of the threat posed by human civilization to the global environment and the threat to human civilization posed by changes in the global environment. Gore first looks at evidence of risk in the environment: historical aspects of climate and civilization; ozone layer; water; land use; food supply; waste disposal. In Part II different aspects of our current approaches to the environment are described: politics; economics; technology; social problems; environmentalism of the human spirit. Finally in Part III, Gore presents his approach to the global environmental crisis, first presenting a section about a global sense of responsibility and purpose and then describing his ideas for A Global Marshal Plan. 169 refs., 4 figs

  1. Chang'e-2 spacecraft observations of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Jianghui; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Su; Yu, Liangliang

    2015-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.

  2. Chang'e-2 spacecraft observations of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianghui; Jiang, Yun; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Su; Yu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.

  3. First-round design of the flight scenario for Chang'e-2's extended mission:takeoff from lunar orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gao; Heng-Nian Li; Sheng-Mao He

    2012-01-01

    Chang'e-2,Chinese second lunar probe,was inserted into a 100 km altitude low lunar orbit on October 9th,2010.its purpose is to continuously photograph the lunar surface and possibly chosen landing sites for future lunar missions.The probe will still carry considerable amount of propellant after completing all prescribed tasks in about six months.After the successful launch of Chang'e-2,we began designing the probe's subsequent flight scenario,considering a total impulse of 1100 m/s for takeoff from low lunar orbit and a maximum 3× 106 km distance for Earth-probe telecommunication.Our first-round effort proposed a preliminary flight scenario that involves consecutive arrivals at the halo orbits around the Earth-Moon L1/L2 and Sun-Earth L1/L2 points,near-Earth asteroid flyby,Earth return,and lunar impact.The designed solution of Chang'e-2's subsequent flight scenario is a multi-segment flight trajectory that serves as a reference for making the final decision on Chang'e-2's extended mission,which is a flight to the Sun-Earth L2 point,and a possible scheme of lunar impact via Earth flyby after remaining at the Sun-Earth L2 point was also presented.The proposed flight trajectory,which possesses acceptable solution accuracy for mission analysis,is a novel design that effectively exploits the invariant manifolds in the circular restricted three-body problem and the patched-manifold-conic method.

  4. Future Earth activities in China: Towards a national sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yi Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview to Future Earth activities carried out by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth (CNC-FE. Future Earth is an international research programme which aims to provide critical knowledge to face the challenges posed by global environmental change and to identify opportunities for a transition to global sustainability. CNC-FE is the main body devoted to implementing the Future Earth programme in China. Incorporating Future Earth themes and national science needs, CNC-FE has identified 14 priority areas. Since its establishment, it has conducted an array of activities to fulfill its missions, including implementing projects, convening international meetings, translating and publishing Future Earth and CNC-FE related documents and promoting Future Earth and CNC-FE on various outreach occasions. CNC-FE closely follows Future Earth's development and meanwhile integrates its themes with Chinese practice. It is hoped that implementing Future Earth in China can boost global environmental change including climate change research in China and also have positive implications for developing countries who are trying to adapt to climate change and address the challenges for the national sustainable development.

  5. The 2014 Earth return of the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David W.; Farquhar, Robert W.; Loucks, Michel; Roberts, Craig E.; Wingo, Dennis; Cowing, Keith L.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Craychee, Tim; Nickel, Craig; Ford, Anthony; Colleluori, Marco; Folta, David C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Nace, Edward; Spohr, John E.; Dove, William; Mogk, Nathan; Furfaro, Roberto; Martin, Warren L.

    2015-05-01

    In 1978, the 3rd International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) became the first libration-point mission, about the Sun-Earth L1 point. Four years later, a complex series of lunar swingbys and small propulsive maneuvers ejected ISEE-3 from the Earth-Moon system, to fly by a comet (Giacobini-Zinner) for the first time in 1985, as the rechristened International Cometary Explorer (ICE). In its heliocentric orbit, ISEE-3/ICE slowly drifted around the Sun to return to the Earth's vicinity in 2014. Maneuvers in 1986 targeted a 2014 August 10th lunar swingby to recapture ISEE-3 into Earth orbit. In 1999, ISEE-3/ICE passed behind the Sun; after that, tracking of the spacecraft ceased and its control center at Goddard was shut down. In 2013, meetings were held to assess the viability of "re-awakening" ISEE-3. The goal was to target the 2014 lunar swingby, to recapture the spacecraft back into a halo-like Sun-Earth L1 orbit. However, special hardware for communicating with the spacecraft via NASA's Deep Space Network stations was discarded after 1999, and NASA had no funds to reconstruct the lost equipment. After ISEE-3's carrier signal was detected on March 1st with the 20 m antenna at Bochum, Germany, Skycorp, Inc. decided to initiate the ISEE-3 Reboot Project, to use software-defined radio with a less costly S-band transmitter that was purchased with a successful RocketHub crowdsourcing effort. NASA granted Skycorp permission to command the spacecraft. Commanding was successfully accomplished using the 300 m radio telescope at Arecibo. New capture trajectories were computed, including trajectories that would target the August lunar swingby and use a second ΔV (velocity change) that could target later lunar swingbys that would allow capture into almost any desired final orbit, including orbits about either the Sun-Earth L1 or L2 points, a lunar distant retrograde orbit, or targeting a flyby of the Earth-approaching active Comet Wirtanen in 2018. A tiny spinup maneuver was

  6. Earth and environmental sciences annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, L

    1999-05-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides broad-based, integrated scientific and engineering capabilities to address some of the nation's top national security and environmental priorities. National security priorities are to ensure the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile and to counter the spread of weapons of mass destruction; environmental priorities are to keep our environment healthy for the long term and to assess the consequences of environmental change. The Earth and Environmental Sciences (E&ES) Directorate at LLNL pursues applied and basic research across many disciplines to advance the technologies needed to address these national concerns. Our current work focuses on: Storage and ultimate disposition of U.S. spent reactor fuel and other nuclear materials; Assessment of the current global climate and simulation of future changes caused by humans or nature; Development of broadly applicable technologies for environmental remediation and risk reduction; Tools to support U.S. goals for verifying the international Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty; subcritical tests for stockpile stewardship; Real-time assessments of the health and environmental consequences of atmospheric releases of radioactive or other hazardous materials; and Basic science research that investigates fundamental physical and chemical properties of interest to these applied research programs. For each of these areas we present an overview in this report, followed by an article featuring one project in that area. Then we delineate E&ES's resources, including workforce, facilities, and funding. Finally, we list the publications by and the awards and patents received by E&ES personnel during 1998.

  7. OpenEarth: Using Google Earth as outreach for NCK's data

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, G. J.; F. Baart; Bruens, A.; Damsma, T.; Van Geer, P.; Grasmeijer, B.; C den Heijer; Van Koningsveld, M.; Santinelli, G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003 various projects at Deltares and the TU-Delft merged their toolboxes for marine and coastal science and engineering into one toolbox, culminating in 2008 in an open source release, known as OpenEarthTools (OET). OpenEarth adopts the wikipedia approach to growth: web 2.0 crowd sourcing. All users are given full write access to help improve the collection. Quality is assured by version control, tracking all changes. OpenEarth started as a social experiment to investigate whether crowd s...

  8. Predicting the Earth encounters of (99942) Apophis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Jon D.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Ostro, Steven J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Busch, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Arecibo delay-Doppler measurements of (99942) Apophis in 2005 and 2006 resulted in a five standard-deviation trajectory correction to the optically predicted close approach distance to Earth in 2029. The radar measurements reduced the volume of the statistical uncertainty region entering the encounter to 7.3% of the pre-radar solution, but increased the trajectory uncertainty growth rate across the encounter by 800% due to the closer predicted approach to the Earth. A small estimated Earth impact probability remained for 2036. With standard-deviation plane-of-sky position uncertainties for 2007-2010 already less than 0.2 arcsec, the best near-term ground-based optical astrometry can only weakly affect the trajectory estimate. While the potential for impact in 2036 will likely be excluded in 2013 (if not 2011) using ground-based optical measurements, approximations within the Standard Dynamical Model (SDM) used to estimate and predict the trajectory from the current era are sufficient to obscure the difference between a predicted impact and a miss in 2036 by altering the dynamics leading into the 2029 encounter. Normal impact probability assessments based on the SDM become problematic without knowledge of the object's physical properties; impact could be excluded while the actual dynamics still permit it. Calibrated position uncertainty intervals are developed to compensate for this by characterizing the minimum and maximum effect of physical parameters on the trajectory. Uncertainty in accelerations related to solar radiation can cause between 82 and 4720 Earth-radii of trajectory change relative to the SDM by 2036. If an actionable hazard exists, alteration by 2-10% of Apophis' total absorption of solar radiation in 2018 could be sufficient to produce a six standard-deviation trajectory change by 2036 given physical characterization; even a 0.5% change could produce a trajectory shift of one Earth-radius by 2036 for all possible spin-poles and likely masses

  9. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  10. Earth and planetary sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  11. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  12. Dynamic active earth pressure on retaining structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepankar Choudhury; Santiram Chatterjee

    2006-12-01

    Earth-retaining structures constitute an important topic of research in civil engineering, more so under earthquake conditions. For the analysis and design of retaining walls in earthquake-prone zones, accurate estimation of dynamic earth pressures is very important. Conventional methods either use pseudo-static approaches of analysis even for dynamic cases or a simple single-degree of freedom model for the retaining wall–soil system. In this paper, a simplified two-degree of freedom mass–spring–dashpot (2-DOF) dynamic model has been proposed to estimate the active earth pressure at the back of the retaining walls for translation modes of wall movement under seismic conditions. The horizontal zone of influence on dynamic earth force on the wall is estimated. Results in terms of displacement, velocity and acceleration-time history are presented for some typical cases, which show the final movement of the wall in terms of wall height, which is required for the design. The non-dimensional design chart proposed in the present study can be used to compute the total dynamic earth force on the wall under different input ground motion and backfill conditions. Finally, the results obtained have been compared with those of the available Scott model and the merits of the present results have been discussed.

  13. Simulation, prediction and analysis of earth rotation parameters with a dynamic Earth system model

    OpenAIRE

    F. Seitz; Maik Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic processes in the Earth system involving mass transports in the subsystems atmosphere and ocean are known to be the prominent sources for changes of Earth rotation on subseasonal to interannual time scales. Since respective geodetic observations of polar motion and variations of length-of-day are integral quantities, numerical model approaches are required in order to assess individual contributions from underlying processes in different subsystems. This paper discusses simulations of ...

  14. CLEAR Landscape Change Module: No Increased Restoration and Protection, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (2007), [CLEAR_Output_NIA_012307_final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Framework is an integrated ecosystem forecasting system, designed to simulate ecological change...

  15. Dagik Earth and IUGONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, K.; Koyama, Y.; Saito, A.; Sakamoto, S.; Ishii, M.; Kumano, Y.; Hazumi, Y.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we introduce two independent projects in progress in Japan. Dagik Earth is a visualization project of the Earth and planets on a spherical screen using only a standard PC and a projector. Surface images of the Earth or planets (or whatever having spherical shape) in the equirectangular (plate carre) projection are projected on a spherical screen in the orthographic projection. As a result, the spherical screen becomes a virtual digital globe, which can be rotated using mouse or remote controller. Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) is a collaboration of five Japanese institutes to build a comprehensive database system for the metadata of the upper-atmospheric data taken by these institutes. We explain the IUGONET metadata database and iUgonet Data Analysis Software (UDAS) for upper atmospheric research.

  16. Better Than Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Do we inhabit the best of all possible worlds? German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz thought so, writing in 1710 that our planet, warts and all, must be the most optimal one imaginable. Leibniz's idea was roundly scorned as unscientific wishful thinking, most notably by French author Voltaire in his magnum opus, Candide. Yet Leibniz might find sympathy from at least one group of scientists - the astronomers who have for decades treated Earth as a golden standard as they search for worlds beyond our own solar system. Because earthlings still know of just one living world - our own - it makes some sense to use Earth as a template in the search for life elsewhere, such as in the most Earth-like regions of Mars or Jupiter's watery moon Europa. Now, however, discoveries of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars other than our sun - exoplanets, that is - are challenging that geocentric approach.

  17. Better Than Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Do We Inhabit The Best O All Possible Worlds? German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz thought so, writing in 1710 that our planet, warts and all, must be the most optimal one imaginable. Leibniz's idea was roundly scorned as unscientific wishful thinking, most notably by French author Voltaire in his magnum opus, Candide. Yet Leibniz might find sympathy from at least one group of scientists - the astronomers who have for decades treated Earth as a golden standard as they search for worlds beyond our own solar system. Because earthlings still know of just one living world - our own - it makes some sense to use Earth as a template in the search for life elsewhere, such as in the most Earth-like regions of Mars or Jupiter's watery moon Europa. Now, however, discoveries of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars other than our sun - exoplanets, that is - are challenging that geocentric approach.

  18. Tectonics: Changing of the plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Alan

    2016-10-01

    The composition of Earth's crust depends on the style of plate tectonics and of the melting regimes in the mantle. Analyses of the oldest identified rocks suggest that these styles and the resulting crust have changed over Earth's history.

  19. Study on Mechanism of Rare Earth PVC Stabilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭振博; 胡斌; 苏庆德; 曲锦忠

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth compounds can be used as PVC thermal stabilizers. According to the infrared spectra of the mixture of PVC and some stearates, the mechanism of stabilization of different stearates was studied. The specialty of rare earth stabilizers was found. They can change the conformation of PVC and restrain the elimination of HCl. From this aspect, the unique synergetic effect with other stabilizers of rare earth compounds can be explained.

  20. Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model

    CERN Document Server

    Bezrukov, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic Earth model. Terrestrial heat producton from U, Th and K40 decays was calculated also. We must admit the existance of Earth expansion process to understand the obtained large value of terrestrial heat producton. The geoneutrino detector with volume more than 5 kT (LENA type) must be constructed to definitely separate between Bulk Silicat Earth model and Hydridic Earth model.

  1. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  2. Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Noel

    2013-04-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a system designed to enable petabyte-scale, scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. Earth Engine provides a consolidated environment including a massive data catalog co-located with thousands of computers for analysis. The user-friendly front-end provides a workbench environment to allow interactive data and algorithm development and exploration and provides a convenient mechanism for scientists to share data, visualizations and analytic algorithms via URLs. The Earth Engine data catalog contains a wide variety of popular, curated datasets, including the world's largest online collection of Landsat scenes (> 2.0M), numerous MODIS collections, and many vector-based data sets. The platform provides a uniform access mechanism to a variety of data types, independent of their bands, projection, bit-depth, resolution, etc..., facilitating easy multi-sensor analysis. Additionally, a user is able to add and curate their own data and collections. Using a just-in-time, distributed computation model, Earth Engine can rapidly process enormous quantities of geo-spatial data. All computation is performed lazily; nothing is computed until it's required either for output or as input to another step. This model allows real-time feedback and preview during algorithm development, supporting a rapid algorithm development, test, and improvement cycle that scales seamlessly to large-scale production data processing. Through integration with a variety of other services, Earth Engine is able to bring to bear considerable analytic and technical firepower in a transparent fashion, including: AI-based classification via integration with Google's machine learning infrastructure, publishing and distribution at Google scale through integration with the Google Maps API, Maps Engine and Google Earth, and support for in-the-field activities such as validation, ground-truthing, crowd-sourcing and citizen science though the Android Open Data

  3. The anti NPP movement in change. New challenges due to the search for a final repository for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Bundestag has decided on June 28th, 2013 the law on the site selection (StandAG) has been enacted as ''national consensus'' for ''social peace''. The compromise is considered to solve the polarized conflict with respect to the site for an final repository for high-level radioactive waste. New challenges result for the government and the civil society.

  4. Determining the Ocean's Role on the Variable Gravity Field and Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Rui M.

    2000-01-01

    Our three year investigation, carried out over the period 18-19 Nov 2000, focused on the study of the variability in ocean angular momentum and mass signals and their relation to the Earth's variable rotation and gravity field. This final report includes a summary description of our work and a list of related publications and presentations. One thrust of the investigation was to determine and interpret the changes in the ocean mass field, as they impact on the variable gravity field and Earth rotation. In this regard, the seasonal cycle in local vertically-integrated ocean mass was analyzed using two ocean models of different complexity: (1) the simple constant-density, coarse resolution model of Ponte; and (2) the fully stratified, eddy-resolving model of Semtner and Chervin. The dynamics and thermodynamics of the seasonal variability in ocean mass were examined in detail, as well as the methodologies to calculate those changes under different model formulations. Another thrust of the investigation was to examine signals in ocean angular momentum (OAM) in relation to Earth rotation changes. A number of efforts were undertaken in this regard. Sensitivity of the oceanic excitation to different assumptions about how the ocean is forced and how it dissipates its energy was explored.

  5. Teaching earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  6. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  7. Quantizing Earth surface deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Bowin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global analysis of Bowin (2010 used the global 14 absolute Euler pole set (62 Myr history from Gripp and Gordon (1990 and demonstrated that plate tectonics conserves angular momentum. We herein extend that analysis using the more detailed Bird (2003 52 present-day Euler pole set (relative to a fixed Pacific plate for the Earth's surface, after conversion to absolute Euler poles. Additionally, new analytical results now provide new details on upper mantle mass anomalies in the outer 200 km of the Earth, as well as an initial quantizing of surface deformations.

  8. Preparing a New Generation of Citizens and Scientists to Face Earth's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Feiss, P. Geoffrey; Manduca, Cathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    As the research interests and the focus of traditional earth scientists are transformed, so too must education in earth system science at colleges and universities across the country change. The required change involves not only the methods used to teach this new science, but also the essential place of the earth sciences in the panoply of…

  9. Earth science framework research based on the digital earth platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kong, Xiangsheng; Miao, Fang; Ye, Chengming

    2007-06-01

    This paper explains the basic points of earth science research, reviews the notion of digital earth and suggests the basic concept of digital earth platform. Taking the theory of digital earth as an essence point and the framework of digital earth platform as a main clue, we mainly discuss: the basic theories of digital earth platform, a comparatively flawless model of earth science research framework based on the digital earth platform. The discussing issues involves the unified coordinate projecting, data updating, data transferring, data processing and analyzing and data displaying and a series of researches relating to energy sources, eco-system and disasters monitoring and forecasting with a combination of the suggested model of earth science research framework.

  10. Medicare program; limit on the valuation of a depreciable asset recognized as an allowance for depreciation and interest on capital indebtedness after a change of ownership--HCFA. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare provider reimbursement regulations relative to allowable costs and sets a limit on the valuation of a depreciable asset that may be recognized in establishing an appropriate allowance for depreciation and for interest on capital indebtedness after a change of ownership that occurs on or after December 1, 1997. These provisions apply to providers that are reimbursed on the basis of reasonable costs. This change implements the mandate in section 4404 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (Pub. L. 105-33).

  11. COLLISIONAL STRIPPING AND DISRUPTION OF SUPER-EARTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final stage of planet formation is dominated by collisions between planetary embryos. The dynamics of this stage determine the orbital configuration and the mass and composition of planets in the system. In the solar system, late giant impacts have been proposed for Mercury, Earth, Mars, and Pluto. In the case of Mercury, this giant impact may have significantly altered the bulk composition of the planet. Here we present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of high-velocity (up to ∼5v esc) collisions between 1 and 10 M + planets of initially terrestrial composition to investigate the end stages of formation of extrasolar super-Earths. As found in previous simulations of collisions between smaller bodies, when collision energies exceed simple merging, giant impacts are divided into two regimes: (1) disruption and (2) hit-and-run (a grazing inelastic collision and projectile escape). Disruption occurs when the impact parameter is near zero, when the projectile mass is small compared to the target, or at extremely high velocities. In the disruption regime, we derive the criteria for catastrophic disruption (when half the total colliding mass is lost), the transition energy between accretion and erosion, and a scaling law for the change in bulk composition (iron-to-silicate ratio) resulting from collisional stripping of a mantle.

  12. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  13. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, Donald [Colorado State University

    2015-11-30

    This is the final report for the project titled "Enabling Predictive Simulation and UQ of complex Multiphysics PDE systems by the Development of Goal-Oriented Variational Sensitivity Analysis and a-Posteriori Error Estimation Methods" that ran from 9/1/2010 through 8/31/2015. The report describes the scientific progress, all manuscripts, and records project-related activities.

  14. Comparison of Freshmen's Cognitive Frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon Taking the Earth Science 1 in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Seon Ok

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if freshmen's cognitive frame about 'Crisis of the Earth' upon taking the Earth science 1I in high school reflects the school curriculum. The data was collected from 67 freshmen who'd graduated high school in formal education. They expressed 'Crisis of the Earth' as a painting with explanation and then we extracted units of meaning from paintings, respectively. We analyzed the words and frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The result is as follows; First, as every participant forms the cognitive frame for the crisis of the Earth, it is shown that they connect each part which that composes the global environment and realize it as the changing relation with interaction. Secondly, forming a cognitive frame regarding crisis of the Earth, both groups connect it with human endeavor. Especially, it seems that the group of participants who finished Earth Science 1 fully reflects the course of the formal education. It is necessary to make the students recognize it from a universal point of view, not only from the Earth. Also, much effort is required in order to enlighten about the appropriateness regarding problem-solving of the Earth and expand their mind as time changes. Keywords : Earth Science 1, cognitive frame, crisis of the earth, semantic network analysis

  15. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  16. Earth's energy imbalance and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving observations of ocean heat content show that Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.58 ± 0.15 W m−2 during the 6-yr period 2005–2010, confirms the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain together constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be −1.6 ± 0.3 W m−2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. We conclude that recent slowdown of ocean heat uptake was caused by a delayed rebound effect from Mount Pinatubo aerosols and a deep prolonged solar minimum. Observed sea level rise during the Argo float era is readily accounted for by ice melt and ocean thermal expansion, but the ascendency of ice melt leads us to anticipate acceleration of the rate of sea level rise this decade.

  17. Earth's Energy Imbalance and Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; von Schuckmann, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Improving observations of ocean temperature confirm that Earth is absorbing more energy from the sun than it is radiating to space as heat, even during the recent solar minimum. The inferred planetary energy imbalance, 0.59 \\pm 0.15 W/m2 during the 6-year period 2005-2010, provides fundamental verification of the dominant role of the human-made greenhouse effect in driving global climate change. Observed surface temperature change and ocean heat gain constrain the net climate forcing and ocean mixing rates. We conclude that most climate models mix heat too efficiently into the deep ocean and as a result underestimate the negative forcing by human-made aerosols. Aerosol climate forcing today is inferred to be -1.6 \\pm 0.3 W/m2, implying substantial aerosol indirect climate forcing via cloud changes. Continued failure to quantify the specific origins of this large forcing is untenable, as knowledge of changing aerosol effects is needed to understand future climate change. A recent decrease in ocean heat uptake ...

  18. Emigration, Education, and Social Change among Eastern and Southern Europeans in Their Homelands and in the United States, 1890 - 1940. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy L.

    This report is a summary of research already completed which concerns emigration, education, and social change among Eastern and Southern Europeans in their homelands and in the United States from 1890 to 1940. (Author/EK)

  19. Earth as art 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-03-29

    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  20. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.;

    1991-01-01

    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  1. Google Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  2. Protect the Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永兴

    2011-01-01

    The earth, a blue globe, is very beautiful. It is the home to all the living things. But the environment around us is becoming worse and worse. People cut down trees to build houses and throw about litter. The air pollution is almost everywhere in the world!

  3. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  4. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet. PMID:26726334

  5. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  6. Artificial earth satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Thiruvenkatachar

    1958-10-01

    Full Text Available A general discussion is given of the scientific and technological problems involved in the launching of earth satellites, covering various aspects such as the dynamical relationships involved, the propulsion and guidance systems, tracking and data transmission etc. The possible uses of satellites for scientific research as well as some of the likely future developments are also briefly indicated.

  7. Earth as art 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2016-01-01

    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  8. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  9. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    The principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics are disclosed leading to a new way to interpret whole-Earth dynamics. Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics incorporates elements of and unifies the two seemingly divergent dominant theories of continential displacement, plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory. Whole-Earth decompression is the consequence of Earth formation from within a Jupiter-like protoplanet with subsequent loss of gases and ices and concomitant rebounding. The initial whole-Earth decompression is expected to result in a global system of major primary decompression cracks appearing in the rigid crust which persist as the basalt feeders for the global, mid-oceanic ridge system. As the Earth subsequently decompresses, the area of the Earth's surface increases by the formation of secondary decompression cracks, often located near the continental margins, presently identified as oceanic trenches. These secondary decompression cracks are subsequently in-filled with basalt, extruded fr...

  10. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  11. Eyes on Planet Earth! Exploring Your Local Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Southard, John B.

    2003-01-01

    The American Geological Institute is helping teachers and geoscientists to emphasize the importance of inquiry and active investigation of the world around by selecting "Eyes on Planet Earth: Monitoring Our Changing World" as the theme of this year's Earth Science Week. The activity on the back of this month's poster insert, "Monitoring the…

  12. Making Robot Planes Useful for Scientific Investigation of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennison, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph slides presentation reviews the program to use unmanned aerial vehicles to gather information to study the Earth, the changes to the climate, and to protect the Earth. Several robot planes are shown, and cooperative programs with other agencies of the U.S. Government are highlighted. Including one with the United States Forest Service, that is planned to assist in locating fires

  13. The Development of Scientific Knowledge of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Martin, Alan E.; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of children's knowledge of the Earth can reveal much about the origins, content and structure of scientific knowledge, and the processes of conceptual change and development. Vosniadou and Brewer (1992, claim that children construct coherent mental models of a flat, flattened, or hollow Earth based on a framework theory and intuitive…

  14. Future Earth activities in China: Towards a national sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Chuan-Yi; ZHOU; Tian-Jun; LIN; Zheng; JIN; Nan

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview to Future Earth activities carried out by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth(CNC-FE).Future Earth is an international research programme which aims to provide critical knowledge to face the challenges posed by global environmental change and to identify opportunities for a transition to global sustainability.CNC-FE is the main body devoted to implementing the Future Earth programme in China.Incorporating Future Earth themes and national science needs,CNC-FE has identified 14 priority areas.Since its establishment,it has conducted an array of activities to fulfill its missions,including implementing projects,convening international meetings,translating and publishing Future Earth and CNC-FE related documents and promoting Future Earth and CNC-FE on various outreach occasions.CNC-FE closely follows Future Earth’s development and meanwhile integrates its themes with Chinese practice.It is hoped that implementing Future Earth in China can boost global environmental change including climate change research in China and also have positive implications for developing countries who are trying to adapt to climate change and address the challenges for the national sustainable development.

  15. What's Under Your Feet? Activity Book. Earth Science for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Penni; Robbins, Eleanora I.

    This profusely illustrated activity book helps students understand systems and cycles, how years change the look of the Earth, and how students can protect resources. The sections (and activities) in this book are: (1) The Earth (Introduction--View, Soil & Dirt); (2) Forces (Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, Mountain Building, Erosion, Volcanoes,…

  16. Keeping Earth at work: Using thermodynamics to develop a holistic theory of the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-05-01

    The Earth system is unique among terrestrial planets in that it is maintained in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Practically all processes are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy, and these would act to destroy this state of disequilibrium. In order to maintain disequilibrium in steady state, driving forces are required that perform the work to maintain the Earth system in a state far from equilibrium. To characterize the functioning of the Earth system and the interactions among its subsystems we need to consider all terms of the first and second law of thermodynamics. While the global energy balance is well established in climatology, the global entropy and work balances receive little, if any, attention. Here I will present first steps in developing a holistic theory of the Earth system including quantifications of the relevant terms that is based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This theory allows us to compare the significance of different processes in driving and maintaining disequilibrium, allows us to explore interactions by investigating the role of power transfer among processes, and specifically illustrate the significance of life in driving planetary disequilibrium. Furthermore, the global work balance demonstrates the significant impact of human activity and it provides an estimate for the availability of renewable sources of free energy within the Earth system. Hence, I conclude that a holistic thermodynamic theory of the Earth system is not just some academic exercise of marginal use, but essential for a profound understanding of the Earth system and its response to change.

  17. Greeing of the Earth and its drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Ranga B. Myneni; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Sitch, Stephen; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Arneth, Almut; Cao, Chunxiang; Cheng, Lei; KATO, ETSUSHI; Koven, Charles; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, with consequences for the functioning of the Earth system and provision of ecosystem services1, 2. Yet how global vegetation is responding to the changing environment is not well established. Here we use three long-term satellite leaf area index (LAI) records and ten global ecosystem models to investigate four key drivers of LAI trends during 1982–2009. We show a persistent and widespread increase of growi...

  18. Modeling the response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1998-04-10

    Objectives can be divided into those for plant modeling and those for ecosystem modeling and experimental work in support of both. The author worked in a variety of ecosystem types, including pine, arctic, desert, and grasslands. Plant modeling objectives are: (1) to construct generic models of leaf, canopy, and whole-plant response to elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (2) to validate predictions of whole-plant response against various field studies of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (3) to use these models to test specific hypotheses and to make predictions about primary, secondary and tertiary effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on individual plants for conditions and time frames beyond those used to calibrate the model; and (4) to provide information to higher-level models, such as community models and ecosystem models. Ecosystem level modeling objectives are: (1) to incorporate models of plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} into a generic ecosystem model in order to predict the direct and indirect effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on ecosystems; (2) to validate model predictions of total system-level response (including decomposition) against various ecosystem field studies of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change; (3) to use the ecosystem model to test specific hypotheses and to make predictions about primary, secondary and tertiary effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and climate change on ecosystems for conditions and time frames beyond those used to calibrate the model; and (4) to use the ecosystem model to study effects of change in CO{sub 2} and climate at regional and global scales. Occasionally the author conducted some experimental work that was deemed important to the development of the models. This work was mainly physiological work that could be performed in the Duke University Phytotron, using existing facilities.

  19. Valence of 'divalent' rare earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally recognized that light rare earths change their valence from 2 to 3 when forming a bulk metal while remaining divalent at the surface. However, performed DFT calculations ultimately indicate that the higher-binding-energy peaks in photoemission spectra (like the -5.3 eV peak for Sm), characteristic of the trivalent 4fn-15d1 configuration, correspond not to the ground state, but to excited states induced by radiation. This means that the trivalent state is not inherent for the bulk of divalent rare earths, and therefore they do not become trivalent.

  20. Earth Day 2010: Earth Day 40th Anniversary Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Nowacka, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    EGJ Issue 30 Earth Day 2010 ISSN 1076-7975 In celebration of 40th Earth Day the Electronic Green Journal presents one contemporary and twelve posters from 1970s focusing on ecology and the environment.