WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing distribution patterns

  1. Changes in plantar load distribution and gait pattern following foot drop correction in leprosy affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Mrinmoy; Joshua, Jerry; Mahato, Nidhu

    2015-09-01

    This study was done to compare the changes in plantar load (weight distribution) and gait patterns before and after tibialis posterior transfer surgery in people affected by leprosy. Changes in gait patterns were observed and proportionate changes in plantar load were quantified using data captured by a baropodometer. All the eight patients who underwent tibialis posterior transfer surgery in 2013 in our hospital were included in the study. In addition to the regular pre-operative and post-operative assessments, the patients also underwent baropodometric evaluation. There was a significant change in plantar load at the heel, lateral border and forefoot. Using the foot pressure scan, it was noted that the progression of the centre of mass (displayed graphically as 'the gait line') was also affected by the altered pattern of weight distribution. This study reiterates the importance of tibialis posterior transfer because: it restores the normal gait pattern of 1, 2, 3 (where 1 is heel strike, 2 is mid foot contact and 3 is forefoot contact) and provides a more uniform distribution of planter load. PMID:26665356

  2. Schistosomal glomerulopathy and changes in the distribution of histological patterns of glomerular diseases in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Luis Conrado dos-Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Distinct patterns of glomerular lesions, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, are associated with infection by Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum. Evidence suggests that immune complex deposition is the main mechanism underlying the different forms of schistosomal glomerulonephritis and that immune complex deposition may be intensified by portal hypertension. The relationship between focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and schistosomiasis remains poorly understood. A clinicopathologic classification of schistosomal glomerulopathies was proposed in 1992 by the African Association of Nephrology. In Brazil, mass treatment with oral medications has led to a decrease in the occurrence of schistosomal glomerulopathy. In a survey of renal biopsies performed in Salvador, Brazil, from 2003-2009, only 24 (4% patients were identified as positive for S. mansoni infection. Among these patients, only one had the hepatosplenic form of the disease. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was found in seven patients and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was found in four patients. Although retrospective studies on the prevalence of renal diseases based on kidney biopsies may be influenced by many patient selection biases, a change in the distribution of glomerulopathies associated with nephrotic syndrome was observed along with a decline in the occurrence of severe forms of schistosomiasis.

  3. Recent changes in macroalgae distribution patterns in the Orbetello lagoon (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani, Andrea; Mari, Elena; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Focardi, Silvano; RENZI, Monia

    2014-01-01

    This study related recent distribution changes in seven macroalgae taxa (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chaetomorpha linum, Cladophora sp., Gracilariopsis longissima, Spyridia sp., Ulva laetevirens, Valonia aegagrophyla) to spatial (basin) and temporal (time) trophic differences in a meso-eutrophic Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Orbetello, Italy). In July 2003 and July 2009, the coverage percentage (CP) of each considered taxon was measured in 38 stations equally distributed in the Western and Easte...

  4. Potential impacts of climate change on the distributions and diversity patterns of European mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsky, Irina; Skov, Flemming; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rahbek, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increase in global temperatures of between 1.4°C and 5.8°C during the 21st century, as a result of elevated CO2 levels. Using bioclimatic envelope models, we evaluate the potential impact of climate change on the distribut...... should therefore be seen as first approximations of the potential magnitude of future climatic changes.......Abstract  The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increase in global temperatures of between 1.4°C and 5.8°C during the 21st century, as a result of elevated CO2 levels. Using bioclimatic envelope models, we evaluate the potential impact of climate change on the...... (lose > 30% of their current distribution) under the two scenarios. Under the no migration assumption endemic species were predicted to be strongly negatively affected by future climatic changes, while widely distributed species would be more mildly affected. Finally, potential mammalian species...

  5. *CHANGING PATTERN OF THE SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF ERYTHROBLAST MACROPHAGE PROTEIN (EMP) DURING MACROPHAGE DIFFERENTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Shivani; Bala, Shashi; Kumar, Ajay; Hanspal, Manjit

    2006-01-01

    Erythroblast macrophage protein (Emp), mediates the attachment of erythroid cells to macrophages, and is required for normal differentiation of both cell lineages. In erythroid cells Emp is believed to be involved in nuclear extrusion however, its role in macrophage differentiation is unknown. Information on the changes in the expression level and subcellular distribution of Emp in differentiating macrophages is essential for understanding the function of Emp. Macrophages of varying maturity ...

  6. Changes in the pattern of distribution of von Willebrand factor in rat aortic endothelial cells following thrombin generation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senis, Y A; Richardson, M; Tinlin, S; Maurice, D H; Giles, A R

    1996-04-01

    The pattern of distribution of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in relatively large sheets of rat aortic endothelial cells (EC) obtained by the Häutchen technique were analysed by immunocytochemistry and light microscopy. EC were examined pre and post administration of a procoagulant mixture of factor Xa (F.Xa) and phosphotidylcholine/phosphotidylserine (PCPS) vesicles which was demonstrated to result in the selective loss of high molecular weight multimers (HMWM) of plasma VWF in the rat. In placebo animals the pattern was heterogenous both in overall distribution and in individual cells which showed both a diffuse and granular pattern. Groups of intensely stained EC were oriented parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aorta and staining was particularly prominent around the orifices of the intercostal arteries, implicating shear-stress as a possible factor in VWF expression by EC. Changes in the pattern of distribution of staining were observed at various time points post-infusion of F.Xa/PCPS, suggesting the immediate release of VWF from EC stores followed by the recruitment of EC to synthesize and store VWF. These changes are consistent with the decrease in EC Weibel-Palade Body (WPB) content observed by EM in previously reported studies using this model. PMID:8611460

  7. Density and spatial distribution of Parkia biglobosa pattern in Benin under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafunkè Titilayo Dotchamou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org. Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0 have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80 with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12 and temperature (diurnal average Deviation are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.

  8. Temporal change in the distribution patterns of hexachlorobenzene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane among various soil organic matter fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residence time-dependent distribution patterns of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) among different soil organic matter fractions of three Chinese soils were investigated. Soil organic matter (SOM) was fractionated into fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA), bound-humic acid (BHA), lipid, and insoluble residue (IR) fractions using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) method. Results revealed that as the residence time prolonged, the amounts of HCB and DDT in the FA, HA and BHA fractions decreased, while those in the lipid and IR fractions increased. One- and two-compartment first order, and one- and two-parameter pore-diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the mobility of HCB and DDT from the FA, HA and BHA fractions. The results suggest that excellent agreements were achieved between the experimental data and fits to the two-compartment first order kinetic model (R2 > 0.97). The transfer rates of HCB and DDT followed the order FA > HA > BHA. - HCB and DDT tend to transfer from FA, HA and BHA fractions to lipid and IR fractions with increasing residence time

  9. Unexpected patterns of vegetation distribution response and climate change velocities in cold ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Fauria, M.; Johnson, E. A.; Forbes, B. C.; Willis, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    In cold ecosystems such as sub-alpine forests and forest-tundra, vegetation geographical ranges are expected to expand upward/northward in a warmer world. Such moving fronts have been predicted to 1) decrease the remaining alpine area in mountain systems, increasing fragmentation and extinction risk of many alpine taxa, and 2) fundamentally modify the energy budget of newly afforested areas, enhancing further regional warming due to a reduction in albedo. The latter is particularly significant in the forest-tundra, where changes over large regions can have regional-to-global effects on climate. An integral part of the expected range shifts is their velocity. Whereas range shifts across thermal gradients can theoretically be fast in an elevation gradient relative to climate velocity (i.e. rate of climate change) due to the short distances involved, large lags are expected over the flat forest-tundra. Mountain regions have thus been identified as buffer areas where species can track climate change, in opposition to flat terrain where climate velocity is faster. Thus, much shorter time-to-equilibrium are expected for advancing upslope sub-alpine forest than for advancing northern boreal forest. We contribute to this discussion by showing two mechanisms that might largely alter the above predictions in opposite directions: 1) In mountain regions, terrain heterogeneity not only allows for slower climate velocities, but slope processes largely affect the advance of vegetation. Indeed, such mechanisms can potentially reduce the climatic signal in vegetation distribution limits (e.g. treeline), precluding it from migrating to climatically favourable areas - since these areas occur in geologically unfavourable ones. Such seemingly local control to species range shifts was found to reduce the climate-sensitive treeline areas in the sub-alpine forest of the Canadian Rocky Mountains to ~5% at a landscape scale, fundamentally altering the predictions of vegetation response to

  10. Species distributions and climate change:current patterns and future scenarios for biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian

    How does climate change affect biodiversity? - Answering this question is one of the most important tasks in current ecological research. Earth has been warming by 0.7°C during the last 100 years, and the consequences are already apparent in biotic systems. For example, species are responding...... suggest that climatic changes during and after the Pleistocene may have been much faster than commonly assumed. In one of the studies of this thesis I discuss the consequences of these findings for species and ecosystems. Since these rapid climate change events did not cause a broad-spectrum mass...... extinction, one might assume that most species may also be able to successfully cope with contemporary climate change. However, current ecosystems are heavily modified by humans. Among other factors, habitat destruction and fragmentation caused by anthropogenic land-use changes negatively affect species...

  11. Global patterns of distribution in stream detritivores: implications for biodiversity loss in changing climates

    OpenAIRE

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, R G; Dudgeon, D; Ferreira, V.; Graça, M.A.S.; Gessner, M. O.; Boulton, A J; Chauvet, E.; Yule, C.M.; Albariño, R.J.; Ramírez, A.; Helson, J.E.; M. Callisto; M. Arunachalam; Chará, J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim We tested the hypothesis that shredder detritivores, a key trophic guild in stream ecosystems, are more diverse at higher latitudes, which has important ecological implications in the face of potential biodiversity losses that are expected as a result of climate change. We also explored the dependence of local shredder diversity on the regional species pool across latitudes, and examined the influence of environmental factors on shredder diversity. Location World-wide (156 sites from 17 r...

  12. Distribution patterns and changes of aquatic plant communities in Napahai Wetland in northwestern Yunnan Plateau,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derong XIAO; Kun TIAN; Hua YUAN; Yuming YANG; Ningyun LI; Shouguo XU

    2008-01-01

    Using GPS technology and community research methods for plant communities,we investigated the distribution patterns of aquatic plant communities in the high plateaus of the Napahai Wetlands,Yunnan,China,as well as the species changes of plant communities compared with that of 24 years ago since 2005.We found that the types and numbers of aquatic plant communities have changed.Some pollution-tolerant,nutrient-loving plant communities such as Scirpus tabernaemontani,Zizania caduciflora,Myriophyllum spicatum,and Azolla imbricata flourished,while the primary aquatic plant com-munities were reduced or even disappeared.The number of aquatic plant communities were increased from nine to 12 with the addition of two new emergent plant com-munities and one new floating-leaved plant community.The increase in emergent plant communities was signifi-cant.From east to west and from south to north,various types of plant communities were continuously distributed,including floating-leaved plant communities,emergent plant communities and submerged plant communities.The composition of the communities became more com-plicated and the number of accompanying species increased,while the percentage ratio of dominant plant species declined.In 2005,the coverage of emergent plant communities was the largest (528.42 hm2) followed by submerged plant communities (362.50 hm2) and the float-ing-leaf plant communities was the smallest (70.23 hm2).The variations in the distribution of aquatic plant com-munities in the Napahai Wetlands reflect the natural responses to the change of the wetland ecological envir-onment.This study indicates that human disturbances have led to an inward movement of the wetland shoreline,a decrease in water quality and a reduction in wetland habitat.

  13. Distribution patterns of carbon oxidation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Evidence of changes in the remineralization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Civitarese, Giuseppe; Ribera D'Alcalã, Maurizio

    2003-09-01

    Deep remineralization patterns, as carbon dioxide production, were investigated in microplankton samples from several areas of eastern Mediterranean Sea. The respiration data, collected during six oceanographic surveys from 1993 through 1999, evidence biogeochemical peculiarities of the deep waters of Mediterranean as compared to the open ocean and allow drawing up an hypothesis on the possible impact of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) on remineralization processes. The temporal trend of the oxidative processes in the basin is tightly coupled with the main features of the circulation pattern. In the Mediterranean Sea, the convective processes and the consequent advection of dense waters assume a relevant role in sustaining the amount of remineralization in the deep layers and appear to be more important than the sinking of particulate matter from the upper layers. Respiration in the deepest Mediterranean waters accounts for a greater percentage of the upper aphotic zone respiration (over 45%) than that found in the open oceans (below 21%). In addition, the increase in respiratory rates in only a few years in the Ionian Basin could represent a signal of the changes induced by the EMT, which replaced the Adriatic deepwater supply with waters of Aegean origin. The ecological change induced by the EMT, negligible in the photic layers of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, seems to concern the impact of the continental shelf pump by advection of younger, less-refractory organic matter utilizable by deep biota.

  14. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TNF-α, IFN-γ and T-cell subsets distribution pattern in pediatric patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum TNF-α, IFN-γ and T-cell subsets distribution pattern in pediatric patients with aplastic anemia. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), IFN-γ levels (with ELISA), peripheral blood T-cell subsets distribution pattern (with monoclonal antibody technique) were determined in 33 pediatric patients with aplastic anemia, as well as in 35 controls. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the patients with aplastic anemia were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01), while the CD3, CD4 percentages and CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower (P<0.01). Conclusion: Detection of changes of serum TNF-α, IFN-γ levels and T-cell subsets ratio was clinically useful for outcome prediction in pediatric patients with aplastic anemia. (authors)

  15. Changes in the distribution pattern of Claudin tight junction proteins during the progression of mouse skin tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the fact that morphological and physiological observations suggest that the tight junction (TJ)-based permeability barrier is modified/disrupted in tumorigenesis, the role of members of the Claudin (Cldn) family of TJ proteins is not well-understood. Using a well-established two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model, we investigated the temporal and spatial changes in expression of those Cldns that we have previously demonstrated to be important in epidermal differentiation and the formation of the epidermal permeability barrier, i.e., Cldn1, Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12 and Cldn18. The lower dorsal backskin of mice was treated topically with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA; 0.25 mg/ml in acetone) and following a 10-day incubation period, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA; 25 μg/ml in acetone) was applied three times a week to the same area. Backskin samples were dissected 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after the initiation of the experimental protocol and immunohistochemistry was performed on sections using antibodies against the following: Cldn1, Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, Cldn18, Ki67 and CD3. Our data indicate that along with the changes in epidermal cell morphology and differentiation that occur during tumor formation, there is a dramatic change in Cldn distribution consistent with cell polarity and barrier selectivity changes. Specifically, in the early stages of DMBA/TPA treatment, the suprabasal-specific Cldns occupy an expanded zone of expression corresponding to an increased number of suprabasal epidermal cell layers. As tumorigenesis progressed, the number of suprabasal epidermal layers positive for Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12 and Cldn18 was reduced, especially in the lower strata of the expanded suprabasal zone. In addition, a variably reduced cell membrane association of those differentiation-specific Cldns was observed, especially within the infiltrating epidermal structures. In contrast, Cldn1 (which is normally expressed in all the living layers of the

  16. Bug Distribution and Pattern Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    The study examines the rule space model, a probabilistic model capable of measuring cognitive skill acquisition and of diagnosing erroneous rules of operation in a procedural domain. The model involves two important components: (1) determination of a set of bug distributions (bug density functions representing clusters around the rules); and (2)…

  17. Small mammal distributional patterns in Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Sandoval

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quantitative evaluations of species distributional congruence allow evaluating previously proposed biogeographic regionalization and even identify undetected areas of endemism. The geographic scenery of Northwestern Argentina offers ideal conditions for the study of distributional patterns of species since the boundaries of a diverse group of biomes converge in a relatively small region, which also includes a diverse fauna of mammals. In this paper we applied a grid-based explicit method in order to recognize Patterns of Distributional Congruence (PDCs and Areas of Endemism (AEs, and the species (native but non-endemic and endemic, respectively that determine them. Also, we relate these distributional patterns to traditional biogeographic divisions of the study region and with a very recent phytogeographic study and we reconsider what previously rejected as 'spurious' areas. Finally, we assessed the generality of the patterns found. The analysis resulted in 165 consensus areas, characterized by seven species of marsupials, 28 species of bats, and 63 species of rodents, which represents a large percentage of the total species (10, 41, and 73, respectively. Twenty-five percent of the species that characterize consensus areas are endemic to the study region and define six AEs in strict sense while 12 PDCs are mainly defined by widely distributed species. While detailed quantitative analyses of plant species distribution data made by other authors does not result in units that correspond to Cabrera's phytogeographic divisions at this spatial scale, analyses of animal species distribution data does. We were able to identify previously unknown meaningful faunal patterns and more accurately define those already identified. We identify PDCs and AEs that conform Eastern Andean Slopes Patterns, Western High Andes Patterns, and Merged Eastern and Western Andean Slopes Patterns, some of which are re-interpreted at the light of known patterns of the

  18. Explaining species distribution patterns through hierarchical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Gelfand, Alan E.; Silander, John A.; Wu, Shanshan; Latimer, Andrew; Lewis, Paul O; Rebelo, Anthony G; Holder, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Understanding spatial patterns of species diversity and the distributions of individual species is a consuming problem in biogeography and conservation. The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is a global hotspot of diversity and endemism, and the Protea Atlas Project, with some 60,000 site records across the region, provides an extraordinarily rich data set to analyze biodiversity patterns. Analysis for the region is developed at the spatial scale of one minute grid-ce...

  19. Child drownings: a changing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, D T; Ross, F I; Grattan-Smith, T M

    1991-02-01

    Paediatric drownings in New South Wales during the years 1987-1990 are reviewed to document the current pattern. Over these three years we have registered 250 paediatric deaths by physical injury. Sixty-one (24%) of these deaths were by drowning. Twenty-nine of the 61 drownings (47%) occurred in domestic pools; 25 of these were in unfenced or inadequately fenced pools. Of the remaining four cases, one was associated with a chair being used to gain access and the other three remain unexplained. Thirty-three of the 61 drownings occurred in country areas; of these 10 were in pools, eight in rivers or creeks, six in boating accidents, four in the surf and three in dams. A changing trend identified by this study is the increasing percentage of drownings (44%) occurring in nominally "fenced" pools in which the fencing was not functioning because the gate was open or the fencing was in disrepair. Legislation must be supported by public education and council inspection if the full benefit of isolation fencing is to be realised. With respect to all drownings there is a continuing need for education about the dangers that bodies of water, even in the bath or a bucket, pose to young children, and the need for parents to strive for optimal supervision. PMID:1988786

  20. Periodically distributed objects with quasicrystalline diffraction pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, Janusz, E-mail: wolny@fis.agh.edu.pl; Strzalka, Radoslaw [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kuczera, Pawel [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Laboratory of Crystallography, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-03-30

    It is possible to construct fully periodically distributed objects with a diffraction pattern identical to the one obtained for quasicrystals. These objects are probability distributions of distances obtained in the statistical approach to aperiodic structures distributed periodically. The diffraction patterns have been derived by using a two-mode Fourier transform—a very powerful method not used in classical crystallography. It is shown that if scaling is present in the structure, this two-mode Fourier transform can be reduced to a regular Fourier transform with appropriately rescaled scattering vectors and added phases. Detailed case studies for model sets 1D Fibonacci chain and 2D Penrose tiling are discussed. Finally, it is shown that crystalline, quasicrystalline, and approximant structures can be treated in the same way.

  1. Reactor power distribution pattern judging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The judging device of the present invention comprises a power distribution readout system for intaking a power value from a fuel segment, a neural network having an experience learning function for receiving a power distribution value as an input variant, mapping it into a desirable property and self-organizing the map, and a learning date base storing a plurality of learnt samples. The read power distribution is classified depending on the similarity thereof with any one of representative learnt power distribution, and the corresponding state of the reactor core is outputted as a result of the judgement. When an error is found in the classified judging operation, erroneous cases are additionally learnt by using the experience and learning function, thereby improving the accuracy of the reactor core characteristic estimation operation. Since the device is mainly based on the neural network having a self-learning function and a pattern classification and judging function, a judging device having a human's intuitive pattern recognition performance and a pattern experience and learning performance is obtainable, thereby enabling to judge the state of the reactor core accurately. (N.H.)

  2. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    , lone parents and cohabiting couples. Focusing on components of welfare services with noticeable differences in unit costs across age and household status, we find that changes in age structures have improved public finances by 1.6% of GDP whereas changing household structures have worsened public......This paper studies the effects on tax revenues and welfare expenditures in Denmark caused by changes in age and household structures over the years 1982-2007. During that period, there has been a minor fall in the old-age dependency ratio, and a major increase in the number of people living alone...... finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  3. Breast compression in mammography: pressure distribution patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustler, Magnus; Froejd, Patrik; Mattsson, Soeren; Tingberg, Anders; Foernvik, Daniel [Medical Radiation Physics, Lund Univ., Skaane Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)], E-mail: Magnus.Dustler@med.lu.se; Andersson, Ingvar; Zackrisson, Sophia [Diagnostic Centre of Imaging and Functional Medicine, Lund Univ., Skaane Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Brorson, Haakan [Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dept. of Clinical Sciences Malmoe, Lund Univ., Skaane Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    Background Breast compression is important in mammography in order to improve image quality, better separate tissue components, and reduce absorbed dose to the breast. In this study we use a method to measure and visualize the distribution of pressure over a compressed breast in mammography. Purpose To measure and describe the pressure distribution over the breast as a result of applied breast compression in mammography. Material and Methods One hundred and three women aged 40.7-74.3 years (median, 48.9 years) invited for mammographic screening consented to take part in this study. They were subjected to two additional breast compressions of the left breast (standard force and approximately 50% reduction). Pressure images of the compressed breast were obtained using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors placed underneath the compression plate. Subjects rated their experience of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Four pressure patterns were identified, fitting 81 of the 103 breasts, which were grouped accordingly. The remaining 22 breasts were found to correspond to a combination of any two patterns. Two groups (43 breasts) showed pressure mainly over the juxtathoracic part of the breast, had significantly greater breast thickness (P = 0.003) and had a lower mean pressure over dense tissue (P < 0.0001) than those with more evenly distributed pressure. Reducing compression force increased average breast thickness by 1.8 mm (P < 0.0001). Conclusion The distribution of pressure differed greatly between breasts. In a large proportion of breasts the compression plate did not provide optimal compression of the breast, the compression force being absorbed in juxtathoracic structures.

  4. Reiki and changes in pattern manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Marcia E

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this qualitative research study were to describe the changes in pattern manifestations that individuals experienced associated with receiving Reiki, and to present the theoretical understanding of these changes. The unitary field pattern portrait research method was utilized because it was ontologically, epistemologically, and methodologically consistent with the science of unitary human beings. Reiki was found to be associated with changes in awareness from dissonance and turbulence to harmony and well-being by helping individuals knowingly participate in actualizing their own capacities for healing. Reiki was found to be an appropriate voluntary mutual patterning nursing modality. PMID:19567731

  5. Macroecological patterns in the distribution of marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Erik Askov

    predicting future ocean function. This PhD thesis investigates and describes macroecological patterns in the distribution and diversity of marine phytoplankton. The primary focus has been to describe macroecological patterns in phytoplankton total biomass and community structure and relate these patterns to......Marine phytoplankton are responsible for approximately half of the global total primary production. The photosynthesis they carry out sustains higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem. Changes in phytoplankton community composition can have cascading effects on food web dynamics, total...... presented as five research chapters shaped as manuscripts. In Manuscript I, the macroecological patterns in phytoplankton community size structure were investigated in relation to temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Although temperature has been shown to directly affect phytoplankton size at...

  6. Overview of distribution patterns of zooxanthellate Scleractinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eVeron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This publication is an overview of a detailed study of coral distribution, diversity and affinities worldwide. The species distribution maps in www.coralsoftheworld.com are based on comprehensive global assessments of the world’s 150 coral ecoregions. Original surveys by the authors cover 4941 sites in 85 ecoregions worldwide. These are combined with a thorough summation of all biogeographic, taxonomic and related literature as well as an extensive review of museum and photographic collections worldwide and extensive inter-personal communications. Species occurrences in ecoregions are recorded as confirmed, strongly predicted, uncertain or absent. These data are used to present global maps of diversity and affinity at species level. There are two templates of Indo-Pacific diversity and affinity: one dominated by the Coral Triangle and one created by poleward continental boundary currents. There is a high degree of uniformity within the main body of the Coral Triangle; diversity and affinities both decrease in all directions. The Sunda Shelf ecoregion now qualifies for inclusion in the Coral Triangle and the Java Sea ecoregion is borderline. There is very little Indo-Pacific provincialism. Two separate centres of diversity occur in the Indian Ocean: the subequatorial west, and the Red Sea. Most species of the far eastern Pacific occur in the central Pacific. The Caribbean dominates Atlantic distribution and affinities and also has high uniformity. Individual ecoregions have very varying data comprehensiveness. Distribution patterns that distinguish between geographic variation within a species and the geographic overlap of sister species support the concept of reticulate evolution

  7. Distributional aspects of climate change impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, R.S.J. [Hamburg University (Germany). Centre for Marine and Climate Research; Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Institute for Environmental Studies; Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change; Downing, T.E. [Stockholm Environment Institute, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kuik, O.J. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Institute for Environmental Studies; Smith, J.B. [Stratus Consulting Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Climate change is likely to impact more severely on the poorer people of the world, because they are more exposed to the weather, because they are closer to the biophysical and experience limits of climate, and because their adaptive capacity is lower. Estimates of aggregated impacts necessarily make assumptions on the relative importance of sectors, countries and periods; we propose to make these assumption explicit. We introduce a Gini coefficient for climate change impacts, which shows the distribution of impacts is very skewed in the near future and will deteriorate for more than a century before becoming more egalitarian. Vulnerability to climate change depends on more than per capita income alone, so that the geographical pattern of vulnerability is complex, and the relationship between vulnerability and development non-linear and non-monotonous. (author)

  8. Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Gao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhiza (ECM are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An analysis of results of recent research indicates that ECM fungal diversity increases with increasing latitude, i.e. from tropical to subtropical and temperate regions. The role of dispersal in ECM fungal distribution is dependent on spatial scale. Thus, it has been found to be weak across global and local scales, but strong at regional and small scales. At the local scale, its influence has also been shown to be host-dominant dependent; thus, it is important in host non-dominant ecosystems, but not in host dominant ecosystems. Selection by plant, animal, microbe and abiotic factors can also affect the distribution pattern of ECM fungi, according to studies of temperate ecosystems. In contrast, studies of tropical ecosystems indicate that selection on ECM fungal distribution can be either strong or weak. ECM fungal diversity is also influenced by plant diversity and productivity. The plant diversity hypothesis at host genus-level fits well with ECM fungal diversity in temperate, subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems; in contrast, the productivity diversity hypothesis is only supported by some studies in temperate forest ecosystems. We propose that future studies should focus on the distribution pattern, maintenance mechanism and ecosystem function of ECM fungal diversity at a global scale, taking account ofscenarios of global climate change.

  9. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B lymphocyte count and T lymphocyte subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B cell count and T subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), peripheral B cell count as well as T subsets (with monoclonal technique) were examined in 34 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome and 35 controls. Results: The serum TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher than those in controls (P3, CD4, CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pregnancy induced hY- pertension syndrome is a kind of autoimmune diseases with abnormal immunoregulation. (authors)

  10. Are Breastfeeding Patterns in Pakistan Changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Zubeda Khan

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding, apart from being beneficial to the child's health, helps in keeping the birth rate low. One of the effects of malnutrition in developing countries is the reduction in the period of lactation. In Pakistan, where the birth rate is already very high and the use of contraceptives limited, any reduction in the breastfeeding period may result in an increase of the birth rate. This study was undertaken to find out the recent changes in the breastfeeding pattern and their pot...

  11. [Changes in marriage patterns in Java].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarimbun, M

    1991-06-01

    "The paper reviews the changes that have taken place in the marriage pattern among rural Javanese. Low age at marriage and decision regarding marriage made by the parents were the norms in the past. Consummation of marriage was frequently delayed. Although marriage has been highly valued in the society, [the] divorce rate was high. With the advance of education and social progress in general, changes have taken place. Age at marriage has gone up, parental role in marital decision making has declined and the divorce rate has dropped significantly." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12317015

  12. Bug Distribution and Statistical Pattern Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    The rule space model permits measurement of cognitive skill acquisition and error diagnosis. Further discussion introduces Bayesian hypothesis testing and bug distribution. An illustration involves an artificial intelligence approach to testing fractions and arithmetic. (Author/GDC)

  13. CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Œlusarczyk

    2009-01-01

    Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors response on n...

  14. Using Reusable Design Patterns in Disributed Systems%Using Reusable Design Patterns in Distributed Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yan; LI Zhan-bo

    2007-01-01

    The article revealed the software design issues for the object-oriented distributed system. By surveying several existed design issues, the solution of common design issues is conducted which is compromised by design patterns. Each pattern is described according to its functionality which could be valuable for objected-oriented distributed system developer.

  15. Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, André T C; Krab, Eveline J; Mariën, Janine; Zimmer, Martin; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Ellers, Jacintha; Wardle, David A; Berg, Matty P

    2013-07-01

    Predicted changes in soil water availability regimes with climate and land-use change will impact the community of functionally important soil organisms, such as macro-detritivores. Identifying and quantifying the functional traits that underlie interspecific differences in desiccation resistance will enhance our ability to predict both macro-detritivore community responses to changing water regimes and the consequences of the associated species shifts for organic matter turnover. Using path analysis, we tested (1) how interspecific differences in desiccation resistance among 22 northwestern European terrestrial isopod species could be explained by three underlying traits measured under standard laboratory conditions, namely, body ventral surface area, water loss rate and fatal water loss; (2) whether these relationships were robust to contrasting experimental conditions and to the phylogenetic relatedness effects being excluded; (3) whether desiccation resistance and hypothesized underlying traits could explain species distribution patterns in relation to site water availability. Water loss rate and (secondarily) fatal water loss together explained 90% of the interspecific variation in desiccation resistance. Our path model indicated that body surface area affects desiccation resistance only indirectly via changes in water loss rate. Our results also show that soil moisture determines isopod species distributions by filtering them according to traits underpinning desiccation resistance. These findings reveal that it is possible to use functional traits measured under standard conditions to predict soil biota responses to water availability in the field over broad spatial scales. Taken together, our results demonstrate an increasing need to generate mechanistic models to predict the effect of global changes on functionally important organisms. PMID:23224790

  16. Coherence and discontinuity in the scaling of species' distribution patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Stephen; Kunin, William E.; Lennon, Jack J.; Pocock, Michael J. O.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial distribution of a species can be characterized at many different spatial scales, from fine-scale measures of local population density to coarse-scale geographical-range structure. Previous studies have shown a degree of correlation in species' distribution patterns across narrow ranges of scales, making it possible to predict fine-scale properties from coarser-scale distributions. To test the limits of such extrapolation, we have compiled distributional information on 16 species o...

  17. Patterns of bird and mammal distribution in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The present distributional patterns of birds and mammals on the surface of the earth are the combined result of historic and current factors. The historic factors...

  18. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  19. Various distribution patterns of green fluorescence in small hydromedusae

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Shin

    2010-01-01

    Twelve distributional patterns of fluorescent body parts, including complete non-fluorescence, were found in diverse taxonomic groups of small hydromedusae (≤21 mm in umbrellar diameter) collected in 2008-2010 in Tanabe Bay and a freshwater pond in Tanabe city, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, and in Suma harbor, Kobe city, Hyogo Prefecture. Only three of the green fluorescence patterns have been described until now. Particular fluorescence patterns may have originated convergently more than once ...

  20. Quantifying Shark Distribution Patterns and Species-Habitat Associations: Implications of Marine Park Zoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Espinoza; Mike Cappo; Heupel, Michelle R.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) over a ten year period. Overall, 21...

  1. Change of radiation pattern in a plasma monopole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpoush, V.; Shokri, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, we have numerically solved the dispersion equation of the surface wave propagating on a uniform collisional plasma column. The electric field and surface current distributions have been computed in different situations. We have investigated the effect of plasma frequency variation on the spatial distribution of the surface current. Results show that varying the electron density of the plasma column enables the plasma column to work as a plasma monopole antenna with a fixed geometrical structure and excited frequency which is able to create different radiation patterns. Our numerical analysis also shows that a little change in the radius of the plasma column has a strong influence on the current distribution at the excited frequency in RF region. This effect can be ignored in the usual (metallic) antenna while it is very important in designing of the plasma monopole antenna.

  2. Strategy implementation and organizational change in healthcare organizations - a distributed change leadership perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    This paper examines some theoretical underpinnings of distributed leadership and its ability to serve as change leadership during the process of major organizational changes in healthcare organizations. The study was initiated as part of a larger research project on distributed leadership (DL......) in the healthcare sector, financed by a research grant addressing both empirical and theoretical questions. The paper clarifies the relationship between distributed leadership and change leadership, and more specifically, the characteristics of distributed leadership in the change leadership process. We also...... propose a distributed change leadership (DCL) model that permits further development of research design and empirical studies of DCL. On a more general side, with this paper we shed more light on some aspects of leadership patterns in healthcare, where there is a distinct gap....

  3. Changing patterns of US arms transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomone, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis has three purposes. First is to explore the changing patterns of US arms transfers from Fiscal Year 1950 (FY 1950) through Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 1980). Second, is to describe and assess the decision-making process for arms transfers within the US Government. Third is to examine and critique the conventional wisdom concerning US arms transfers, to support that wisdom, or to offer an alternate empirically supported view. The conventional wisdom about US arms transfer is that they have been rising at an alarming rate, and that this is the result of an arms transfer decision-making process which is out of control. This belief is founded on an empirically based proposition that arms transfers have been rising at an alarming rate. However, this proposition has never been empirically validated. To explore this conventional wisdom, the author establishes the historical, political and defense policy contexts for US arms transfers over the period FY 1950 through FY 1980. The author critiques the conventional wisdom about US arms transfers, analyzes the many ways that arms transfers have been measured, and explores the impediments to accurate measurement and assessment of the phenomenon.

  4. Effects of Saving and Spending Patterns on Holding Time Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, N; Wang, Y; Ding, Ning; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2003-01-01

    The effects of saving and spending patterns on holding time distribution of money are investigated based on the ideal gas-like models. We show the steady-state distribution obeys an exponential law when the saving factor is set uniformly, and a power law when the saving factor is set diversely. The power distribution can also be obtained by proposing a new model where the preferential spending behavior is considered. The association of the distribution with the probability of money to be exchanged has also been discussed.

  5. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Andreas F; Allison K. Gregg; Smith, Jennifer E.; Abieri, Maria L.; Mark Hatay; Forest Rohwer

    2013-01-01

    Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.) and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp.) separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. ...

  6. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    OpenAIRE

    Land, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    1. The objective of this working paper is to analyse consumers' dietary patterns as reflected in shopping, meal patterns, eating habits, traditions, cooking and the content of the diet itself. These dietary patterns were analysed with regard to th connection to consumers' ways of life, family form and living conditions, in as much as cooking and eating food play an extremely important role in the structuring of everyday life. 2. The consumer analyses are based on 12 qualitative interviews con...

  7. Distributed generation solutions: changes and opportunities for distribution companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The rapid expansion of hydrogen based power alternatives and other significant distributed generation (DG) alternatives is changing the traditional role of the local electricity distributor. This presentation is about opportunities related to incorporating such facilities into LDC and client distribution systems. This ranges from support of large co-generation facilities, such as that under development at Mississauga's Pearson International, to the integration of output from varied new forms small-scale, wind, biomass, and fuel cell power production within local distribution networks. Mr. Chuddy will examine Enersource's present and anticipated role: (1) as a technologies company aiding in developing distribution systems that integrate and fully utilize DG technology into those models and; (2) as an LDC that continues to lead the conservation movement on several fronts, including advocacy of aggregated demand response mechanisms in Ontario's wholesale market design. (author)

  8. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  9. Parametric probability distributions for anomalous change detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foy, Bernard R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohlberg, Brendt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scovel, James C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The problem of anomalous change detection arises when two (or possibly more) images are taken of the same scene, but at different times. The aim is to discount the 'pervasive differences' that occur thoughout the imagery, due to the inevitably different conditions under which the images were taken (caused, for instance, by differences in illumination, atmospheric conditions, sensor calibration, or misregistration), and to focus instead on the 'anomalous changes' that actually take place in the scene. In general, anomalous change detection algorithms attempt to model these normal or pervasive differences, based on data taken directly from the imagery, and then identify as anomalous those pixels for which the model does not hold. For many algorithms, these models are expressed in terms of probability distributions, and there is a class of such algorithms that assume the distributions are Gaussian. By considering a broader class of distributions, however, a new class of anomalous change detection algorithms can be developed. We consider several parametric families of such distributions, derive the associated change detection algorithms, and compare the performance with standard algorithms that are based on Gaussian distributions. We find that it is often possible to significantly outperform these standard algorithms, even using relatively simple non-Gaussian models.

  10. Development of Spatial Distribution Patterns by Biofilm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Bak Christensen, Bjarke;

    2015-01-01

    Confined spatial patterns of microbial distribution are prevalent in nature, such as in microbial mats, soil communities, and water stream biofilms. The symbiotic two-species consortium of Pseudomonas putida and Acinetobacter sp. C6, originally isolated from a creosote-polluted aquifer, has evolved......, as well as the ecology of engineered communities that have the potential for enhanced and sustainable bioprocessing capacity....

  11. Fuzzy Pattern Recognition System for Detection of Alga Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To realize the on-line measurement and make analysis on the density of algae and their cluster distribution, the fluorescent detection and fuzzy pattern recognition techniques are used. The principle of fluorescent fiber-optic detection is given as well as the method of fuzzy feature extraction using a class of neural network.

  12. Ontogenetic pattern change in amphibians: the case of Salamandra corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Beukema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic, post-metamorphic pattern development is a rarely studied topic in amphibian science. As there are indications that the pattern of Salamandra corsica might expand over time, digital image analyses were applied in order to measure several phenotypical variables which were related to the snout vent length. Results show a significant increase of patches which change to irregular shapes while SVL increases. Digital image analysis is identified as a suitable tool to explore pattern shape and change in general, while the documented pattern development in S. corsica might be one of the first quantified cases of post-metamorphic ontogenetic pattern change in amphibians.

  13. Development Process Patterns for Distributed Onshore/Offshore Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available the globalisation of the commercial world, and the use of distributed working practices (Offshore/ onshore/ near-shore has increased dramatically with the improvement of information and communication technologies. Many organisations, especially those that operate within knowledge intensive industries, have turned to distributed work arrangements to facilitate information exchange and provide competitive advantage in terms of cost and quicker delivery of the solutions. The information and communication technologies (ICT must be able to provide services similar to face-to-face conditions. Additional organisations functions must be enhanced to overcome the shortcomings of ICT and also to compensate for time gaps, cultural differences, and distributed team work. Our proposed model identifies four key work models or patterns that affect the operation of distributed work arrangements, and we also propose guidelines for managing distributed work efficiently and effectively.

  14. Patterns of change in family-based aggression prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, L D; Tolan, P H

    2001-04-01

    Patterns of change on three intervention targets were examined in 151 families that participated in a family intervention designed to reduce and prevent children's aggressive behavior. Measures of parents' alliance and parenting skills and children's aggressive behavior were obtained at five times during the intervention. Three cluster analyses were conducted to identify patterns of change on each target. Linear and nonlinear patterns of improvement as well as two distinct patterns of no change were obtained. The patterns were differentiated by net improvement, overall level of skill, and trajectory of change. Family characteristics also differentiated the patterns and relations were found among patterns across intervention targets. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11314554

  15. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Helen H. [Iowa State University, Department of Economics, 578 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail hhjensen@iastate.edu

    2006-07-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  16. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends

  17. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends. PMID:17049949

  18. Distributional Aspects of Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a brief review about the state of knowledge on the distributional aspects of climate change impacts. The paper is largely limited to the distribution of impacts between countries (in Section 2). Although there are virtually no estimates reported in the literature, the distribution of impacts within countries is also important. Impact estimates for different sectors (agriculture, health, sea level rise) provides little guidance for estimating differential impacts within countries. It is even harder to find estimates based on social classes. The paper restricts itself to equity about the consequences of climate change. Equity issues about the consequences of emission reduction are ignored here, but should of course be part of a policy analysis. Equity issues about procedures for decision making are also ignored. The paper is organised as follows. Section 2 reviews recent estimates of the regional impacts of climate change. Section 3 discusses alternative ways of aggregating regional impact estimates. Section 4 focusses on the vulnerability of the poor to climate change impacts, both with respect to exposure as well as to their limited capacity for adaptation. Section 5 discusses the impacts of economic development and other dynamic changes on vulnerability. The paper abstains from a discussion of aggregating climate change impacts over time, partly because the literature on that is too substantial to be reviewed here, and partly because, under virtually all scenarios, the current generation is the poorest and therefore particularly worthy in equity considerations. In Section 6 we present salient conclusions

  19. Changing distributions of ticks: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Elsa; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vial, Laurence; Chevillon, Christine; McCoy, Karen D

    2013-02-01

    Today, we are witnessing changes in the spatial distribution and abundance of many species, including ticks and their associated pathogens. Evidence that these changes are primarily due to climate change, habitat modifications, and the globalisation of human activities are accumulating. Changes in the distribution of ticks and their invasion into new regions can have numerous consequences including modifications in their ecological characteristics and those of endemic species, impacts on the dynamics of local host populations and the emergence of human and livestock disease. Here, we review the principal causes for distributional shifts in tick populations and their consequences in terms of the ecological attributes of the species in question (i.e. phenotypic and genetic responses), pathogen transmission and disease epidemiology. We also describe different methodological approaches currently used to assess and predict such changes and their consequences. We finish with a discussion of new research avenues to develop in order to improve our understanding of these host-vector-pathogen interactions in the context of a changing world. PMID:23015121

  20. Biomass distribution patterns of ecotones between forest and swamp in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper studied the biomass distribution patterns of Larix olgensis/swamp ecotones and Betula platyphlla/swamp ecotones in Changbai Mountain so as to provide theory foundation for the management of these nature resources, by setting up sample belts, investigating initial data along the environmental gradients change, and establishing regression models. By means of regression models, the biomass of communities, layers, tree species and organs was calculated. In this system, it was found that the community biomass increased gradually along the environmental gradients change from swamp to forest in Changbai Mountain. Furthermore, the ecotoneal biomass distributed mainly over tree layer. The tree biomass distributed mainly in two or three dominate tree species.

  1. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  2. Fractal Characteristics of the Distribution Pattern of Mangrove Bruguiera Gymnorrhiza Populations in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁士楚; 董鸣; 王伯荪

    2004-01-01

    The distribution patterns of mangrove Bruguiera gvmnorrhiza populations in southern China are analyzed using the box-counting method of fractal theory. The patterns of B. gymnorrhiza populations could be thought of as fractals as they exhibit self-similarity within the range of scale considered. Their fractal dimensions are not integer but fractional, ranging from 1.04 to 1.51. The unoccupied dimensions change from 0.49 to 0.96. The combined conditions of population density, pattern type and aggregation intensity together influence the values of fractal dimensions of patterns.The box counting is a useful and efficient method to investigate the complexity of patterns. Fractal dimension may be a most desirable and appropriate index for quantifying the horizontal spatial microstructure and fractal behaviors of patterns over a certain range of scales.

  3. Consumers' dietary patterns and desires for change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    of the results of a questionnaire survey (Jelsøe, Land & Lassen, 1994), so that their ways of life, age, number of children, distance to etc., were known in advance. Their dietary patterns, as revealed by the questionnaire survey, had no influence on the selection. 3. Not unexpectedly, the questionnaire survey...... * consumer consciousness * use of shopping possibilities * the influence of traditions * children's influence on food * inspiration for food * do people eat fish * ways of life and dietary patterns 6. One of the important results we found was the ambivalence in the information about food. There is a lot...... of ambivalence among consumers about the kind and quality of information they want about everyday food. On the one hand, in order to be able to choose between products, it is important for consumers to have information about product ingredients, while on the other hand, only the most interested consumer can...

  4. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  5. Changing patterns in rainfall extremes in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Beecham, Simon; Metcalfe, Andrew V.

    2015-11-01

    Daily rainfall records from seven stations in South Australia, with record lengths from 50 to 137 years and a common period of 36 years, are investigated for evidence of changes in the statistical distribution of annual total and annual average of monthly daily maxima. In addition, the monthly time series of monthly totals and monthly daily maxima are analysed for three stations for which records exceed 100 years. The monthly series show seasonality and provide evidence of a reduction in rainfall when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is negative, which is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the monthly series do not provide any evidence of a consistent trend or of any changes in the seasonal pattern. Multivariate analyses, typically used in statistical quality control (SQC), are applied to time series of yearly totals and of averages of the 12 monthly daily maxima, during the common 36-year period. Although there are some outlying points in the charts, there is no evidence of any trend or step changes. However, some supplementary permutation tests do provide weak evidence of an increase of variability of rainfall measures. Furthermore, a factor analysis does provide some evidence of a change in the spatial structure of extremes. The variability of a factor which represents the difference between extremes in the Adelaide Hills and the plains increases in the second 18 years relative to the first 18 years. There is also some evidence that the mean of this factor has increased in absolute magnitude.

  6. Distribution pattern and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Gao; Liangdong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (ECM) are symbionts formed between soil fungi and plant root systems, in which the fungus exchanges soil-derived nutrients for carbohydrates obtained from the host plant. As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, ECM fungi can play an essential role in biodiversity maintenance and plant community succession. Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance of ECM fungal diversity is therefore critical to the study of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. An a...

  7. Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke eOztekin; David eBadre

    2011-01-01

    HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting Ilke Öztekin1* and David Badre2,3 1 Department of Psychology, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA 3 Brown Institute for Brain Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Proactive interference (PI), in which irrelevant information from prior learning disrupts memory performance, is widely...

  8. Mapping climate change in European temperature distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change poses challenges for decision makers across society, not just in preparing for the climate of the future but even when planning for the climate of the present day. When making climate sensitive decisions, policy makers and adaptation planners would benefit from information on local scales and for user-specific quantiles (e.g. the hottest/coldest 5% of days) and thresholds (e.g. days above 28 ° C), not just mean changes. Here, we translate observations of weather into observations of climate change, providing maps of the changing shape of climatic temperature distributions across Europe since 1950. The provision of such information from observations is valuable to support decisions designed to be robust in today’s climate, while also providing data against which climate forecasting methods can be judged and interpreted. The general statement that the hottest summer days are warming faster than the coolest is made decision relevant by exposing how the regions of greatest warming are quantile and threshold dependent. In a band from Northern France to Denmark, where the response is greatest, the hottest days in the temperature distribution have seen changes of at least 2 ° C, over four times the global mean change over the same period. In winter the coldest nights are warming fastest, particularly in Scandinavia. (letter)

  9. Noise Induced Pattern Switching in Randomly Distributed Delayed Swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Brandon; Mier-Y-Teran-Romero, Luis; Schwartz, Ira B

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of noise on the dynamics of a system of coupled self-propelling particles in the case where the coupling is time-delayed, and the delays are discrete and randomly generated. Previous work has demonstrated that the stability of a class of emerging patterns depends upon all moments of the time delay distribution, and predicts their bifurcation parameter ranges. Near the bifurcations of these patterns, noise may induce a transition from one type of pattern to another. We study the onset of these noise-induced swarm re-organizations by numerically simulating the system over a range of noise intensities and for various distributions of the delays. Interestingly, there is a critical noise threshold above which the system is forced to transition from a less organized state to a more organized one. We explore this phenomenon by quantifying this critical noise threshold, and note that transition time between states varies as a function of both the noise intensity and delay distribution. PMID:25382931

  10. Global patterns of city size distributions and their fundamental drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan H Decker

    Full Text Available Urban areas and their voracious appetites are increasingly dominating the flows of energy and materials around the globe. Understanding the size distribution and dynamics of urban areas is vital if we are to manage their growth and mitigate their negative impacts on global ecosystems. For over 50 years, city size distributions have been assumed to universally follow a power function, and many theories have been put forth to explain what has become known as Zipf's law (the instance where the exponent of the power function equals unity. Most previous studies, however, only include the largest cities that comprise the tail of the distribution. Here we show that national, regional and continental city size distributions, whether based on census data or inferred from cluster areas of remotely-sensed nighttime lights, are in fact lognormally distributed through the majority of cities and only approach power functions for the largest cities in the distribution tails. To explore generating processes, we use a simple model incorporating only two basic human dynamics, migration and reproduction, that nonetheless generates distributions very similar to those found empirically. Our results suggest that macroscopic patterns of human settlements may be far more constrained by fundamental ecological principles than more fine-scale socioeconomic factors.

  11. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  12. [Testing Research of Transient Temperature Distribution for the Barrel Surface by Speckle Pattern Interferometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Wen-jie; Chen, Guo-guang; Tian, Xiao-li; Xin, Chang-fan

    2016-02-01

    There are some problems in the traditional transient temperature test equipment. The thermal inertia is great, and can only be a single point of detection. To be able to achieve real-time monitoring for transient temperature distribution change of the gun body surface, the test system for transient temperature distribution was designed based on Speckle Pattern Interferometry (SPI) and spectroscopy. In the system, transient temperature change of the barrel led to slight deformation, and it was converted into speckle interference fringes by SPI technology. Spectral distribution function was obtained by the interference fringes by the Fourier transform, so the information of interference fringe deformation was incorporated into the frequency domain. The data of temperature distribution can be inverted on any sampling time by spectral distribution function. In experiments, the ZX-FB1 fiber optic thermometer was used to test transient temperature on a single point as the standard value. The center wavelength of the laser was 555 nm, and the speckle pattern interference fringes were collected by area array CCD. Image Recognition-Speckle Pattern Interferometry (IR-SPI) and Fourier Transform-Speckle Pattern Interferometry (FT-SPI) were used in experiments, the calculation of transient temperature was completed through two methods. Experimental results are that both methods can achieve transient temperature detection. But the FT-SPI is higher in terms of accuracy, and it can effectively overcome the gross error caused by the surface defects, paint wear and other similar problems. PMID:27209730

  13. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Linard

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions.

  14. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions. PMID:22363717

  15. Spatial distribution pattern, scale and gap characteristics of Pinus armandii population in Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Guoyu; CHEN Wei; LEI Ruide

    2007-01-01

    Based on the data collected from 27 plots of the Pinus armandii community in Qinling Mountains,we studied the spatial distribution pattern,scale,and gap characteristics of the P.armandii population.The results showed that the population had a clumped distribution before age 50.At the age range from 15 to 25,though the population tended to be distributed randomly,the distribution was still clumped.The population distribution at the age range from 40 to 50 was at the transitional stage from clumped to random.After age 50,the population started to be senesced,the distribution pattern turning from clumped to random.The distribution pattern scale of P.armandii always changes with the development stage of the population,being 100 m2 in general.The gap size of P armandii population was similar to its distribution pattem scale,and the gaps of 80-130 m2 occupied 59% of the total.Because of the better light and nutrient condition in the gap,P.armandii seedlings grew well,which helped the population keep its stability through "mobile mosaic circling".

  16. Changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological response after partial deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiekenkamp, Inge; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Lin, Henry; Drüe, Clemens; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the effects of land use change on hydrology can be extremely challenging. It requires looking beyond the current structure and functioning of hydrological systems to predict how the system is influenced in a changed setting. Although the hydrological effects of land use change have been studied extensively, only few high resolution datasets are available to accurately describe, model and predict detailed changes in spatiotemporal patterns of hydrological fluxes and states due to land use change. The TERENO test site Wüstebach provides a unique monitoring setup to measure the major components of the water balance (evapotranspiration, discharge, precipitation) and the spatiotemporal distribution of soil moisture before and after a partial deforestation. Here, we present 5 years of measured hydrological data, including soil moisture and water budget component data 3 years before and 2 years after the partial deforestation. A data-driven investigation was used to understand changes and related feedback mechanisms in spatiotemporal hydrological response patterns. The effects of deforestation on soil moisture and evapotranspiration were analyzed by comparing states and fluxes for the control and the deforested area. The effects on discharge characteristics were analyzed using discharge metrics, including baseflow separation, peakflow rates and time to peak. Changes in preferential flow occurrence were identified using a sensor response time analysis of soil moisture measurements before and after the deforestation where preferential flow was identified as a non-sequential sequence of sensor response times within the soil. As expected from earlier studies, the partial deforestation caused a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in discharge. A closer look at the high resolution datasets however reveals new insights in the intra-annual variability of the water balance components. The overall decrease in evapotranspiration caused a large increase in soil

  17. An Analysis on change of household electricity demand pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze the behavioral pattern change of household electricity demand. Through the cross section analysis using materials from the energy total research report, the change in income elasticity of household electricity demand was studied. In this study, two methodologies were used. Firstly, it was shown that the effect of an income variable was very significant with a positive value in simultaneous equations model using exponential equations of electrical appliances holding. Cross section income effect showed a various distribution according to the season or income level. Overall, it was calculated at 0.111 when the appliances are fixed and 0.432 when even appliances are changed. Secondly, using a choice convenient correction model, it is resulted that lambda, the choice convenient correction factor, has a positive value and is statistically significant. In 1996, income elasticity of electricity demand for households with air-conditioning was 0.305 and for households without air-conditioning was 0.172. Income elasticity of households with air-conditioning is increasing as time goes by while income elasticity of households without air-conditioning is decreasing. (author). 32 refs., 35 tabs.

  18. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  19. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  20. On the World Productivity Distribution: Recent Convergence and Divergence Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Guerra, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The post-World War II period has seen substantial changes in labor productivity around the world. Motivated by these changes, this article documents four facts about the world productivity distribution. First, there is a large and increasing disparity between the tails. Second, this disparity rapidly increased in the mid-1980s, slowed down in the next decade, and stabilized in the mid-2000s. Third, overtime, there has been substantial forward and backward mobility of countries and regions. Fo...

  1. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    to facilitating competition. Notably, a taxation law reform enabled and accelerated the competition process already underway. Legal rules and market competition may thus be understood as not operating in isolation, but as forces that can be working in dialog. Secondly, the paper highlights the importance......German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data...... to support this development and explores the consequences in governance and in law that have been taken or that need to be drawn from this finding. Consistent with market-based theoretical accounts on corporate law, it finds that the changes currently underway are mainly a response to global market pressure...

  2. Towards Scalable Distributed Framework for Urban Congestion Traffic Patterns Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boulmakoul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We put forward architecture of a framework for integration of data from moving objects related to urban transportation network. Most of this research refers to the GPS outdoor geolocation technology and uses distributed cloud infrastructure with big data NoSQL database. A network of intelligent mobile sensors, distributed on urban network, produces congestion traffic patterns. Congestion predictions are based on extended simulation model. This model provides traffic indicators calculations, which fuse with the GPS data for allowing estimation of traffic states across the whole network. The discovery process of congestion patterns uses semantic trajectories metamodel given in our previous works. The challenge of the proposed solution is to store patterns of traffic, which aims to ensure the surveillance and intelligent real-time control network to reduce congestion and avoid its consequences. The fusion of real-time data from GPS-enabled smartphones integrated with those provided by existing traffic systems improves traffic congestion knowledge, as well as generating new information for a soft operational control and providing intelligent added value for transportation systems deployment.

  3. Patterns-Based IS Change Management in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makna, Janis; Kirikova, Marite

    The majority of information systems change management guidelines and standards are either too abstract or too bureaucratic to be easily applicable in small enterprises. This chapter proposes the approach, the method, and the prototype that are designed especially for information systems change management in small and medium enterprises. The approach is based on proven patterns of changes in the set of information systems elements. The set of elements was obtained by theoretical analysis of information systems and business process definitions and enterprise architectures. The patterns were evolved from a number of information systems theories and tested in 48 information systems change management projects. The prototype presents and helps to handle three basic change patterns, which help to anticipate the overall scope of changes related to particular elementary changes in an enterprise information system. The use of prototype requires just basic knowledge in organizational business process and information management.

  4. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... amount of uncertainty, the prospect of such a dramatic weakening of public finances is likely to trigger demands for welfare reforms characterized by a more individualized system of public transfer and tax payments, in addition to the measures that have already been taken to address the fiscal effects of...

  5. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  6. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  7. Storm blueprints patterns for distributed real-time computation

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, P Taylor

    2014-01-01

    A blueprints book with 10 different projects built in 10 different chapters which demonstrate the various use cases of storm for both beginner and intermediate users, grounded in real-world example applications.Although the book focuses primarily on Java development with Storm, the patterns are more broadly applicable and the tips, techniques, and approaches described in the book apply to architects, developers, and operations.Additionally, the book should provoke and inspire applications of distributed computing to other industries and domains. Hadoop enthusiasts will also find this book a go

  8. Probability Measure of Navigation pattern predition using Poisson Distribution Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.V.Valli Mayil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has become one of the most important media to store, share and distribute information. The rapid expansion of the web has provided a great opportunity to study user and system behavior by exploring web access logs. Web Usage Mining is the application of data mining techniques to large web data repositories in order to extract usage patterns. Every web server keeps a log of all transactions between the server and the clients. The log data which are collected by web servers contains information about every click of user to the web documents of the site. The useful log information needs to be analyzed and interpreted in order to obtainknowledge about actual user preferences in accessing web pages. In recent years several methods have been proposed for mining web log data. This paper addresses the statistical method of Poisson distribution analysis to find out the higher probability session sequences which is then used to test the web application performance.The analysis of large volumes of click stream data demands the employment of data mining methods. Conducting data mining on logs of web servers involves the determination of frequently occurring access sequences. A statistical poisson distribution shows the frequency probability of specific events when the average probability of a single occurrence is known. The Poisson distribution is a discrete function wich is used in this paper to find out the probability frequency of particular page is visited by the user.

  9. Developing Autonomic Properties for Distributed Pattern-Recognition Systems with ASSL: A Distributed MARF Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Vassev, Emil

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our research towards developing special properties that introduce autonomic behavior in pattern-recognition systems. In our approach we use ASSL (Autonomic System Specification Language) to formally develop such properties for DMARF (Distributed Modular Audio Recognition Framework). These properties enhance DMARF with an autonomic middleware that manages the four stages of the framework's pattern-recognition pipeline. DMARF is a biologically inspired system employing pattern recognition, signal processing, and natural language processing helping us process audio, textual, or imagery data needed by a variety of scientific applications, e.g., biometric applications. In that context, the notion go autonomic DMARF (ADMARF) can be employed by autonomous and robotic systems that theoretically require less-to-none human intervention other than data collection for pattern analysis and observing the results. In this article, we explain the ASSL specification models for the autonomic propertie...

  10. Spatial distribution pattern and dynamics of the primary population in a natural Populus euphratica forest in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu HAN; Haizhen WANG; Zhengli ZHOU; Zhijun LI

    2008-01-01

    One 50 m × 50 m standard plot was sampled in a natural forest of Populus euphratica in Awati County, situated at the edge of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The field investigation was conducted with a contiguous grid quadrate method. By means of a test of variance/mean value ratio, aggregation intensity index and theoretical distribution models, the spatial distribution pattern and the dynamics of primary populations in P. euphratica forest were studied. The results showed that the spatial distribution pattern of two dominant arbor populations conformed to clumped distribution. The aggregation intensity of the P. euphra-tica population was higher than that of P. pruinosa popu- lation. The spatial distribution pattern of two companion plant populations in the shrub layer also conformed to clump type, though the aggregation intensity of Tamarix chinensis was higher. In the herb layer, the distribution patterns of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Asparagus persicus conformed respectively to a clumped pattern and a ran-dom pattern. The results of a Taylor power method test and Iwao's m2-x regression model also verified that both P. euphratica and P. pruinosa populations belong to a clumped pattern. Although the distribution pattern of P. pruinosa population at different development stages all belonged to a clumped distribution pattern, the aggrega-tion intensity dropped gradually along with age develop-ment. The distribution patterns of the P. euphratica population at different development stages changed from random type to clumped type, and further to random type. The differences in spatial distribution patterns of different populations at different development stages were related not only to ecological and biological characteris-tics of each species in the communities in the light of competitive exclusion principle among the populations, but were also closely related to the habitats in which the species lived in.

  11. Distribution patterns of segetal weeds of cereal crops in tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the literature data and field research conducted in 2009-2013 the distribution patterns, habitat conditions, phytogeographical characterisation and endangerment of weeds occurring in cereal crops in Tajikistan were analysed. We found out that Tajik weed flora of cereal crops counts 686 taxa. The most species rich families include Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae. The highest number of cereal weeds were noted in large river valleys of Syr-Daria, Amu-Daria and their tributaries in south-western and northern Tajikistan. This subregions have the warmest climate conditions and extensive arable lands. The greatest weed species richness was observed in submontane and montane elevations between approx. 700 and 1,900 m a.s. Cereal weeds occur frequently outside segetal communities in Tajikistan. They were noted usually in screes, wastelands, xerothermophilous grasslands, river gravel beds and in steppes habitats. The assessment of threat status reveals that ca. 33% of total cereal weed flora in Tajikistan are disappearing or occur very rarely. According to the chorological data we find that in the cereals of Tajikistan, 35 endemic and 14 subendemic species occur. The most numerous chorological elements of threatened weed flora of Tajikistan are Irano-Turanian (55%), pluriregional (16%), cosmopolitan (14,5%), Mediterranean (9%) and Eurosiberian (5%) species. Further research is suggested to explore the distribution patterns of all weed species in Tajikistan as it should be useful for economy and effectiveness of crop production as well as conservation of most valuable species. (author)

  12. LCF heat distribution patterns in a homogeneous phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat patterns were investigated with a homogeneous ''tissue-equivalent'' gelatin phantom constructed with permanently implanted bradytherapy needles. Implant geometries included parallel-planes with varying needle and plane spacing as well as ''Syed-template type geometry. Localized current field hyperthermia was induced using the Davol/Oncotherm LCF System. This system uses the principal of sequencing of RF power (500 KHz) to electrode pairs, thus providing the capacity for differential energy deposition at different electrode pair sites. Experiments were designed to show how heat distribution patterns are affected by (1) different electrode power dwell time distributions and (2) monitoring of (feedback) control temperature either in an energized or non-energized electrode/catheter. Temperatures were recorded at up to 15 locations within the treatment volume using multi-sensor microthermocouples. With needle and plane spacings of 1-2 cm, temperatures throughout various implant volumes were generally maintained within a 2 C range. Cool regions often observed at the periphery of the implant volume were consistently brought to within 1-2 C of the control temperature (usually the highest temperature) by selectively increasing power dwell times at these locations. Heating kinetics show that steady-state temperatures were more stable (less subject to transients) when the (feedback) control temperature sensor was located inside an energized electrode

  13. Meat Consumption Patterns and Intentions for Change Among Finnish Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Latvala, Terhi; Niva, M.; Makela, Jarmo; Pouta, Eija; Heikkila, Jaakko; Koistinen, Laura; Forsman-Hugg, Sari; Kotro, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    During the past few decades, meat has increasingly become a subject of controversies relating to health and safety, environment, and animal welfare. Even though these changes in perceptions of meat are not yet visible in aggregate consumption figures, they can be observed in individual consumption patterns and as intentions to change the consumption. In this study, we examine changes in meat consumption among the Finnish consumers taking into account both stated changes in the past and intend...

  14. Comments on "Child Survival and Changing Fertility Patterns in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, K A

    1992-01-01

    The distillation of Zeba Sathar's article on the determinants of fertility decline and child mortality decline is that marriage age and contraceptive surgery could be important factors in bringing about changes in both fertility and child mortality in Pakistan. The concern is that 80 out of 115 million Pakistanis live in rural areas where marriage age is very low and program efforts are limited or nonexistent. The question is raised about how to effectuate changes in attitudes in rural areas to increase marriage age. Another point is made about the simplicity of explanations for fertility and mortality change, when the reality is a complex host of interactive socioeconomic, cultural, social, and program factors that are responsible for fertility at present levels. The suggestion is for development of a more appropriate model of fertility at the micro level which illuminates the interaction of these factors in determining fertility. Sathar is reported to have concluded that the impact of infant and child mortality on fertility was inconclusive. The changing patterns of fertility are likely to bring about a change in the demand for children and a lesser preference for gender; this status change for women will further reduce child mortality and fertility. Large family sizes are postulated to be associated with close spacing and greater concentrations of children under 5 years of age competing for physical resources and having a high risk of infection with inadequate parental attention and care. These conditions occur in families with low income and little parental education. Institutional and community services also affect child mortality. There are also examples of educational opportunity and income equality as factors bringing about demographic change in Sri Lanka and Kerala, India. The author speculates that an outcome of development is increased educational attainment and more equitable distribution of income. Low levels of maternal education are associated with

  15. Sediment-hosted contaminants and distribution patterns in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Ferina, Nicholas; Dreher, Chandra

    2002-01-01

    The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers transport very large amounts of bedload and suspended sediments to the deltaic and coastal environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Absorbed onto these sediments are contaminants that may be detrimental to the environment. To adequately assess the impact of these contaminants it is first necessary to develop an understanding of sediment distribution patterns in these deltaic systems. The distribution patterns are defined by deltaic progradational cycles. Once these patterns are identified, the natural and industrial contaminant inventories and their depositional histories can be reconstructed. Delta progradation is a function of sediment discharge, as well as channel and receiving-basin dimensions. Fluvial energy controls the sediment distribution pattern, resulting in a coarse grained or sandy framework, infilled with finer grained material occupying the overbank, interdistributary bays, wetlands and abandoned channels. It has been shown that these fine-grained sediments can carry contaminants through absorption and intern them in the sediment column or redistribute them depending on progradation or degradation of the delta deposit. Sediment distribution patterns in delta complexes can be determined through high-resolution geophysical surveys and groundtruthed with direct sampling. In the Atchafalaya and Mississippi deltas, remote sensing using High-Resolution Single-Channel Seismic Profiling (HRSP) and Sidescan Sonar was correlated to 20-ft vibracores to develop a near-surface geologic framework that identifies variability in recent sediment distribution patterns. The surveys identified bedload sand waves, abandoned-channel back-fill, prodelta and distributary mouth bars within the most recently active portions of the deltas. These depositional features respond to changes in deltaic processes and through their response may intern or transport absorbed contaminants. Characterizing these features provides insight into the

  16. Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hong HUANG; Jian-Hua CHEN; Jun-Sheng YING; Ke-Ping MA

    2011-01-01

    We compiled and identified a list of Chinese. endemic seed plant species based on a large number of published References and expert reviews. The characters of these seed plant species and their distribution patterns were described at length. China is rich in endemic seed plants, with a total of 14 939 species (accounting for 52.1%of its total seed plant species) belonging to 1584 genera and 191 families. Temperate families and genera have a significantly higher proportion of endemism than cosmopolitan and tropical ones. The most primitive and derived groups have significantly higher endemism than the other groups. The endemism of tree, shrub, and liana or vine is higher than that of total species; in contrast, the endemism of herb is lower than that of total species. Geographically,these Chinese endemic plants are mainly distributed in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, southwest China. Species richness and proportion of these endemic plants decrease with increased latitude and have a unimodal response to altitude. The peak value of proportion of endemism is at higher altitudes than that of total species and endemic species richness. The proportions of endemic shrub, liana or vine, and herb increase with altitude and have a clear unimodal curve. In contrast, the proportion of tree increases with altitude, with a sudden increase at~4000 m and has a completely different model. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive list of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their basic composition and distribution features.

  17. Analysis of Long-Term Precipitation Sequencing Pattern Changes in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, S.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates changes in long-term precipitation patterns in North America, focusing specifically on precipitation sequencing. Previous precipitation studies have explored changes in extreme precipitation events, intensity, and distribution, but sequencing changes and their effects are still largely not understood. Precipitation sequencing, or the overall temporal pattern of precipitation events, is a vital yet often overlooked part of developing long-term climate predictions; the assumption of long-term stationarity in climate variability, which suggests that past observed temporal patterns are likely to continue and can therefore be projected, weakens the robustness of climate models. Additionally, changes in sequencing could be a driver for fluctuations in the highly interconnected hydrologic cycle, meaning that tipping points and critical changes in the cycle could be better anticipated given a more complete picture of long-term temporal patterns. Analysis was based on precipitation data collected by the National Climatic Data Center for approximately 9000 stations in North America. Temporal patterns recorded at each station - the sequence of consecutive days with or without rain and the lengths of those increments - were reviewed and compared on a decadal and seasonal scale. Comparisons to date indicate that long-term precipitation patterns are non-stationary and therefore cannot be relied upon for long-term climate projections. It remains to be seen how exactly regional temporal patterns have fluctuated over time in North America, and results could provide interesting insight into observed hydrologic changes or serve to reinforce existing theories regarding regional hydrologic studies.

  18. Spatial distribution of seeds and seedlings of two tropical tree species: Is there correspondence between patterns?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial patterns of seed and seedling distribution relative to parent trees (seed and seedling shadow, respectively) were studied for Dacryodes chimantensis (Burseraceae) and Brosimum utile (Moraceae), two common tree species of terra firme forests of Colombian Amazonia. The general objective was to assess whether the patterns imposed by seed dispersal change or persist in subsequent life stages occurring during the transition from seeds/saplings to adult stages. Seed and seedling shadows on the ground were characterized for each tree species along four 50-m radial transects from the base of the parent tree. Causes of seed and seedling predation as a function of distance to the parent tree were determined, as well as the spatial consistency between life stages. Results showed that seed density of both Dacryodes and Brosimum declined leptokurtically with distance, and it was skewed towards the parent tree. However, seed density was more skewed and leptokurtic in Dacryodes than in Brosimum. The overall trend was maintained in the seedling stage of both species and was positively correlated with the distribution patterns of seeds. Seed and seedling predation were positively correlated with density and negatively correlated with the distance from the parent tree. Factors that could be generating the high consistency between the spatial patterns of seed and seedling distribution are discussed, as well as its implications in the population structure of both species and the debate on the factors that influence the spatial distribution of plant species in tropical rain forests.

  19. [Spatial Variability and Distribution Pattern of Soil Organic Matter in a Mollisol Watershed of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng-jie; Ma, Quan-lai; Han, Wen-wen; Shan, Pei-ming; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Shao-liang; Zhang, Zhi-min; Wang, Hong-yan

    2016-05-15

    Spatial variability of soil organic matter and its distribution pattern are the hot issues of soil scientific research. Selecting Haigouhe watershed as the study area, this paper mainly focused on the spatial variability, distribution pattern and its impact factors of SOM in the surface soil by classical statistics, Geo-statistics and "3S" technology. The results showed that: compared with the other black soil areas, the SOM content in Haigouhe watershed was a little lower, there was a spatial autocorrelation, and a moderate variability. Random factors, such as human activities, cultivation measures and so on, had little impact on the spatial variation, while the structural factors had a dominant function, and there was a remarkable spatial anisotropy of SOM. The SOM content reduced gradually from east to west with the familiar changes of height, so the co-kriging interpolation, selecting elevation as the co-variate, was employed to improve the accuracy. The spatial variability of SOM and its distribution pattern in Haigouhe watershed were greatly affected by topography and land use but weakly influenced by traffic, villages and other social factors. The surrounding environment of the samples would increase the uncertainty of spatial variability and interpolation of SOM and it cannot be ignored in future studies. In summary, it was a significant scientific research to analyze the spatial variability, distribution pattern of SOM and its main impact factors in a mollisol hilly watershed of China. PMID:27506048

  20. Interconnected Distribution Networks for Climate Change Abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes introduction of advanced power system configuration for enhancing the efficacy of clean energy mechanism and to ensure reduction in adverse impact on climate. There is increasing scientific evidence showing that burning of fossil fuels are altering the earth's climate, because combustion of fossil fuels produces green house gases. This can be countered by increasing the share of renewables in the total electricity generation, which can effectively reverse adverse impact on climate change consequents. The deployment of renewable energy sources has become necessary to promote the sustainability of energy and environment, this call for the deployment of renewable energy sources at large scale and injecting the electricity generated from the renewable energy sources in to the grid. The existing power system configuration was designed for centralized electricity generation, with limited capacity for reversing power and is not equipped to extract the full potential of renewables. There is need to evolve a distribution system configuration that will interact with distributed energy resources and load demands. The proposed network configuration has been simulated using MATLAB/simulink.

  1. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp. and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp. separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L- 1 and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L- 1 conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

  2. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in...... women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women....... Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. Conclusions Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss...

  3. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships. PMID:26213155

  4. Patterns of cesium-137 distribution across two disparate floodplains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil 137Cs concentration was studied across upstream and downstream floodplain sites of Lower Three Runs Creek, an Upper Coastal Plain stream draining a portion of the Savannah River Plant. Soil samples were collected laterally and vertically at each floodplain location and analyzed for several edaphic characteristics. The results showed that these floodplains were differentiable by their edaphic characteristics both between sites and between depths within a site. The surface distribution of 137Cs was related to microtopographic variation at each site, but predictive relationships for estimating surface-soil 137Cs content from edaphic parameters were not as well defined. A difference in upstream to downstream 137Cs cycling was explained on the basis of the change from direct to indirect nutrient cycling pathways in a downstream direction. This change was coincident with higher sedimentation, greater cation adsorptive capacity, and higher potassium concentrations found downstream

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Influence of Airflow Patterns on Carbon Dioxide Distribution in a Scaled Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tong, Guohong;

    2008-01-01

    Airflow patterns and airflow rate have an important influence on contaminant distribution in livestock buildings. The objective of this paper is to model and evaluate the effect of airflow rates and airflow patterns effect on CO2 concentration distribution and emission rates in a scaled livestock...... building with slatted floor. Contaminant sources are assumed to be modelled as a constant concentration on the manure surface. Three different ventilation rates and two different deflector degrees are studied, in which the deflector is applied to change the airflow patterns. A CFD commercial software code...... has been applied to simulate the contaminant distribution. Experiments of tracer gas concentration distribution in the chamber are performed at Air Physic Lab of Aarhus University to validate CFD software. Simulation results and measurements show that ventilation rates and airflow patterns have an...

  6. NEW CONSUMPTION PATTERNS CAUSED BY CHANGES IN FAMILY COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Gílson de Lima Garófalo; Patrícia Emídio dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The idea of this contribution arose from observations in supermarkets, buildings with smaller apartments scattered throughout the large cities and the new family compositions. The work aims to verify the reasons for changes in consumption patterns, notoriously from the XXI century, the time of redistribution of income and consequently the reduction of inequality in Brazil. The access to goods and services by a middle class emerging from political and economic changes in the country showed the...

  7. Patterns of Holocene relative sea level change in the North of Britain and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Hunt, N.; Firth, C. R.; Jordan, J. T.; Fretwell, P. T.; Harman, M.; Murdy, J.; Orford, J. D.; Burnside, N. G.

    2012-10-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of relative sea level (RSL) change in the North of Britain and Ireland during the Holocene are examined. Four episodes, each defined by marked changes in the RSL trend, are identified. Each episode is marked by a rise to a culminating shoreline followed by a fall. Episode HRSL-1 dates from the Younger Dryas to early in the Holocene; HRSL-2 to HRSL-4 occurred later in the Holocene. There is extensive evidence for each episode, and on this basis the spatial distribution of the altitude data for three culminating shorelines and a shoreline formed at the time of the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami (ca 8110 ± 100 cal. BP) is analysed. Ordinary Kriging is used to determine the general pattern, following which Gaussian Trend Surface Analysis is employed. Recognising that empirical measurements of RSL change can be unevenly distributed spatially, a new approach is introduced which enables the developing pattern to be identified. The patterns for the most widely occurring shorelines were analysed and found to be similar and common centre and axis models were developed for all shorelines. The analyses described provide models of the spatial pattern of Holocene RSL change in the area between ca 8100 cal. BP and ca 1000 cal. BP based on 2262 high resolution shoreline altitude measurements. These models fit the data closely, no shoreline altitude measurement lying more than -1.70 m or +1.82 m from the predicted value. The models disclose a similar pattern to a recently published Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model for present RSL change across the area, indicating that the overall spatial pattern of RSL change may not have varied greatly during the last ca 8000 years.

  8. More about the geographical pattern of distribution of the genus Pseudouroplectes Lourenço, 1995 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Wilmé, Lucienne; Waeber, Patrick O

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudouroplectes Lourenço, 1995 (Buthidae) remains among the less speciose Malagasy genera and all the known species are extremely rare. A new species is described from the dry forests in the Tsingy formations of the National Park Bemaraha, extending the distribution of the genus further north. Once again, the single holotype specimen was obtained by extraction with the use of Berlese system. With the description of the new species, the distributional pattern of this genus is confirmed for dry forest formations from the south to the middle of the island; however, for the first time the group's distribution overlaps that of another micro-scorpion genus, Microcharmus Lourenço, 1995. The distribution patterns of the humicolous micro-scorpions endemic to Madagascar are considered to further explore the "Neogrosphus rule" as a possible explanation of global species distribution patterns in changing environments. PMID:26751250

  9. Tissue distribution and excretion pattern of 51Cr in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study distribution and excretion pattern of chromium, 51CrCl3 was orally administered in doses of 66.6 μCi to each rat. Lungs, liver and testis accumulated relatively higher radioactivity earlier and this accumulation persisted in liver and testis for 192 hr. The lungs, heart muscles and gall bladder showed a gradual decline after initial uptake whereas in kidney and spleen it continued to increase as a function of time. Uptake of 51Cr per unit weight of the small intestine was greater than the stomach and the large intestine. On an average, 70.15 percent of the orally administered 51Cr was excreted in faeces within 192 hr of dosing. In the second experiment, six male kids weighing 23.87 kg, on an average, were given orally 500 μCi of 51Cr. Kids were maintained on concentrate mixture and green berseem which contained 0.43 ppm and 0.195 ppm chromium, respectively. The balance studies revealed that 94.93 percent of the total 51Cr dose was excreted in the faeces and 1.93 percent in the urine during 7 day period. Net absorption of 51Cr was, however, only 9.0 percent. (auth.)

  10. The physiology of global change: linking patterns to mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somero, George N

    2012-01-01

    Global change includes alterations in ocean temperature, oxygen availability, salinity, and pH, abiotic variables with strong and interacting influences on the physiology of all taxa. Physiological stresses resulting from changes in these four variables may cause broad biogeographic shifts as well as localized changes in distribution in mosaic habitats. To elucidate these causal linkages, I address the following questions: What types of physiological limitations can alter species' distributions and, in cases of extreme stress, cause extinctions? Which species are most threatened by these physiological challenges--and why? How do contents of genomes establish capacities to respond to global change, notably in the case of species that have evolved in highly stable habitats? How fully can phenotypic acclimatization offset abiotic stress? Can physiological measurements, including new molecular ("-omic") approaches, provide indices of the degree of sublethal stress an organism experiences? And can physiological evolution keep pace with global change? PMID:22457968

  11. Insolation Forecasting Using Weather Forecast with Weather Change Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takae; Kurokawa, Kosuke

    This paper reports an insolation forecasting method for photovoltaic power predictions. The method of proposal forecasts the global irradiance every one hour by using weather forecast every three hours. The weather forecast is classified into 14 kinds of weather change categories by weather change patterns, and the insolation forecasting accuracy is improved. The forecasting accuracy was examined based on the measurement data and the weather forecast announced in Tokyo. In the result, using weather change patterns decrease mean absolute error ratio of hourly forecasting from 32.6 to 30.2% and the error ratio of daily forecasting from 24.7 to 23.5%. The result also shows the possibility that the error ratio of hourly forecasting is decreased to 24.5% and the error ratio of daily forecasting is decreased to 17.8% in Tokyo when the weather forecast accuracy is improved.

  12. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... overall assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of...... consumption seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  13. MR patterns of bone marrow of calvarium and vertebral body in normal subjects; Pattern analysis according to age distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate MR patterns of bone marrow of calvarium and vertebral body in normal subjects according the age distribution and to understand the course of the fatty replacement from red marrow. We retrospectively evaluated MR examinations of the calvaria(n=71), cervical spine(n=71), thoracic spine(n=65), lmbar spine(n=68) in subjects without bone marrow abnormality whose age ranged 3 weeks to 74 years. Three distinctive patterns were categorized on T1-weighted images of the skull. In pattern 1, uniformly low signal intensity with or without very small areas of high intensity in frontal and occipital bones is noted. In pattern 2, frontal and occipital bones have uniformly high signal intensity, and patchy area of high intensity appears in parietal bone. In pattern 3, the entire skull has uniformly high signal intensity. In the spine, four patterns were categorized on T1-weighted MR images. In pattern 1, the vertebral body has uniformly low signal intensity expect for linear areas of high intensity superior and inferior to basivertebral vein. In pattern 2, bandlike and triangular areas of high signal intensity are found in the periphery. Pattern 3 and 4 have diffusely distributed areas of high signal intensity; pattern 3 consist of numerous indistinct dots measuring a few millimeter or less, and pattern 4 consist of fairly well marginated areas ranging in size from 5 to 1.5 cm. In the calvaria, 73% of pattern 1 were younger than 20 years, pattern 2 were evenly distributed, and 86% of pattern 3 were older than 40 years. In the spine, 87% of pattern 1 were younger than 40 years, 72% of pattern 3 were in 40 to 50 years, and 87% of pattern 4 were older than 50 years. Pattern 2 were evenly distributed in the cervical and thoracic spine, but in the thoracic spine 62% were younger than 30 years. It is concluded that younger age group shows mainly pattern 1, whereas elderly group has pattern 3 or 4 in the calvarial and vertebral body marrow. This

  14. Predicting Plant Diversity Patterns in Madagascar: Understanding the Effects of Climate and Land Cover Change in a Biodiversity Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kerry A.; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence r...

  15. Predicting plant diversity patterns in madagascar:Understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kerry A.; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin A.; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence r...

  16. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Lalit; Brown, Kerry A.; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin A.; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence r...

  17. The spatial and temporal distributions of arthropods in forest canopies: uniting disparate patterns with hypotheses for specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhaugh, Carl W

    2014-11-01

    Arguably the majority of species on Earth utilise tropical rainforest canopies, and much progress has been made in describing arboreal assemblages, especially for arthropods. The most commonly described patterns for tropical rainforest insect communities are host specificity, spatial specialisation (predominantly vertical stratification), and temporal changes in abundance (seasonality and circadian rhythms). Here I review the recurrent results with respect to each of these patterns and discuss the evolutionary selective forces that have generated them in an attempt to unite these patterns in a holistic evolutionary framework. I propose that species can be quantified along a generalist-specialist scale not only with respect to host specificity, but also other spatial and temporal distribution patterns, where specialisation is a function of the extent of activity across space and time for particular species. When all of these distribution patterns are viewed through the paradigm of specialisation, hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the evolution of host specificity can also be applied to explain the generation and maintenance of other spatial and temporal distribution patterns. The main driver for most spatial and temporal distribution patterns is resource availability. Generally, the distribution of insects follows that of the resources they exploit, which are spatially stratified and vary temporally in availability. Physiological adaptations are primarily important for host specificity, where nutritional and chemical variation among host plants in particular, but also certain prey species and fungi, influence host range. Physiological tolerances of abiotic conditions are also important for explaining the spatial and temporal distributions of some insect species, especially in drier forest environments where desiccation is an ever-present threat. However, it is likely that for most species in moist tropical rainforests, abiotic conditions are valuable

  18. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Chirima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of

  19. Distribution patterns of invasive alien species in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwen Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species (IAS cause environmental and economical problems. How to effectively manage all IAS at a large area is a challenge.Hypotheses about IAS (such as the “human activity” hypothesis, the “biotic acceptance” and the “biotic resistance” have been proposedfrom numerous studies. Here the state of Alabama in USA, widely occupied by IAS, is used as a case study for characterizing the emergentpatterns of IAS. The results indicate that most IAS are located in metropolitan areas and in the Black Belt area which is a historical intensiveland use area. There are positive relationships between the richness of IAS and the change of human population, the species richness and thenumber of endangered species, as well as the total road length and farmland area across Alabama. This study partially supports the abovethree hypotheses and provides a general pattern of local IAS. Based on possible processes related with IAS, some implications forstrategically managing local IAS are discussed.

  20. Gaze patterns of gross anatomy students change with classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C; Iyer, Arjun; Ghebremichael, Abenet; Frustace, Bruno S; Flannery, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that experts exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than those of less experienced individuals. In visual search tasks, experts use fewer, longer fixations to fixate for relatively longer on salient regions of the visual field while less experienced observers spend more time examining nonsalient regions. This study investigates whether changes in gaze patterns reflect learning by students in a medical gross anatomy course. Students were asked to examine photographs of dissections similar to those they experienced in class and to identify the tagged structure in each image. We postulated that, compared to naive behavior (behavior at baseline and when examining unfamiliar content) students would examine familiar content for longer and would direct proportionally more fixation time on cognitively salient regions of the images while using fewer, longer duration fixations. Our students examined familiar images for significantly longer than they did at baseline (P studies of expertise, which have primarily focused on the gaze patterns of true experts. PMID:25156955

  1. Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espinoza

    Full Text Available Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP over a ten year period. Overall, 21 species of sharks from five families and two orders were recorded. Grey reef Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, silvertip C. albimarginatus, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, and sliteye Loxodon macrorhinus sharks were the most abundant species (>64% of shark abundances. Multivariate regression trees showed that hard coral cover produced the primary split separating shark assemblages. Four indicator species had consistently higher abundances and contributed to explaining most of the differences in shark assemblages: C. amblyrhynchos, C. albimarginatus, G. cuvier, and whitetip reef Triaenodon obesus sharks. Relative distance along the GBRMP had the greatest influence on shark occurrence and species richness, which increased at both ends of the sampling range (southern and northern sites relative to intermediate latitudes. Hard coral cover and distance across the shelf were also important predictors of shark distribution. The relative abundance of sharks was significantly higher in non-fished sites, highlighting the conservation value and benefits of the GBRMP zoning. However, our results also showed that hard coral cover had a large effect on the abundance of reef-associated shark species, indicating that coral reef health may be important for the success of marine protected areas. Therefore, understanding shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and the drivers responsible for those patterns is essential for developing sound management and conservation

  2. Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Cappo, Mike; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) over a ten year period. Overall, 21 species of sharks from five families and two orders were recorded. Grey reef Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, silvertip C. albimarginatus, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, and sliteye Loxodon macrorhinus sharks were the most abundant species (>64% of shark abundances). Multivariate regression trees showed that hard coral cover produced the primary split separating shark assemblages. Four indicator species had consistently higher abundances and contributed to explaining most of the differences in shark assemblages: C. amblyrhynchos, C. albimarginatus, G. cuvier, and whitetip reef Triaenodon obesus sharks. Relative distance along the GBRMP had the greatest influence on shark occurrence and species richness, which increased at both ends of the sampling range (southern and northern sites) relative to intermediate latitudes. Hard coral cover and distance across the shelf were also important predictors of shark distribution. The relative abundance of sharks was significantly higher in non-fished sites, highlighting the conservation value and benefits of the GBRMP zoning. However, our results also showed that hard coral cover had a large effect on the abundance of reef-associated shark species, indicating that coral reef health may be important for the success of marine protected areas. Therefore, understanding shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and the drivers responsible for those patterns is essential for developing sound management and conservation approaches. PMID

  3. Methods for spatial pattern comparison in distributed hydrological modelling : [Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnert, Matthias; Güntner, Andreas; Klann, Mechthild; F. Martin Garrido; Zillgens, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    The rigorous development, application and validation of distributed hydrological models obligates to evaluate data in a spatially distributed way. In particular, spatial model predictions such as the distribution of soil moisture, runoff generating areas or nutrient-contributing areas or erosion rates, are to be assessed against spatially distributed observations. Also model inputs, such as the distribution of modelling units derived by GIS and remote sensing analyses, should be evaluated aga...

  4. Biogeographic Distribution Patterns of Bacteria in Typical Chinese Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongwei; Bai, Edith; Wang, Qingkui; Gao, Decai; Zhou, Jidong; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Jiabing

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are widely distributed in soils and play a very important role in nutrient cycling and ecosystem services. To understand the biogeographic distribution of forest soil bacteria, we collected 115 soil samples in typical forest ecosystems across eastern China to investigate their bacterial community compositions using Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing based on 16S rRNA. We obtained 4,667,656 sequences totally and more than 70% of these sequences were classified into five dominant groups, i.e., Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes (relative abundance >5%). The bacterial diversity showed a parabola shape along latitude and the maximum diversity appeared at latitudes between 33.50°N and 40°N, an area characterized by warm-temperate zones and moderate temperature, neutral soil pH and high substrate availability (soil C and N) from dominant deciduous broad-leaved forests. Pairwise dissimilarity matrix in bacterial community composition showed that bacterial community structure had regional similarity and the latitude of 30°N could be used as the dividing line between southern and northern forest soils. Soil properties and climate conditions (MAT and MAP) greatly accounted for the differences in the soil bacterial structure. Among all soil parameters determined, soil pH predominantly affected the diversity and composition of the bacterial community, and soil pH = 5 probably could be used as a threshold below which soil bacterial diversity might decline and soil bacterial community structure might change significantly. Moreover, soil exchangeable cations, especially Ca(2+) (ECa(2+)) and some other soil variables were also closely related to bacterial community structure. The selected environmental variables (21.11%) explained more of the bacterial community variation than geographic distance (15.88%), indicating that the edaphic properties and environmental factors played a more important role than

  5. Predicting the distribution of spiral waves from cell properties in a developmental-path model of Dictyostelium pattern formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Geberth; Marc-Thorsten Hütt

    2009-01-01

    The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern formation. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers). This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this conce...

  6. A study of the distribution pattern and correlation between maxillary, frontal and sphenoid sinus volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to study the distribution pattern and correlation between maxillary, frontal and sphenoid sinus volume, sinus volumes were measured by coronal CT scans of the paranasal sinus. Two hundred and four maxillary sinuses of 102 patients, the frontal sinuses of 62 patients and the sphenoid sinuses of 68 patients with no inflammatory changes detectable on CT scans of the each paranasal sinus and nasal cavity were analyzed. The volumes of the maxillary sinus showed a normal distribution, and its mean volume and standard deviation were 20.5±9.2 cm3. The logarithms of both frontal and sphenoid sinus volumes exhibited an normal distribution. The mean volume of the frontal sinus and the sphenoid sinus, which were calculated using logarithms of the sinus volumes statistically, were 8.3 cm3 and 9.6 cm3 respectively. The correlation coefficient was 0.134 between the maxillary and frontal sinus, 0.445 between the maxillary and sphenoid sinus and 0.315 between the frontal and sphenoid sinus. It is suggested that differences in the volume distribution pattern between the maxillary sinus and frontal or sphenoid sinus might be caused by differences in the growing process of each sinus. (author)

  7. Research on the pattern of solid-liquid two-phase distribution in chemical process pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explore the pattern of solid-liquid two-phase flow distribution in first stage of double-suction impeller and the double volute channel of the HD type petrol-chemical process pump, the flow field in double-suction impeller and double volute is simulated with the CFD software, by taking the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations as its governing equations, and the standard k-ε model for turbulence, derives the pattern of solid particle concentration distribution in the impeller and double volute channel under different initial particle concentrations and different particle diameters. The results show that in the double-suction impeller, solid phase distribution changes a lot along with the increase of initial particle concentration; the concentration near the back side is higher than the face side. Solid particles have the motion trend to the back side of blade in double-suction impeller along with the increase of particle diameters. In double volute channel, solid phase concentration distribution is uneven and solid particle concentration is relatively higher from section 1 to section 8. In the diffusion section, concentration is high in lateral side and low in medial side, the solid particles have the motion trend to the lateral side and the solid particle concentration is relatively higher.

  8. Dietary Patterns Associated with Weight Change in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kelly Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dietary patterns that include recommended servings of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dietary fiber, and dairy, combined with regular physical activity and frequent breakfast consumption are optimal choices for weight loss or weight maintenance over time. College students are at an increased risk for weight gain due to environmental and behavioral changes that are associated with decreased dietary quality and physical inactivity. Preventing weight gain in college students may h...

  9. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong.) Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani; Karla Zanenga Scherer

    2004-01-01

    The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG.) Kunth (Eriocaulaceae) were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 a...

  10. The Changing Size Distribution of U.S. Trade Unions and Its Description by Pareto's Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    John Pencavel

    2013-01-01

    The size distribution of trade unions in the United States and changes in this distribution are documented. Because the most profound changes are taking place among very large unions, these are subject to special analysis by invoking Pareto’s distribution. This represents a new application of this distribution. Extensions to trade union wealth and to Britain are broached. The role of the public sector in these changes receives particular attention. A simple model helps account both for the lo...

  11. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. METHODS: The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent...... examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. RESULTS: Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A...... similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LTPA and OPA were associated with...

  12. Normal cranial bone marrow MR imaging pattern with age-related ADC value distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qi [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Sanhao Street No. 36, Heping District, Shenyang 110004 (China); Pan Shinong, E-mail: cjr.panshinong@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Sanhao Street No. 36, Heping District, Shenyang 110004 (China); Yin Yuming [Radiology Associates, LLP, Corpus Christi, TX 78411 (United States); Li Wei; Chen Zhian [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Sanhao Street No. 36, Heping District, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu Yunhui [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Sanhao Street No. 36, Heping District, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To determine MRI appearances of normal age-related cranial bone marrow and the relationship between MRI patterns and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Five hundred subjects were divided into seven groups based on ages. Cranial bone marrow MRI patterns were performed based on different thickness of the diploe and signal intensity distribution characteristics. ADC values of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal bones on DWI were measured and calculated. Correlations between ages and ADC values, between patterns and ADC values, as well as the distribution of ADC values were analyzed. Results: Normal cranial bone marrow was divided into four types and six subtypes, Type I, II, III and IV, which had positive correlation with age increasing ({chi}{sup 2} = 266.36, P < 0.01). The ADC values of normal parietal and occipital bone marrow showed significant negative correlation with age growing (r = -0.561 and -0.622, P < 0.01), while there were no significant differences of that with age increasing in frontal and temporal bone marrow (P > 0.05). In addition, there was significant negative correlation between the ADC values and MRI patterns in the normal parietal and occipital bones (r = -0.691 and -0.750, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of MRI features and ADC values changes in different cranial bones showed significant correlation with age increasing. Familiar with the MRI appearance of the normal bone marrow conversion pattern in different age group and their ADC value will aid the diagnosis and differential of the cranial bone pathology.

  13. Where Are All the Fish: Potential of Biogeographical Maps to Project Current and Future Distribution Patterns of Freshwater Species

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Danijela; Freyhof, Jörg; Wolter, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The dendritic structure of river networks is commonly argued against use of species atlas data for modeling freshwater species distributions, but little has been done to test the potential of grid-based data in predictive species mapping. Using four different niche-based models and three different climate change projections for the middle of the 21st century merged pairwise as well as within a consensus modeling framework, we studied the variability in current and future distribution patterns...

  14. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P

  15. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P

  16. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  17. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time–space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

  18. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerl, Gabriele; Zwiers, Francis; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time-space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

  19. Spatial distribution pattern of termite in Endau Rompin Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaludin, Nur-Atiqah; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    We censused 18 field blocks approximately 190 ha with total of 28,604 palms in a grid of 2×4 palms from July 2011 to March 2013. The field blocks comprise of rows of palm trees, harvesting paths, field drains and stacking rows with maximum of 30 palms per row, planted about 9 m apart, alternately in maximum of 80 rows. SADIE analysis generating index of aggregation, Ia, local clustering value, Vi and local gap value, Vj is adopted to estimate spatial pattern. The patterns were then presented in contour map using Surfer 12 software. The patterns produced associated with factors i.e. habitat disturbance, habitat fragmentation and resources affecting nesting and foraging activities. Result shows that field blocks with great habitat disturbance recorded highest dead palms and termites hits. Blocks located far from the main access road recorded less than 2% palms with termite hits. This research may provide ecological data on termite spatial pattern in oil palm ecosystem.

  20. The Effect of Mineralization on Pore-size Distribution Patterns in Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Ague, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    In geological media, pore-size distributions can strongly influence important physical parameters such as permeability and specific surface area. Mineralization in rock and soil often reduces the overall porosity and can also induce changes in the distribution of pore sizes. However, the way in which mineralization affects pore size is poorly understood, with relatively little data available from field-based studies. Here, we present a high-resolution profile of pore-size distributions from a variably mineralized sandstone section. The samples were obtained from a Barents Sea core in which quartz cement had preferentially precipitated around stylolite (pressure solution) interfaces; pore-size distributions were measured in 15 samples using mercury injection porosimetry. The results demonstrate that mineralization led to a reduction in porosity of around 40% in samples closest to the stylolite. However, this reduction was not uniform over the range of pore-sizes: the greatest level of porosity reduction occurred in the 10-5-10-4 m size range, while there was no discernible change in the porosity associated with smaller pores. A reactive transport model - simulating the dissolution of quartz at the stylolite interface and subsequent reprecipitation in the rock matrix - was used to predict the evolution of the porosity associated with multiple pore-sizes; the model was successfully able to reproduce the observed porosity patterns, indicating that such an approach could be integrated into efforts to model the evolution of porosity in geological formations, including during CO2 sequestration.

  1. Estimation of the methylation pattern distribution from deep sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Peijie; Forêt, Sylvain; Wilson, Susan R; Burden, Conrad J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisulphite sequencing enables the detection of cytosine methylation. The sequence of the methylation states of cytosines on any given read forms a methylation pattern that carries substantially more information than merely studying the average methylation level at individual positions. In order to understand better the complexity of DNA methylation landscapes in biological samples, it is important to study the diversity of these methylation patterns. However, the accurate quantific...

  2. NEW CONSUMPTION PATTERNS CAUSED BY CHANGES IN FAMILY COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gílson de Lima Garófalo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this contribution arose from observations in supermarkets, buildings with smaller apartments scattered throughout the large cities and the new family compositions. The work aims to verify the reasons for changes in consumption patterns, notoriously from the XXI century, the time of redistribution of income and consequently the reduction of inequality in Brazil. The access to goods and services by a middle class emerging from political and economic changes in the country showed the formation of a new archetype of consumption that is not only from the demands of modern life, but also from historical facts that can lead to behavioral changes, including different types of family compositions. Thus, by using a qualitative and quantitative methodology, with a theoretical basis accompanied by a field research with application of a specific questionnaire consistent with the research of family budgets, this work aimed to map the metamorphoses and understand the consequences for the economy of this whole context.

  3. The Changing Distribution of Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    2001-01-01

    Satisfaction among male workers in upper earnings brackets increased from 1978-1996; similar results were found in Germany for 1984-1996. Little relationship between job satisfaction and persistent earnings inequality was found. Recent shocks to earnings mattered more to current and recent changes in satisfaction than did distant shocks.…

  4. Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, K.

    2003-01-01

    Changing distributions of Cantharidae and Buprestidae within Great Britain (Coleoptera) Data are presented on the distribution of selected species from two coleopteran families chosen to represent a random slice of the British fauna. The species have been chosen as exhibiting extremes of range chang

  5. First contact distributions for spatial patterns: regularity and estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, M.B.; Baddeley, A.J.; Gill, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    For applications in spatial statistics an important property of a random set X in Rk is its rst contact distribution This is the distribution of the distance from a xed point to the nearest point of X where distance is measured using scalar dilations of a xed test set B We show that if B is convex

  6. Patterns of Structural Change in the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlik Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the extent and impact of structural changes on aggregate economic growth that occurred in European economies during the past two decades, focusing on the new EU Member States of Central and Eastern Europe. After presenting some stylised facts related to employment and output restructuring, we use a conventional shift and share analysis in order to evaluate the impact of broader sectoral shifts on GDP growth, focusing on the period 1995–2011. A decomposition of aggregate GDP/GVA growth using the shift and share analysis shows a distinct North-South pattern of growth and restructuring while the previous NMS-OMS divisions are becoming less relevant. In the North, manufacturing and trade have fuelled growth whereas in the South there has been much less structural change. Apart from these differences, our results partly differ from earlier findings of similar analyses for the NMS. Finally, we analyse differentiated impacts of the recent (2008–2011 crisis on structural changes in Europe and find interesting similarities between (groups of NMS and OMS in terms of both growth patterns and responses to the crisis.

  7. Spatial distribution pattern of vanadium in hydric landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Breuer, Jörn; Palmer, Iris; Berger, Jochen

    2010-05-01

    landscapes. Independent from the parent material, we found a distinct spatial pattern of V, which reflected that of the local redox environment: Horizons/pedons with oxic conditions revealed a positive correlation between V content and Fe content. In this case, iron oxides act as an important sink for dissolved V which originated from other locations of the catena. Poorly drained soils, such as Stagnosols for example, promote both Fe and V reduction, which is coupled to their removal from the pedons by leaching. It can be demonstrated that the element-specific Eh window for differential reduction is very narrow. The spatial distribution of both elements shows that high V contents are often associated with low Fe contents. It is therefore assumed that a reducing environment promotes Fe3+ reduction, while maintaining while maintaining V stable.

  8. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  9. Changes in Estonian Income Distribution: A Demographic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Wilder; Mare Viies

    2003-01-01

    As noted by a variety of theoretical and empirical papers, the transition of the former Soviet socialist countries has brought with it changes in income distribution. As opposed to viewing income distribution overall, this paper examines changes in the level and the distribution of total income per equivalent adult in Estonia based on the head of household’s gender, nationality, education and age. We also use multivariate regression to determine the responsiveness of total household income to...

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of population distribution as crucial element for risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; van Westen, Cees J.; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and presence of the population in a certain area is a crucial element within natural hazard risk management, especially in the case of rapid onset hazard events and emergency management. When fast onset hazards such as earthquakes, flash floods or industrial accidents occur, people may not have adequate time for evacuation and the emergency management requires a fast response and reaction. Therefore, information on detailed distribution of people affected by a certain hazard is important for a fast assessment of the situation including the number and the type of people (distinguishing between elderly or handicapped people, children, working population etc.) affected. This study thus aims at analyzing population distribution on an hourly basis for different days e.g. workday or holiday. The applied method combines the basic assessment of population distribution in a given area with specific location-related patterns of distribution-changes over time. The calculations are based on detailed information regarding the expected presence of certain groups of people, e.g. school children, working or elderly people, which all show different patterns of movement over certain time periods. The study area is the city of Waidhofen /Ybbs located in the Alpine foreland in the Southwest of Lower Austria. This city serves as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools for the surrounding countryside. Therefore a lot of small and medium businesses are located in this area showing a rather high variation of population present at different times of the day. The available building footprint information was classified with respect to building type and occupancy type, which was used to estimate the expected residents within the buildings, based on the floorspace of the buildings and the average floorspace per person. Additional information on the distribution and the average duration of stay of the people in these buildings was

  11. Landscape patterns in rainforest phylogenetic signal: isolated islands of refugia or structured continental distributions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kooyman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Identify patterns of change in species distributions, diversity, concentrations of evolutionary history, and assembly of Australian rainforests. METHODS: We used the distribution records of all known rainforest woody species in Australia across their full continental extent. These were analysed using measures of species richness, phylogenetic diversity (PD, phylogenetic endemism (PE and phylogenetic structure (net relatedness index; NRI. Phylogenetic structure was assessed using both continental and regional species pools. To test the influence of growth-form, freestanding and climbing plants were analysed independently, and in combination. RESULTS: Species richness decreased along two generally orthogonal continental axes, corresponding with wet to seasonally dry and tropical to temperate habitats. The PE analyses identified four main areas of substantially restricted phylogenetic diversity, including parts of Cape York, Wet Tropics, Border Ranges, and Tasmania. The continental pool NRI results showed evenness (species less related than expected by chance in groups of grid cells in coastally aligned areas of species rich tropical and sub-tropical rainforest, and in low diversity moist forest areas in the south-east of the Great Dividing Range and in Tasmania. Monsoon and drier vine forests, and moist forests inland from upland refugia showed phylogenetic clustering, reflecting lower diversity and more relatedness. Signals for evenness in Tasmania and clustering in northern monsoon forests weakened in analyses using regional species pools. For climbing plants, values for NRI by grid cell showed strong spatial structuring, with high diversity and PE concentrated in moist tropical and subtropical regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Concentrations of rainforest evolutionary history (phylo-diversity were patchily distributed within a continuum of species distributions. Contrasting with previous concepts of rainforest community

  12. Climate change influences on global distributions of dengue and chikungunya virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lindsay P; Luther, Caylor; Moo-Llanes, David; Ramsey, Janine M; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Peterson, A Townsend

    2015-04-01

    Numerous recent studies have illuminated global distributions of human cases of dengue and other mosquito-transmitted diseases, yet the potential distributions of key vector species have not been incorporated integrally into those mapping efforts. Projections onto future conditions to illuminate potential distributional shifts in coming decades are similarly lacking, at least outside Europe. This study examined the global potential distributions of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in relation to climatic variation worldwide to develop ecological niche models that, in turn, allowed anticipation of possible changes in distributional patterns into the future. Results indicated complex global rearrangements of potential distributional areas, which--given the impressive dispersal abilities of these two species--are likely to translate into actual distributional shifts. This exercise also signalled a crucial priority: digitization and sharing of existing distributional data so that models of this sort can be developed more rigorously, as present availability of such data is fragmentary and woefully incomplete. PMID:25688023

  13. The country of distribution effect on the brand attitude change

    OpenAIRE

    José Mauro da Costa Hernandez; Patrícia da Costa Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the country of distribution effect on the change of attitudes towards a brand. Country of distribution is defined as the results (positive or negative) obtained by a brand when it communicates to be distributed in a foreigner locale. The results of three experiments demonstrate that the country of distribution effect is higher when the country is a traditional manufacturer (vs. non-traditional manufacturer) of the brand’s product category. Further, the country of di...

  14. The country of distribution effect on the brand attitude change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro da Costa Hernandez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the country of distribution effect on the change of attitudes towards a brand. Country of distribution is defined as the results (positive or negative obtained by a brand when it communicates to be distributed in a foreigner locale. The results of three experiments demonstrate that the country of distribution effect is higher when the country is a traditional manufacturer (vs. non-traditional manufacturer of the brand’s product category. Further, the country of distribution effect is higher for high quality (vs. low quality brands and is moderated by the perceived success of the brand in the distribution country.

  15. Distribution patterns of fishes in a canyon-shaped reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Marie; Kubečka, Jan; Vašek, Mojmír; Peterka, Jiří; Seďa, Jaromír; Jůza, Tomáš; Říha, Milan; Jarolím, Oldřich; Tušer, Michal; Kratochvíl, Michal; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Hohausová, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2008), s. 54-78. ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600170502; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1392 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : longitudinal distribution * vertical distribution * fish community structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.246, year: 2008

  16. Arctic climate change with a 2C global warming. Timing, climate patterns and vegetation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The signatories to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change are charged with stabilizing the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous interference with the climate system. A number of nations, organizations and scientists have suggested that global mean temperature should not rise over 2C above preindustrial levels. However, even a relatively moderate target of 2C has serious implications for the Arctic, where temperatures are predicted to increase at least 1.5 to 2 times as fast as global temperatures. High latitude vegetation plays a significant role in the lives of humans and animals, and in the global energy balance and carbon budget. These ecosystems are expected to be among the most strongly impacted by climate change over the next century. To investigate the potential impact of stabilization of global temperature at 2C, we performed a study using data from six Global Climate Models (GCMs) forced by four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, the BIOME4 biogeochemistry-biogeography model, and remote sensing data. GCM data were used to predict the timing and patterns of Arctic climate change under a global mean warming of 2C. A unified circumpolar classification recognizing five types of tundra and six forest biomes was used to develop a map of observed Arctic vegetation. BIOME4 was used to simulate the vegetation distributions over the Arctic at the present and for a range of 2C global warming scenarios. The GCMs simulations indicate that the earth will have warmed by 2C relative to preindustrial temperatures by between 2026 and 2060, by which stage the area-mean annual temperature over the Arctic (60-90N) will have increased by between 3.2 and 6.6C. Forest extent is predicted by BIOME4 to increase in the Arctic on the order of 3 x 106 km2 or 55% with a corresponding 42% reduction in tundra area. Tundra types generally also shift north with the largest reductions in the prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra

  17. Self-adaptive change detection in streaming data with non-stationary distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2010-01-01

    Non-stationary distribution, in which the data distribution evolves over time, is a common issue in many application fields, e.g., intrusion detection and grid computing. Detecting the changes in massive streaming data with a non-stationary distribution helps to alarm the anomalies, to clean the noises, and to report the new patterns. In this paper, we employ a novel approach for detecting changes in streaming data with the purpose of improving the quality of modeling the data streams. Through observing the outliers, this approach of change detection uses a weighted standard deviation to monitor the evolution of the distribution of data streams. A cumulative statistical test, Page-Hinkley, is employed to collect the evidence of changes in distribution. The parameter used for reporting the changes is self-adaptively adjusted according to the distribution of data streams, rather than set by a fixed empirical value. The self-adaptability of the novel approach enhances the effectiveness of modeling data streams by timely catching the changes of distributions. We validated the approach on an online clustering framework with a benchmark KDDcup 1999 intrusion detection data set as well as with a real-world grid data set. The validation results demonstrate its better performance on achieving higher accuracy and lower percentage of outliers comparing to the other change detection approaches. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Distributional patterns and possible origin of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W. Nielson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities

  19. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    environmental predictors which explain the distribution and dynamics of different ecological earthworm types can help us to understand where or when these processes are relevant in the landscape. Therefore, we develop species distribution models which are a useful tool to predict spatiotemporal distributions of earthworm occurrence and abundance under changing environmental conditions. On field scale, geostatistical distribution maps have shown that the spatial distribution of earthworms depends on soil parameters such as food supply, soil moisture, bulk density but with different patterns for earthworm stages (adult, juvenile) and ecological types (anecic, endogeic, epigeic). On landscape scales, earthworm distribution seems to be strongly controlled by management/disturbance-related factors. Our study shows different modelling approaches for predicting distribution patterns of earthworms in the Weiherbach area, an agricultural site in Kraichtal (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). We carried out field studies on arable fields differing in soil management practices (conventional, conservational), soil properties (organic matter content, texture, soil moisture), and topography (slope, elevation) in order to identify predictors for earthworm occurrence, abundance and biomass. Our earthworm distribution models consider all ecological groups as well as different life stages, accounting for the fact that the activity of juveniles is sometimes different from those of adults. Within our BIOPORE-project it is our final goal to couple our distribution models with population dynamic models and a preferential flow model to an integrated ecohydrological model to analyse feedbacks between earthworm engineering and transport characteristics affecting the functioning of (agro-) ecosystems.

  20. Woody plant encroachment into grasslands: spatial patterns of functional group distribution and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Archer, Steven R; Gelwick, Frances; Bai, Edith; Boutton, Thomas W; Wu, Xinyuan Ben

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been globally widespread. The woody species invading grasslands represent a variety of contrasting plant functional groups and growth forms. Are some woody plant functional types (PFTs) better suited to invade grasslands than others? To what extent do local patterns of distribution and abundance of woody PFTs invading grasslands reflect intrinsic topoedaphic properties versus plant-induced changes in soil properties? We addressed these questions in the Southern Great Plains, United States at a subtropical grassland known to have been encroached upon by woody species over the past 50-100 years. A total of 20 woody species (9 tree-statured; 11 shrub-statured) were encountered along a transect extending from an upland into a playa basin. About half of the encroaching woody plants were potential N2-fixers (55% of species), but they contributed only 7% to 16 % of the total basal area. Most species and the PFTs they represent were ubiquitously distributed along the topoedaphic gradient, but with varying abundances. Overstory-understory comparisons suggest that while future species composition of these woody communities is likely to change, PFT composition is not. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination and variance partitioning (Partial CCA) indicated that woody species and PFT composition in developing woody communities was primarily influenced by intrinsic landscape location variables (e.g., soil texture) and secondarily by plant-induced changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The ubiquitous distribution of species and PFTs suggests that woody plants are generally well-suited to a broad range of grassland topoedaphic settings. However, here we only examined categorical and non-quantitative functional traits. Although intrinsic soil properties exerted more control over the floristics of grassland-to-woodland succession did plant modifications of soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, the latter

  1. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Paprocki

    Full Text Available Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1 and 7.74 km yr(-1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally

  2. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  3. Calibration of a distributed hydrologic model using observed spatial patterns from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; González, Gorka M.; Mai, Juliane; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Distributed hydrologic models are typically calibrated against streamflow observations at the outlet of the basin. Along with these observations from gauging stations, satellite based estimates offer independent evaluation data such as remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration (aET) and land surface temperature. The primary objective of the study is to compare model calibrations against traditional downstream discharge measurements with calibrations against simulated spatial patterns and combinations of both types of observations. While the discharge based model calibration typically improves the temporal dynamics of the model, it seems to give rise to minimum improvement of the simulated spatial patterns. In contrast, objective functions specifically targeting the spatial pattern performance could potentially increase the spatial model performance. However, most modeling studies, including the model formulations and parameterization, are not designed to actually change the simulated spatial pattern during calibration. This study investigates the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM). This model is selected as it allows for a change in the spatial distribution of key soil parameters through the optimization of pedo-transfer function parameters and includes options for using fully distributed daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) values directly as input. In addition the simulated aET can be estimated at a spatial resolution suitable for comparison to the spatial patterns observed with MODIS data. To increase our control on spatial calibration we introduced three additional parameters to the model. These new parameters are part of an empirical equation to the calculate crop coefficient (Kc) from daily LAI maps and used to update potential evapotranspiration (PET) as model inputs. This is done instead of correcting/updating PET with just a uniform (or aspect driven) factor used in the mHM model

  4. Engineered antifouling microtopographies: surface pattern effects on cell distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Joseph T; Sheats, Julian T; Brennan, Anthony B

    2014-12-23

    Microtopography has been observed to lead to altered attachment behavior for marine fouling organisms; however, quantification of this phenomenon is lacking in the scientific literature. Here, we present quantitative measurement of the disruption of normal attachment behavior of the fouling algae Ulva linza by antifouling microtopographies. The distribution of the diatom Navicula incerta was shown to be unaffected by the presence of topography. The radial distribution function was calculated for both individual zoospores and cells as well as aggregates of zoospores from attachment data for a variety topographic configurations and at a number of different attachment densities. Additionally, the screening distance and maximum values were mapped according to the location of zoospore aggregates within a single unit cell. We found that engineered topographies decreased the distance between spore aggregates compared to that for a smooth control surface; however, the distributions for individual spores were unchanged. We also found that the local attachment site geometry affected the screening distance for aggregates of zoospores, with certain geometries decreasing screening distance and others having no measurable effect. The distribution mapping techniques developed and explored in this article have yielded important insight into the design parameters for antifouling microtopographies that can be implemented in the next generation of antifouling surfaces. PMID:25420235

  5. The Upper Mississippi River floodscape: spatial patterns of flood inundation and associated plant community distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Yin, Yao; Hoy, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    Questions How is the distribution of different plant communities associated with patterns of flood inundation across a large floodplain landscape? Location Thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and seventy hectare of floodplain, spanning 320 km of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Methods High-resolution elevation data (Lidar) and 30 yr of daily river stage data were integrated to produce a ‘floodscape’ map of growing season flood inundation duration. The distributions of 16 different remotely sensed plant communities were quantified along the gradient of flood duration. Results Models fitted to the cumulative frequency of occurrence of different vegetation types as a function of flood duration showed that most types exist along a continuum of flood-related occurrence. The diversity of community types was greatest at high elevations (0–10 d of flooding), where both upland and lowland community types were found, as well as at very low elevations (70–180 d of flooding), where a variety of lowland herbaceous communities were found. Intermediate elevations (20–60 d of flooding) tended to be dominated by floodplain forest and had the lowest diversity of community types. Conclusions Although variation in flood inundation is often considered to be the main driver of spatial patterns in floodplain plant communities, few studies have quantified flood–vegetation relationships at broad scales. Our results can be used to identify targets for restoration of historical hydrological regimes or better anticipate hydro-ecological effects of climate change at broad scales.

  6. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B and control experiment 20C3M are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. This reveals in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that have a high likelihood and are consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1 the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2 the quantification of notable consistent changes calculated relative to the GCM specific natural variability. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions the likelihood of hydrological change is large.

    Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases strongly for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube while discharge of monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  7. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  8. Changes in sleep patterns during prolonged stays in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Moushum; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2008-11-01

    Various countries have permanent research bases in Antarctica that are manned year-round by a few members of an expedition team, facing extremes of temperature with the associated hardships. Acclimatisation to such an environment is associated with pyschophysiological changes along with alterations in sleep patterns. The present study was undertaken to explore the changes in sleep patterns of six members of the Indian expedition team during their winter stay at Maitri, the permanent research station of India in Antarctica. The mean (± SEM) age, height and weight of the subjects were 35.7 ± 2.32 years, 168.3 ± 2.37 cm and 71.0 ± 1.88 kg, respectively. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained as baseline data in November 2004 in Delhi (altitude 260 m, latitude 29° N, longitude 77° E); data on the same parameters were collected at Maitri, Antarctica (altitude 120 m, latitude 70° 45' 39″ S, longitude 11° 44' 49″ E) from January to December 2005. A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant variation with time (month effect) in most of the sleep parameters recorded. Total sleep time decreased from Delhi baseline values in all months, sleep efficiency decreased significantly during winter months, duration of waking period after sleep onset increased significantly in winter, sleep latency increased immediately after exposure in January, stages 3 and 4 (slow wave sleep) reduced during dark winter months, whereas stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep increased during dark winter months. This study observed a prevailing general trend of sleep disturbances amongst overwintering members in a modern Antarctic station.

  9. A fractured peace: a changing pattern of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, M H; Kneafsey, B; Gordon, D

    1997-09-01

    Since the paramilitary cease-fire in Northern Ireland in August 1994 we have seen a change in the pattern of so called 'punishment attacks'. Shootings with low velocity handguns have been replaced by severe beatings to the extremities from multiple assailants using iron bars or similar weapons. In the 18 months prior to the cease-fire there were 177 punishment shootings, which were usually relatively minor and did not require any plastic surgical expertise. Between August 1994 and November 1996, however, there were 461 punishment beatings. These beatings result in much greater morbidity and require considerable orthopaedic and plastic surgical input. In the Northern Ireland Plastic and Maxillofacial Unit we have treated 18 patients with a mean age of 22.9 years (range 16-32 years) who have been the victims of punishment beatings. These patients sustained multiple injuries, all with severe soft tissue involvement; 70% had compound fractures. The majority of patients had multiple wounds. Four patients with compartment syndrome as a result of their injuries required fasciotomies. Soft tissue reconstruction included split skin grafting (4 patients), fasciocutaneous flaps (4 patients), adipofascial flaps (2 patients), local muscle flaps (2 patients) and free muscle transfers (2 patients). Six patients required more than one procedure for soft tissue reconstruction because of multiple injuries. Each patient had a cumulative mean time in theatre of 6.7 hours. The mean hospital stay was 22.2 days (range 2-52 days). This change in the pattern of injury has led to an increased use of plastic surgical resources. Patient morbidity is significantly greater than when guns are used, and permanent disability is often the result. PMID:9326144

  10. Effects of global climate changes on geographical distribution patterns of economically important plant species in cerrado Efeitos das mudanças climáticas globais sobre os padrões de distribuição geográfica das espécies de plantas economicamente importantes no cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Mendes Simon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Different climate models, modeling methods and carbon emission scenarios were used in this paper to evaluate the effects of future climate changes on geographical distribution of species of economic and cultural importance across the Cerrado biome. As the results of several studies have shown, there are still many uncertainties associated with these projections, although bioclimatic models are still widely used and effective method to evaluate the consequences for biodiversity of these climate changes. In this article, it was found that 90% of these uncertainties are related to methods of modeling, although, regardless of the uncertainties, the results revealed that the studied species will reduce about 78% of their geographic distribution in Cerrado. For an effective work on the conservation of these species, many studies still need to be carried out, although it is already possible to observe that climate change will have a strong influence on the pattern of distribution of these species.Neste trabalho, diferentes modelos climáticos, métodos de modelagem e cenários de emissão de carbono foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos das mudanças climáticas sobre a distribuição geográfica de espécies de importância econômica e cultural das regiões abrangidas pelo bioma Cerrado. Assim como os resultados de vários trabalhos têm evidenciado ao longo dos anos, ainda há muitas incertezas relacionadas a essas projeções, apesar de os modelos bioclimáticos ainda serem a metodologia mais utilizada e eficaz para avaliar as consequências dessas mudanças climáticas para a biodiversidade. Neste artigo, foi possível observar que 90% dessas incertezas estão relacionadas aos métodos de modelagem. Contudo, independente disso, os resultados revelaram que as espécies estudadas reduzirão, em média, 78% de sua distribuição geográfica no Cerrado. Para que haja trabalho eficaz sobre a conservação dessas espécies, muitos estudos ainda

  11. The Distribution of the Size of Price Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Cavallo; Roberto Rigobon

    2011-01-01

    Different theories of price stickiness have distinct implications on the number of modes in the distribution of price changes. We formally test for the number of modes in the price change distribution of 36 supermarkets, spanning 22 countries and 5 continents. We present results for three modality tests: the two best-known tests in the statistical literature, Hartigan's Dip and Silverman's Bandwidth, and a test designed in this paper, called the Proportional Mass test (PM). Three main results...

  12. CpG Distribution and Methylation Pattern in Porcine Parvovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth, Renáta; Mészáros, István; Stefancsik, Rajmund; Bartha, Dániel; Bálint, Ádám; Zádori, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Based on GC content and the observed/expected CpG ratio (oCpGr), we found three major groups among the members of subfamily Parvovirinae: Group I parvoviruses with low GC content and low oCpGr values, Group II with low GC content and high oCpGr values and Group III with high GC content and high oCpGr values. Porcine parvovirus belongs to Group I and it features an ascendant CpG distribution by position in its coding regions similarly to the majority of the parvoviruses. The entire PPV genome ...

  13. EFFECT OF COST INCREMENT DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF JIT SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Bidiawati J.R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration in supply chain (SC optimisation. This is due to emphasis placed on cost reduction in order to optimise profit. Some researchers use cost as one of their performance measures and others propose ways of accurately calculating cost. As product moves across SC, the product cost also increases. This paper studied the effect of cost increment distribution patterns on the performance of a JIT Supply Chain. In particular, it is necessary to know if inventory allocation across SC needs to be modified to accommodate different cost increment distribution patterns. It was found that funnel is still the best card distribution pattern for JIT-SC regardless the cost increment distribution patterns used.

  14. Studies of vesicle distribution patterns in Hawaiian lavas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basaltic lava flows are generally vesicular, and the broader facts relating to vesicle distribution have long been established; few studies have yet been made with a view to determining how and when vesicles form in the cooling history of the lava, explaining vesicle shape and size distribution, and gaining enough understanding to employ vesicles as a geological tool. Various avenues of approach exist by which one may seek to gain a better understanding of these ubiquitous structures and make a start towards developing a general theory, and three such avenues have recently been explored. One avenue involves the study of pipe vesicles; these are a well known feature of lava flows and are narrow pipes which occur near the base of many pahoehoe flow units. Another avenue of approach is that presented by the distinctive spongy pahoehoe facies of lava that is common in distal locations on Hawaiian volcanoes. A third avenue of approach is that of the study of gas blisters in lava. Gas blisters are voids, which can be as much as tens of meters wide, where the lava split along a vesicle-rich layer and the roof up-arched by gas pressure. These three avenues are briefly discussed

  15. Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database

    CERN Document Server

    Derzsy, N; Santos, M A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto's law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around $\\alpha \\approx 2.5$, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-econ...

  16. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Alejandra; Galante, Eduardo; Micó, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what ...

  17. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    OpenAIRE

    Vardakas L.; Kalogianni E.; Zogaris S.; Koutsikos N.; Vavalidis T.; Koutsoubas D.; Skoulikidis N. Th.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River) located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted spec...

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of forest disturbance in geographically distinct regions: rates, intensity, and size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, K. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Huang, C.; Masek, J. G.; Fisk, J.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbance plays a critical role in shaping the structure and function of terrestrial forested ecosystems as well as the ecosystem services they provide such as the storage and transfer of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere. Despite increased awareness and research on the importance of disturbance in shaping terrestrial ecosystems and the global carbon budget, large uncertainties and challenges remain. One area of large uncertainty is the role of natural and partial mortality disturbance events. The distribution of disturbance over space and time influence not only landscape and regional forest structure and function but also our ability to accurately monitor and model disturbance on the landscape under various sampling regimes. This study aims to quantify how disturbance events vary spatially, temporally and mechanistically within and between distinct regions of the conterminous US. Specifically we characterized the current and near past disturbance gap size frequency, severity, rates, variance and spatial patterns of disturbance using 30 m annual Landsat time-series data from 1984-2010 run through the highly automated Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT). Mapped forest change were broken down into land conversion (forest to non forest), severe disturbance (stand replacing), and non severe (partial clearing/ thinning). Local to national field and aerial inventories were used to both validate disturbance maps as well as inform disturbance mechanism classification. Results show strong distinctions in disturbance rates, gap sizes and patterns of disturbance between the northeast (p012r29*), northwest (p045r029), and southeast (p016r035) study regions as well as intra regional trends. The southeastern site had the highest average annual rate of disturbance at just over 1.5% forest area disturbed, followed by Northwest (~1%) and Northeast (~0.5%), with the northwest having the largest inter-annual variation. Within region strong patterns of disturbance could be

  19. Predicting the distribution of spiral waves from cell properties in a developmental-path model of Dictyostelium pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Geberth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern formation. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers. This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this concept leads to an inhomogeneous and systematic spatial distribution of spiral waves, which can be predicted from the distribution of cells on the developmental path. We propose specific experiments for checking whether such systematics are also found in data and thus, indirectly, provide evidence of a developmental path.

  20. Distributed dynamical computation in neural circuits with propagating coherent activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Gong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity in neural circuits is spatiotemporally organized. Its spatial organization consists of multiple, localized coherent patterns, or patchy clusters. These patterns propagate across the circuits over time. This type of collective behavior has ubiquitously been observed, both in spontaneous activity and evoked responses; its function, however, has remained unclear. We construct a spatially extended, spiking neural circuit that generates emergent spatiotemporal activity patterns, thereby capturing some of the complexities of the patterns observed empirically. We elucidate what kind of fundamental function these patterns can serve by showing how they process information. As self-sustained objects, localized coherent patterns can signal information by propagating across the neural circuit. Computational operations occur when these emergent patterns interact, or collide with each other. The ongoing behaviors of these patterns naturally embody both distributed, parallel computation and cascaded logical operations. Such distributed computations enable the system to work in an inherently flexible and efficient way. Our work leads us to propose that propagating coherent activity patterns are the underlying primitives with which neural circuits carry out distributed dynamical computation.

  1. Temporal Patterns in Diversity Change on Earth Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Richard

    2007-05-01

    Multi-celled animals and plants did not originate until about 600 million years ago. Since then the diversity of life has expanded greatly, but this has not been a monotonic increase. Diversity, as taxonomic variety or richness, is produced by the interaction of origination and extinction. Origination and extinction are almost equally balanced; it has taken 600 million years to accumulate 10 to 30 million living species. With most species life spans in the range of one to fifteen million years most species that have ever originated are extinct and global diversity has “turned over” many times. Paleontologists recognize about 18 short-term events of elevated extinction intensity and diversity loss of sufficient magnitude to warrant the term “mass extinction.” Interestingly, in only one instance, the end-Cretaceous extinction, is there a consensus for the triggering event, but the kill mechanism or mechanisms that caused the widespread death of lineages is not established. We know less about the cause-effect relationships for other events. Recently a 62 million-year periodicity in the fluctuation of diversity has been documented, expressed primarily in the variation of diversity of marine genera that survived 45 million years or less. Analysis of the pattern of diversity change at the finest temporal scale possible suggests that the short-term mass extinctions are superimposed on this regular pattern of diversity fluctuations, rather than causal of them. However, most mass extinctions (14 of 18) occurred during the intervals of general diversity loss. It remains to be seen how origination and extinction interact to produce the periodic fluctuation in diversity.

  2. CpG distribution and methylation pattern in porcine parvovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Tóth

    Full Text Available Based on GC content and the observed/expected CpG ratio (oCpGr, we found three major groups among the members of subfamily Parvovirinae: Group I parvoviruses with low GC content and low oCpGr values, Group II with low GC content and high oCpGr values and Group III with high GC content and high oCpGr values. Porcine parvovirus belongs to Group I and it features an ascendant CpG distribution by position in its coding regions similarly to the majority of the parvoviruses. The entire PPV genome remains hypomethylated during the viral lifecycle independently from the tissue of origin. In vitro CpG methylation of the genome has a modest inhibitory effect on PPV replication. The in vitro hypermethylation disappears from the replicating PPV genome suggesting that beside the maintenance DNMT1 the de novo DNMT3a and DNMT3b DNA methyltransferases can't methylate replicating PPV DNA effectively either, despite that the PPV infection does not seem to influence the expression, translation or localization of the DNA methylases. SNP analysis revealed high mutability of the CpG sites in the PPV genome, while introduction of 29 extra CpG sites into the genome has no significant biological effects on PPV replication in vitro. These experiments raise the possibility that beyond natural selection mutational pressure may also significantly contribute to the low level of the CpG sites in the PPV genome.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Pattern Analysis for Regional Climate Change Using Mathematical Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, M.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Of late, significant changes in climate with their grave consequences have posed great challenges on humankind. Thus, the detection and assessment of climatic changes on a regional scale is gaining importance, since it helps to adopt adequate mitigation and adaptation measures. In this paper, we have presented a novel approach for detecting spatio-temporal pattern of regional climate change by exploiting the theory of mathematical morphology. At first, the various climatic zones in the region have been identified by using multifractal cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) of different climate variables of interest. Then, the directional granulometry with four different structuring elements has been studied to detect the temporal changes in spatial distribution of the identified climatic zones in the region and further insights have been drawn with respect to morphological uncertainty index and Hurst exponent. The approach has been evaluated with the daily time series data of land surface temperature (LST) and precipitation rate, collected from Microsoft Research - Fetch Climate Explorer, to analyze the spatio-temporal climatic pattern-change in the Eastern and North-Eastern regions of India throughout four quarters of the 20th century.

  4. [Distribution pattern of chemicals in surface waters as a reflexion of entry pattern--description of the problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, E; Klein, S

    1990-05-01

    The distribution pattern of persistent substances made transparent chemically-analytically, in surface waters reflects--considering spatial-temporal limitations--an image of the input pattern. This permits in special cases repercussions on attributable (industrial enterprises, trade, plant production, pest control) or partly or completely anonymous (landfills, ancient deposits, contamination centres, traffic, atmospheric depositions) causative agents The classification of these information requires the knowledge of substance and substrate specifics, especially detailed information about production and/or application of the substances and so represents an interdisciplinary task. Assessing single substance analyses permits a comparison with limit values or literature data. The consideration of combinations of substances which belong together due to production, application and/or transformation may help to elucidate the input patterns. This differential-diagnostic method is presented by a first evaluation of analytical findings in surface waters of an industrialized town and its surroundings. PMID:2368451

  5. Clay Mineral Distribution Patterns of Tertiary Continental Oil-bearing Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xingyuan

    1996-01-01

    @@ Induction This paper studies the clay mineral distribution patterns of Tertiary continental oil-bearing basins in China. More than 9 000 shale samples from Paleogene (E) to Neogene (N) Series distributed in Bohai Gulf, Subei, Jianghan,Nanxiang, Zhoukou, Sanshui, Beibu Bay, East China Sea,Hetao, Juiquan, Qaidam and Tarim basins, and so on.

  6. Artificial neural networks for simulating wind effects on sprinkler distribution patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyadi, H.; Sadraddini, A. A.; Farsadi Zadeh, D.; Montero, J.

    2012-07-01

    A new approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is presented to simulate the effects of wind on the distribution pattern of a single sprinkler under a center pivot or block irrigation system. Field experiments were performed under various wind conditions (speed and direction). An experimental data from different distribution patterns using a Nelson R3000 Rotator sprinkler have been split into three and used for model training, validation and testing. Parameters affecting the distribution pattern were defined. To find an optimal structure, various networks with different architectures have been trained using an Early Stopping method. The selected structure produced R2 0.929 and RMSE = 6.69 mL for the test subset, consisting of a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network with a backpropagation training algorithm; two hidden layers (twenty neurons in the first hidden layer and six neurons in the second hidden layer) and a tangent-sigmoid transfer function. This optimal network was implemented in MATLAB to develop a model termed ISSP (Intelligent Simulator of Sprinkler Pattern). ISSP uses wind speed and direction as input variables and is able to simulate the distorted distribution pattern from a R3000 Rotator sprinkler with reasonable accuracy (R{sup 2} > 0.935). Results of model evaluation confirm the accuracy and robustness of ANNs for simulation of a single sprinkler distribution pattern under real field conditions. (Author) 41 refs.

  7. The changing pattern of pathology due to Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the autopsy data on hepatosplenic schistosomiasis during periods, before and after the advent of new chemotherapeutic drugs, revealed that: a the pathological presentation was the same for the two periods; b the number of cases in the last five years is progressively decreasing; c hepatosplenic disease due to schistosomiasis is becoming rare in young people. These data represent a change in the pattern of pathology in schistosomiasis, probably related to new chemotherapy.Uma revisão dos dados de necrópsias realizadas em portadores da forma hépato-esplênica da esquistossomose, feita em dois períodos, antes e após a introdução das novas e efetivas drogas contra o S. mansoni, revelou que: a as lesões encontradas foram qualitativamente as mesmas nos dois períodos; b a percentagem dos casos hépato-esplênicos mostra decréscimo progressivo nos últimos cinco anos do estudo; c os casos de esquistossomose hépato-esplênica estão se tornando raros em jovens. Tais elementos constituem uma mudança no padrão de apresentação da doença, possivelmente relacionada com a introdução da nova quimioterapia curativa.

  8. Color pattern changes in Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidclay Calaça Dias

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 presents ontogenetic changes of its coloration pattern throughout its development. After emergence from the eggs, spiderlings are bluish, with metallic and/or iridescent nuances. The juveniles have a vertically directed black stripe in the central region of abdomen dorsum and three horizontally directed black stripes in the abdomen dorsum. Adults are completely black. These coloration differences between juveniles and adults of the same species appear to be a strategy to avoid the intraspecific competition.Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 apresenta mudanças ontogenéticas no seu padrão de coloração. Após emergirem dos ovos, as pequenas aranhas são azuladas, com nuances metálicas. Os juvenis possuem uma listra negra na região central do dorso do abdômen orientada no sentido vertical e três listras negras no dorso do abdômen orientadas horizontalmente. Os adultos são totalmente negros. Acredita-se que a diferença na coloração entre indivíduos de instares diferentes dentro de uma mesma espécie seja uma estratégia para se evitar a competição intraespecífica.

  9. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  10. Sequential change-point detection when unknown parameters are present in the pre-change distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Yajun

    2006-01-01

    In the sequential change-point detection literature, most research specifies a required frequency of false alarms at a given pre-change distribution fθ and tries to minimize the detection delay for every possible post-change distribution gλ. In this paper, motivated by a number of practical examples, we first consider the reverse question by specifying a required detection delay at a given post-change distribution and trying to minimize the frequency of false alarms for every possible pre-cha...

  11. The role of landscape pattern analysis in understanding concepts of land cover change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JerryAGRIFFITH

    2004-01-01

    Landscape ecology and landscape pattern analysis are important components of national-scale programs to identify trends in land cover change because: 1) Statistics on changes in land cover proportions are not spatial. A change matrix derived from GIS provides useful information, but it does not show the spatial form of change in the landscape. Landscape pattern metrics reveal spatial pattern. 2) A growing body of literature has shown that a change in landscape pattern might indicate important changes in ecological functions: forest connectivity and species movements, number and size of farm patches, effects on water quality. Spatial pattern is important in structuring ecological communities and in maintaining existence of competitors. Spatial pattern may be determined by disturbance and may in turn, determine how disturbances propagate through the system. 3) Sometimes landscape pattern may not significantly change, even though land cover proportions do change. Or, vice-versa, sometimes landscape pattern can significantly change, even though land cover proportions don't significantly change. 4) Landscape pattern is an inherent and important part of describing landscapes: based on the literature, one of the most important descriptive characteristics of a landscape is its texture. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) Explain the importance of the role of landscape ecology and landscape pattern analysis in land cover change studies; 2) Review the literature that specifically incorporates landscape ecology into land cover change studies; and 3) List the theoretical and technical issues involved and suggest solutions for them.

  12. Adherent bacterial populations on the bovine rumen wall: distribution patterns of adherent bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, R P; Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen tissue sites from the bovine reticulo-rumen were examined by scanning electron microscopy to determine the distribution patterns of bacterial populations adhering to the epithelium. Although diet variations did not appear to influence the total number of tissue-adherent bacteria present in adult Herefords, diet affected their distribution. It appeared that the distribution of the bacterial populations may be directly affected by the physical state of the digesta. The digesta may be m...

  13. Conservation status and distribution pattern of the Indus River Dolphin in River Beas, India

    OpenAIRE

    MOHD SHAHNAWAZ KHAN; ANJANA PANT

    2014-01-01

    Khan MS, Pant A. 2014. Conservation status and distribution pattern of the Indus River Dolphin in River Beas, India. Biodiversitas 15: 73-77. Decline in the populations of Indus River Dolphins Platanista gangetica minor throughout its range of distribution and a perception that it is a 'keystone species' for riverine ecosystem stirred the idea of proposed study. Deficiency of baseline data on its distribution and ecology is a major constraint that this (only known sub-population in India) spe...

  14. The pace of past climate change vs. potential bird distributions and land use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Brooke L; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Vavrus, Stephen J; Heglund, Patricia J

    2016-03-01

    Climate change may drastically alter patterns of species distributions and richness, but predicting future species patterns in occurrence is challenging. Significant shifts in distributions have already been observed, and understanding these recent changes can improve our understanding of potential future changes. We assessed how past climate change affected potential breeding distributions for landbird species in the conterminous United States. We quantified the bioclimatic velocity of potential breeding distributions, that is, the pace and direction of change for each species' suitable climate space over the past 60 years. We found that potential breeding distributions for landbirds have shifted substantially with an average velocity of 1.27 km yr(-1) , about double the pace of prior distribution shift estimates across terrestrial systems globally (0.61 km yr(-1) ). The direction of shifts was not uniform. The majority of species' distributions shifted west, northwest, and north. Multidirectional shifts suggest that changes in climate conditions beyond mean temperature were influencing distributional changes. Indeed, precipitation variables that were proxies for extreme conditions were important variables across all models. There were winners and losers in terms of the area of distributions; many species experienced contractions along west and east distribution edges, and expansions along northern distribution edges. Changes were also reflected in the potential species richness, with some regions potentially gaining species (Midwest, East) and other areas potentially losing species (Southwest). However, the degree to which changes in potential breeding distributions are manifested in actual species richness depends on landcover. Areas that have become increasingly suitable for breeding birds due to changing climate are often those attractive to humans for agriculture and development. This suggests that many areas might have supported more breeding bird

  15. Simulating Income Distribution Changes in Bolivia: a Microeconometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Gasparini; Mariana Marchionni; Federico Gutierrez

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses microeconometric simulations to characterize the distributional changes occurred in the Bolivian economy in the period 1993-2002, and to assess the potential distributional impact of various alternative economic scenarios for the next decade. Wage equations for urban and rural areas estimated by both OLS and quantile regression are the main inputs for the microsimulations. A sizeable increase in the dispersion in worker unobserved wage determinants is the main factor behind th...

  16. The Distribution of Climate Change Public Opinion in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Mildenberger, M; Howe, P.; Lachapelle, E; Stokes, L.; Marlon, J.; Gravelle, T

    2016-01-01

    While climate scientists have developed high resolution data sets on the distribution of climate risks, we still lack comparable data on the local distribution of public climate change opinions. This paper provides the first effort to estimate local climate and energy opinion variability outside the United States. Using a multi-level regression and post-stratification (MRP) approach, we estimate opinion in federal electoral districts and provinces. We demonstrate that a majority of the Canadi...

  17. Changing pattern of utilization of human donor cornea in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gogia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review the changing pattern of donor, corneal utilization in an eye bank at a Tertiary Care Center in Northern India by analyzing the trend in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011. Methods: A retrospective review of eye bank records for 3 years (2003, 2008, and 2011 was performed at the National Eye Bank. Details including a clinical grade of donor cornea, indication of corneal transplantation (therapeutic or optical, type of procedure (penetrating or lamellar keratoplasty [LK], and clinical diagnosis of the graft recipients were recorded. Primary outcome measure was to observe any preference toward LK, judicious usage of donor corneal tissue, and impact of lamellar corneal transplant in the usage of donor corneas. Secondary outcomes included overall utilization rate and change in trend of indication for keratoplasty. Results: A total of 673, 745, and 864 corneas were retrieved in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011, respectively. The percentage of donor corneal utilization increased significantly over time with the rate being 65.08%, 70.06%, and 68.29%, respectively, in the years 2003, 2008, and 2011 (P = 0.014; however, this change was reflected only in the usage of nonoptical grade corneas and not for the optical grade corneas. There was an overall increase in lamellar corneal procedures for any clinical grade of cornea (P = 0.0019; number of Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK procedures increased significantly (P < 0.001, particularly for pseudophakic corneal edema (PCE (P = 0.0085 and failed graft (P = 0.002. Significant increase in the utilization of nonoptical grade corneas was observed over the years (P = 0.005, though the utilization did not increase significantly for optical purposes viz., LK (P = 0.08. Conclusions: Utilization rate of donor corneas increased over the years, primarily due to increase in usage of nonoptical grade corneas for therapeutic purposes. There was a procedural shift toward DSAEK for

  18. Impact of Channel-like Erosion Patterns on the Frequency-Magnitude Distribution of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmer, J.; Aochi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive flow at depth (either related to underground activities like enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage or to natural flow like in hydrothermal zones) can alter fractures' topography, which might in turn change their seismic responses. Depending on the flow and reaction rates, instability of the dissolution front can lead to a wormhole-like pronounced erosion pattern (Szymczak & Ladd, JGR, 2009). In a fractal structure of rupture process (Ide & Aochi, JGR, 2005), we question how the perturbation related to well-spaced long channels alters rupture propagation initiated on a weak plane and eventually the statistical feature of rupture appearance in Frequency-Magnitude Distribution FMD (Rohmer & Aochi, GJI, 2015). Contrary to intuition, a spatially uniform dissolution is not the most remarkable case, since it affects all the events proportionally to their sizes leading to a downwards translation of FMD: the slope of FMD (b-value) remains unchanged. An in-depth parametric study was carried out by considering different pattern characteristics: spacing S varying from 0 to 100 and length L from 50 to 800 and fixing the width w=1. The figure shows that there is a region of optimum channels' characteristics for which the b-value of the Gutenberg Richter law is significantly modified with p-value ~10% (corresponding to area with red-coloured boundaries) given spacing to length ratio of the order of ~1/40: large magnitude events are more significantly affected leading to an imbalanced distribution in the magnitude bins of the FMD. The larger the spacing, the lower the channel's influence. The decrease of the b-value between intact and altered fractures can reach values down to -0.08. Besides, a spatial analysis shows that the local seismicity anomaly concentrates in a limited zone around the channels: this opens perspective for detecting these eroded regions through high-resolution imaging surveys.

  19. Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Analysing Rainfall Distribution Patterns in Batu Pahat District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Kaamin, M.; Azizan, N. S.; Sahat, S.; Bukari, S. M.; Mokhtar, M.; Ngadiman, N.; Hamid, N. B.

    2016-07-01

    Rainfall forecasting reports are crucial to provide information and warnings to the population in a particular location. The Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD) is a department that plays an important role in monitoring the situation and issued the statement of changes in weather and provides services such as weather advisories and gives warnings when the situation requires. Uncertain weather situations normally have created panic situation, especially in big cities because of flash floods due to poor drainage management. Usually, local authorities provided rainfall data in tables, and it is difficult to analyse to acquire the rainfall trend. Therefore, Geographic Information System (GIS) applications are commonly used to generate rainfall patterns in visual formation with a combination of characteristics of rainfall data and then can be used by stakeholders to facilitate the process of analysis and forecasting rainfall. The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of rainfall distribution using GIS applications in Batu Pahat district to assist interested parties to understand and easy to analyse the rainfall data in visual form or mapping form. Rainfall data for a period of 10 years (2004-2013) and monthly data (Dec 2006 - Feb 2007) are provided by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) for 12 stations in the district of Batu Pahat, and rainfall maps in each year was obtained using the interpolation Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method was used in this research. The rainfall map was then analyzed to identify the highest rainfall that was received during the period of study. For the conclusion, this study has proved that rainfall analysis using GIS application is efficient to be used in gaining information of rainfall patterns as the results show that the highest rainfall occurred in 2006 and 2007, and it were the years of major floods occurrence in Batu Pahat district.

  20. Pattern of tick aggregation on mice: larger than expected distribution tail enhances the spread of tick-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ferreri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy. The tail of the distribution of the number of ticks per host was fitted by three theoretical distributions: Negative Binomial (NB, Poisson-LogNormal (PoiLN, and Power-Law (PL. The fit with theoretical distributions indicated that the tail of the tick infestation pattern on mice is better described by the PL distribution. Moreover, we found that the tail of the distribution significantly changes with seasonal variations in host abundance. In order to investigate the effect of different tails of tick distribution on the invasion of a non-systemically transmitted pathogen, we simulated the transmission of a TBE-like virus between susceptible and infective ticks using a stochastic model. Model simulations indicated different outcomes of disease spreading when considering different distribution laws of ticks among hosts. Specifically, we found that the epidemic threshold and the prevalence equilibria obtained in epidemiological simulations with PL distribution are a good approximation of those observed in simulations feed by the empirical distribution. Moreover, we also found that the epidemic threshold for disease invasion was lower when considering the seasonal variation of tick aggregation.

  1. Dynamic Rainfall Patterns and the Simulation of Changing Scenarios: A behavioral watershed response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M.; Guzman, J.; Steiner, J. L.; Hou, C.; Moriasi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall is one of the fundamental drivers that control hydrologic responses including runoff production and transport phenomena that consequently drive changes in aquatic ecosystems. Quantifying the hydrologic responses to changing scenarios (e.g., climate, land use, and management) using environmental models requires a realistic representation of probable rainfall in its most sensible spatio-temporal dimensions matching that of the phenomenon under investigation. Downscaling projected rainfall from global circulation models (GCMs) is the most common practice in deriving rainfall datasets to be used as main inputs to hydrologic models which in turn are used to assess the impacts of climate changes on ecosystems. Downscaling assumes that local climate is a combination of large-scale climatic/atmospheric conditions and local conditions. However, the representation of the latter is generally beyond the capacity of current GCMs. The main objective of this study was to develop and implement a synthetic rainfall generator to downscale expected rainfall trends to 1 x 1 km rainfall daily patterns that mimic the dynamic propagation of probability distribution functions (pdf) derived from historic rainfall data (rain-gauge or radar estimated). Future projections were determined based on actual and expected changes in the pdf and stochastic processes to account for variability. Watershed responses in terms of streamflow and nutrients loads were evaluated using synthetically generated rainfall patterns and actual data. The framework developed in this study will allow practitioners to generate rainfall datasets that mimic the temporal and spatial patterns exclusive to their study area under full disclosure of the uncertainties involved. This is expected to provide significantly more accurate environmental models than is currently available and would provide practitioners with ways to evaluate the spectrum of systemic responses to changing scenarios.

  2. Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Kerr

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

  3. The Association between Land-Use Distribution and Residential Patterns: the Case of Mixed Arab-Jewish Cities in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran GOLDBLATT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of GIS and the availability of high resolution geographic data have improved our ability to investigate the residential segregation in cities and to identify the temporal changes of the spatial phenomena. Using GIS, we have quantitatively and visually analyzed the correspondence between land-use distribution and Arab residential patterns and their changes in the period between 1983 and 2008 in five mixed Arab-Jewish Israeli cities. Results show a correspondence between the dynamics of Arab/Jewish residential patterns and the spatial distribution of various land-uses. Arab residential patterns diffused faster towards areas with relatively inferior land-uses than towards areas with more attractive land-uses, in which a gentrification process occurred. Moreover, large-scale non-residential land-uses act as spatial partitions that divide between Arab and Jewish residential areas. Understanding the association between the urban environment and residential patterns can help in formulating an appropriate social and spatial policy concerning planning of land-uses and design of the built environment in mixed cities.

  4. Chinook salmon foraging patterns in a changing Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Warner, David M.; Claramunt, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Since Pacific salmon stocking began in Lake Michigan, managers have attempted to maintain salmon abundance at high levels within what can be sustained by available prey fishes, primarily Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are the primary apex predators in pelagic Lake Michigan and patterns in their prey selection (by species and size) may strongly influence pelagic prey fish communities in any given year. In 1994–1996, there were larger Alewives, relatively more abundant alternative prey species, fewer Chinook Salmon, and fewer invasive species in Lake Michigan than in 2009–2010. The years 2009–2010 were instead characterized by smaller, leaner Alewives, fewer alternative prey species, higher abundance of Chinook Salmon, a firmly established nonnative benthic community, and reduced abundance of Diporeia, an important food of Lake Michigan prey fish. We characterized Chinook Salmon diets, prey species selectivity, and prey size selectivity between 1994–1996 and 2009–2010 time periods. In 1994–1996, Alewife as prey represented a smaller percentage of Chinook Salmon diets than in 2009–2010, when alewife comprised over 90% of Chinook Salmon diets, possibly due to declines in alternative prey fish populations. The size of Alewives eaten by Chinook Salmon also decreased between these two time periods. For the largest Chinook Salmon in 2009–2010, the average size of Alewife prey was nearly 50 mm total length shorter than in 1994–1996. We suggest that changes in the Lake Michigan food web, such as the decline in Diporeia, may have contributed to the relatively low abundance of large Alewives during the late 2000s by heightening the effect of predation from top predators like Chinook Salmon, which have retained a preference for Alewife and now forage with greater frequency on smaller Alewives.

  5. Chaotic changes in distribution channels : implications for hospitality companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gursoy, Dogan

    2010-01-01

    Distribution channels of hospitality products are going through chaotic changes and slowly making the traditional tourism and travel marketing obsolete. These changes are already having significant impact on hospitality companies’ operational strategies. As a result, required skills and talents of hospitality employees are evolving from reservation taking and confirming to inventory controlling and forecasting to selling to managing revenue. In addition, the need for synchroniz...

  6. spatial distribution pattern of the steppe toad-headed lizard (phrynocephalus frontalis) and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    spatial distribution patterns are associated with life history and behavioral adaptations of animals.for studying the spatial distribution pattern of the steppe toad-headed lizard (phrynocephalusfrontalis) and its influencing factors,we conducted experiments in hunshandake sandy land in inner mongolia,china in july 2009.by calculating the clustered indices,we found that the lizard was aggregately distributed when the sampling quadrat was smaller than 10 m × 10 m,and uniformly distributed when it was greater than 10 m × 10 m.the nearest neighbor rule showed a clustering distribution pattern for p frontalis and the distribution pattern was quadrat-sampling dependent.furthermore,the cluster was determined by environmental factors when the sampling quadrat was smaller than 20 m × 20 m,but it was determined by both environmental factors and characteristics of the lizard when it was larger than 20 m × 20 m.our results suggested that the steppe toad-headed lizards tended to aggregate into suitable habitat patches in desert areas.additionally,we discussed that the lizard aggregation could be potentially used as an indictor of movement of sand dunes.

  7. Spatial pattern of 2009 dengue distribution in Kuala Lumpur using GIS application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, S; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Sholehah, I; Nur Farhana, J; Azizan, A S; Wan Yusoff, W S

    2012-03-01

    In the last few years in Malaysia, dengue fever has increased dramatically and has caused huge public health concerns. The present study aimed to establish a spatial distribution of dengue cases in the city of Kuala Lumpur using a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistical tools. Collation of data from 1,618 dengue cases in 2009 was obtained from Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL). These data were processed and then converted into GIS format. Information on the average monthly rainfall was also used to correlate with the distribution pattern of dengue cases. To asses the spatial distribution of dengue cases, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) Analysis was applied together with spatial analysis with the ESRI ArcGIS V9.3 programme. Results indicated that the distribution of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur for the year 2009 was spatially clustered with R value less than 1 (R = 0.42; z-scores = - 4.47; p 1) between August and November. In addition, the mean monthly rainfall has not influenced the distribution pattern of the dengue cases. Implementation of control measures is more difficult for dispersed pattern compared to clustered pattern. From this study, it was found that distribution pattern of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur in 2009 was spatially distributed (dispersed or clustered) rather than cases occurring randomly. It was proven that by using GIS and spatial statistic tools, we can determine the spatial distribution between dengue and population. Utilization of GIS tools is vital in assisting health agencies, epidemiologist, public health officer, town planner and relevant authorities in developing efficient control measures and contingency programmes to effectively combat dengue fever. PMID:22543611

  8. Changes in Fat Distribution in Children Following Severe Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Pavankumar; Hanaa S. Sallam; Ali, Arham; Chandalia, Manisha; Suman, Oscar; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N; Abate, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with severe cutaneous burn injury show persistent metabolic abnormalities, including inflammation and insulin resistance. Such abnormalities could potentially increase their future risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This could be related to changes in body composition and fat distribution.

  9. Recent changes in distribution of dragonflies in Switzerland (Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonseth, Y.; Monnerat, C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent changes in distribution of dragonflies in Switzerland (Odonata) In 1998 the Swiss Centre for the Cartography of Fauna (CSCF) initiated ‘Odonata 2000’. This project aimed at testing a method for periodical reassessment of Red Lists in Switzerland. The study was carried out on Odonata and consi

  10. A global descriptor of spatial pattern interaction in the galaxy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kerscher, M; Schmalzing, J; Trasarti-Battistoni, R; Buchert, T; Martínez, V J; Kerscher, Martin; Pons-Borderia, Maria Jesus; Schmalzing, Jens; Trasarti-Battistoni, Roberto; Buchert, Thomas; Martinez, Vicent J.

    1999-01-01

    We present the function J as a morphological descriptor for point patterns formed by the distribution of galaxies in the Universe. This function was recently introduced in the field of spatial statistics, and is based on the nearest neighbor distribution and the spherical contact distribution. The J descriptor allows to distinguish clustered (i.e. correlated) from "regular" (i.e. anti-correlated) point distributions. We outline the theoretical foundations of the method, perform tests with a Matern cluster process as an idealized model of galaxy clustering, and apply the descriptor to galaxies and loose groups in the Perseus-Pisces Survey.

  11. ANALYSIS ON THE DYNAMICS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF MIXED SPIDER POPULATION IN RICE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhiWang; Zhe-mingYuan; Da-xiangSong; Ming-shengZhu

    2004-01-01

    The results make it clear that there are total 11 families, 29 genera and 43 species of spiders in the rice field of Dong Fang Hong Farm. Among them, there are 8 families, 19 genera and 28 species in the early rice field, and 10 families, 27 genera and 36 species in the late rice field. The spatial distribution pattern of mixed spider populations in rice fields was different during different development stages of rice plant. During the prophase, metaphase and anaphase of early rice plant development, the spatial distribution pattern of mixed spider populations was aggregative, random and aggregative respectively. During the prophase, metaphase and anaphase of late rice plant development, the spatial distribution pattern was uniform, aggregative and uniform respectively.

  12. Potential impacts of climatic change upon geographical distributions of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huntley, Brian; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Green, Rhys E.;

    2006-01-01

    biodiversity. Birds, in common with other terrestrial organisms, are expected to exhibit one of two general responses to climatic change: they may adapt to the changed conditions without shifting location, or they may show a spatial response, adjusting their geographical distribution in response to the...... to achieve a sufficient response by either or both of these mechanisms will be at risk of extinction; the Quaternary record documents examples of such extinctions. Relationships between the geographical distributions of birds and present climate have been modelled for species breeding in both Europe...... climate lead to the conclusion that the impacts upon birds are likely to be substantial. The boundaries of many species' potential geographical distributions are likely to be shifted  1000 km. There is likely to be a general decline in avian species richness, with the mean extent of species' potential...

  13. Patterns of Distribution of the Helminth Parasites of Freshwater Fishes of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    In order to draw patterns in helminth parasite composition and species richness in Mexican freshwater fishes we analyse a presence-absence matrix representing every species of adult helminth parasites of freshwater fishes from 23 Mexican hydrological basins. We examine the distributional patterns of the helminth parasites with regard to the main hydrological basins of the country, and in doing so we identify areas of high diversity and point out the biotic similarities and differences among d...

  14. Late Quaternary climate-change velocity: Implications for modern distributions and communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dalsgaard, Bo; Arge, Lars Allan; Svenning, J.-C.

    Background/Question/Methods Climate-change velocity is a measure of the rate of climate change that incorporates small-scale climate variation such as that found along topographic gradients. As a measure of climate instability, it has several advantages, including describing the minimum migration...... rate required to track changing conditions and explicitly capturing the buffering effect of topography on climate change. Variation in climate stability has long been hypothesized as a possible driver of large-scale ecological patterns including diversity and range size gradients. We calculated a...... global map of climate-change velocity since the Last Glacial Maximum and used this measure of climate instability to address a number of classic hypotheses. Results/Conclusions We show that historical climate-change velocity is related to a wide range of characteristics of modern distributions and...

  15. Self-Similarity in Transverse Intensity Distributions in the Farfield Diffraction Pattern of Radial Walsh Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent communication we reported the self-similarity in radial Walsh filters. The set of radial Walsh filters have been classified into distinct self-similar groups, where members of each group possess self-similar structures or phase sequences. It has been observed that, the axial intensity distributions in the farfield diffraction pattern of these self-similar radial Walsh filters are also self-similar. In this paper we report the self-similarity in the intensity distributions on a transverse plane in the farfield diffraction patterns of the self-similar radial Walsh filters.

  16. Conditions for Change Related to Groupware in a Distributed Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Pors, Jens Kaaber

    2003-01-01

    Groupware is often used in distributed organizations to support communication and coordination. Managers direct resources and set up goals for the deployment of groupware. It is however difficult to foresee the effect of groupware and many cases report that groupware is either hardly used or does...... not produce the intended effects. We have analyzed the deployment and use of the web-based groupware application Lotus QuickPlaceTM in a large financial distributed organization that has just emerged as the result of a major merger. Based on interviews, survey, and http log-analysis, we have identified four...... of groupware in the case. Challenges and expectations are discussed and ideas concerning strategies for change are suggested. It is concluded that change related to groupware faces conditions that challenge ambitious goals in three of the settings, while conditions in general favour successful change related...

  17. Patterns of inequality: Dynamics of income distribution in USA and global energy consumption distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Applying the principle of entropy maximization, we argued that the distribution of money in a closed economic system should be exponential [1], see also recent review [2]. In this talk, we show that income distribution in USA is exponential for the majority of population (about 97%). However, the high-income tail follows a power law and is highly dynamical, i.e., out of equilibrium. The fraction of income going to the tail swelled to 20% of all income in 2000 and 2006 at the peaks of speculative bubbles followed by spectacular crashes. Next, we analyze the global distribution of energy consumption per capita among different countries. In the first approximation, it is reasonably well captured by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990 and 2005, we observe that the distribution is getting closer to the exponential, presumably as a result of globalization of the world economy.[4pt] [1] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723 (2000). [2] V. M. Yakovenko and J. B. Rosser, to appear in Rev. Mod. Phys. (2009), arXiv:0905.1518.

  18. Evaluation of a compound distribution based on weather pattern subsampling for extreme rainfall in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, J.; Touati, J.; Lawrence, D.; Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation methods for design flood analyses require estimates of extreme precipitation for simulating maximum discharges. This article evaluates the multi-exponential weather pattern (MEWP) model, a compound model based on weather pattern classification, seasonal splitting and exponential distributions, for its suitability for use in Norway. The MEWP model is the probabilistic rainfall model used in the SCHADEX method for extreme flood estimation. Regional scores of evaluation are used in a split sample framework to compare the MEWP distribution with more general heavy-tailed distributions, in this case the Multi Generalized Pareto Weather Pattern (MGPWP) distribution. The analysis shows the clear benefit obtained from seasonal and weather pattern-based subsampling for extreme value estimation. The MEWP distribution is found to have an overall better performance as compared with the MGPWP, which tends to overfit the data and lacks robustness. Finally, we take advantage of the split sample framework to present evidence for an increase in extreme rainfall in the southwestern part of Norway during the period 1979-2009, relative to 1948-1978.

  19. Patterns in the distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic - the 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised - 20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...

  20. Distribution pattern of acetylcholinesterase in the optic tectum of two Indian air breathing teleosts

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Anurag; Rahman, Matiur; Chakraborty, Balarko

    2013-01-01

    Background A histoenzymological study has been carried out on the distribution of enzyme acetylcholinesterase in the optic tectum of two Indian air breathing teleosts by employing a histochemical technique to visualize acetylcholinesterase containing neurons described by Hedreen, JC (1985). Purpose Data available on enzyme localizaton in the brain of fishes, particularly Indian teleosts is inadequate and scattered. Methods AChE distribution in the optic tectum shows a prevalent pattern charac...

  1. Missing the rarest: is the positive interspecific abundance–distribution relationship a truly general macroecological pattern?

    OpenAIRE

    Komonen, Atte; Päivinen, Jussi; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2009-01-01

    Lepidopterists have long acknowledged that many uncommon butterfly species can be extremely abundant in suitable locations. If this is generally true, it contradicts the general macroecological pattern of the positive interspecific relationship between abundance and distribution, i.e. locally abundant species are often geographically more widespread than locally rare species. Indeed, a negative abundance–distribution relationship has been documented for butterflies in Finland. Here we show, u...

  2. Vulnerabilities of macrophytes distribution due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Kaizar; Yadav, Sarita; Quaik, Shlrene; Pant, Gaurav; Maruthi, A. Y.; Ismail, Norli

    2016-06-01

    The rise in the earth's surface and water temperature is part of the effect of climatic change that has been observed for the last decade. The rates of climate change are unprecedented, and biological responses to these changes have also been prominent in all levels of species, communities and ecosystems. Aquatic-terrestrial ecotones are vulnerable to climate change, and degradation of the emergent aquatic macrophyte zone would have contributed severe ecological consequences for freshwater, wetland and terrestrial ecosystems. Most researches on climate change effects on biodiversity are contemplating on the terrestrial realm, and considerable changes in terrestrial biodiversity and species' distributions have been detected in response to climate change. This is unfortunate, given the importance of aquatic systems for providing ecosystem goods and services. Thus, if researchers were able to identify early-warning indicators of anthropogenic environmental changes on aquatic species, communities and ecosystems, it would certainly help to manage and conserve these systems in a sustainable way. One of such early-warning indicators concerns the expansion of emergent macrophytes in aquatic-terrestrial ecotones. Hence, this review highlights the impact of climatic changes towards aquatic macrophytes and their possible environmental implications.

  3. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to

  4. Changes in Fat Distribution in Children Following Severe Burn Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pavankumar; Sallam, Hanaa S.; Ali, Arham; Chandalia, Manisha; Suman, Oscar; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children with severe cutaneous burn injury show persistent metabolic abnormalities, including inflammation and insulin resistance. Such abnormalities could potentially increase their future risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This could be related to changes in body composition and fat distribution. Methods: We studied body composition, fat distribution, and inflammatory cytokines changes in children with severe burn injury up to 6 months from discharge. Sixty-two boys and 35 girls (burn ≥30% of total body surface area) were included. Results: We found a decrease in total body fat and subcutaneous peripheral fat at 6 months (6% and 2%, respectively; P<0.05 each). An inverse correlation between the decrease in peripheral fat content at 6 months and the extent of burn injury (r=−041, P=0.02) was also observed. In addition, there was a 12% increase in serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.01 vs. discharge) and 9% decrease in serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P<0.0001 vs. discharge) over 6 months after burn. Conclusion: Severe burn injury in children is associated with changes in body fat content and distribution up to 6 months from hospital discharge. These changes, accompanied by persisting systemic inflammation, could possibly mediate the observed persistence of insulin resistance, predisposing burn patients to the development of T2DM and CVD. PMID:25211297

  5. Examining Urban Impervious Surface Distribution and Its Dynamic Change in Hangzhou Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of urban distribution and its expansion using remote sensing data has received increasing attention in the past three decades, but little research has examined spatial patterns of urban distribution and expansion with buffer zones in different directions. This research selected Hangzhou metropolis as a case study to analyze spatial patterns and dynamic changes based on time-series urban impervious surface area (ISA datasets. ISA was developed from Landsat imagery between 1991 and 2014 using a hybrid approach consisting of linear spectral mixture analysis, decision tree classifiers, and post-processing. The spatial patterns of ISA distribution and its dynamic changes in eight directions—east, southeast, south, southwest, west, northwest, north, and northeast—at the temporal scale were analyzed with a buffer zone-based approach. This research indicated that ISA can be extracted from Landsat imagery with both producer and user accuracies of over 90%. ISA in Hangzhou metropolis increased from 146 km2 in 1991 to 868 km2 in 2014. Annual ISA growth rates were between 15.6 km2 and 48.8 km2 with the lowest growth rate in 1994–2000 and the highest growth rate in 2005–2010. Urban ISA increase before 2000 was mainly due to infilling within the urban landscape, and, after 2005, due to urban expansion in the urban-rural interfaces. Urban expansion in this study area has different characteristics in various directions that are influenced by topographic factors and urban development policies.

  6. Anthropogenic aerosols and the distribution of past large-scale precipitation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien

    2015-12-01

    The climate response of precipitation to the effects of anthropogenic aerosols is a critical while not yet fully understood aspect in climate science. Results of selected models that participated the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and the data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project suggest that, throughout the tropics and also in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, aerosols have largely dominated the distribution of precipitation changes in reference to the preindustrial era in the second half of the last century. Aerosol-induced cooling has offset some of the warming caused by the greenhouse gases from the tropics to the Arctic and thus formed the gradients of surface temperature anomaly that enable the revealed precipitation change patterns to occur. Improved representation of aerosol-cloud interaction has been demonstrated as the key factor for models to reproduce consistent distributions of past precipitation change with the reanalysis data.

  7. Spatial patterns of primary productivity derived from the Dynamic Habitat Indices predict patterns of species richness and distributions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttidate, Naparat

    Humans are changing the Earth's ecosystems, which has profound consequences for biodiversity. To understand how species respond to these changes, biodiversity science requires accurate assessments of biodiversity. However, biodiversity assessments are still limited in tropical regions. The Dynamic Habitat Indices (DHIs), derived from satellite data, summarize dynamic patterns of annual primary productivity: (a) cumulative annual productivity, (b) minimum annual productivity, and (c) seasonal variation in productivity. The DHIs have been successfully used in temperate regions, but not yet in the tropics. My goal was to evaluate the importance of primary productivity measured via the DHIs for assessing patterns of species richness and distributions in Thailand. First, I assessed the relationships between the DHIs and tropical bird species richness. I also evaluated the complementarity of the DHIs and topography, climate, latitudinal gradients, habitat heterogeneity, and habitat area in explaining bird species richness. I found that among three DHIs, cumulative annual productivity was the most important factor in explaining bird species richness and that the DHIs outperformed other environmental variables. Second, I developed texture measures derive from DHI cumulative annual productivity, and compared them to habitat composition and fragmentation as predictors of tropical forest bird distributions. I found that adding texture measures to habitat composition and fragmentation models improved the prediction of tropical bird distributions, especially area- and edge-sensitive tropical forest bird species. Third, I predicted the effects of trophic interactions between primary productivity, prey, and predators in relation to habitat connectivity for Indochinese tigers (Panthera tigris). I found that including trophic interactions improved habitat suitability models for tigers. However, tiger habitat is highly fragmented with few dispersal corridors. I also identified

  8. Changing patterns of competition in European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a period of statism in the European natural gas market, the author argues that economic, political and regulatory pressures are approaching which will force dramatic change in the market, and identifies factors relating to pipeline capacity, competition, prices and market changes and fuel use which will drive the changes. A historical perspective is used as a framework to explain the inevitability of these changes. (UK)

  9. Disturbance-driven changes to landscape patterns and responses of waterbirds at West Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhu Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand human impact on a wetland ecosystem, we analyzed the land-use and land-cover change (LUCC and also changes to landscape pattern between 1996 and 2013, at West Dongting Lake (WDL, China. For this purpose, we examined remote sensing data and conducted field studies to compare community structure and diversity of waterbirds in three typical habitats: restored wetland, fragmented natural wetland and poplar plantation. Our results showed that the area used for poplar plantation increased 9 times from 1996 to 2013, while the area occupied by reed marsh increased by 30.6%. In contrast, areas of natural wetland, open water, and wet meadow/mudflat, were reduced by 46.4%, 49.8%, and 39.8%, respectively. The WDL wetland ecosystem was significantly fragmented and degraded over the same period as shown by an increase in landscape fragmentation index from 1.239 in 1996 to 2.897 in 2013. Comparisons of populations, species and distribution of waterbirds among three habitats showed. (1 Restored wetland provided habitat for several wintering waterbirds allowing a broader population distribution, but at the same time a simpler community structure with lower biodiversity (H'=1.866. (2 Fragmented natural wetland provided habitat for diverse wintering birds, including rare and endangered black stork (Ciconia nigra and Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus, thus rising the Shannon-Wiener index (H'=2.118 for the bird community in this type of habitat, although waterbird population numbers remained low. (3 Poplar plantation was, in general, not suitable for waterbirds with only two individuals of one species observed in this habitat during the field survey period. In conclusion, landscape pattern change and habitat fragmentation reduced biodiversity at WDL with the planting of poplar trees being the key driver of wetland ecosystem degradation. For future management, forestation should be restricted while restoration of natural wetland should be a high

  10. Spatial point pattern analysis of aerial survey data to assess clustering in wildlife distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaemba, Wilson Mwale

    Assessing clustering in wildlife populations is crucial for understanding their dynamics. This assessment is made difficult for data obtained through aerial surveys because the shape and size of sampling units (strip transects) result in poor data supports, which generally hampers spatial analysis of these data. The problem may be solved by having more detailed data where exact locations of observed animal groups are recorded. These data, obtainable through GPS technology, are amenable to spatial analysis, thereby allowing spatial point pattern analysis to be used to assess observed spatial patterns relative to environmental factors like vegetation. Distance measures like the G-statistic and K-function classify such patterns into clustered, regular or completely random patterns, while independence between species is assessed through a multivariate extension of the K-function. Quantification of clustering is carried out using spatial regression. The techniques are illustrated with field data on three ungulates observed in an ecosystem in Kenya. Results indicate a relation between species spatial distribution and their dietary requirements, thereby concluding the usefulness of spatial point pattern analysis in investigating species spatial distribution. It also provides a technique for explaining and differentiating the distribution of wildlife species.

  11. Frequent changes in subtelomeric DNA methylation patterns and its relevance to telomere regulation during human hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Um, Tae-Hee; Choi, Gi Hong; Park, Young Nyun

    2011-02-15

    Subtelomeric chromatin modifications are important regulators of telomere length. We examined the subtelomeric DNA methylation status of 7q, 8q, 17q, 18p, 21q and XpYp in 32 pairs of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their adjacent non-HCCs via methylation-specific PCR (quantified as methylation ratio). In addition, 10q was subjected to bisulfite-genomic-sequencing. Telomere length was determined by Southern hybridization. In all cases, the relationship between methylation ratio and telomere length was determined. High levels of methylation ratio were found on chromosomes 7q, 18p and XpYp, whereas 8q 17q and 21q were less methylated in both HCCs and non-HCCs. Compared to non-HCCs, HCCs exhibited a higher methylation ratio on 18p and 21q, and a wider distribution of methylation ratio on 7q, 21q and 10q (p telomere length of HCCs, respectively (p HCC to HCC were found at 47 sites and hypomethylation changes at 31 sites. Changes in methylation pattern were observed at three to four sites among six chromosomal sites in 15 patients (47%). There was a tendency toward hypomethylation changes at 7q (p = 0.013) and hypermethylation changes at 21q (p = 0.057) when telomere lengthened from non-HCCs to HCCs. In summary, subtelomeric methylation patterns dynamically changed during hepatocarcinogenesis. Subtelomeric methylation at certain regions was related to telomere lengthening or shortening, suggesting an association between subtelomeric chromatin structure and telomere length regulation in human hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:20473888

  12. Floristic diversity and distribution pattern of plant communities along altitudinal gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Rana, J C; Devi, Usha; Randhawa, S S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Himalayas are globally important biodiversity hotspots and are facing rapid loss in floristic diversity and changing pattern of vegetation due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This has necessitated the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation here. The present study was conducted in Sangla Valley of northwest Himalaya aiming to assess the structure of vegetation and its trend in the valley along the altitudinal gradient. In the forest and alpine zones of the valley, 15 communities were recorded. Study revealed 320 species belonging to 199 genera and 75 families. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae, and Ranunculaceae were dominant. Among genera, Artemisia followed by Polygonum, Saussurea, Berberis, and Thalictrum were dominant. Tree and shrub's density ranged from 205 to 600 and from 105 to 1030 individual per hectare, respectively, whereas herbs ranged from 22.08 to 78.95 individual/m(2). Nearly 182 species were native to the Himalaya. Maximum altitudinal distribution of few selected climate sensitive species was found to be highest in northeast and north aspects. This study gives an insight into the floristic diversity and community structure of the fragile Sangla Valley which was hitherto not available. PMID:25383363

  13. Patterns of scald injuries in children--has anything changed?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yates, J

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to study presentation patterns of scald injuries in children and suggest potential countermeasures to reduce these injuries. We retrospectively studied scald injuries in children attending an urban paediatric emergency department between January 1st and December 31st 2008. Data was extracted from our emergency department database using search terms \\'burn\\

  14. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  15. Changing patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in Singapore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, H.; Seow, A.; Rostgaard, K.;

    2008-01-01

    A bimodal age-specific incidence pattern with a relatively high proportion of cases occurring in adolescents and young adults is a hallmark of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) epidemiology in Western industrialized countries. The young adult incidence peak is believed to reflect the association between HL...

  16. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  17. Distribution patterns of medicinal plants along an elevational gradient in central Himalaya, Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Shrestha, M.R.; Timsina, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2012), s. 201-213. ISSN 1672-6316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : distribution patterns * medicinal plants * unimodal relationships Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.664, year: 2012

  18. Thermal stability and switching field distribution of CoNi/Pt patterned media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murillo Vallejo, R.; Siekman, M.H.; Bolhuis, T.; Abelmann, L.; Lodder, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The thermal dependence and distribution of the switching fields of arrays of magnetic Co50Ni50/Pt nanodots has been studied. These dots, with a diameter of 90 nm, are arranged in a hexagonal pattern with a periodicity of 300 nm. Field-dependent magnetic force microscopy was used to measure the switc

  19. Distribution pattern and morphochemical relationships of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.; Miura, H.

    smooth and rough surfaces respectively) occur on almost all sediments, but in variable proportions. Thus, the overall distribution pattern shows that small nodules (less than 4-cm diameters) of lower grade (average value Ni + Cu + Co = 1.21%) with smooth...

  20. Patterns in species richness and distribution of vascular epiphytes in Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.D. Wolf; A. Flamenco-S.

    2003-01-01

    Aim We aim to assess regional patterns in the distribution and species richness of vascular epiphytes with an emphasis on forests that differ in altitude and the amount of rainfall. Location Tropical America, in particularly the 75000 km2 large state of Chiapas in southern Mexico at 14.5-18.0º N. Ch

  1. Root distribution pattern of bush - black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) employing radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root distribution pattern of four-year-old field planted bush pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was studied at Peruvannamuzhi farm of Indian Institute of Spices Research by radiotracer technique. The root zone, up to 30 cm radius and 40 cm depth was round to be the active root zone of bush pepper variety Karimunda grown in the field. (author)

  2. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  3. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  4. Switching field distribution and magnetization reversal process of FePt dot patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishio, S., E-mail: ishio@gipc.akita-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Arakawa, A.; Sasaki, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Yan, Z.; Liu, X. [Venture Business Laboratory, Akita University, Tegata Gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Kondo, Y.; Yamane, H.; Ariake, J. [Akita Prefectural R and D Center, 4-21 Sanuki, Akita 010-1623 (Japan); Suzuki, M.; Kawamura, N.; Mizumaki, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of FePt nanodots with a high structural quality and the control of their switching fields are key issues in realizing high density bit pattern recording. We have prepared FePt dot patterns for dots with 15–300 nm diameters by electron beam lithography and re-annealing, and studied the relation between magnetization reversal process and structure of FePt nanodots. The switching field (H{sub sw}) of dot patterns re-annealed at 710 °C for 240 min showed a bimodal distribution, where a higher peak was found at 5–6 T, and a lower peak was found at ∼2 T. It was revealed by cross-sectional TEM analysis that the structure of dots in the pattern can be classified into two groups. One group has a high degree of order with well-defined [0 0 1] crystalline growth, and the other group includes structurally-disturbed dots like [1 1 1] growth and twin crystals. This structural inhomogeneity causes the magnetic switching field distribution observed. - Highlights: • FePt dot patterns with 15–100 nm dot diameters were prepared by EB lithography. • Maximum coercivity of 30 kOe was found in the dot pattern with 30 nm in diameter. • Magnetization reversal was studied on the base of TEM analysis and LLG simulation.

  5. Models for assessing the spatial distribution of geodetic point patterns: application to geoid prediction quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, Raaed Mohamed Kamel

    2013-05-01

    In this study, some stochastic and deterministic models have been proposed for the assessment of the regularity and isotropy of geodetic point patterns. These models utilized realized point configurations within a rectangular window, leaning on stochastic geometry. As an illustrative example, the geographical extent of the Egyptian Territory was selected as a test window. The proposed models have agreed with the visual and qualitative characteristics of the investigated patterns. Also, it has been found that the stochastic and deterministic models for regularity and isotropy have very strong mutual correlation coefficients. Furthermore, the proposed models were applied to some geoid interpolation algorithms. In particular, the relationships among the data/check point distributions and the geoid interpolation accuracies, were investigated. Finally, a closed expression was proposed, which efficiently describes the relations among such features. So, it is recommended to use such approach for the pre-analysis and planning of the geographic distributions of point patterns in similar and other geodetic applications.

  6. Distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues as revealed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic investigation using a variety of handguns has revealed the existence of distinguisable distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues on surfaces below the flight path of a bullet. The residues are identificable even at distances of 12 meters from the gun using nondestructive neutron activation analysis. The results of these investigations show that the distribution pattern for a gun is reproducible using similar ammunition and that there exist two distinct regions to the patterns developed between the firearm and the target-one with respect to the position of the gun and the other in the vicinity of the target. The judicious applications of these findings could be of significant value in criminal investigations. (T.G.)

  7. Diachronic changes in word probability distributions in daily press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in probability distributions of individual words and word types were investigated within two samples of daily press in the span of fifty years. Two samples of daily press were used in this study. The one derived from the Corpus of Serbian Language (CSL /Kostić, Đ., 2001/ that covers period between 1945. and 1957. and the other derived from the Ebart Media Documentation (EBR that was complied from seven daily news and five weekly magazines from 2002. and 2003. Each sample consisted of about 1 million words. The obtained results indicate that nouns and adjectives were more frequent in the CSL, while verbs and prepositions are more frequent in the EBR sample, suggesting a decrease of sentence length in the last five decades. Conspicuous changes in probability distribution of individual words were observed for nouns and adjectives, while minimal or no changes were observed for verbs and prepositions. Such an outcome suggests that nouns and adjectives are most susceptible to diachronic changes, while verbs and prepositions appear to be resistant to such changes.

  8. The Microeconomics of Changing Income Distribution in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Sergei Soares

    2002-01-01

    This study uses data from Malaysia's Household Income and Expenditure Surveys to quantify the importance of different factors in accounting for the changes in Malaysia's income distribution between 1984 and 1989 ("Period 1") and between 1989 and 1997 ("Period 2"). The analysis is therefore divided into these two periods, in order to be able to assess the factors responsible for the falling inequality in the first period and the rising inequality in the second. The authors also look at the fac...

  9. Biogeographic distribution patterns and their correlates in the diverse frog fauna of the Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago S Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Anurans are a highly diverse group in the Atlantic Forest hotspot (AF, yet distribution patterns and species richness gradients are not randomly distributed throughout the biome. Thus, we explore how anuran species are distributed in this complex and biodiverse hotspot, and hypothesize that this group can be distinguished by different cohesive regions. We used range maps of 497 species to obtain a presence/absence data grid, resolved to 50×50 km grain size, which was submitted to k-means clustering with v-fold cross-validation to determine the biogeographic regions. We also explored the extent to which current environmental variables, topography, and floristic structure of the AF are expected to identify the cluster patterns recognized by the k-means clustering. The biogeographic patterns found for amphibians are broadly congruent with ecoregions identified in the AF, but their edges, and sometimes the whole extent of some clusters, present much less resolved pattern compared to previous classification. We also identified that climate, topography, and vegetation structure of the AF explained a high percentage of variance of the cluster patterns identified, but the magnitude of the regression coefficients shifted regarding their importance in explaining the variance for each cluster. Specifically, we propose that the anuran fauna of the AF can be split into four biogeographic regions: a less diverse and widely-ranged species that predominantly occur in the inland semideciduous forests; b northern small-ranged species that presumably evolved within the Pleistocene forest refugia; c highly diverse and small-ranged species from the southeastern Brazilian mountain chain and its adjacent semideciduous forest; and d southern species from the Araucaria forest. Finally, the high congruence among the cluster patterns and previous eco-regions identified for the AF suggests that preserving the underlying habitat structure helps to preserve the historical

  10. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Castel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  11. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns. PMID:26553093

  12. Changes in diversification patterns and signatures of selection during the evolution of murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses' molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space. PMID:24618811

  13. Attribution of the spatial pattern of CO2-forced sea level change to ocean surface flux changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate models taking part in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) all predict a global mean sea level rise for the 21st century. Yet the sea level change is not spatially uniform and differs among models. Here we evaluate the role of air–sea fluxes of heat, water and momentum (windstress) to find the spatial pattern associated to each of them as well as the spread they can account for. Using one AOGCM to which we apply the surface flux changes from other AOGCMs, we show that the heat flux and windstress changes dominate both the pattern and the spread, but taking the freshwater flux into account as well yields a sea level change pattern in better agreement with the CMIP5 ensemble mean. Differences among the CMIP5 control ocean temperature fields have a smaller impact on the sea level change pattern. (paper)

  14. Simulating spatial distribution and varying patterns of population in Urumqi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuegang; Yang, Zhaoping; Zhang, Yuhu; Shi, Qingsan

    2007-11-01

    Taking Urumqi as a case, a simulation of urban population spatial distribution is proposed based on urban land use and population statistical data using GIS, and population spatial distribution patterns are analyzed by the raster population surface. As a result, generating raster population spatial distribution surface is more accurate and natural than the traditional choropleth map of population density in Urumqi. Concerning the population spatial distribution of Urumqi, the population density declines from south to north and the population distribution mainly presents "T-type", the population distribution presents polycentric agglomeration and the population distribution of the districts shows different features. The population density varies significantly with the increase of the distance from CBD. Finally, this paper finds that the development history of districts, terrain and traffic road are main factors influencing Urumqi's population distribution. This paper tries to provide more accurate data of population distribution for the plan and management of urban land, traffic and public facilities in order to enrich the researches of urban population distribution.

  15. Introducing a rainfall compound distribution model based on weather patterns sub-sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Garavaglia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new probabilistic model for daily rainfall, using sub-sampling based on meteorological circulation. We classified eight typical but contrasted synoptic situations (weather patterns for France and surrounding areas, using a "bottom-up" approach, i.e. from the shape of the rain field to the synoptic situations described by geopotential fields. These weather patterns (WP provide a discriminating variable that is consistent with French climatology, and allows seasonal rainfall records to be split into more homogeneous sub-samples. An exponential POT model is used to fit the distribution of each sub-sample. The distribution of the multi-exponential weather patterns (MEWP is then defined as the composition, for a given season, of all WP sub-sample marginal distributions, weighted by the relative frequency of occurrence of each WP. The MEWP distribution appears able to fit various shapes of distributions using a simple and robust approach for asymptotic behaviour. It is a new contribution to the ongoing debate on the probabilistic tools used to study the asymptotic behaviour of extreme rainfall from observed records. The paper is illustrated throughout with the example of the Lyon (France rainfall record for the period 1953–2005.

  16. Switching field distribution of exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic composite bit patterned media

    CERN Document Server

    Oezelt, Harald; Fischbacher, Johann; Matthes, Patrick; Kirk, Eugenie; Wohlhüter, Phillip; Heyderman, Laura Jane; Albrecht, Manfred; Schrefl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the switching field distribution and the resulting bit error rate of exchange coupled ferri-/ferromagnetic bilayer island arrays by micromagnetic simulations. Using islands with varying microstructure and anisotropic properties, the intrinsic switching field distribution is computed. The dipolar contribution to the switching field distribution is obtained separately by using a model of a hexagonal island array resembling $1.4\\,\\mathrm{Tb/in}^2$ bit patterned media. Both contributions are computed for different thickness of the soft exchange coupled ferrimagnet and also for ferromagnetic single phase FePt islands. A bit patterned media with a bilayer structure of FeGd($5\\,\\mathrm{nm}$)/FePt($5\\,\\mathrm{nm}$) shows a bit error rate of $10^{-4}$ with a write field of $1.2\\,\\mathrm{T}$.

  17. Changes of local agricultural landscape patterns induced by land consolidation in hilly and mountainous Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen; WEI Chao-fu; ZHANG Wei-hua; XIE De-ti

    2009-01-01

    Land consolidation (LC), as a type of human disturbance, improves land production efficiency and changes landscape distribution through land parcel reallocation. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze the changes of landscape patches before and after a land consolidation project (LCP) and the effects of land levelling, irrigation and drainage work and road engineering on the landscape structure. FRAGSTAT3.3 and buffer zone analysis were used to investigate those changes. The results suggest that the heterogeneity of landscape depressed, and tended to simplification after LC. Dry land was the most highly variable land use pattern, and the change of forestland was least due to its locations at a gradient larger than 25°. LC resulted in a more rational use of land, and could be an important step in promoting rural development in depressed and fragmented agricultural areas through unused land exploitation, small-patch combination, irrigation and water conservancy, and road construction. Land levelling leveled off the gradient field surface and decreased the slope. The fragmentized patches were much more incorporated with increasing slope. On the other hand, the ridge of a field became longer so that the length of field surface and area of patch were increased. Land levelling regulated, simplified and combined patches, so that the complexity degree was reduced. It is found that the buffer distance of 35 m was a turning point of human disturbance by irrigation and drainage systems, and patches presented flaky distribution when the buffer distance was smaller than 35 m. Meanwhile, the distance range between 25 m to 50 m was an impressible area for road engineering, which was sensitive to human actions, and the changes of all landscape metrics were larger than those in other buffer zones. In general, LC not only reallocated fragmented parcels, but also improved agricultural conditions.

  18. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  19. Enhanced Algorithms to Identify Change in Crime Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    malathi arunachalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing all law-enforcement and intelligence gathering organizations is accurately and efficiently analyzing the growing volumes of crime data. There has been an enormous increase in the crime in the recent past. The concern about national security has increased significantly since the 26/11 attacks. Crimes are a social nuisance and cost our society dearly in several ways. Here we look at use of missing value, clustering algorithm and Anomalies detection for a data mining approach to help predict the crimes patterns and speed up the process of solving crime. We will look at MV algorithm, DBScan and PAM outlier detection algorithm with some enhancements to aid in the process of filling the missing value and identification of crime patterns. We applied these techniques to real crime data. We can use semi-supervised learning technique here for knowledge discovery from the crime records and to help increase the predictive accuracy.

  20. Pattern Discovery and Change Detection of Online Music Query Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Fu

    In this paper, an efficient stream mining algorithm, called FTP-stream (Frequent Temporal Pattern mining of streams), is proposed to find the frequent temporal patterns over melody sequence streams. In the framework of our proposed algorithm, an effective bit-sequence representation is used to reduce the time and memory needed to slide the windows. The FTP-stream algorithm can calculate the support threshold in only a single pass based on the concept of bit-sequence representation. It takes the advantage of "left" and "and" operations of the representation. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm only scans the music query stream once, and runs significant faster and consumes less memory than existing algorithms, such as SWFI-stream and Moment.

  1. Sink-source proximity affecting photosynthate distributive pattern in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yielding ability of cereals is an interplay of source-sink capacities and is controlled presumably by physiological events at different growth stages. The translocation of 14C-sucrose from the flag leaf to the ears and other plant parts of the main tiller of barley (H. vulgare L. cv 292) were studied at its appearance (I), maturation (II) and senescence initiation (III) stages. At every stage, there was preferentially higher 14C-translocation from the flag leaf to the ears in comparison to other plant parts, indicating thereby the crucial role played by sink-source proximity in PHS'ate(photosynthate) Partg(partitioning). In order to ascertain such Partg behaviour of the different leaves on the main tiller at stage-II, the leaves starting basipetally, from flag to the fifth leaf, were labelled with 14C-sucrose and their relative translocation to the ears and roots were determined. There was a differential 14C-translocation to the sinks due to the change in the sink-source proximity, viz. >90% 14C were translocated to the ears from flag leaf, which declined to ≤5% only from the fifth leaf, the reverse being true for the roots. Further, spikelet's central grains preferentially accumulated more 14C-assimilates than the peripheral ones, probably due to being in close proximity to the unloading points. Thus, the distributive pattern of photoassimilates showed stage-specific quantitative changes and that the sink-source proximity played a crucial role in the PHS'ate Partg. (author). 3 figs., 29 refs

  2. [Species-abundance distribution patterns along succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-min; Fan, Cheng-fang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing-pei; Fang, Kai; Fan, Fang-li; Yang, Guang-yao

    2015-12-01

    To detect the ecological process of the succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain, five niche models, i.e., broken stick model (BSM), niche preemption model (NPM), dominance preemption model (DPM), random assortment model (RAM) and overlap- ping niche model (ONM) were employed to describe the species-abundance distribution patterns (SDPs) of 15 samples. χ² test and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to test the fitting effects of the five models. The results showed that the optimal SDP models for P. glauca forest, bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broadleaved forest were DPM (χ² = 35.86, AIC = -69.77), NPM (χ² = 1.60, AIC = -94.68) and NPM (χ² = 0.35, AIC = -364.61), respectively. BSM also well fitted the SDP of bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broad-leaved forest, while it was unsuitable to describe the SDP of P. glauca forest. The fittings of RAM and ONM in the three forest types were all rejected by the χ² test and AIC. With the development of community succession from P. glauca forest to broadleaved forest, the species richness and evenness increased, and the optimal SDP model changed from DPM to NPM. It was inferred that the change of ecological process from habitat filtration to interspecific competition was the main driving force of the forest succession. The results also indicated that the application of multiple SDP models and test methods would be beneficial to select the best model and deeply understand the ecological process of community succession. PMID:27111994

  3. Can chitosan and chitooligosaccharides change microbial pattern in human colon?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimůnek, Jiří; Koppová, Ingrid; Mrázek, Jakub; Tishchenko, Galina

    Praha : ÚŽFG AV ČR, v.v. i, 2009. s. 98-98. [6th International Symposium on Anaerobic Micorbiology. 17.06.2009-20.06.2009, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/08/0803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chitosan * chitooligosaccharides * mirobial pattern Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Design pattern mining using distributed learning automata and DNA sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Esmaeilpour

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequences alignment. METHOD: The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. RESULTS: The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. CONCLUSION: The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.

  5. Changing Use Patterns, Changing Feedback Links: Implications for Reorganization of Coastal Fisheries Management in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åqvist Almlöv

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Property rights are important institutions for regulating the use of valuable natural resources from coastal ecosystems. In this case study, we identify and analyze property rights and user patterns related to small-scale coastal fisheries in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. User patterns and user groups have changed significantly over the last century, as commercial fishing has been increasingly replaced by recreational activities. Interviews with local resource users and owners of water properties in two different areas, Möja and Ornö parishes within the Stockholm Archipelago, revealed a very diverse pattern of property and user rights, with a large number of water and fishing rights owners. Recreational fisheries, including both sport and household fishing, seem to predominate in both areas, but ownership differs. In Möja, most waters are collectively owned, whereas in Ornö, individual ownership predominates. Very few examples of local influence on fisheries management were found in either area, although the social structure for joint management does exist in Möja. Instead, larger-scale institutions at the regional, national, or international level regulate fisheries, often not addressing local conditions and fish populations. The ongoing shift in resource use has created a heterogeneous user group, and the limitations of centralized management authorities in dealing with the diversity in the coastal ecosystem have created mismatches within the social–ecological system. Combined with a large-scale decline in coastal fish stocks, these mismatches challenge the existing local property rights arrangements as well as the more centralized regulatory management structure. A key issue for fisheries management is how to develop and stimulate appropriate distribution of management functions at different geographical scales and organizational levels. The complexity and diversity in archipelago fisheries call for multilevel arrangements and

  6. European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menzel, A.; Sparks, T.; Estrella, N.; Koch, E.; Aasa, A.; Ahas, R.; Alm-Kübler, K.; Bissolli, P.; Braslavska, O.; Briede, A.; Chmielewski, F.M.; Crepinsek, Z.; Curnel, Y.; Dahl, A.; Defila, C.; Donnelly, A.; Filella, Y.; Jatczak, K.; Mage, F.; Mestre, A.; Nordli, O.; Penuelas, J.; Pirinen, P.; Remisova, V.; Scheifinger, H.; Striz, M.; Susnik, A.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Wielgolaski, F.E.; Zach, S.; Zust, A.

    2006-01-01

    Global climate change impacts can already be tracked in many physical and biological systems; in particular, terrestrial ecosystems provide a consistent picture of observed changes. One of the preferred indicators is phenology, the science of natural recurring events, as their recorded dates provide

  7. Assimilation to Accommodation Immigrants and the Changing Patterns of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl E.

    2004-01-01

    The continuous inflow of immigrants into Canada, particularly in metropolitan cities like Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal where most immigrants tend to settle, has changed, and continues to change the social, cultural and educational realities of schooling. Immigrants, themselves, have played an important role in helping to establish an…

  8. Diversifying meat consumption patterns: consumers' self-reported past behaviour and intentions for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latvala, Terhi; Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pouta, Eija; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Kotro, Jaana; Forsman-Hugg, Sari

    2012-09-01

    This study analysed meat consumption patterns among Finnish consumers, considering both stated past changes and intended future changes. Consumer segments with different patterns of and reasons for change were identified. Latent class analysis revealed six consumer clusters that formed three major cluster blocks. The first block, comprising 48% of the consumers, had established consumption patterns and no intentions to change them. In the second block, with 13% of the consumers, consumption patterns had already shifted towards more vegetables and less meat. The third block, with 39% of the consumers, was identified to be in the middle of a change with a general tendency to reduce the use of meat and increase the use of vegetables. Although the environmental effects of meat and animal welfare issues were important reasons for change in some clusters, healthiness was the most salient stated reason for changing consumption habits. PMID:22560481

  9. Germline DNA methylation in reef corals: patterns and potential roles in response to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, James L; Roberts, Steven B

    2016-04-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that plays an inadequately understood role in gene regulation, particularly in nonmodel species. Because it can be influenced by the environment, DNA methylation may contribute to the ability of organisms to acclimatize and adapt to environmental change. We evaluated the distribution of gene body methylation in reef-building corals, a group of organisms facing significant environmental threats. Gene body methylation in six species of corals was inferred from in silico transcriptome analysis of CpG O/E, an estimate of germline DNA methylation that is highly correlated with patterns of methylation enrichment. Consistent with what has been documented in most other invertebrates, all corals exhibited bimodal distributions of germline methylation suggestive of distinct fractions of genes with high and low levels of methylation. The hypermethylated fractions were enriched with genes with housekeeping functions, while genes with inducible functions were highly represented in the hypomethylated fractions. High transcript abundance was associated with intermediate levels of methylation. In three of the coral species, we found that genes differentially expressed in response to thermal stress and ocean acidification exhibited significantly lower levels of methylation. These results support a link between gene body hypomethylation and transcriptional plasticity that may point to a role of DNA methylation in the response of corals to environmental change. PMID:26454152

  10. The changing demographic pattern of multiple sclerosis epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2010-01-01

    The uneven distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) across populations can be attributed to differences in genes and the environment and their interaction. Prevalence and incidence surveys could be affected by inaccuracy of diagnosis and ascertainment, and prevalence also depends on survival. These...

  11. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardakas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted species of high conservation concern, during the period 2007−2009, with 80% of the river’s total length desiccating in the 2007 and 2008 droughts. The general trend was an increase in fish density and species richness along an upstream-downstream gradient. Fish assemblages from upstream to downstream were characterized by a decrease of the most rheophilic species (Squalius keadicus and an increase of the most stagnophilic species (Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus. Three river segments, characterized by a high degree of homogeneity were delineated. Habitat and environmental preferences for the studied fish species were identified, with elevation and low flowing habitats being the most important environmental factors affecting fish distribution patterns. The current study provides evidence that even in an intermittent river an assemblage pattern following a longitudinal gradient can be identified, mainly due to the lack of instream barriers that allows recolonization after flow resumption.

  12. Aquaporin 5 distribution pattern during development of the mouse sublingual salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aure, Marit H; Larsen, Helga S; Ruus, Ann-Kristin; Galtung, Hilde K

    2011-10-01

    Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is important in salivary fluid secretion, and has been found in acinar cells of salivary glands in several species. Recently, studies have shown the AQP5 transcript and protein expression patterns as well as the temporal-spatial protein distribution during development of the mouse submandibular salivary gland. The AQP5 distribution pattern of the closely located sublingual gland (SLG) is, however, not well known. Thus, in this study, the Aqp5 RNA expression pattern and the temporal-spatial distribution of AQP5 protein in prenatal development and in adult mouse SLG was investigated. SLGs from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) to 18.5 and postnatal days 0 (P0), 25, and 60 were examined using real time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Aqp5 transcript was detected from E13.5 and was found to increase towards birth and in young adults. The protein was first detected in a scattered pattern in the canalicular stage and became more organized in the luminal membrane of the acinar cells towards birth. During all postnatal developmental stages studied, AQP5 was localized in the luminal and lateral membrane of acinar cells. AQP5 was also detected in the intercalated duct and additional apical membrane staining in the entire intralobular duct was found in the terminal bud stage. These results indicate that AQP5 plays a role during embryonic salivary gland development. PMID:21818558

  13. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions—The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jansch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern, typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface. The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  14. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential.

  15. Moving beyond abundance distributions: neutral theory and spatial patterns in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Felix; Huth, Andreas; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of different processes that determine the spatial distribution of species and the dynamics in highly diverse plant communities remains a challenging question in ecology. Previous modelling approaches often focused on single aggregated forest diversity patterns that convey limited information on the underlying dynamic processes. Here, we use recent advances in inference for stochastic simulation models to evaluate the ability of a spatially explicit and spatially continuous neutral model to quantitatively predict six spatial and non-spatial patterns observed at the 50 ha tropical forest plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The patterns capture different aspects of forest dynamics and biodiversity structure, such as annual mortality rate, species richness, species abundance distribution, beta-diversity and the species–area relationship (SAR). The model correctly predicted each pattern independently and up to five patterns simultaneously. However, the model was unable to match the SAR and beta-diversity simultaneously. Our study moves previous theory towards a dynamic spatial theory of biodiversity and demonstrates the value of spatial data to identify ecological processes. This opens up new avenues to evaluate the consequences of additional process for community assembly and dynamics. PMID:25631991

  16. School Drop out: Patterns, Causes, Changes and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sabates, R.; Westbrook, J; Akyeampong, K.; Hunt, F.

    2010-01-01

    This background paper for the UNESCO GMR team draws on a range of resources to provide a synthesis on drop out. The paper focuses on patterns of participation, age-specific drop out rates, equity in drop out rates, and the link between over age enrolment and drop out rates. The paper outlines the main causes of drop out and provides two country case studies, Ghana and Tanzania, to highlight the potential strategies that could be used to address drop out. The paper concludes with our main poli...

  17. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Hegerl, Gabriele; Zwiers, Francis; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and...

  18. Investigation of changes in water resources and grain production in China: changing patterns and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Wei; Hu, Yunjin; Dai, Xiangqian; Song, Xingyuan

    2015-11-01

    Water resources are very important for grain production in China. In this study, we investigate the changes in streamflow and grain production in China from 1956 to 2008. Since the 1980s, the increase of total grain production was mainly contributed by northern China where significantly decreasing precipitation and available water resources were observed. From 1985 to 2008, northern China accounted for 92.9 % of the national total grain production growth. Consequently, the main grain production area has shifted from the south to the north. However, the shift was mismatching the spatial distributions and temporal changes in precipitation and available water resources in China. During 1956 through 2008, precipitation decreased in the main grain production areas of the northern China by 1.23-1.27 mm per year. During the same period, observed streamflows in the five major rivers in northern China decreased by 13.4-92.4 %. Current grain production in northern China is dependent on overexploitation of groundwater. From 1987 to 2000, the average groundwater table declined 10.8 m with a maximum decrease of 34.8 m in North China Plain. Furthermore, the impacts of climate change and projected industrial development exacerbate the uncertainty of grain supply by northern China in the future. This study also indicated the potential of southern China for a more important role in ensuring sustainable food security of China, with increasing precipitation and streamflows observed in the Yangtze River and Pearl River basins.

  19. Assessment of climate change impacts on hydrological processes and patterns in the Spree River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, H.; Gädeke, A.; Koch, H.; Grünewald, U.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, a successful river catchment planning and management should consider climate change impacts on hydrological processes and patterns. This is of particular interest for stakeholders in the Spree River catchment, which is significantly affected by long term lignite mining activities. Furthermore, the consideration of climate change impacts is essential for the development of climate change adaptation strategies, e.g. land use change. Therefore, the Innovation Network of Climate Change Adaptation Brandenburg Berlin (INKA BB), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), was launched to reveal among others the impact of climate change on the hydrology at the regional scale. To achieve this, simulations with help of the process-based, spatially distributed Water Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM-ETH) were conducted. In a first step, a model for the Spree River catchment (up to gauge Leibsch, 4500 km2) was set up, calibrated (from 1998 to 2002), and validated (from 2002 to 2006) on measured discharge for a headwater sub-catchment (135 km2) which discharge is only minor affected by water management. To consider climate change impacts, results of the STAtistical Regional climate model STAR were used as meteorological input for hydrological modeling in a second step. From 100 available STAR-realizations, three were chosen which are closest to the median, the 10%-, and 90%-percentile of the entire number of realizations and hereafter called as moderate, dry, and wet scenario. The model period of the three scenarios spans over 10 years (from 2045 to 2054) and was compared to a 30 year period in the past (from 1961 to 1990) where measurements were used as climate input parameters (reference period). The model results show reduced precipitation (except the wet scenario), increased evapotranspiration and consequently reduced runoff in the scenarios compared to the reference period. Hence, the climate water budget decreases and hydrological patterns e

  20. Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ciprandi Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.

  1. PREDICTION OF CHANGES IN VEGETATION DISTRIBUTION UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS USING MODIS DATASET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hirayama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of vegetation is expected to change under the influence of climate change. This study utilizes vegetation maps derived from Terra/MODIS data to generate a model of current climate conditions suitable to beech-dominated deciduous forests, which are the typical vegetation of Japan’s cool temperate zone. This model will then be coordinated with future climate change scenarios to predict the future distribution of beech forests. The model was developed by using the presence or absence of beech forest as the dependent variable. Four climatic variables; mean minimum daily temperature of the coldest month (TMC,warmth index (WI, winter precipitation (PRW and summer precipitation (PRS: and five geophysical variables; topography (TOPO, surface geology (GEOL, soil (SOIL, slope aspect (ASP, and inclination (INCL; were adopted as independent variables. Previous vegetation distribution studies used point data derived from field surveys. The remote sensing data utilized in this study, however, should permit collecting of greater amounts of data, and also frequent updating of data and distribution maps. These results will hopefully show that use of remote sensing data can provide new insights into our understanding of how vegetation distribution will be influenced by climate change.

  2. Prediction of Changes in Vegetation Distribution Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Modis Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Hidetake; Tomita, Mizuki; Hara, Keitarou

    2016-06-01

    The distribution of vegetation is expected to change under the influence of climate change. This study utilizes vegetation maps derived from Terra/MODIS data to generate a model of current climate conditions suitable to beech-dominated deciduous forests, which are the typical vegetation of Japan's cool temperate zone. This model will then be coordinated with future climate change scenarios to predict the future distribution of beech forests. The model was developed by using the presence or absence of beech forest as the dependent variable. Four climatic variables; mean minimum daily temperature of the coldest month (TMC) warmth index (WI) winter precipitation (PRW) and summer precipitation (PRS): and five geophysical variables; topography (TOPO), surface geology (GEOL), soil (SOIL), slope aspect (ASP), and inclination (INCL); were adopted as independent variables. Previous vegetation distribution studies used point data derived from field surveys. The remote sensing data utilized in this study, however, should permit collecting of greater amounts of data, and also frequent updating of data and distribution maps. These results will hopefully show that use of remote sensing data can provide new insights into our understanding of how vegetation distribution will be influenced by climate change.

  3. Study on Simulating Spatial Distribution and Varying Patterns of Urumqi's Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuegang; Yang Zhaoping; Zhang Xiaolei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,an approach to simulate the spatial distribution of urban population is proposed using urban land use and population statistical data through the geographical information systems(GIS).Then,the spatial population distribution of Urumqi as a case is simulated by the approach mentioned above and its varying patterns are analyzed by the raster population surface.As a result,producing raster population surface is more accurate and natural than the traditional choropleth map of population density.Concerning the spatial population distribution of Urumqi,the population density declines from south to north and the population distribution mainly presents"T-type",the population distribution presents multi-centre agglomeration and the population distribution of the districts shows different features.The population density varies significantly with the incmase in the distance from central business district(CBD).Finally,it is found in this paper that the development history of districts,terrain and traffic road are main factors that have an influence Urumqi's population distribution.This paper tries to provide more accurate population data for the plan and management of urban land,traffic and public facilities in order to enrich the researches on urban population distribution.

  4. Phytoplankton distribution patterns in the northwestern Sargasso Sea revealed by small subunit rRNA genes from plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treusch, Alexander H; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Vergin, Kevin L; Worden, Alexandra Z; Carlson, Craig A; Donatz, Michael G; Burton, Robert M; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2012-03-01

    Phytoplankton species vary in their physiological properties, and are expected to respond differently to seasonal changes in water column conditions. To assess these varying distribution patterns, we used 412 samples collected monthly over 12 years (1991-2004) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study site, located in the northwestern Sargasso Sea. We measured plastid 16S ribosomal RNA gene abundances with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approach and identified distribution patterns for members of the Prymnesiophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Prasinophyceae. The analysis revealed dynamic bloom patterns by these phytoplankton taxa that begin early in the year, when the mixed layer is deep. Previously, unreported open-ocean prasinophyte blooms dominated the plastid gene signal during convective mixing events. Quantitative PCR confirmed the blooms and transitions of Bathycoccus, Micromonas and Ostreococcus populations. In contrast, taxa belonging to the pelagophytes and chrysophytes, as well as cryptophytes, reached annual peaks during mixed layer shoaling, while Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) were observed only episodically in the 12-year record. Prymnesiophytes dominated the integrated plastid gene signal. They were abundant throughout the water column before mixing events, but persisted in the deep chlorophyll maximum during stratified conditions. Various models have been used to describe mechanisms that drive vernal phytoplankton blooms in temperate seas. The range of taxon-specific bloom patterns observed here indicates that different 'spring bloom' models can aptly describe the behavior of different phytoplankton taxa at a single geographical location. These findings provide insight into the subdivision of niche space by phytoplankton and may lead to improved predictions of phytoplankton responses to changes in ocean conditions. PMID:21955994

  5. Holocene shelf sedimentation patterns off equatorial East Africa constrained by climatic and sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Meyer, Inka; Henrich, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial East Africa experienced significant variations in paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions during the Holocene. These environmental changes influenced sedimentation patterns on the continental shelf. To date, however, little is known about the sediment source, its transport to, and deposition on, the Tanzanian shelf. This paper presents a new high-resolution Holocene sedimentary record off northeast Tanzania (equatorial East Africa) and provides insights into how sedimentation patterns responded to climatic and oceanographic changes during the Holocene. Based on grain-size distribution patterns and mineral assemblages, three types of shelf sediments were identified: Type I (fine-grained terrigenous sediment) is dominated by clay minerals that originated from continental weathering; Type II (coarse-grained terrigenous sediment) is mainly composed of feldspar and quartz, derived from reworking of pre-existing deposits; and Type III (biogenic marine sediment), with low- and high-magnesium calcite, was produced by marine carbonate-secreting organisms. The high input of Type I sediment during the early Holocene (10-8 cal kyr BP) was caused by river mouth bypassing. This supply-dominated regime was controlled by intense river discharge and subsequent resuspension of mud in shelf settings, responding to the humid climate in the hinterland and sea-level rise with low rate off Tanzania. The first occurrence of Type II sediments was around 8 cal kyr BP and dominated when sedimentation rates lowered. This accommodation-dominated regime was caused by shoreface bypassing due to an arid climate and sea-level highstand. Type III sediments increased significantly from the early to late Holocene, resulting from the weakening dilution effect of the terrigenous component. The sedimentation pattern on the Tanzanian shelf shifted from allochthonous to autochthonous sedimentation constrained by climatic changes and relative sea-level fluctuations at the end of the early

  6. LINE-1 distribution in six rodent genomes follow a species-specific pattern

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Vieira-Da-Silva; F. Adega; H. Guedes-Pinto; R. Chaves

    2016-03-01

    L1 distribution in mammal’s genomes is yet a huge riddle. However, these repetitive sequences were already found in all chromosomic regions, and in general, they seem to be nonrandomly distributed in the genome. It also seems that after insertionand when they are not deleterious, they are always involved in dynamic processes occurring on that particular chromosomic region. Furthermore, it seems that large-scale genome rearrangements and L1 activity and accumulation are somehow interconnected. In the present study, we analysed L1 genomic distribution in Tatera gambiana (Muridae, Gerbillinae), Acomys sp. (Muridae, Deomyinae), Cricetomys sp. (Nesomyidae, Cricetomyinae), Microtus arvalis (Cricetidae, Arvicolinae), Phodopus roborovskii and P. sungorus (Cricetidae, Cricetinae). All the species studied here seems to exhibit a species-specific pattern.Possible mechanisms, and processes involved in L1 distribution and preferential accumulation in certain regions are discussed.

  7. How much time do nurses have for patients? a longitudinal study quantifying hospital nurses' patterns of task time distribution and interactions with health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Westbrook Johanna I; Duffield Christine; Li Ling; Creswick Nerida J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Time nurses spend with patients is associated with improved patient outcomes, reduced errors, and patient and nurse satisfaction. Few studies have measured how nurses distribute their time across tasks. We aimed to quantify how nurses distribute their time across tasks, with patients, in individual tasks, and engagement with other health care providers; and how work patterns changed over a two year period. Methods Prospective observational study of 57 nurses for 191.3 hour...

  8. Indonesia's Modern Retail Food Sector: Interaction With Changing Food Consumption and Trade Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Dyck, John H.; Woolverton, Andrea E.; Rangkuti, Fahwani Yuliati

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia’s food market has changed in response to a changing and growing economy. The report examines changes in the food consumption pattern and measures the growth of modern food retail chains, packaged food purchases, and food imports in the world’s fourth-most-populous country. The evidence suggests that Indonesians are moving toward modern global purchasing and consumption patterns, but more slowly than in some comparable countries. Barriers to foreign and domestic commerce, affecting t...

  9. Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Taiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the presence of sialic acid α-2,3 and α-2,6 linked glycan receptors in seven avian species. The respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, golden pheasant, ostrich, and mallard were tested by means of lectin histochemistry, using the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, which show affinity for α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors, respectively. Additionally, the pattern of virus attachment (PVA was evaluated with virus histochemistry, using an avian-origin H4N5 virus and a human-origin seasonal H1N1 virus. There was a great variation of receptor distribution among the tissues and avian species studied. Both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors were present in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, and golden pheasant. In ostriches, the expression of the receptor was basically restricted to α-2,3 in both the respiratory and intestinal tracts and in mallards the α-2,6 receptors were absent from the intestinal tract. The results obtained with the lectin histochemistry were, in general, in agreement with the PVA. The differential expression and distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors among various avian species might reflect a potentially decisive factor in the emergence of new viral strains.

  10. Discussion on the Landscape Pattern Change of Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin

    2006-01-01

    Evaluating the transition of landscape can understand that ecosystem processes are being influenced by disturbance. For this reason, it is essential that using appropriate mapping techniques and quantitative methods to assess landscape condition within different disturbance regimes. Landscape metrics were calculated for segmented areas of homogeneous land use in watershed to allow understanding and characterization of ecosystem.Chen-yu-lan watershed, located in the central of Taiwan, is a sensitivity area for disaster such as earthquakes and typhoons. In this study we focus on how the natural disaster affect landscape pattern. The study shows that landscape metrics can measure the effect of typhoon and earthquake disturbance regime. The analysis shows that evaluating landscape transition can contribute more detailed information for managing ecosystem.

  11. Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversit...

  12. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C; Koven, Charles D; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y-W; Miller, Charles E

    2016-07-12

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost. PMID:27354511

  13. Changing Patterns of Interracial Marriage in a Multiracial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    We use incidence data from the 1980 Census and 2008 American Community Survey to track recent trends in interracial marriage. Intermarriage with Whites increased rapidly among Blacks but stalled among Asians and American Indians. Black-White intermarriage increased threefold over 1980-2008, independent of changing socioeconomic status, suggesting…

  14. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  15. Detecting regional patterns of changing CO2 flux in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Commane, Roisin; Wofsy, Steven C.; Koven, Charles D.; Sweeney, Colm; Lawrence, David M.; Lindaas, Jakob; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.

    2016-07-01

    With rapid changes in climate and the seasonal amplitude of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Arctic, it is critical that we detect and quantify the underlying processes controlling the changing amplitude of CO2 to better predict carbon cycle feedbacks in the Arctic climate system. We use satellite and airborne observations of atmospheric CO2 with climatically forced CO2 flux simulations to assess the detectability of Alaskan carbon cycle signals as future warming evolves. We find that current satellite remote sensing technologies can detect changing uptake accurately during the growing season but lack sufficient cold season coverage and near-surface sensitivity to constrain annual carbon balance changes at regional scale. Airborne strategies that target regular vertical profile measurements within continental interiors are more sensitive to regional flux deeper into the cold season but currently lack sufficient spatial coverage throughout the entire cold season. Thus, the current CO2 observing network is unlikely to detect potentially large CO2 sources associated with deep permafrost thaw and cold season respiration expected over the next 50 y. Although continuity of current observations is vital, strategies and technologies focused on cold season measurements (active remote sensing, aircraft, and tall towers) and systematic sampling of vertical profiles across continental interiors over the full annual cycle are required to detect the onset of carbon release from thawing permafrost.

  16. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  17. Patterns and Composition of Weight Change in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Ryan J.; Morgan, Amy L.; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2015-01-01

    While it is well documented that college freshmen gain weight, there is a dearth of studies examining critical time periods for this weight change. Freshmen living on campus (n = 103; 21M, 82F) visited the laboratory in August/September, November, January, February/March, and April/May. Measurements at each visit included: weight, waist…

  18. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribe...... consumption seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  19. Distribution pattern of reptiles along an eastern Himalayan elevation gradient, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Basundhara; Bhupathy, Subramanian; Acharya, Bhoj Kumar

    2010-01-01

    We examined the spatial distribution pattern of reptiles in an eastern Himalayan elevation gradient. The factors governing the distribution have been assessed with emphasis on the mid-domain effect. We surveyed reptiles along the elevation gradient (300-4800 m) of the Teesta valley in Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya, India using time constrained visual encounter survey. A total of 42 species of reptiles were observed during the study, and the species richness peaked at 500-1000 m with no species beyond 3000 m. The observed pattern was consistent with estimated richness, both showing significant negative relation with elevation. Lizards showed a linear decline with elevation, whereas snakes followed a non-linear relation with peak at 500-1000 m. Observed species richness deviated significantly from that predicted by a mid-domain null model. The regression between empirical and simulated richness was not significant for total reptiles as well as lizards and snakes separately. Most species distributed in the high elevation extended towards lower elevation, but low elevation species (around 50%) were restricted below 1000 m. Deviation of empirical from predicted richness indicates that the distributions of reptile species were least governed by geographic hard boundaries. Climatic factors especially temperature explained much variation of reptiles along the Himalayan elevation gradient. Most reptiles were narrowly distributed, especially those found in low elevation indicating the importance of tropical low-land forests in the conservation of reptiles in Eastern Himalayas.

  20. Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montanari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientists and public administrators are devoting increasing attention to the Po River, in Italy, in view of concerns related to the impact of increasing urbanisation and exploitation of water resources. A better understanding of the hydrological regime of the river is necessary to improve water resources management and flood protection. In particular, the analysis of the effects of hydrological and climatic change is crucial for planning sustainable development and economic growth. An extremely interesting issue is to inspect to what extent river flows can be naturally affected by the occurrence of long periods of water abundance or scarcity, which can be erroneously interpreted as irreversible changes due to human impact. In fact, drought and flood periods alternatively occurred in the recent past in the form of long-term fluctuations. This paper presents advanced graphical and analytical methods to gain a better understanding of the temporal distribution of the Po River discharge. In particular, we present an analysis of river flow variability and persistence properties, to gain a better understanding of natural patterns, and in particular long-term changes, which may affect the future flood risk and availability of water resources.

  1. Patterns of distribution of phosphomono-esterases on surfaces of demineralized bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1979-01-01

    comparable to that obtained by using undecalcified sections. Na2 EDTA creates, on the other hand, poor preservation of alkaline phosphatase probably due to the fact that this chelate contrary to the other chelates removes the essential metal from the protein, leaving an unstable enzyme molecule which...... undergoes denaturation. Decalcification over longer periods (15 days) does not influence the pattern of distribution of acid phosphatase, whereas the alkaline phosphatase reaction becomes depressed in certain surface areas. The significance of this differential distribution is discussed. It might be an...

  2. Method of lift-off patterning thin films in situ employing phase change resists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahlke, Matthias Erhard; Baldo, Marc A; Mendoza, Hiroshi Antonio

    2014-09-23

    Method for making a patterned thin film of an organic semiconductor. The method includes condensing a resist gas into a solid film onto a substrate cooled to a temperature below the condensation point of the resist gas. The condensed solid film is heated selectively with a patterned stamp to cause local direct sublimation from solid to vapor of selected portions of the solid film thereby creating a patterned resist film. An organic semiconductor film is coated on the patterned resist film and the patterned resist film is heated to cause it to sublime away and to lift off because of the phase change.

  3. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen

  4. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  5. [Distribution of the different patterns of aging over the system of animal world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Since the system of animal world reflects evolutionary trends, an analysis of distribution of patterns of aging over this system provides information on the causes of the formation of differences among them. In this paper the system of the main animal groups in form of a table is presented, and the distribution of patterns demonstrating minimum and maximum of aging is discussed. Meanwhile the colonial animals are considered as a "minimum of aging", the animals demonstrating drastic self-liquidation after reproduction are considered as a "maximum of aging" (the most well-known example is the pink salmon). It is shown, that as far as the degree of difference from the simplest ancestor increases in process of evolution, the increase of the manifestations of aging takes place. Slow aging of relatively simple organisms cannot be a direct source of measures to prevent aging of complex ones. PMID:21957572

  6. Application of the distributed genetic algorithm for loading pattern optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distributed genetic algorithm (DGA) is applied for loading pattern optimization problems of the pressurized water reactors (PWR). Due to stiff nature of the loading pattern optimizations (e.g. multi-modality and non-linearity), stochastic methods like the simulated annealing or the genetic algorithm (GA) are widely applied for these problems. A basic concept of DGA is based on that of GA. However, DGA equally distributes candidates of solutions (i.e. loading patterns) to several independent 'islands' and evolves them in each island. Migrations of some candidates are performed among islands with a certain period. Since candidates of solutions independently evolve in each island with accepting different genes of migrants from other islands, premature convergence in the traditional GA can be prevented. Because many candidate loading patterns should be evaluated in one generation of GA or DGA, the parallelization in these calculations works efficiently. Parallel efficiency was measured using our optimization code and good load balance was attained even in a heterogeneous cluster environment due to dynamic distribution of the calculation load. The optimization code is based on the client/server architecture with the TCP/IP native socket and a client (optimization module) and calculation server modules communicate the objects of loading patterns each other. Throughout the sensitivity study on optimization parameters of DGA, a suitable set of the parameters for a test problem was identified. Finally, optimization capability of DGA and the traditional GA was compared in the test problem and DGA provided better optimization results than the traditional GA. (author)

  7. Exploiting Patterns and Tool Support for Reusable and Automated Change Support for Software Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakash Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lehman?s law of continuing change implies that software must continually evolve to accommodate frequently changing requirements in existing systems. Also, maintainability as an attribute of system quality requires that changes are to be systematically implemented in existing software throughout its lifecycle. To support a continuous software evolution, the primary challenges include (i enhancing reuse of recurring changes; and (ii decreasing the efforts for change implementation. We propose change patterns and demonstrate their applicability as reusable solutions to recurring problems of architectural change implementation. Tool support can empower the role of a designer/architect by facilitating them to avoid labourious tasks and executing complex and large number of changes in an automated way. Recently, change patterns as well as tool support have been exploited for architecture evolution, however; there is no research to unify pattern-driven (reusable and toolsupported (automated evolution that is the contribution of this paper. By exploiting patterns with tool support we demonstrate the evolution of a peerto- peer system towards client-server architecture. Evaluation results suggest that: (i patterns promote reuse but lack fine-granular change implementation, and (ii tool supports automation but user intervention is required to customise architecture change management.

  8. Distributional patterns of fecal indicator bacteria in spring area of Plitvice Lakes National park

    OpenAIRE

    Vurnek, Maja; Brozinčević, Andrijana; Briški, Felicita; Matoničkin Kepčija, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have widespread use as indicators of water quality and health hazards. The purpose of this study was to determine distributional patterns of FIB and to assess their origin on several sites in spring area and in vertical profile of Prošćansko Lake in Plitvice Lakes National Park. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from March to January 2013 on 9 sampling sites. Standard microbiological methods were used to determine densiti...

  9. Distribution pattern, zoogeographic similarities and affinities of montane herpetofauna of Southern Eastern Ghats, peninsular India

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh, Sumaithangi Rajagopalan; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2016-01-01

    We examined the distribution pattern, across-site similarities and zoogeographic affinities of amphibians and reptiles in the montane zones (> 900 m a.s.l.) of the Southern Eastern Ghats mountains in peninsular India. We deployed long-term field surveys in four select massifs namely Jawadi, Shevaroys, Kolli and Sirumalai and generated herpetofaunal species lists. Based solely on our species occurrence data, we identified taxa that characterise sites, site-pairs and site-clusters. We quantifie...

  10. Regular Patterns for Proteome-Wide Distribution of Protein Abundance across Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zhong; Dong Yang; Yunwei Hao; Chengzhao Lin; Ying Jiang; Wantao Ying; Songfeng Wu; Yunping Zhu; Siqi Liu; Pengyuan Yang; Xiaohong Qian; Fuchu He

    2012-01-01

    A proteome of the bio-entity, including cell, tissue, organ, and organism, consists of proteins of diverse abundance. The principle that determines the abundance of different proteins in a proteome is of fundamental significance for an understanding of the building blocks of the bio-entity. Here, we report three regular patterns in the proteome-wide distribution of protein abundance across species such as human, mouse, fly, worm, yeast, and bacteria: in most cases, protein abundance is positi...

  11. Patterns of Quality - The distribution of urban services among the residents of the city of Villahermosa

    OpenAIRE

    Iso-Markku, Elina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis digs deep into patterns of urban service distribution among the residents of different neighbourhoods in the city of Villahermosa in Southeastern Mexico. Urban research has for a long time debated whether services offered in poor neighbourhoods are of worse quality than those in other areas. Using political ecology as its theoretical framework, this thesis identifies processes that influence the quality of public and private services as well as the residents’ access to them in d...

  12. Distribution Patterns of Human Elephant Conflict in Areas Adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Munuo, Wilbright

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human pressure on terrestrial ecosystems has caused loss and fragmentation of habitats for wildlife species. That has brought humans and wildlife in close proximity intensifying human wildlife conflicts, especially when wild animals with wide home ranges, such as African and Asian elephants, are involved. This study assesses distribution patterns of human elephant conflict (HEC) in areas adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve (RGR) in Tanzania. Questionnaire survey was used as a tool fo...

  13. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae) in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphome...

  14. Intergenerational linkages in consumption patterns and the geographical distribution of surnames

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to detect the existence of links in consumption patterns between generations. Preferences over consumption goods may be determined by the preferences of parents and/or by preferences arising from the environment. We propose an indirect methodology to overcome the lack of data on consumption choices of dynasties, i.e., parents and their adult offspring. This new approach is based on the analysis of the correlation between the geographical distributions of surnames and consu...

  15. Precipitation Intensity and Events Distribution Changes in the Extratropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.; Groisman, P. Y.; Zolina, O. G.; Bulygina, O.

    2012-12-01

    More than ten years ago, Groisman et al. (1999) first reported large-scale changes in spectra of precipitation distribution intensity. At the tails of this distribution the frequencies in heavy and very heavy precipitation events have increased over many parts of the extratropics. These increases were disproportionally high in the regions where the precipitation totals increased and were observed even in the regions where the mean rainfall remained unchanged or decreased. Thereafter, this peculiarity of the contemporary precipitation distribution change was substantiated in many regional studies summarized by Groisman and Knight (2013) and will be reported in our presentation. Increases in the frequency of very heavy and extreme precipitation events (with return period of several years and decades respectively) are important for impact studies (assessment of soil erosion, potential of flood) but these events represent a small fraction in annual rainfall totals. Therefore, we analyzed the changes in the mean daily rainfall intensity over the northern extratropics in the regions well elucidated with dense gauge networks (southern Canada, contiguous U.S., Europe, Russia, and Japan). Nearly everywhere, we found systematic increases in daily rainfall totals per day with rain. While increases in very heavy and extreme rainfall intensity are an independent characteristic of the ongoing climatic change, the observed changes in mean precipitation intensity are in line with the ongoing global and regional warming. Duration of the sequences of wet days (prolonged rain events) increased in Europe and Northern Asia, and the duration of the sequences of dry days (prolonged no-rain events) increased over large parts of Northern Eurasia and North America (Zolina et al. 2010; Groisman and Knight 2007; 2013). To describe this feature of the rain events distribution, Zolina et al. (2012) suggested a visual interpretation of wet days as beads on the necklace of the seasonal cycle time

  16. Management culture in Romania: Patterns of change and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Kevin; Kennedy, Liz

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how far restructuring has involved a change in leadership style and the development of new philosophies and approaches which derive from the Anglo-American model of 'people management'. During the Communist period, Romania experienced a highly centralised system of management. Broader currents of historical and political culture also served to inculcate values of bureaucratic formalism. In transitional times it appears that the management role is being re-defined and manag...

  17. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 2000 the European Commission launched a broad debate on the security of energy supply in the European Union. Fortunately these debates are occurring simultaneously in Europe and in the US, thus providing an opportunity for a transatlantic debate and further cooperation. The author come back to european facts and figures, then to stress the dramatic changes in the context since 1990 and finally to discuss the policy options. (A.L.B.)

  18. Effects of habitat fragmentation and road density on the distribution pattern of the moor frog Rana arvalis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.C.; Chardon, P.

    1998-01-01

    1. The effects of habitat fragmentation on the distribution pattern of the moor frog Rana arvalis were investigated. Also, the possible isolation effects of the road network were taken into account. 2. Indications were found that habitat fragmentation partly explains the distribution pattern of the

  19. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, D.

    1994-12-31

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for {open_quotes}greenfields{close_quotes} in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed.

  20. Changing industrial patterns in the metroplitan Chicago area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial base of Chicago, and most Midwestern cities, continues to change. These changes are particularly visible in the manufacturing sector where the exodus of companies has left behind abandoned factories and industrial sites that now blight the urban landscape. As urban centers have seen a steady decline in their ability to attract and maintain their manufacturing base, great interest has been placed in seeing what can be done to attract economic activity back into the urban center. For most Midwestern cities, this often means trying to either replace or stem the tide of manufacturing facilities that have left the city for open-quotes greenfieldsclose quotes in suburban or rural locations or have simply moved overseas. On the replacement front, to compensate for the loss of manufacturing, some cities such as Chicago have managed to expand other areas of their economies, such as business services, finance, and tourism and recreation to maintain their vitality. This paper discusses three aspects of the changing economic landscape of Chicago and other Midwestern urban areas. First, some historical perspective will be provided on how Chicago came to be a manufacturing center and what factors since World War II have led manufacturing facilities to move away from the urban center. Second, the future prospects for manufacturing in the central city will be examined. Finally, what policies may help increase (or at the very least maintain) the concentration of manufacturing in Chicago will be discussed

  1. Climatic changes and uplift patterns - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our knowledge about the Pleistocene (= last 2.5 million years) climatic changes and their global environmental effects on the Earth system, e.g. the glacial-interglacial cycles, the sea level changes, and the significant crustal movements in glaciated regions, has increased greatly during the last decades. This report outlines the historical background and the present state-of-the-arts on these matters. Because the driving mechanisms and feed-back effects behind these changes have been more and more discussed in earth-science literature, analysed, and probably also better and better understood, it has become possible to present theoretical models for future climates (not including mans influence on the earth system). The report presents and discusses one such climate model (short of predicting mans future behaviour and its consequent effect on climate) and its likely implications on future climatic and glacial conditions, and bedrock movements, with focus on the Stockholm region. Possibilities for quaternary geologists to establish and map post glacial fault zones, related to irregular bedrock movements, are also briefly outlined in the report. (222 refs.)

  2. Introducing a rainfall compound distribution model based on weather patterns sub-sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Garavaglia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic model for daily rainfall, using sub-sampling based on meteorological circulation. We classified eight typical but contrasted synoptic situations (weather patterns for France and surrounding areas, using a "bottom-up" approach, i.e. from the shape of the rain field to the synoptic situations described by geopotential fields. These weather patterns (WP provide a discriminating variable that is consistent with French climatology, and allows seasonal rainfall records to be split into more homogeneous sub-samples, in term of meteorological genesis.

    First results show how the combination of seasonal and WP sub-sampling strongly influences the identification of the asymptotic behaviour of rainfall probabilistic models. Furthermore, with this level of stratification, an asymptotic exponential behaviour of each sub-sample appears as a reasonable hypothesis. This first part is illustrated with two daily rainfall records from SE of France.

    The distribution of the multi-exponential weather patterns (MEWP is then defined as the composition, for a given season, of all WP sub-sample marginal distributions, weighted by the relative frequency of occurrence of each WP. This model is finally compared to Exponential and Generalized Pareto distributions, showing good features in terms of robustness and accuracy. These final statistical results are computed from a wide dataset of 478 rainfall chronicles spread on the southern half of France. All these data cover the 1953–2005 period.

  3. Large scale patterns in vertical distribution and behaviour of mesopelagic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, T. A.

    2016-01-27

    Recent studies suggest that previous estimates of mesopelagic biomasses are severely biased, with the new, higher estimates underlining the need to unveil behaviourally mediated coupling between shallow and deep ocean habitats. We analysed vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers (SLs) recorded at 38 kHz across oceanographic regimes encountered during the circumglobal Malaspina expedition. Mesopelagic SLs were observed in all areas covered, but vertical distributions and DVM patterns varied markedly. The distribution of mesopelagic backscatter was deepest in the southern Indian Ocean (weighted mean daytime depth: WMD 590 m) and shallowest at the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern Pacific (WMD 350 m). DVM was evident in all areas covered, on average ~50% of mesopelagic backscatter made daily excursions from mesopelagic depths to shallow waters. There were marked differences in migrating proportions between the regions, ranging from ~20% in the Indian Ocean to ~90% in the Eastern Pacific. Overall the data suggest strong spatial gradients in mesopelagic DVM patterns, with implied ecological and biogeochemical consequences. Our results suggest that parts of this spatial variability can be explained by horizontal patterns in physical-chemical properties of water masses, such as oxygen, temperature and turbidity.

  4. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, A; Galante, E; Micó, E

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what extent these can affect conservation decisions. Beetles were sampled using hollow emergence and window traps in three protected areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Species richness, composition, and diversity turnover were analyzed for each sampling method and showed high variation depending on the analyzed assemblage. Beta diversity was clearly higher among forests for the assemblage captured using window traps. This method collects flying insects from different tree microhabitats and its captures are influenced by the forest structuring. Within forests, the assemblages captured by hollow emergence traps, which collect the fauna linked to tree hollows, showed the largest turnover of species, as they are influenced by the characteristics of each cavity. Moreover, the selection of the forest showing the highest species richness strongly depended on the studied assemblage. This study demonstrates that differences in the studied assemblages (group of species co-occurring in the same habitat) can also lead to significant differences in the identified patterns of species distribution and diversity turnover. This fact will be necessary to take into consideration when making decisions about conservation and management. PMID:27252483

  5. The Change of Spectral Energy Distribution of Surface EMG Signal During Forearm Action Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Spectral energy distribution of surface EMG signal is often used but difficultly and effectively control artificial limb, because the spectral energy distribution changes in the process of limb actions. In this paper, the general characteristics of surface EMG signal patterns were firstly characterized by spectral energy change. 13 healthy subjects were instructed to execute forearm supination (FS) and forearm pronation (FP) with their right forearms when their forearm muscles were "fatigue" or "relaxed". All surface EMG signals were recorded from their right forearm flexor during their right forearm actions. Two sets of surface EMG signals were segmented from every surface EMG signal appropriately at preparing stage and acting stage. Relative wavelet packet energy (symbolized by pnp and pna respectively at preparing stage and acting stage, n denotes the nth frequency band) of surface EMG signal firstly was calculated and then, the difference (Pn =Pna -Pnp) were gained. The results showed that Pn from some frequency bands can effectively characterize the general characteristics of surface EMG signal patterns. Compared with Pn in other frequency bands, P4, the spectral energy change from 93.75 to 125 Hz,was more appropriately regarded as the features.

  6. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  7. Daily Changes of Spatial Patterns of Meteorological Elements over Pearl River Delta Based on GIS and MM5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xueding; XIA Beicheng; LIN Guangfa; LIN Wenshi

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of meteorological elements is important for understanding the regional meteorology and climate changes. However, previous studies rarely focused on the daily changes of the spatial patterns of meteorological elements due to the limitation of remote sensing (RS) techniques and traditional meteorological methods. In this paper, the regional meteorological elements were simulated by the fifth-generation non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (MM5), and the spatial patterns of meteorological elements and their diurnal variations were analyzed in landscape level over the Pearl (Zhujiang) River Delta (PRD), China. The results showed that there were several centers of urban heat islands, cold islands, dry islands, wet islands, high wind over the PRD at noon. The diurnal changes of Moran I of meteorological elements were obvious and they reached the extremum at noon and 2-3 hours after the sunrise. The landscape indices of meteorological elements, such as area-weighted mean Fractal Dimension Index (FRAC_AM), Landscape Shape Index (LSI), Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI) and Contagion Index (CONTAG), were more variable at about the sunrise, noon and sunset. The occurrence of wave crests and vales of landscape indices was affected by the surface net radiation, turbulence and local circumfluence. The spatial patterns of meteorological elements correlated well with the land surface, thermal exchanges and local circumfluence. A new approach combining GIS, RS and numerical simulatious technologies and the landscape ecology method was presented to analyze spatial patterns of meteorological elements, which may be useful for studying global and regional climate changes.

  8. Land use changes in Europe: Processes of change, environmental transformations, and future patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the pressures to control costs and resources expended on cleaning up hazardous waste sites increase, there is a growing notion that consideration of ultimate land use or end states should aid in focusing remediation efforts, and thus, controlling costs. Resources would not be expended on all sites equally, rather knowledge that a particular site is most likely to be used for industrial rather than residential purposes, for example, would influence the type of clean-up invoked at a site and the clean-up goals themselves. Thus, land use has become a hot topic among environmental risk assessors and risk managers. This milieu makes the contents of Volume 18 in Kluwer's GeoJournal Library of particular interest. The book is a collection of papers, with contributors from across Europe. The paper generally fall into three categories: analyses of historical land use patterns in particular countries, forecasts of changing land use trends for the EC countries, and analyses of particular factors affecting land use decisions (atmospheric contamination, hydrologic regimes, land use decision methodologies). Although very little of the text deals explicitly with hazardous waste clean up, the perspective provided by a view of the European struggles with land use allocations provides helpful context to those in the historically unlimited spaces of the United States just beginning to come to terms with the concept

  9. Changes in photon dose distributions due to breast prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcutaneous prosthetic implants have been routinely used for cosmetic augmentation and for tissue replacement following mastectomy over the last 15 years. The implants come in many forms as the gel filler material and surrounding shell material(s) vary significantly. This study uses a thin window parallel-plate chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters to quantify any dosimetric changes to surrounding breast tissue due to the presence of the prosthesis. A mammographic phantom was compared to four commercial prostheses, namely two silicon gel fillers within two different shells (silicon or silicon/polyurethane), a tri-glyceride within silicon and a bio-oncotic gel within silicon and a bio-oncotic gel within silicon/polyurethane. The latter two implants were designed with a low-Z fill for diagnostic imaging benefits. Ion chamber results indicate no significant alteration of depth doses away from the implant with only minor canceling (parallel opposed) interface perturbations for all implants. In addition the physical changes to the irradiated prostheses were quantified by tonometry testing and qualified by color change. Each implant exhibited color change following 50 Gy, and the bio-oncotic gel became significantly less formable following irradiation, and even less formable 6 weeks postirradiation. The data indicates that prostheses do not affect the photon beam distribution, but radiation does affect the prosthesis. 9 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Study on the Change of Land Use and Landscape Pattern in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the statistical data concerning land use in Anhui Province from 1995 to 2005, this paper conduct comprehensive analysis on change of land use structure, change of land use degree, and landscape pattern change of land use in Anhui Province from 1995 to 2005 using statistical analysis and mathematical model. The results show that the land use structure has changed significantly; the rate of land use change is quick; the land use degree is not high; the spatial pattern of land use tends to be reasonable and gradually develops toward the equilibrium state.

  11. Can changes in the distribution of lizard species over the past 50 years be attributed to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed changes in the distributions of nine lizard species in China over the past 50 years and identified whether these changes could be attributed to climate change. Long-term records of lizard distributions, grey relational analysis, fuzzy set classification techniques, and attribution methods were used. The distribution of nearly half of the lizard species primarily shifted northward, westward, or eastward since the 1970s, and most changes were related to the thermal index. In response to climate change over the past 50 years, the distribution boundary and center of some species have mainly shifted northward, westward, or eastward, with some irregular shifting during the process. The observed and predicted changes in distribution were highly consistent for some lizard species. The changes in the northern and eastern distribution limits of nearly half of the lizard species and the western limits and distribution centers of several species can be attributed to climate change.

  12. Monitoring of Pinus massoniana spatial pattern changes based on RS and GIS techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; HUANG Hua-guo; ZHANG Xiao-li; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan

    2008-01-01

    Our research focused on Pinus massoniana information extracted from remote sensing images based on the knowledge detection and decision tree algorithm and established a spatial pattern model, combining quantitative theoretical ecology with remote sensing (RS) and geometric information system (GIS) techniques. Applying information extraction methods and a spatial pattern model, we studied P. massoniana spatial patterns changes before and after the invasion by pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Fuyang and Zhoushan counties, Zhejiang Province, east China. The P. massoniana spatial patterns are clustering,whether the invasion happened or not. But the degree of clustering is different. Our results show good agreement with field data.Applying the results, we analyzed the relationship between spatial patterns and the invasion level. Then we drew the elementary conclusion that there are two kinds of patterns for pine wood nematode to spread: continuous and discontinuous diffusion. This approach can help monitor and evaluate the changes in ecological systems.

  13. Impact of climate change on global malaria distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Kovats, Sari; Rocklov, Joacim; Tompkins, Adrian M.; Morse, Andrew P.; Colón-González, Felipe J.; Stenlund, Hans; Martens, Pim; Lloyd, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is an important disease that has a global distribution and significant health burden. The spatial limits of its distribution and seasonal activity are sensitive to climate factors, as well as the local capacity to control the disease. Malaria is also one of the few health outcomes that has been modeled by more than one research group and can therefore facilitate the first model intercomparison for health impacts under a future with climate change. We used bias-corrected temperature and rainfall simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate models to compare the metrics of five statistical and dynamical malaria impact models for three future time periods (2030s, 2050s, and 2080s). We evaluated three malaria outcome metrics at global and regional levels: climate suitability, additional population at risk and additional person-months at risk across the model outputs. The malaria projections were based on five different global climate models, each run under four emission scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways, RCPs) and a single population projection. We also investigated the modeling uncertainty associated with future projections of populations at risk for malaria owing to climate change. Our findings show an overall global net increase in climate suitability and a net increase in the population at risk, but with large uncertainties. The model outputs indicate a net increase in the annual person-months at risk when comparing from RCP2.6 to RCP8.5 from the 2050s to the 2080s. The malaria outcome metrics were highly sensitive to the choice of malaria impact model, especially over the epidemic fringes of the malaria distribution. PMID:24596427

  14. The Changing Patterns of Romanian Immigration to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor TUDOROIU

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the largely neglected post-1990 Romanianimmigration to Canada. During the 1990s, most Romanians selected by Canadian immigration offices were highly skilled, university-educated professionals. As they ignored important details of the Canadian labor market, about three quarters of them became kindof lumpen-intellectuals. In recent years, however, Internet-based networks have improved the quality of information available to potential migrants. This and structural changes in the home country are preparing a major shift of Romanians' migratory flow to Canada. In the years to come, it will progressively take the form of circulatory migration currently characterizing Romanian immigration to Western Europe.

  15. Quantifying how the full local distribution of daily precipitation is changing and its uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainforth, David; Chapman, Sandra; Watkins, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The study of the consequences of global warming would benefit from quantification of geographical patterns of change at specific thresholds or quantiles, and better understandings of the intrinsic uncertainties in such quantities. For precipitation a range of indices have been developed which focus on high percentiles (e.g. rainfall falling on days above the 99th percentile) and on absolute extremes (e.g. maximum annual one day precipitation) but scientific assessments are best undertaken in the context of changes in the whole climatic distribution. Furthermore, the relevant thresholds for climate-vulnerable policy decisions, adaptation planning and impact assessments, vary according to the specific sector and location of interest. We present a methodology which maintains the flexibility to provide information at different thresholds for different downstream users, both scientists and decision makers. We develop a method[1,2] for analysing local climatic timeseries to assess which quantiles of the local climatic distribution show the greatest and most robust changes in daily precipitation data. We extract from the data quantities that characterize the changes in time of the likelihood of daily precipitation above a threshold and of the amount of precipitation on those days. Our method is a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate change. This deconstruction facilitates an assessment of how fast different quantiles of precipitation distributions are changing. This involves not only determining which quantiles and geographical locations show the greatest and smallest changes, but also those at which uncertainty undermines the ability to make confident statements about any change there may be. We demonstrate this approach using E-OBS gridded data[3] which are timeseries of local daily

  16. Ontogenetic pattern change in amphibians: the case of Salamandra corsica

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter Beukema

    2011-01-01

    Ontogenetic, post-metamorphic pattern development is a rarely studied topic in amphibian science. As there are indications that the pattern of Salamandra corsica might expand over time, digital image analyses were applied in order to measure several phenotypical variables which were related to the snout vent length. Results show a significant increase of patches which change to irregular shapes while SVL increases. Digital image analysis is identified as a suitable tool to explore pattern sha...

  17. Changing patterns of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during the post-Soviet and preemptive livestock vaccination eras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kracalik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of (+11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of -35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated "One Health" approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease.

  18. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

  19. Population size changes reshape genomic patterns of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pool, John E; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Elucidating the forces responsible for genomic variation is critical for understanding evolution. Under standard conditions, X-linked diversity is expected to be three-quarters the level of autosomal diversity. Empirical data often deviate from this prediction, but the reasons for these departures...... are unclear. We demonstrate that population size changes can greatly alter relative levels of X-linked and autosomal variation: population size reductions lead to particularly low X-linked diversity, whereas growth elevates X-linked relative to autosomal diversity. Genetic variation from a diverse...... array of taxa supports an important role for this effect in accounting for population differences in the ratio of X-linked to autosomal diversity. Consideration of this effect may improve the inference of population history and other evolutionary processes....

  20. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; González, Alejandro D

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximately 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO(2) equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change. PMID:19339402

  1. 我国寿险营销方式转变研究%Transformation of Life Insurance Distribution Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏华林; 黄余莉

    2012-01-01

    There are a variety of indicators that the life insurance distribution patterns in mainland China have en- countered a bottleneck,which is an inflection point for an urgent need of change of development patterns. Using the experiences of Japan and Taiwan for reference and combined with the current market realities and regulatory policies, we think life insurance marketing methods will gradually transit to a connotation-intensive mode of development char- acterized by specialization, professionalization and refinement ;a differentiation of target markets and target customers, a corresponding adjustment of distribution channels and marketing models ; and a gradually diversified sales channels. Transformation in life insurance distribution patterns will go through two paths : the improvement of the old system, and the innovation of new channels and new modes. The essence of both paths lies with innovation. In addition ,the innova- tion of culture and concepts in life insurance distribution plays a much more crucial role ,which has a direct impact on the process of transforming life insurance distribution patterns.%多种迹象表明,我国大陆寿险营销方式遇到了瓶颈,发展进入到一个拐点,亟待转变发展方式。借鉴日本和台湾的经验,结合当前市场实际和监管政策,寿险营销方式将逐步向专业化、职业化、精细化的内涵集约型转变;目标市场和目标客户分化,销售渠道和营销模式相应调整;销售渠道逐步多元化。寿险营销方式转变依靠两条路径:一是旧体制改良;二是新渠道、新模式的创新,两者本质都是创新。寿险营销文化创新和观念创新至关重要,直接影响寿险营销方式转型的进程。

  2. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  3. A data centred method to estimate and map changes in the full distribution of daily surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sandra; Stainforth, David; Watkins, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing how our climate is changing includes local information which can inform adaptation planning decisions. This requires quantifying the geographical patterns in changes at specific quantiles or thresholds in distributions of variables such as daily surface temperature. Here we focus on these local changes and on a model independent method to transform daily observations into patterns of local climate change. Our method [1] is a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate change. This deconstruction facilitates an assessment of how fast different quantiles of the distributions are changing. This involves both determining which quantiles and geographical locations show the greatest change but also, those at which any change is highly uncertain. For temperature, changes in the distribution itself can yield robust results [2]. We demonstrate how the fundamental timescales of anthropogenic climate change limit the identification of societally relevant aspects of changes. We show that it is nevertheless possible to extract, solely from observations, some confident quantified assessments of change at certain thresholds and locations [3]. We demonstrate this approach using E-OBS gridded data [4] timeseries of local daily surface temperature from specific locations across Europe over the last 60 years. [1] Chapman, S. C., D. A. Stainforth, N. W. Watkins, On estimating long term local climate trends, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc., A,371 20120287 (2013) [2] Stainforth, D. A. S. C. Chapman, N. W. Watkins, Mapping climate change in European temperature distributions, ERL 8, 034031 (2013) [3] Chapman, S. C., Stainforth, D. A., Watkins, N. W. Limits to the quantification of local climate change, ERL 10, 094018 (2015) [4] Haylock M. R. et al ., A European daily high-resolution gridded dataset of

  4. Size-dependent distribution, abundance and diurnal rhythmicity patterns in the short-spined sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the ecology and behaviour of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina, particularly in relation to changes in its surrounding environment. In Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong Island, urchins ranged from a high abundance of ˜16 ind m -2 on steeply inclined rocky outcrops, which were exposed to strong onshore waves surges, to a complete absence on gravel and sandy substrata. Using a generalized additive model (GAM) the abundance and spatial extent of A. crassispina was predicted within the Bay. Predictions were strongly associated with the surface complexity of the habitat. On steep rocky slopes A. crassispina exhibited a size-dependent gradient where the mean test diameter increased in a down-shore direction as water depth increased. Since the mechanisms for maintaining this size-dependent distribution are unknown, a translocation experiment was conducted on two different size-classes of urchins. Following translocation, both large and small size-classes of A. crassispina were able to re-establish their original size-gradient within 3-5 days. Size-dependent distribution in A. crassispina may indicate resource partitioning, although the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on test size may also mediate this segregation. Anthocidaris crassispina was predominately nocturnal with almost 100% of the population moving between dusk and dawn. Locomotory activity patterns of urchins were strongly correlated with changes in seawater depth and changes in the direction of water-flow during tidal cycles. Anthocidaris crassispina exhibited an endogenously controlled locomotory activity pattern that was synchronized with changes in the tidal cycle, and which remained free-running for ˜13 h under constant laboratory conditions.

  5. Comparison of Developmental Pattern Change in Preschool Children with Spastic Diplegic and Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice May-Kuen Wong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study compares the longitudinal change of developmental patterns inpreschool children with spastic diplegic (SD and spastic quadriplegic (SQcerebral palsy (CP.Methods: Sixty children with spastic CP, aged 1-5 years (3.2

  6. Distributional patterns of decapod crustaceans in the circum-Mediterranean area during the Oligo-Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-04-01

    During the Oligocene and Miocene, the circum-Mediterranean area was a complex network of (mostly) shallow marine basins. Significant biogeographic differentiation of this area has been documented (Harzhauser et al. 2007), mainly during the Miocene, when connections between Proto-Mediterranean, Paratethys and Proto-Indo-West Pacific were intermittently opening and closing. These seaways allowed migration of marine faunas. Distributional patterns has so far been discussed for several different animal groups, especially for molluscs (e.g. Studencka et al. 1998; Harzhauser et al. 2002, 2003, 2007). To test these patterns with decapod crustaceans, a database has been compiled including all previously published Oligocene and Miocene decapod occurrences and newly gathered data from examined material deposited in the institutional collections. Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats since the Mesozoic times with ever-increasing importance throughout the Cenozoic. Müller (1979) argued that brachyuran decapods are among the best zoogeographical indicators. Although decapods were used as such indicators before (e.g. Schweitzer 2001; Feldmann & Schweitzer 2006), no detailed analysis of the circum-Mediterranean taxa has been conducted so far. Based on proposed anti-estuarine circulation pattern, decapods originated in the Proto-Mediterranean, and migrated both into the North Sea and the Paratethys. Moreover, during the Early Miocene the Rhine Graben served as a connection between the North Sea and the Paratethys which enabled faunal exchange. The Middle Miocene Proto-Mediterranean and Paratethys decapod assemblages as taken together were relatively homogeneous, although distinct due to increasing rate of endemites in the Paratethys during the Miocene. The research has been supported by FWF: Lise Meitner Program M 1544-B25. References Feldmann R.M. & Schweitzer C.E. 2006: Paleobiogeography of Southern Hemisphere decapod Crustacea. J. Paleontol

  7. Blue fan palm distribution and seed removal patterns in three desert oases of northern Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wehncke, Elisabet V.; López-Medellín, Xavier; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2010-01-01

    Information on the current processes controlling the distribution patterns of relict palm populations at the limit of their northwestern distribution in America are poorly known. We explored the importance of post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, recruitment, and distribution patterns of the blue fan palm, Brahea armata, in the Northern Baja California peninsula, by evaluating (i) the levels of blue fan palm seed removal by vertebrates at two spatial scales and the initial fate of dispe...

  8. Community Structure and Distribution Pattern of Intertidal Invertebrate Macrofauna at Some Anthropogenically Influenced Coasts of Kathiawar Peninsula (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Poonam Bhadja; Paresh Poriya; Rahul Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Present communication reports the community structure and distribution pattern of intertidal invertebrate macrofauna at four shores of the Kathiawar peninsular coastline off the Arabian Sea (India). The selected shores have different levels of human activities. Present report tests three hypotheses; that is, (i) distribution of invertebrate macrofauna in these shores is influenced by space and time, (ii) abiotic factors have a profound influence on the distribution pattern of intertidal macro...

  9. Projected future distributions of vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in North America under climate change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Garza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease kills approximately 45 thousand people annually and affects 10 million people in Latin America and the southern United States. The parasite that causes the disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, can be transmitted by insects of the family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae. Any study that attempts to evaluate risk for Chagas disease must focus on the ecology and biogeography of these vectors. Expected distributional shifts of vector species due to climate change are likely to alter spatial patterns of risk of Chagas disease, presumably through northward expansion of high risk areas in North America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We forecast the future (2050 distributions in North America of Triatoma gerstaeckeri and T. sanguisuga, two of the most common triatomine species and important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern United States. Our aim was to analyze how climate change might affect the future shift of Chagas disease in North America using a maximum entropy algorithm to predict changes in suitable habitat based on vector occurrence points and predictive environmental variables. Projections based on three different general circulation models (CCCMA, CSIRO, and HADCM3 and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2 were analyzed. Twenty models were developed for each case and evaluated via cross-validation. The final model averages result from all twenty of these models. All models had AUC >0.90, which indicates that the models are robust. Our results predict a potential northern shift in the distribution of T. gerstaeckeri and a northern and southern distributional shift of T. sanguisuga from its current range due to climate change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study provide baseline information for monitoring the northward shift of potential risk from Chagas disease in the face of climate change.

  10. Changing patterns of colorectal cancer in China over a period of 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Jin Gu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether any changes have occurred on the patterns of colorectal cancer in China.METHODS: Data from 21 Chinese articles published from 1980 to 1999, were used to analyze the time trend of colorectal cancer according to the patients' age at diagnosis,sex, the site of the tumor, stage, and the pathology.RESULTS: From 1980s to 1990s, the mean age of the colorectal cancer patients has increased. The percentage of the female patients rose. The distribution of colorectal carcinoma shows a predominance of rectal cancer. However,the proportion of proximal colon cancer (including transverse and ascending colon) increased significantly accompanied by a decline in the percentage of rectal cancer. Similarity in the percentage of distal colon cancer between two decades was revealed. In the 1990s, statistically more Stage B patients were found than those in 1980s. In addition, databases show a significant decrease in the Stage D cases. The proportion of adenocarcinoma increased, but the mucinous adenocarcinoma decreased during two decades.CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the patternof colorectal cancer in China has been changing. Especially,a proximal shift due to the increasing proportion of ascending and transverse colon cancer has occurred in China.

  11. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  12. Changing patterns in global lead supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H.

    The past decade has seen some very significant changes in the supply and the demand for lead. One of the most obvious developments is the emergence of China—both as the world's largest producer of primary lead and as a very significant consumer. Perhaps less obvious have been the increasing role of secondary lead in meeting demand for refined metal and the rapid growth in demand for industrial batteries, which have helped to sustain an annual average growth rate in Western World consumption of 3.4% between 1993 and 2000. Patchy knowledge about the lead industry in China has made it difficult to anticipate developments there and has created uncertainty in the global market. This uncertainty, and lead's poor environmental image, largely undeserved as it may be today, has meant few companies outside the lead business want to be seen participating in it. This is just one factor accounting for the very limited increase in lead mine production for the foreseeable future. With around 75% of lead now being used in batteries and a very high global scrap recycling rate, it is probable that most, if not all, growth in lead demand can be met without an overall increase in mine production. The challenge for the lead industry will be to ensure that sufficient recycling capacity is in place in the right parts of the world to process an increasing quantity of battery and other lead-bearing scrap. Huge investment in the world's telecommunications infrastructure and IT networks in the second half of the 1990s created a major market for industrial lead-acid batteries. With the collapse of the market for telecommunications equipment in 2001, lead consumption has fallen sharply and has revealed the extent to which demand growth in recent years has been dependent on this sector.

  13. Study on spatial pattern of land-use change in China during 1995-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纪远; 刘明亮; 庄大方; 张增祥; 邓祥征

    2003-01-01

    It is more and more acknowledged that land-use/cover dynamic change has become a key subject urgently to be dealt with in the study of global environmental change. Supported by the Landsat TM digital images, spatial patterns and temporal variation of land-use change during 1995-2000 are studied in the paper. According to the land-use dynamic degree model, supported by the 1km GRID data of land-use change and the comprehensive characters of physical, economic and social features, a dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed to disclose the spatial pattern of land-use change processes. Generally speaking, in the traditional agricultural zones, e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, Yangtze River Delta and Sichuan Basin, the built-up and residential areas occupy a great proportion of arable land, and in the interlock area of farming and pasturing of northern China and the oases agricultural zones, the reclamation of arable land is conspicuously driven by changes of production conditions, economic benefits and climatic conditions. The implementation of "returning arable land into woodland or grassland" policies has won initial success in some areas, but it is too early to say that the trend of deforestation has been effectively reversed across China. In this paper, the division of dynamic regionalization of land-use change is designed, for the sake of revealing the temporal and spatial features of land-use change and laying the foundation for the study of regional scale land-use changes. Moreover, an integrated study, including studies of spatial pattern and temporal process of land-use change, is carried out in this paper, which is an interesting try on the comparative studies of spatial pattern on change process and the change process of spatial pattern of land-use change.

  14. Comparison of optical characteristics according to shape change based on micro prism pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang-Eui; Choi, Hwan-Jin; Kang, Myoung-Chang; Jeon, Eun-chae; Park, Min-gyu; Jo, Byeong-Muk; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2015-07-01

    For high-functional optical films composed of micro patterns, the optical properties, such as the diffraction, reflection and diffusion, depend on the pattern size, shape, and arrangement. For this reason, a high precision machining process and the technology of pattern design were studied in order to increase function and efficiency. The basic shapes of micro patterns are often prisms, square pyramids and triangular pyramids. Generally, a prism pattern on a flat surface can be continuously grooved by a diamond tool same as a shape angle of the pattern. The square pyramid shape is perpendicularly machined on the prism pattern. The triangular pyramid is made with a bisection of the square pyramid along the diagonal direction. Thus, optical properties can be changed according to prism patterns produced by mechanical machining. In this paper, prism, square pyramid and triangular pyramid pattern molds were machined, and optical properties of the respective shapes were compared. The machining experiment employed an ultra-precision 4-axis planer, V-shape diamond tools, and Cu-plating molds. The machined micro patterns were replicated using UV-resin; then light-transmission measurements were performed to confirm the optical properties of the mold pattern.

  15. How can one explain changes in the monthly pattern of suicide?

    OpenAIRE

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2014-01-01

    The monthly pattern of suicides has remained a puzzle ever since it was discovered in the second half of the 19th century. In this paper we intend to "explain" not the pattern itself but rather its changes across countries and in the course of time. First, we show that the fairly common idea according to which this pattern is decaying in "modern" societies is not altogether true. For instance, around 2000, in well urbanized countries like South Korea or Spain this pattern was still as strong ...

  16. Where the wild things are: Seasonal variation in caribou distribution in relation to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa McNeil

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a method to analyse the relationships between seasonal caribou distribution and climate, to estimate how climatic conditions affect interactions between humans and caribou, and ultimately to predict patterns of distribution relative to climate change. Satellite locations for the Porcupine (Rangifer tarandus granti and Bathurst (R. t. groenlandicus caribou herds were analysed for eight ecologically-defined seasons. For each season, two levels of a key environmental factor influencing caribou distribution were identified, as well as the best climate data available to indicate the factor's annual state. Satellite locations were grouped according to the relevant combination of season and environmental factor. Caribou distributions were compared for opposing environmental factors; this comparison was undertaken relative to hunting access for the Porcupine Herd and relative to exposure to mining activity for the Bathurst Herd. Expected climate trends suggest an overall increase in access to Porcupine caribou for Aklavik (NWT hunters during the winter and rut seasons, for Venetie (Alaska hunters during midsummer and fall migration and for Arctic Village (Alaska during midsummer. Arctic Village may experience reduced availability with early snowfalls in the fall, but we expect there to be little directional shift in the spring migration patterns. For the Bathurst Herd, we expect that fewer caribou would be exposed to the mines during the winter, while more caribou would be exposed to the combined Ekati and Diavik mining zone in the early summer and to the Lupin-Jericho mining zone during the fall migration. If changes in climate cause an increased presence of caribou in the mining sites, monitoring and mitigation measures may need to be intensified.

  17. Distributed open environment for data retrieval based on pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattern recognition methods for data retrieval have been applied to fusion databases for the localization and extraction of similar waveforms within temporal evolution signals. In order to standardize the use of these methods, a distributed open environment has been designed. It is based on a client/server architecture that supports distribution, interoperability and portability between heterogeneous platforms. The server part is a single desktop application based on J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise Edition), which provides a mature standard framework and a modular architecture. It can handle transactions and concurrency of components that are deployed on JETTY, an embedded web container within the Java server application for providing HTTP services. The data management is based on Apache DERBY, a relational database engine also embedded on the same Java based solution. This encapsulation allows hiding of unnecessary details about the installation, distribution, and configuration of all these components but with the flexibility to create and allocate many databases on different servers. The DERBY network module increases the scope of the installed database engine by providing traditional Java database network connections (JDBC-TCP/IP). This avoids scattering several database engines (a unique embedded engine defines the rules for accessing the distributed data). Java thin clients (Java 5 or above is the unique requirement) can be executed in the same computer than the server program (for example a desktop computer) but also server and client software can be distributed in a remote participation environment (wide area networks). The thin client provides graphic user interface to look for patterns (entire waveforms or specific structural forms) and display the most similar ones. This is obtained with HTTP requests and by generating dynamic content (servlets) in response to these client requests.

  18. Distributed Open Environment for Data Retrieval based on Pattern Recognition Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Pattern recognition methods for data retrieval have been applied to fusion databases for the localization and extraction of similar waveforms within temporal evolution signals. In order to standardize the use of these methods, a distributed open environment has been designed. It is based on a client/server architecture that supports distribution, inter-operability and portability between heterogeneous platforms. The server part is a single desktop application based on J2EE, which provides a mature standard framework and a modular architecture. It can handle transactions and competition of components that are deployed on JETTY, an embedded web container within the Java server application for providing HTTP services. The data management is based on Apache DERBY, a relational database engine also embedded on the same Java based solution. This encapsulation allows concealment of unnecessary details about the installation, distribution, and configuration of all these components but with the flexibility to create and allocate many databases on different servers. The DERBY network module increases the scope of the installed database engine by providing traditional Java database network connections (JDBC-TCP/IP). This avoids scattering several database engines (a unique embedded engine defines the rules for accessing the distributed data). Java thin clients (Java 5 or above is the unique requirement) can be executed in the same computer than the server program (for example a desktop computer) but also server and client software can be distributed in a remote participation environment (wide area networks). The thin client provides graphic user interface to look for patterns (entire waveforms or specific structural forms) and display the most similar ones. This is obtained with HTTP requests and by generating dynamic content (servlets) in response to these client requests. (authors)

  19. Decoding size distribution patterns in marine and transitional water phytoplankton: from community to species level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonilde Roselli

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape. We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism's behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities.

  20. Can we estimate landscape-scale transpiration patterns from commonly available distributed data sets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Sibylle K.; Weiler, Markus; Zehe, Erwin; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying transpiration in landscapes remains a challenging task. Transpiration is usually measured at the tree scale or within the footprint of a flux tower. Landscape patterns of transpiration on the other hand are commonly estimated with hydrological models using simplified concepts such as the Feddes relationship which relates root water uptake to water availability. Bridging the gap between tree- or plot-scale measurements and information at the landscape scale which could be gathered from remote sensing, digital elevation models (DEMs) or forest inventories still poses considerable problems. In this study we attempt to capture spatiotemporal patterns of transpiration and their controls at the landscape scale by first empirically analyzing a data set of sap flow measurements on 61 trees. We assess the main factors influencing measured sap flow patterns using multiple linear regression models at daily time steps. Results highlight the importance of tree-specific characteristics, but also some characteristics related to the stand structure and the location within the landscape are important for explaining spatial variation in transpiration. As this data set is exceptional and not readily available in other catchments we explore in a second step if it is possible to predict or reproduce these measured patterns by using statistical models based on commonly available distributed data sets such as DEMs and forest inventories. The comparison of both approaches can help to bridge measurement scales and to assess the minimum need for in situ measurements to describe landscape-scale transpiration.

  1. A study of fingerprint pattern and gender distribution of fingerprint in and around Bijapur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Yunus Khadri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the Predominant fingerprint pattern and Gender distribution of fingerprint pattern in and around Bijapur. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at department of Forensic Medicine Al-Ameen medical college, Bijapur from 1st Jan to 31st Dec 2009. Results: Total subjects included were 500 Males and 500 Females. Among male age group ranged from 18-60 years mean age was 30.88+9.93 and female age group ranged from 18-60 years. Mean age was 33.9+11.79.The predominant pattern among both Male and Female was Ulnar loop (38.42% in Male and (44.56% in Female. Followed by Plain whorl (24.04% in Male and (18.24% in Female respectively. Mean ridge count in Male was 12.4 and in Female were 12. Conclusion: The predominant pattern among both Male and Female is ulnar loop. The ridge count in Male was slightly more than in Female.

  2. Patterns for election of active computing nodes in high availability distributed data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer based systems for power plant and research reactors are expected to have high availability. Redundancy is a common approach to improve the availability of a system. In redundant configuration the challenge is to select one node as active, and in case of failure of current active node provide automatic fast switchover by electing another node to function as active and restore normal operation. Additional constraints include: exactly one node should be elected as active in an n-way redundant architecture. This paper discusses various high availability configurations developed by Electronics Division and deployed in power and research reactors and patterns followed to elect active nodes of distributed data acquisition systems. The systems are categorized into two: Active/Passive where changeover takes effect only on the failure of Active node, and Active/Active, where changeover is effective in alternate cycles. A novel concept of priority driven state based Active (Master) node election pattern is described for Active/Passive systems which allows multiple redundancy and dynamic election of single master. The paper also discusses the Active/Active pattern, which uncovers failure early by activating all the nodes alternatively in a redundant system. This pattern can be extended to multiple redundant nodes. (author)

  3. Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Changku Kang; Ye Eun Kim; Yikweon Jang

    2016-01-01

    Colour change in animals can be adaptive phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments. Camouflage through background colour matching has been considered a primary force that drives the evolution of colour changing ability. However, the mechanism to which animals change their colour and patterns under visually heterogeneous backgrounds (i.e. consisting of more than one colour) has only been identified in limited taxa. Here, we investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree ...

  4. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  5. Hydro-climatic and lake change patterns in Arctic permafrost and non-permafrost areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Johanna Mård; Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates patterns of lake-area and hydro-climatic change in Arctic river basins, and possible influence of permafrost change reflected in such patterns. A salient change pattern, emerging across all investigated basins in both permafrost and non-permafrost areas, is an opposite change direction in runoff (R) from that in precipitation (P). To explain this change contrast, an increase (decrease) in relative water-balance constrained evapotranspiration ETwb/P is required where R decreases (increases). Increasing temporal variability of daily river discharge (sdQ) is found in all basins with spatially extensive lake decrease, which also exhibit decrease in ETwb/P. Clear indication of basin-wide permafrost thaw is found in only one basin, and is possible in two more, but unlikely in the largest of the total four investigated permafrost basins.

  6. Potential changes in benthic macrofaunal distributions from the English Channel simulated under climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, Isabelle; Beaugrand, Grégory; Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2012-03-01

    Climate-induced changes in the distribution of species are likely to affect the functioning and diversity of marine ecosystems. Therefore, in economic and ecological important areas, such as the English Channel, projections of the future distributions of key species under changing environmental conditions are urgently needed. Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) have been applied successfully to determine potential distributions of species based on the information of the environmental niche of a species (sensu Hutchinson). In this study, the niches of two commercially exploited benthic species, Pecten maximus and Glycymeris glycymeris, and two ecologically important species, Abra alba and Ophelia borealis were derived using four contemporary hydrographic variables, i.e. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, water depth and sediment type. Consequently, using these ecological envelopes, the Non-Parametric Probalistic Ecological Niche model (NPPEN) was applied to calculate contemporary probabilities of occurrence for each species in the North East Atlantic and to predict potential re-distributions under the climate change scenario A2 for two time periods 2050-2059 and 2090-2099. Results show general northern displacements of the four benthic species from the English Channel into the North Sea and southern Norwegian coast. The projections mostly indicate a reduction of suitable habitat for benthic species with a notable disappearance of their distributions in the English Channel, except for A. alba. However, interpretations should be treated with caution since many uncertainties and assumptions are attached to ecological niche models in general. Furthermore, opening up potential habitats for benthic species does not necessarily imply that the species will actually occupy these sites in the future. The displacement and colonisation success of species are a function of many other non-climatic factors such as species life histories, dispersal abilities, adaptability

  7. Individualistic sensitivities and exposure to climate change explain variation in species' distribution and abundance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Georgina; Hill, Jane K; Brereton, Tom M; Brooks, David R; Chapman, Jason W; Fox, Richard; Oliver, Tom H; Thomas, Chris D

    2015-10-01

    The responses of animals and plants to recent climate change vary greatly from species to species, but attempts to understand this variation have met with limited success. This has led to concerns that predictions of responses are inherently uncertain because of the complexity of interacting drivers and biotic interactions. However, we show for an exemplar group of 155 Lepidoptera species that about 60% of the variation among species in their abundance trends over the past four decades can be explained by species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change. Distribution changes were less well predicted, but nonetheless, up to 53% of the variation was explained. We found that species vary in their overall sensitivity to climate and respond to different components of the climate despite ostensibly experiencing the same climate changes. Hence, species have undergone different levels of population "forcing" (exposure), driving variation among species in their national-scale abundance and distribution trends. We conclude that variation in species' responses to recent climate change may be more predictable than previously recognized. PMID:26601276

  8. Rare earth element distribution patterns in the soils around the Nigeria Nuclear Reactor (NIRR-1), Zaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare Earth Elements (REEs) retain group coherence in their geological environment and are therefore very useful geochemical markers. We report here the pattern of six(6) REEs( La, Sm, Eu, Dy, Yb, and Lu) determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) of soils around the Nigeria Research Reactor-1, Zaria, Nigeria. REE distribution patterns for the soils covered in the investigation were identical, in other words, exhibiting coherent fractionations from LREE to HREE. The overall fractionation of REEs for each soil is depicted by the slope of the (REE)cn plot by the (La/Lu)cn ratio. The REE plots obtained showed enrichment of (LREE)cn as against the (HREE)cn, which is the usual trend for all geological matrices. The REE chondrite-normalized plots showed both Europium and Dysprosium anomalies for the upper plain and flood plain sites with the latter exhibiting the characteristic features of fadama wetland.

  9. The impact of ageing and changing utilization patterns on future cardiovascular drug expenditure: a pharmacoepidemiological projection approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten; Støvring, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure.......To develop a method for projecting the impact of ageing and changing drug utilization patterns on future drug expenditure....

  10. Factors controlling spatial distribution patterns of biocrusts in a heterogeneous and topographically complex semiarid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Roncero, Beatriz; Raúl Román, José; Cantón, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Biocrusts are widespread soil components in drylands all over the world. They are known to play key roles in the functioning of these regions by fixing carbon and nitrogen, regulating hydrological processes, and preventing from water and wind erosion, thus reducing the loss of soil resources and increasing soil fertility. The rate and magnitude of services provided by biocrusts greatly depend on their composition and developmental stage. Late-successional biocrusts such as lichens and mosses have higher carbon and nitrogen fixation rates, and confer greater protection against erosion and the loss of sediments and nutrients than early-successional algae and cyanobacteria biocrusts. Knowledge of spatial distribution patterns of different biocrust types and the factors that control their distribution is important to assess ecosystem services provided by biocrusts at large spatial scales and to improve modelling of biogeochemical processes and water and carbon balance in drylands. Some of the factors that condition biocrust cover and composition are incoming solar radiation, terrain attributes, vegetation distribution patterns, microclimatic variables and soil properties such as soil pH, texture, soil organic matter, soil nutrients and gypsum and CaCO3 content. However, the factors that govern biocrust distribution may vary from one site to another depending on site characteristics. In this study, we examined the influence of abiotic attributes on the spatial distribution of biocrust types in a complex heterogeneous badland system (Tabernas, SE Spain) where biocrust cover up to 50% of the soil surface. From the analysis of relationships between terrain attributes and proportional abundance of biocrust types, it was found that topography exerted a main control on the spatial distribution of biocrust types in this area. SW-facing slopes were dominated by physical soil crusts and were practically devoid of vegetation and biocrusts. Biocrusts mainly occupied the pediments

  11. Thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianmin; Zhang, Xubing; Wu, Ke

    2016-07-01

    The thorium distribution on the lunar surface is critical for understanding the lunar evolution. This work reports a global map of the thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). Our work exhibits an interesting symmetrical structure of thorium distribution along the two sides of the belt of Th hot spots. Some potential positions of KREEP volcanism are suggested, which are the Fra Mauro region, Montes Carpatus, Aristarchus Plateau and the adjacent regions of Copernicus Crater. Based on the lunar map of thorium distribution, we draw some conclusions on two critical links of lunar evolution: (1) the thorium abundance within the lunar crust and mantle, in the last stage of Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) crystallization, may have a positive correlation with the depth in the crust, reaches a peak when coming through the transitional zone between the crust and mantle, and decreases sharply toward the inside of the mantle; thus, the Th-enhanced materials originated from the lower crust and the layer between the crust and mantle, (2) in PKT, KREEP volcanism might be the primary mechanism of Th-elevated components to the lunar surface, whereas the Imbrium impact acted as a relatively minor role.

  12. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  13. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  14. Horizontal spatial and temporal distribution patterns of nearshore larval fish assemblages at a temperate rocky shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rita; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Chícharo, M. Alexandra; Ré, Pedro; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.

    2007-02-01

    There have been no previous studies of the composition of nearshore larval fish assemblages along the coast of Portugal. We aimed to describe the composition and horizontal distribution patterns of larval fish assemblages and their temporal dynamics near a rocky reef at depths shallower than 13 m (inshore) and at two miles (3.70 km) from shore (offshore), as well as along transects perpendicular to the shoreline, from the reef to 10 miles offshore (18.52 km). Samples were taken using 5 min sub-surface trawls at the rocky shore of the Arrábida Marine Park (W Portugal). A total of 1021 larvae were collected, belonging to 61 taxa inshore and to 29 taxa offshore. Along transects, 626 larvae of 52 taxa were collected. Most larvae belonged to coastal species associated with rocky reefs. Total larval abundance and diversity were higher from May to July, which is consistent with the spawning activity of adults. Diversity and total larval abundance decreased significantly with increasing distance from shore, both in the inshore/offshore comparison and in the transects, where this decrease was evident at a very small spatial scale (within the first mile from the reef). Species assemblages differed in the pattern of distribution, with most species clearly associated to the extreme nearshore. The distribution patterns obtained were independent of the spawning mode of species. Results are discussed in the light of the possible physical mechanisms that can potentially act at the Arrábida Marine Park to facilitate larvae retention and the role of larval behaviour.

  15. Detecting spatio-temporal controls on depth distributions of root water uptake using soil moisture patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Theresa; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Landscape scale soil moisture patterns show a pronounced shift when plants become active during the growing season. Soil moisture patterns are then not only controlled by soils, topography and related abiotic site characteristics as well as site characteristic throughfall patterns but also by root water uptake. In this study root water uptake from different soil depths is estimated based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content and was investigated with a setup of 15 field sites in a forest in northeastern Germany. These sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands. Vegetation types include pine forest (young and old) and different deciduous forest stands. Available data at all sites includes information at high temporal resolution from 5 soil moisture and soil temperature profiles, matric potential, piezometers and sapflow sensors as well as standard climate data. The resulting comprehensive data set of depth distributed root water uptake shows differences in overall amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions between different forest stands, but also related to slope position and thus depth to groundwater. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of root water uptake depending on water availability. The relative contributions of the different depths to overall root water uptake shift as the summer progresses. However, the relationship of these depth resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. This unique data set of depth specific contributions to root water uptake down to a depth of 2 m allows a much more detailed analysis of tree response to water availability than the more common transpiration estimates generated by sapflow or eddy flux measurements.

  16. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  17. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  18. Magnetic confinement of neutral atoms based on patterned vortex distributions in superconducting disks and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B; Chan, K S; Beian, M; Lim, M J; Dumke, R; 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.013404

    2012-01-01

    We propose and analyze neutral atom traps generated by vortices imprinted by magnetic field pulse sequences in type-II superconducting disks and rings. We compute the supercurrent distribution and magnetic field resulting from the vortices in the superconductor. Different patterns of vortices can be written by versatile loading field sequences. We discuss in detail procedures to generate quadrupole traps, self-sufficient traps and ring traps based on superconducting disks and rings. The ease of creating these traps and the low current noise in supercurrent carrying structures makes our approach attractive for designing atom chip interferometers and probes.

  19. [Distribution patterns of wild felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in the dry tropics of Central-Western Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charre-Medellín, Juan Felipe; Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio Cesar; Guido-Lemus, Daniel; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    The Michoacán state is characterized by the existence of important environmental heterogeneity in terms of climate, topography and types of vegetation, which includes the worldwide endangered tropical dry forest. Some reports indicating the presence of the six species of felids occurring in Mexico in this region have been made; however, evidence to support these reports is scant, and filling this lack of information is particularly critical in the case of threatened species or habitats. The aim of this study was to systematize and analyze data distribution patterns of felids in the state of Michoacán, in the Central-Western Mexico. We conducted a review of literature and databases to compile species presence records in the study region. Moreover, we analyzed data obtained from ten years of field work conducted in the region, in which complementary methods (detection of direct and indirect evidence of species occurrence along transects, camera-trapping and interviews to local people) were applied to detect the presence of felid species. We compiled a total of 29 presence records of felids in the region from our review. Additionally, field work, which accumulated 1,107.5 km of walked transects, and 8 699 camera-trap days, produced 672 records of species presence. Lynx rufus was the species with the lowest number of records and the most restricted distribution. In contrast, the species with the greatest number of records was Leoparduspardalis (n = 343). In general, 89% of felids records occurred below 1,000 masl. Overall mean annual temperature of presence records was 24 °C and mean annual precipitation was 1,040 mm. The species whose presence records showed the most distinctive pattern, in terms of temperature and precipitation associated, was L. rufus (15.8 ± 1.3°C and 941 ± 171 mm). Results of a cluster analysis showed that areas supporting different combinations of eco-regions and types of vegetation could be grouped in five clusters having different

  20. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Couto Di Tullio; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar betw...

  1. Distribution patterns of Recent planktonic foraminifera in surface sediments of the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    sediment. The relative abundance of individual species is expressed as a percent of the total planktonic foraminifera population. Different contour intervals were chosen for different maps in order to highlight the meaningful distribution patterns... depth along the western continental margin of India. 3600 3200 2800 E 2400 2000 (- CL 1600 D 1200 800 400 0 o , ° o % Q <30 ** % o ..8o4°°~ I I 1 I l I I l I 1 I 8 12 16 20 24 Latitude (°N) Fig. 5. Percent of resistant species (G...

  2. Predicted pattern of Zika virus infection distribution with reference to rainfall in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus infection is the present global medical problem. The disease appears in several countries around the world. The relationship between rainfall and occurrence of Zika virus infection was previously mentioned. Here, the authors use the mathematical modeling technique to reappraise on the previous data on immunoreactivity rate of Zika virus, dengue virus and Ckikungunya virus in Thailand and the reported interrelationship between arboviral infections and rainfall in Thailand for constructing of the predicted pattern of Zika virus distribution in Thailand. This data can be a useful tool for further disease surveillance in this area. PMID:27393105

  3. Experience drives innovation of new migration patterns of whooping cranes in response to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution. PMID:27597446

  4. Particle size distribution models of small angle neutron scattering pattern on ferro fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fe3O4 ferro fluids samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The investigation of ferro fluids microstructure is known to be one of the most important problems because the presence of aggregates and their internal structure influence greatly the properties of ferro fluids. The size and the size dispersion of particle in ferro fluids were determined assuming a log normal distribution of particle radius. The scattering pattern of the measurement by small angle neutron scattering were fitted by the theoretical scattering function of two limitation models are log normal sphere distribution and fractal aggregate. Two types of particle are detected, which are presumably primary particle of 30 Armstrong in radius and secondary fractal aggregate of 200 Armstrong with polydispersity of 0.47 up to 0.53. (author)

  5. Functional imaging of the brain using digital subtraction angiography: Cerebral mean transit time distribution pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-density curves (TDCs) describe the perfusion of tissue by contrast media. From those TDCs the authors calculate mean transit time (MTT) values using a modified transit time theory. This theory is applied to TDCs of the brain ascertained using digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The theory excludes the problems of densitometry. MTT values help to decide whether a stenosis is relevant to the brain tissue or nor. Functional images of the regional distribution of transit times can be generated with excellent spatial resolution (512 x 512 pixel matrix). They are of high diagnostic quality and correlate strongly with blood flow distribution patterns. Function and morphology can be assessed with only one examination, and ischemic foci are demonstrated. The results in 50 patients are reported

  6. A Simple Agent Based Model for Detecting Abnormal Event Patterns in a Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muktikanta Sa, Manas Ranjan Nayak & Amiya Kumar Rath

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks (WSN is a promising technology for current as well asfuture. There is vast use of WSN in different fields like military surveillance andtarget tracking, traffic management, weather forecasting, habitat monitoring,designing smart home, structural and seismic monitoring, etc. For successapplication of ubiquitous WSN it is important to maintain the basic security, bothfrom external and internal attacks else entire network may collapse. Maintainingsecurity in WSN network is not a simple job just like securing wireless networksbecause sensor nodes are deployed in randomize manner. Hence majorchallenges in WSN are security. In this paper we have discussed differentattacks in WSN and how these attacks are efficiently detected by using our agentbased model. Our model identifies the abnormal event pattern sensor nodes in alargely deployed distributed sensor network under a common anomaly detectionframework which will be designed by agent based learning and distributed datamining technique.

  7. Marine litter in Mediterranean sandy littorals: Spatial distribution patterns along central Italy coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2014-12-15

    Sandy shores are generally considered important sinks for marine litter and the presence of this litter may represent a serious threat to biotic communities and dune integrity mostly due to cleaning activities carried out through mechanical equipment. In spring (April-May) 2012 we sampled 153 2×2m random plots to assess the spatial distribution patterns of litter on Central Italy sandy shores. We analysed the relationship between the presence of litter and coastal dune habitats along the sea-inland gradient. Our results showed that the most frequent litter items were plastic and polystyrene. Differences of marine litter spatial distribution were found between upper beach and fore dune habitats and fixed dune habitats: embryo dune and mobile dune habitats show the highest frequency of litter, but, surprisingly, marine litter did not impact fixed dune habitats, these possibly acting as a natural barrier protecting the inner part of the coast from marine litter dispersion. PMID:25455823

  8. Light intensity distribution calculation of curved surface diffraction patterns applied in ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional numerical methods of diffractive calculation are usually for the plane, and they are infeasible when the diffraction field applied in ICF is curved surface. In this paper, a method based on the idea of layering calculation, combining the algorithm of fast Fourier transform (FFT) with the technology of numerical fitting, has been proposed to calculate the light intensity distribution on the curved observation surface. This method can be applied to the surface with arbitrary shape, and it has comparatively high accuracy at fast calculation speed. The computation results show that the accuracy is improved as the layer number increases, and thus the method can effectively realize the light intensity distribution calculation of curved surface diffraction patterns applied in ICF. (authors)

  9. Distribution patterns of salt marsh vegetation on Parramore Island, Virginia Coast Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegnauer, E.A.; Furman, T. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The Virginia Coast Reserve is a classic example of an estuarine-barrier island complex, and is dominated physiographically by tidal salt marshes. Marsh vegetation includes Spartina alterniflora and patens, Juncus romerianus, Disticlis spicata and Salicornia virginica; these species occur in a random mosaic pattern throughout the salt marsh. Previous work has shown that porewater salinity and flooding frequency control plant distributions at a gross scale (daily tidal inundation versus occasional flooding), but variations in these parameters are extremely subtle in the Parramore marshes. The goal of this research is to document and monitor small-scale physical factors that control spatial distribution of marsh species. The results of this study have serious implications for development of artificial wetlands. Topographic variations on the order of < 10 cm are significant in determining both flooding history and water table salinity, and therefore affect the colonization and growth of marsh plant species dramatically.

  10. Modelled drift patterns of fish larvae link coastal morphology to seabird colony distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Hanno; Barrett, Robert T; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Myksvoll, Mari S; Vikebø, Frode; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Reiertsen, Tone K; Skarðhamar, Jofrid; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Systad, Geir Helge

    2016-01-01

    Colonial breeding is an evolutionary puzzle, as the benefits of breeding in high densities are still not fully explained. Although the dynamics of existing colonies are increasingly understood, few studies have addressed the initial formation of colonies, and empirical tests are rare. Using a high-resolution larval drift model, we here document that the distribution of seabird colonies along the Norwegian coast can be explained by variations in the availability and predictability of fish larvae. The modelled variability in concentration of fish larvae is, in turn, predicted by the topography of the continental shelf and coastline. The advection of fish larvae along the coast translates small-scale topographic characteristics into a macroecological pattern, viz. the spatial distribution of top-predator breeding sites. Our findings provide empirical corroboration of the hypothesis that seabird colonies are founded in locations that minimize travel distances between breeding and foraging locations, thereby enabling optimal foraging by central-place foragers. PMID:27173005

  11. Modelled drift patterns of fish larvae link coastal morphology to seabird colony distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Hanno; Barrett, Robert T.; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Myksvoll, Mari S.; Vikebø, Frode; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Reiertsen, Tone K.; Skarðhamar, Jofrid; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Systad, Geir Helge

    2016-05-01

    Colonial breeding is an evolutionary puzzle, as the benefits of breeding in high densities are still not fully explained. Although the dynamics of existing colonies are increasingly understood, few studies have addressed the initial formation of colonies, and empirical tests are rare. Using a high-resolution larval drift model, we here document that the distribution of seabird colonies along the Norwegian coast can be explained by variations in the availability and predictability of fish larvae. The modelled variability in concentration of fish larvae is, in turn, predicted by the topography of the continental shelf and coastline. The advection of fish larvae along the coast translates small-scale topographic characteristics into a macroecological pattern, viz. the spatial distribution of top-predator breeding sites. Our findings provide empirical corroboration of the hypothesis that seabird colonies are founded in locations that minimize travel distances between breeding and foraging locations, thereby enabling optimal foraging by central-place foragers.

  12. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  13. Improvement in estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) for fuel loading pattern optimization in AHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial core of AHWR-LEU consists of 444 fuel channel locations and it is proposed to load two differentially reactive clusters (namely type-1 (more reactive) and type-2) in these locations for flux flattening. In this paper we have used Estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) to optimize the initial core loading pattern (LP) of AHWR-LEU. The weighting factor (α) used for updating distribution function in EDA has been varied and its impact on convergence of objective function value has been observed for AHWR-LEU initial core LP optimization problem. We have also tried to improve the EDA for LPO problem by restricting the random numbers in a specified range without compromising randomness. (author)

  14. Multi-pattern fingerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1996-08-01

    The multivariate optimal fingerprint method for the detection of an externally forced climate change signal in the presence of natural internal variability is extended to the attribution problem. To determine whether a climate change signal which has been detected in observed climate data can be attributed to a particular climate forcing mechanism, or combination of mechanisms, the predicted space-time dependent climate change signal patterns for the candidate climate forcings must be specified. In addition to the signal patterns, the method requires input information on the space-time dependent covariance matrices of the natural climate variability and the predicted signal pattern errors. The detection and attribution problem is treated as a sequence of individual consistency tests applied to all candidate forcing mechanisms, as well as to the null hypothesis that no climate change has taken place, within the phase space spanned by the predicted climate change patterns. As output the method yields a significance level for the detection of a climate change signal in the observed data and individual confidence levels for the consistency of the retrieved climate change signal with each of the forcing mechanisms. A statistically significant climate change signal is regarded as consistent with a given forcing mechanism if the statistical confidence level exceeds a given critical value, but is attributed to that forcing only if all other climate change mechanisms are rejected at that confidence level. The analysis is carried out using tensor notation, with a metric given by the natural-variability covariance matrix. This clarifies the relation between the covariant signal patterns and their contravariant fingerprint counterparts. The signal patterns define the vector space in which the climate trajectories are analyzed, while the fingerprints are needed to project the climate trajectories onto this space. (orig.)

  15. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  16. The potential effects of climate change on amphibian distribution, range fragmentation and turnover in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ren-Yan; Kong, Xiao-Quan; Huang, Min-Yi; Varela, Sara; Ji, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies predict that climate change will cause species movement and turnover, but few have considered the effect of climate change on range fragmentation for current species and/or populations. We used MaxEnt to predict suitable habitat, fragmentation and turnover for 134 amphibian species in China under 40 future climate change scenarios spanning four pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6 and RCP8.5) and two time periods (the 2050s and 2070s). Our results show that climate change may cause a major shift in spatial patterns of amphibian diversity. Amphibians in China would lose 20% of their original ranges on average; the distribution outside current ranges would increase by 15%. Suitable habitats for over 90% of species will be located in the north of their current range, for over 95% of species in higher altitudes (from currently 137-4,124 m to 286-4,396 m in the 2050s or 314-4,448 m in the 2070s), and for over 75% of species in the west of their current range. Also, our results predict two different general responses to the climate change: some species contract their ranges while moving westwards, southwards and to higher altitudes, while others expand their ranges. Finally, our analyses indicate that range dynamics and fragmentation are related, which means that the effects of climate change on Chinese amphibians might be two-folded. PMID:27547522

  17. The Impact of Changes in Income Distribution on Current and Future Food Demand in Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhihao; Henneberry, Shida Rastegari

    2010-01-01

    The impact of changes in income distribution on food demand in the urban Jiangsu province of China is estimated in this study. Findings suggest that changes in income distribution have a considerable impact on the demand for individual food commodity groups. Therefore, given that a significant change in income distribution has occurred in urban China, food demand projections should account for expected changes in future income distribution.

  18. Spatial distribution patterns and environmental interpretation of Anthriscus sylvestris clonal buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weicheng LI; Haiyan SHENG

    2008-01-01

    Anthriscus sylvestris, a weed found both in Europe and China, is a kind of representative clustered clonal plant and is a foe on dams and banks. It has been widely investigated in Europe for its powerful progenitive ability and tolerance to severely adverse environments. Our aims were to investigate and quantify its spatial dis-tribution patterns in four types of community habitats, using a clustering method and adjacency lattice estab-lished by Greig-Smith. We concluded our environmental interpretation based on canonical correspondence ana-lysis (CCA) appended to a Monte Carlo test with rando-mized seeding. The results indicate that the buds around the parent roots are in an aggregation distribution pattern in all scales (0.002-5.12 m2), but theoretical distribution fitting, like negative binomial and Poisson distribution, show that some sizes of several sampling locations are out of place. For this, spatial ordination gives a satisfact-ory answer implying the effect of environmental variables such as depth of humus layer, soil moisture, light con-dition, disturbance intensity and herb abundance. CCA accounts for 64.7% of the total environmental variation and the remaining variation may be counteracted in those five variances or can be interpreted by other factors like accumulating temperature, annual rainfall and altitude in landscape scale. With the aid of temporal sequencing, the suppressed type Ⅱ (monodominant) may be the former mode of suppressed type Ⅰ (stable type), where invasion is done with the help of disturbance from both humans and nature. The abundance of A. sylvestris can add to our cognition in diversity resistance hypothesis and our hypo-thesis on disturbance before or upon immigration.

  19. Dynamics of decadal changes in the distribution of double-cropping rice cultivation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN JuQi; ZHOU GuangSheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative description of changes in the distribution of paddy rice cultivation in response to recent climate change provides a reference for rice cultivation patterns and formulation of countermeasures to cope with future climate change in China.This study analyzes the dynamics of decadal changes in distribution of double-cropping rice in China during 1961-2010 in relation to climate change based on the maximum entropy method.Decadal changes in the double-cropping rice cultivation area and climatic suitability in China were apparent.The total area of climatically suitable regions was highest in the 1960s,and subsequently showed an increasing trend at first and then a decreasing trend from the 1970s to 2000s.However,the low climatic suitability area decreased,which implied that the moderate and high climatic suitability areas increased.Among the latter,the high climatic suitability area showed the highest increase in extent to 4.4 times that of the 1990s and four times that of the 1960s.The areas of double-cropping rice cultivation most sensitive to climate change are mainly located in central Jiangsu,central Anhui,the eastern Sichuan Basin,southern Henan and central Guizhou.Transformation of areas between low and moderate climatic suitability was observed in northern Zhejiang,southern Anhui and Hubei,and northern Guangxi.Transformation of areas between moderate and high climatic suitability was observed in central Jiangxi and Leizhou Peninsula.The northern boundary of double-cropping rice cultivation in China shifted southwards and contracted eastwards in the 1970s,and extended northwards in the 1980s.However,the northern boundary did not shift northwards in response to climate warming in the 2000s.

  20. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971–2100 using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and

  1. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

  2. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacint Ventura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs. We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I; ii the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV; and those south to the river (OBU II. Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii species exclusively from the Andes; and iii species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

  3. Multi-pattern fingerprint method for detection and attribution of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    To determine whether a climate change signal which has been detected in observed climate data can be attributed to a particular climate forcing mechanism, or combination of mechanisms, the predicted space-time dependent climate change signal patterns for the candidate climate forcings must be specified. In addition to the signal patterns, the method requires input information on the space-time dependent covariance matrices of the natural climate variability and of the errors of the predicted signal patterns. The detection and attribution problem is treated as a sequence of individual consistency tests applied to all candidate forcing mechanisms, as well as to the null hypothesis that no climate change has taken place, within the phase space spanned by the predicted climate change patterns. As output the method yields a significance level for the detection of a climate change signal in the observed data and individual confidence levels for the consistency of the retrieved climate change signal with each of the forcing mechanisms. A statistically significant climate change signal is regarded as consistent with a given forcing mechanism if the statistical confidence level exceeds a given critical value, but is attributed to that forcing only if all other candidate climate change mechanisms (from a finite set of proposed mechanisms) are rejected at that confidence level. Although all relations can be readily expressed in standard matrix notation, the analysis is carried out using tensor notation, with a metric given by the natural-variability covariance matrix. This simplifies the derivations and clarifies the invariant relation between the covariant signal patterns and their contravariant fingerprint counterparts. The signal patterns define the reduced vector space in which the climate trajectories are analyzed, while the fingerprints are needed to project the climate trajectories onto this reduced space. (orig.) With 1 fig., 19 refs.

  4. Optimizing Client Latency in a Distributed System by Using the “Remote Façade” Design Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin RABLOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the role of the Remote Façade pattern in the optimization of dis-tributed systems. The intent of this pattern is to wrap fine-grained remote objects in a coarse-grained interface and thus greatly reduce the total number of calls executed over the network. The measurement of the performance gain achieved by implementing this pattern is done through testing with a distributed application written in C# and using the latest Microsoft framework for distributed systems (Windows Communication Framework. Furthermore, we will be presenting the scenarios in which the implementation of the Remote Façade pattern brings a significant performance gain. Finally we show further scenarios in which the per-formance brought by this pattern can be investigated.

  5. Species composition,distribution patterns and ecological functions of biological soil crusts in the Gurbantunggut Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most important biological factors that maintain the stability of the largest fixed and semi-fixed desert in China,the Gurbantunggut Desert,the biological soil crusts (BSCs) develop well and play critical ecological roles in the desert ecosystem. In this paper,we briefly summarize our research findings since 2002 including species composition,distribution pattern and ecological functions of BSCs in the desert. Our results indicate abundant species diversity of BSCs in the Gurbantunggut Desert in comparison to other deserts in China. At the scales of sand dune or whole desert,the distribution patterns of BSCs are location-specific. The existence of BSCs in this desert could:(1) accelerate the formation of desert soil and the weathering of minerals; (2) accumulate organic matter in surface soil through related species in soil crusts; (3) enhance the abilities of sand surface to resist wind erosion; (4) influence seed germination of vascular plants; and (5) enhance the production of dew deposition on sandy soil surface.

  6. Habitat Preferences, Distribution Pattern, and Root Weight Estimation of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Masitoh Kartikawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack is one of non timber forest products with “indeterminate” conservation status and commercially traded in West Kalimantan. The research objective was to determine the potential of pasak bumi root per hectare and its ecological condition under natural habitat. Root weight of E. longifolia Jack was estimated using simple linear regression and exponential equation with stem diameter and height as independent variables. The results showed that the individual number of the population was 114 with the majority in seedling stage with 71 individuals (62.28%. The distribution was found in clumped pattern. Conditions of the habitat could be described as follows: daily average temperature of 25.6oC, daily average relative humidity of 73.6%, light intensity of 0.9 klx, and red-yellow podsolic soil with texture ranged from clay to sandy clay. The selected estimator model for E. longifolia Jack root weight used exponential equation with stem height as independent variable using the equation of Y= 21.99T0,010 and determination coefficient of 0.97. After height variable was added, the potential of E. longifolia Jack minimum root weight that could be harvested per hectare was 0.33 kg.Keywords: Eurycoma longifolia, habitat preference, distribution pattern, root weight

  7. Phylogenetic tests of distribution patterns in South Asia: towards an integrative approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sayantan Biswas; Samraat S Pawar

    2006-03-01

    The last four decades have seen an increasing integration of phylogenetics and biogeography. However, a dearth of phylogenetic studies has precluded such biogeographic analyses in South Asia until recently. Noting the increase in phylogenetic research and interest in phylogenetic biogeography in the region, we outline an integrative framework for studying taxon distribution patterns. While doing so, we pay particular attention to challenges posed by the complex geological and ecological history of the region, and the differences in distribution across taxonomic groups. We outline and compare three widely used phylogenetic biogeographic approaches: topology-based methods (TBMs), pattern-based methods (PBMs) and event-based methods (EBMs). TBMs lack a quantitative framework and utilize only part of the available phylogenetic information. Hence, they are mainly suited for preliminary enquiries. Both PBMs and EBMs have a quantitative framework, but we consider the latter to be particularly suited to the South Asian context since they consider multiple biogeographic processes explicitly, and can accommodate a reticulated history of areas. As an illustration, we present a biogeographic analysis of endemic Sri Lankan agamid lizards. The results provide insights into the relative importance of multiple processes and specific zones in the radiation of two speciose lizard clades.

  8. Abundance, diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Leonard, S; Carter, S

    2001-06-01

    This work presents data on the relative diversity, abundance, and distribution patterns of primates in a 20 km2 area of the Tapiche River in the Peruvian Amazon. Population data were collected while the study area was both inundated and dry (March to September 1997) using conventional line-transect census techniques. Survey results reflected the presence of 11 primate species, but population parameters on only eight of the species will be presented, including saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis), Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), brown capuchins (Cebus apella), white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons), monk sakis (Pithecia monachus), red titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), red uakaris (Cacajao calvus), and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), night monkeys (Aotus nancymaae), and pygmy marmosets (Callithrix pygmaea) were also seen in the area. The data for the smaller-bodied primates is similar to that reported almost 18 years earlier, but the data for the larger-bodied primates reflect a loss in the number of animals present in the area. Pressure from hunters and the timber industry may account for declining numbers of large-bodied primates, while it appears that natural features peculiar to the conservation area contribute to the patchy pattern of distribution. PMID:11376449

  9. Measurement of wave pattern distribution on a liquid lithium flow for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current design of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), liquid metal Lithium flow is employed as the target, and neutrons are generated by nuclear stripping reaction between Lithium and Deuterons. The Lithium flows at a speed of approximately 10 m/s up to 20 m/s in vacuum, and is required to remove heat from the Deuteron beams, to prevent boiling, and to generate neutron stably for a long time. This paper reports experimental study on the measurement of the surface fluctuation mainly caused by waves. A simplified visualization method for measuring surface-waves flow patterns on the lithium was developed and the velocity distributions of the waves were successfully measured. The experiment was carried out at Free Surface Test Section of Lithium Loop at Osaka University, which was build for study on the IFMIF target, and focused on the free surface behavior of the liquid Lithium flow. The test section is consists of the 1/2.5 scale target nozzle, similar to the IFMIF target with 1/2.5 scale, and straight flow channel. In a short distance from the nozzle edge, surface waves were observed with the pattern image velocimetry technique to see distributions in velocity field. The wave patterns were tracked by photographs. Many pairs of images of waves were taken by a CCD camera with using stroboscopes. Interval times of one pair of images were adjusted and were several decades to hundred micro second, depending on the fluid velocity. The wave patterns were tracked by an algorithm called Gray Level Difference Accumulation. As the results of the experiment, distributions in surface wave were successfully measured in various velocity range of the fluid. The velocity recovery property just downstream of the edge could be measured. Experimental results from electric probe measurement are also discussed.The measurement technique is possibly be adapted to IFMIF target diagnostic and interlock systems, which are provided to maintain neutron field

  10. Arctic geese during brood-rearing on the central Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta: Analysis of patterns of distribution: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July 1985 two systematic aerial surveys were flown over the coastal fringe of the central YukonKuskokwim Delta, Alaska, to examine the patterns of distribution...

  11. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  12. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  13. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of glucosidases during apple seeds stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Podstolski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The technique of localization of glucosidases on disc electropherograms, based on reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride by enzymatically liberated sugar is described. The changes in electrophoretic patterns of amygdaline, phloridzin and p-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside hydrolysing glucosidases during apple seed stratification were studied. The changes were correlated with earlier described changes in endogenous apple seed amygdaline and phloridzin contents.

  14. Is the nestedness of metazoan parasite assemblages of marine fishes from the southeastern Pacific coast a pattern associated with the geographical distributional range of the host?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M T; Oliva, M E

    2009-04-01

    Nested structure is a pattern originally described in island biogeography to characterize how a set of species is distributed among a set of islands. In parasite communities, nestedness has been intensively studied among individual fish from a locality. However, nested patterns among parasite assemblages from different host populations (localities) have scarcely been investigated. We recorded the occurrence of parasites in 9 fish species widely distributed along the southeastern Pacific coast to determine whether the ecto- and endoparasite assemblages of marine fishes show a nested structure associated with host distributional range. Nestedness was tested using Brualdi-Sanderson index of discrepancy (BR); and 5 null models incorporated in a 'Nestedness' programme (Ulrich, 2006). The ecto- and endoparasite richness do not show similar patterns of latitudinal gradients among fish hosts, with 33-66% of analysed ectoparasite assemblages, and 25-75% of endoparasite assemblages showing nested structures through the host distributional range. For ectoparasites, species richness gradients and nested structure (when present) might be associated with decreased host densities or could reflect negative environmental conditions in the distributional border of the host species, whereas for endoparasites might be caused by geographical breaks of prey or changes in prey availability (intermediate hosts). The sampled extension of the distributional range of the host species, as well as the lack of specificity of some parasites, could influence the detection of nestedness. PMID:19195414

  15. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  16. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages. PMID

  17. Changes in latitude, changes in attitude - emerging biogeographic patterns of invasion in the Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeographic patterns of invasion of near-coastal and estuarine species in the Northeastern Pacific (NEP) are beginning to emerge based on surveys by U.S. EPA’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and the EPA/USGS synthesis of native and nonindigenous species ...

  18. Exploring copepod distribution patterns at three nested spatial scales in a spring system: habitat partitioning and potential for hydrological bioindication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stoch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In groundwater-fed springs, habitat characteristics are primarily determined by a complex combination of geomorphic features and physico-chemical parameters, while species assemblages are even more intricate. Springs host species either inhabiting the spring mouth, or colonizing spring habitats from the surface or from the aquifers which feed the springs. Groundwater species living in springs have been claimed as good candidates for identifying dual aquifer flowpaths or changes in groundwater pathways before reaching the spring outlets. However, the reliability of spring species as hydrological biotracers has not been widely investigated so far. Our study was aimed at analysing a large karstic spring system at three nested spatial scales in order: i to assess, at whole spring system scale, the presence of a groundwater divide separating two aquifers feeding two spring units within a single spring system, by combining isotope analyses, physico-chemistry, and copepod distribution patterns; ii to test, at vertical spring system scale, the effectiveness of copepods in discriminating surface and subsurface habitat patches within the complex mosaic spring environment; iii to explore, at local spring unit level, the relative role of hydrochemistry and sediment texture as describers of copepod distribution among microhabitats. The results obtained demonstrated the presence of a hierarchical spatial structure, interestingly reflected in significant differences in assemblage compositions. Copepod assemblages differed between the two contiguous spring units, which were clearly characterized by their hydrochemistry and by significant differences in the groundwater flowpaths and recharge areas, as derived by the isotope analyses. The biological results suggested that stygobiotic species seem to be related to the origin of groundwater, suggesting their potential role as hydrological biotracers. At vertical scale, assemblage composition in surface and

  19. Distribution patterns of elements in dental enamel of G. blacki: a preliminary dietary investigation using SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the elemental mappings in dental enamel of Gigantopithecus blacki (n=3) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) to understand the dietary variation during the time of tooth eruption. In order to account for the effects of diagenesis on the variation of elements in these fossil teeth, we compared the Fe and Mn elemental distribution and levels in dental enamel of G. blacki with that of a single modern pig tooth and found no differences. The observation of the variations of Sr, Ca and RE (rare earth elements) distribution in the incremental lines reveals that the plant foods utilized by G. blacki from the early Pleistocene or the middle Pleistocene had varied during the formation of dental enamel, possibly caused by the change of living environment or food resources. The variations of elemental distribution in different incremental lines are very promising to understand the nutritional and physical stress of G. blacki during the tooth eruption and environmental adaptations. (orig.)

  20. Distribution patterns of elements in dental enamel of G. blacki: a preliminary dietary investigation using SRXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Yating; Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Xue; Wang, Changsui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lab of Human Evolution, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, School of Humanities, Beijing (China); Jin, Changzhu; Zhang, Yingqi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    We measured the elemental mappings in dental enamel of Gigantopithecus blacki (n=3) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) to understand the dietary variation during the time of tooth eruption. In order to account for the effects of diagenesis on the variation of elements in these fossil teeth, we compared the Fe and Mn elemental distribution and levels in dental enamel of G. blacki with that of a single modern pig tooth and found no differences. The observation of the variations of Sr, Ca and RE (rare earth elements) distribution in the incremental lines reveals that the plant foods utilized by G. blacki from the early Pleistocene or the middle Pleistocene had varied during the formation of dental enamel, possibly caused by the change of living environment or food resources. The variations of elemental distribution in different incremental lines are very promising to understand the nutritional and physical stress of G. blacki during the tooth eruption and environmental adaptations. (orig.)

  1. Links of the significant wave height distribution in the Mediterranean sea with the Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lionello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the link between the SWH (Significant Wave Height distribution in the Mediterranean Sea during the second half of the 20th century and the Northern Hemisphere SLP (Sea Level Pressure teleconnection patterns.

    The SWH distribution is computed using the WAM (WAve Model forced by the surface wind fields provided by the ERA-40 reanalysis for the period 1958–2001. The time series of mid-latitude teleconnection patterns are downloaded from the NOAA web site. This study shows that several mid-latitude patterns are linked to the SWH field in the Mediterranean, especially in its western part during the cold season: East Atlantic Pattern (EA, Scandinavian Pattern (SCA, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, East Atlantic/West Russia Pattern (EA/WR and East Pacific/ North Pacific Pattern (EP/NP. Though the East Atlantic pattern exerts the largest influence, it is not sufficient to characterize the dominant variability. NAO, though relevant, has an effect smaller than EA and comparable to other patterns. Some link results from possibly spurious structures. Patterns which have a very different global structure are associated to similar spatial features of the wave variability in the Mediterranean Sea. These two problems are, admittedly, shortcomings of this analysis, which shows the complexity of the response of the Mediterranean SWH to global scale SLP teleconnection patterns.

  2. Stress modification of the kinetic of 137Cs absorption and primary pattern of intercompartments distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetic of 137Cs absorption by pea seedlings and the possibility of alteration of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of this process were investigated. Gamma irradiation of dry seeds of pea at doses of 25-50 Gy brings about a global change in the kinetic and concentration curves of the active and passive 137Cs uptake by the plant roots. The first and second phases of the kinetic curve, which mirror the passive stage of absorption, and the type of the concentration curve in general, were changed. The level of radionuclide accumulation at this passive stage and the retention for the apoplast-symplast passage increase significantly. Changes in the Michaelis-Menten parameters of the concentration curves were also observed. The changes mirror changes in the radionuclide distribution in the symplast-apoplast system. The time of 137Cs retention for the root-stem transition increased from 0.5 min to 1 min. This investigation suggests that the cation exchange capacity of the parts and structures of a plant is among the main factors which determine the primary intercompartment distribution of 137Cs as nonbiogenous mineral elements

  3. Experimental investigation on the relation of void fraction space distribution and flow patterns in a heated tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radial profiles of void fraction are obtained through the lateral measurement in a vertical upward heated tube using RBI dual-sensor optical probe. The flow patterns in different experimental conditions are also identified. The relation of radial distribution of void fraction and flow patterns in upward heated tube is drawn based on the experimental results

  4. Distribution patterns of bacterioplankton and chlorophyll-a in the German Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, K.; Tillmann, U.; Hesse, K.-J.

    1999-08-01

    In a first synoptic evaluation, the temporal and spatial distribution of bacterioplankton and chlorophyll-a were determined in the German Wadden Sea. Three surveys were undertaken in winter, spring, and summer of 1994 using up to eight ships simultaneously between the river Ems and Sylt island. Despite intensive hydrodynamic mixing of the Wadden Sea water, spatial gradients were obvious. The abundance of bacterioplankton ranged from 0.4 to 26×105 ml-1 and chlorophyll-a varied between <0.1 and 79 µg l-1. In winter, relatively homogeneous distribution patterns of both parameters with small gradients were found. Highest chlorophyll-a values connected with a highly patchy structure were observed in spring, while in summer both total chlorophyll-a values and the complexity of the distribution pattern had decreased. In contrast, bacterial numbers increased steadily from January to July with the highest bacterial densities and greatest patchiness observed in summer. Moreover, in some regions of the Wadden Sea, a trophic succession of algae as carbon producers and bacteria as consumers was evident. Correlation analysis verified the relationship between bacteria and chlorophyll a, indicating bottom-up control of bacterial abundance in the northern part of the German Wadden Sea. Since the observed regression slope is remarkably low (0.12-0.46) compared to literature values (0.5-0.8), we suggest that the link between phytoplankton and bacteria found here is a special characteristic of the Wadden Sea as a transition zone between the coastal region and the outer North Sea.

  5. Simulating water distribution patterns for fixed spray plate sprinkler using the ballistic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Ouazaa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic simulation of the spray sprinkler for self-propelled irrigation machines requires the incorporation of the effect of the jet impact with the deflecting plate. The kinetic energy losses produced by the jet impact with the spray plate were experimentally characterized for different nozzle sizes and two working pressures for fixed spray plate sprinklers (FSPS. A technique of low speed photography was used to determine drop velocity at the point where the jet is broken into droplets. The water distribution pattern of FSPS for different nozzle sizes, working at two pressures and under different wind conditions were characterized in field experiments. The ballistic model was calibrated to simulate water distribution in different technical and meteorological conditions. Field experiments and the ballistic model were used to obtain the model parameters (D50, n, K1and K2. The results show that kinetic energy losses decrease with nozzle diameter increments; from 80% for the smallest nozzle diameter (2 mm to 45% for nozzle diameters larger than 5.1 mm, and from 80% for the smallest nozzle diameter (2 mm to 34.7% for nozzle diameters larger than 6.8 mm, at 138 kPa and 69 kPa working pressures, respectively. The results from the model compared well with field observations. The calibrated model has reproduced accurately the water distribution pattern in calm (r=0.98 and high windy conditions (r=0.76. A new relationship was found between the corrector parameters (K1’ and K2’ and the wind speed. As a consequence, model simulation will be possible for untested meteorological conditions.

  6. A Bayesian beta distribution model for estimating rainfall IDF curves in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos H. R.; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Kim, Jin-Young

    2016-09-01

    The estimation of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves for rainfall data comprises a classical task in hydrology studies to support a variety of water resources projects, including urban drainage and the design of flood control structures. In a changing climate, however, traditional approaches based on historical records of rainfall and on the stationary assumption can be inadequate and lead to poor estimates of rainfall intensity quantiles. Climate change scenarios built on General Circulation Models offer a way to access and estimate future changes in spatial and temporal rainfall patterns at the daily scale at the utmost, which is not as fine temporal resolution as required (e.g. hours) to directly estimate IDF curves. In this paper we propose a novel methodology based on a four-parameter beta distribution to estimate IDF curves conditioned on the observed (or simulated) daily rainfall, which becomes the time-varying upper bound of the updated nonstationary beta distribution. The inference is conducted in a Bayesian framework that provides a better way to take into account the uncertainty in the model parameters when building the IDF curves. The proposed model is tested using rainfall data from four stations located in South Korea and projected climate change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios 6 and 8.5 from the Met Office Hadley Centre HadGEM3-RA model. The results show that the developed model fits the historical data as good as the traditional Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution but is able to produce future IDF curves that significantly differ from the historically based IDF curves. The proposed model predicts for the stations and RCPs scenarios analysed in this work an increase in the intensity of extreme rainfalls of short duration with long return periods.

  7. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of heavy-density debris, resulting in flawed sediment

  8. Characteristics of regional climate change and pattern analysis on Ordos Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of precipitation, temperature andtheir combination determine the special ecological environmentpattern of Ordos Plateau. Analyzing its evolutionary trendattributes to understanding the succession process of theecological environment of Ordos Plateau and has crucialinstructional significance on the ecological restoration researchbeing conducted in this region. Four time scales, arranging fromten days, one month, one season (growing season contrasting tonon-growing season) to one year were adopted to analyze the climatedata which included nearly 30 years and were collected by eightweather stations on Ordos Plateau. The results indicated that the mean annual temperature and the mean monthly temperature ofFebruary, September and December, had increased significantlyduring the late 30 years. The annual precipitation did not showsignificant changes but its distribution pattern had changedobviously. The ratio of precipitation of major growing season(May-October) to annual precipitation had increased distinctively,and five counties' precipitation reached statistically significantlevel. And the ratio of precipitation of latter growing season(September) to one year decreased significantly while the ratio ofnon-growing season(November-next April) to one year changedinsignificantly. The results showed that maybe the interaction ofincreased mean temperature and insignificant change ofprecipitation in non-growing season was one of the reasons why thedesertification of the region was deteriorating in recent years. Using some factors closely relating to vegetation succession suchas mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, distributivepattern of precipitation, mean temperature of the coldest month,mean temperature of the warmest month, precipitation of the warmestmonth, mean temperature of growing season, precipitation of growingseason, potential evapotranspiration(PET) and radiative drynessindex(RDI), to synthetically analyze the climate

  9. Distribution pattern of rare plants along riparian zone in Shennongjia Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of riparian zone in maintaining and protecting regional biodiversity, increasingly more ecologists paid their attentions to riparian zone and had been aware of the important effects of riparian zone in basic study and practical management. In this study, 42 sampling belts (10 m×100 m) parallel to the bank of Xiangxi River at different elevations in Shennongjia Area were selected to investigate the riparian vegetation and rare plants. 14 species of rare plants were found distributing in riparian zone, accounting for 42.4% of the total rare plant species in Shennongjia Area. The main distribution range of the 14 rare plant species was the evergreen and deciduous mixed broadleaved forest at elevation of 1200-1800 m, where, species diversity of plant community was the maximum at the moderate elevation. The analysis of TWINSPAN divided the 14 rare species into 3 groups against the elevation, namely low elevation species group, moderate elevation species group, and high elevation species group. The analysis of DCA ordination showed similar results to that of TWINSPAN. In the paper, the authors discussed the reasons forming the distribution pattern of rare plant species, and pointed out that the important function of riparian zone on rare plant species protection.

  10. Spatial distribution patterns in macrobenthos along a latitudinal transect at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedenin, A.; Budaeva, N.; Mokievsky, V.; Pantke, C.; Soltwedel, T.; Gebruk, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of benthic organisms are the focus of various faunal marine studies. However, data on horizontal and bathymetric distribution of the deep-sea macrofauna are still scattered and incomplete, and conclusions are usually based on a low number of samples. Spatial distribution of benthic macrofauna was studied based on the material collected during the RV Polarstern expedition ARK-XXVII/2 in July 2012. Eleven stations along the latitudinal transect at the LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) observatory HAUSGARTEN in the Fram Strait were taken at depths of about 2.3-2.7 km. Macrofauna was obtained using the box corer. A half core (0.125 m2) was taken at each station and four subcores (0.03 m2) were taken from each core and used for the quantitative analysis. The results suggest that a single, highly variable community with the dominance of polychaetes Galathowenia fragilis and Myriochele heeri inhabits the studied area. No latitudinal gradient in the community was revealed. The prevalence of a spatial variability in the community structure at a scale larger than the full sample per station (0.125 m2) was detected. Several abundant taxa (e.g. the polychaetes Prionospio sp. and Galathowenia fragilis) tend to form patches within a full sample.

  11. Climate change and water conservation effects on water availability and vegetation patterns in a stream valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Yasmijn; de Graaf, Myrjam; van Ek, Remco; Witte, Jan-Philip; Aerts, Rien; Bierkens, Marc; van Bodegom, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Climate change predictions include an increase in global temperature and changes in precipitation patterns at spatial and seasonal scale. The seasonal changes for temperate Europe include a decrease in the amount of precipitation in summer and an increase in winter. This may lead to an increased flooding risk in winter and early spring, while in summer the drought risk is likely to increase. These hydrological changes can have profound effects on vegetation patterns and development, especially for groundwater dependent vegetation. Water conservation measures can be used to combat the potential negative effects of these changes. Conservation measures can include aquifer storage and recovery, damming streams, or creating retention zones for flooding events. The implementation of these measures can contribute to preserving groundwater dependent vegetation patterns. In this study we simulated with an integrated surface- and groundwater model and a climate robust vegetation model, the implementation of water conservation measures in a stream valley catchment in the Netherlands. We modeled the effects on water availability and on vegetation patterns. The conservation measures were simulated for the current climate and for two climate scenarios, with a temperature increase of two degrees Celsius and either an increase or decrease in precipitation. Water tables were increased in stream valley zones, where groundwater dependent vegetation dominates, to ensure suitable abiotic conditions. The results showed that the water conservation measures increased the water table considerably in a future climate, compared to no conservation measures. Groundwater dependent vegetation was positively stimulated with these new hydrological conditions. With these models we successfully tested the effectiveness of the water conservation measures on water availability and vegetation patterns to ameliorate the negative effects of climate change. We therefore argue that water conservation

  12. Invertebrate distribution patterns and river typology for the implementation of the water framework directive in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadet C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Europe’s Water Framework Directive provided compelling reasons for developing tools for the biological assessment of freshwater ecosystem health in member States. Yet, the lack of published study for Europe’s overseas regions reflects minimal knowledge of the distribution patterns of aquatic species in Community’s outermost areas. Benthic invertebrates (84 taxa and land-cover, physical habitat and water chemistry descriptors (26 variables were recorded at fifty-one stations in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Ward’s algorithm were used to bring out patterns in community structure in relation to environmental conditions, and variation partitioning was used to specify the influence of geomorphology and anthropogenic disturbance on invertebrate communities. Species richness decreased from headwater to lowland streams, and species composition changed from northern to southern areas. The proportion of variation explained by geomorphological variables was globally higher than that explained by anthropogenic variables. Geomorphology and land cover played key roles in delineating ecological sub-regions for the freshwater biota. Despite this and the small surface area of Martinique (1080 km2, invertebrate communities showed a clear spatial turnover in composition and biological traits (e.g., insects, crustaceans and molluscs in relation to natural conditions.

  13. Intra-articular distribution pattern after ultrasound-guided injections in wrist joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Mikael; Jensen, Karl Erik; Torp-Pedersen, Søren;

    2007-01-01

    /ml), 0.5 ml Lidocaine (5mg/ml) and 0.15 ml gadolinium (Omniscan 0.5 mmol/ml). The drug solution was placed in the central proximal part of the wrist between the distal radius and the lunate bone. Coronal and axial MRI sequences were performed after the injection to visualize the distribution. Carpal...... to the clinical parameters and the MRI OMERACT scores. RESULTS: No uniform pattern was seen in the distribution of the contrast. Only two patients had full contrast distribution to all four compartments, and the mean distribution count for all patients was 2.4 (range 0.5-4). The distribution count...... correlated with the MRI OMERACT synovitis score (r=0.60, p=0.014), but not with the erosions, bonemarrow oedema scores or any clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: The distribution of contrast on MRI showed patient specific and random patterns after IA injections in active RA wrist joints. The degree of...

  14. Distribution pattern and reduction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bluefish fillets through adipose tissue removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.; Haynes, B.L.

    1988-11-01

    Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a migratory pelagic species of fish usually travel in large groups of like size along the Atlantic coast. Bluefish of all sizes are caught both commercially and recreationally for human consumption. Owing to its predacious nature, bluefish feed throughout the water column on a large variety of smaller fish and invertebrates. Bluefish bioaccumulate contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) into various adipose tissues from the water column and through the marine food chain. Two recent reports concluded that PCB concentrations for all except some of the large bluefish caught along the Atlantic coast fell below the limit of 2 ..mu..g/g set by FDA. The purpose of this study was to observe the distribution pattern of PCB in the various edible tissues. Further, it was to determine if the removal of adipose tissues would result in reduced PCB level and therefore decrease PCB exposure to the consumer.

  15. Cycles of strategies and changes of distribution in public goods game: An experimental investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a simple mechanism in the optional public goods game is experimentally investigated using two experimental settings; and first time, the cyclic strategy pattern in full state space is demonstrated by means of velocity. It is, furthermore, elaborated that the strategies of cooperation, defection and nonparticipant form a Rock-Paper-Scissors type cycle, and the cycle of three strategies are persistent over 200 rounds. This cycle is very similar to the cycle given by evolutionary dynamics e.g. replicator dynamics. The mechanism that nonparticipant can sustain cooperation is driven by the Rock-Paper-Scissors type of cyclic dominance in the three strategies. That is, if the cycle is existent, the cooperation will always sustain. Meanwhile, the distribution of social states changes in the state space and from cooperation as the most frequent strategy to defection and, from defection to nonparticipant, forms a clear rotation path in a long run. These results seem to implicate that the evolutio...

  16. A distribution pattern of cadmium, gadolinium and samarium in Phaseolus vulgaris (L) plants as assessed by dynamic neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualitative and semi-quantitative distributions, presumably apoplast transport patterns for the Gd, Sm and Cd were investigated in the primordial leaf tissues of the bean using dynamic neutron radiography. According to the applied 3D, 2D images and the pixel count distribution histograms of the considered gray levels, peculiar distribution patterns were postulated for the elements. Main and lateral vascular systems for Gd, the cell walls as well as intercellular spaces for Sm and the main leaf vein for Cd assumed to be the apoplast transport spaces and volumes

  17. Districts, Teacher Leaders, and Distributed Leadership: Changing Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, William A.; Martinez, M. Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Using case studies of four schools in three districts, this article explores how leadership is distributed in districts and asks about the role of teacher leaders. It proposes that teacher leaders and districts can share three leadership tasks: procuring and distributing materials, monitoring improvement, and developing people. The district and…

  18. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Iken

    Full Text Available This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. Sample-based species richness was overall low (2 cm in 1 m(2 quadrats was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m(-2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m(2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m(-2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm

  19. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B R; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  20. Investigation of diurnal patterns in vertical distributions of pollen in the lower troposphere using LIDAR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Noh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal patterns in pollen vertical distributions in the lower troposphere were investigated by the LIDAR remote sensing technique. Meteorological and pollen concentration data was measured at the surface using a Burkard 7 day recording volumetric spore sampler. An aerosol extinction coefficient and depolarization ratio of 532 nm was obtained from LIDAR measurements in spring (4 May–2 June 2009 in Gwagnju, Korea. Depolarization ratios from 0.08 to 0.14 were observed only in daytime (09:00–17:00 local time (LT during high pollen concentration days from 4 to 9 May. Vertical distributions in the depolarization ratio with time showed a specific diurnal pattern. Depolarization ratios, which varied from 0.08 to 0.14, were measured near the surface in the morning. High depolarization ratios were detected even up to 2.0 km between 12:00 and 14:00 LT but subsequently were observed only close to the surface after 17:00 LT. Low values of depolarization ratios (≤ 0.05 were detected after 18:00 LT until next morning. During the measurement period, the daily variations in the high depolarization ratios close to the surface showed good agreement with those in surface pollen concentrations, which implies that high depolarization ratios can be attributed to high pollen concentrations. The diurnal characteristics in high values of depolarization ratios were closely associated with turbulent transport, which can be caused by increasing temperature and wind speed and decreasing relative humidity. Continuously measured diurnal and vertical characteristics of pollen data can be further used to enhance the accuracy of the pollen-forecasting model via data assimilation studies.

  1. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Couto Di Tullio

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m and slope (1500m off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S. The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the

  2. Enhanced invasion in vitro and the distribution patterns in vivo of CD133+ glioma stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Sheng-ping; YANG Xue-jun; ZHANG Bin; MING Hao-lang; CHEN Cong; REN Bing-cheng; LIU Zhi-feng; LIU Bin

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that cancer stem cells cause tumor recurrence based on their resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.Although the highly invasive nature of glioblastoma cells is also implicated in the failure of current therapies,it is not clear whether cancer stem cells are involved in invasiveness.This study aimed to assess invasive ability of glioma stem cells (GSCs) derived from C6 glioma cell line and the distribution patterns of GSCs in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat brain tumor.Methods Serum-free medium culture and magnetic isolation were used to gain purely CD133+ GSCs.The invasive stem cell markers and luxol fast blue staining for white matter tracts were performed to show the distribution patterns of GSCs in brain tumor of rats and the relationship among GSCs,vessels,and white matter tracts.The results of matrigel invasion assay were estimated using the Student's t test and the analysis of Western blotting was performed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.Results CD133+GSCs(number:85.3±4.1)were significantly more invasive in vitro than matched CD133- cells(number:25.9±3.1) (t=14.5,P <0.005).GSCs invaded into the brain diffusely and located in perivascular niche of tumor-brain interface or resided within perivascular niche next to white fiber tracts.The polarity of glioma cells containing GSCs was parallel to the white matter tracts.Conclusions Our data suggest that CD133+ GSCs exhibit more aggressive invasion in vitro and GSCs in vivo probably disseminate along the long axis of blood vessels and transit through the white matter tracts.The therapies targeting GSCs invasion combined with traditional glioblastoma multiforme therapeutic paradigms might be a new approach for avoiding malignant glioma recurrence.

  3. Complex patterns in the distribution of planets show planet migration and planet and star properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    We present dramatic patterns in the distribution of exoplanet periods and eccentricities that vary as functions of iron abundance of the host star, planet mass, stellar properties, and presence of a stellar companion. These patterns include surprising peaks and gaps. They raise the question of whether planets themselves contribute to increasing stellar metallicity by causing other planets or material to “pollute” the star.We also show that the falloff in planets at the shortest periods can be used to determine the rate of planets migrating into the star as a function of the strength of tidal dissipation in the star. A small rate of planets migrating into the star can produce the observed population of the shortest period planets without having to invoke extremely weak tidal dissipation. Tidal dissipation strengths stronger than the tidal quality factor Q being equal to 107 are possible if there is a moderate flow of giant planets into the star. It is likely that within a decade it will be possible to measure the time shift of transits of the shortest period orbits due to orbital period decreases caused by tidal migration.The distribution of the shortest period planets indicates that the strength of tidal dissipation in stars is a function of stellar mass, making it worthwhile to monitor the shortest period systems for time shifts across a range of stellar masses. This time shift is inversely proportional to the lifetime of a planet.It is essential to know the rate of planets migrating into stars in order to understand whether inflated planets are only briefly inflated during a faster migration into the star, or if planets maintain anomalously large radii for longer periods of time.The paucity of Neptune-mass planets at the shortest periods could be due either to a lower rate of inward migration or to evaporation. Knowing how evaporation contributes to this paucity could help determine the fractions of planets that are rock, liquid water, or gas.

  4. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphometry was used in 812 individuals from 45 species to describe shell shapes, using procrustes dis-tances, centroide size and principal warps, keeping shell lenght as size measure. Morphological distances and size differences was correlated to geographic dis-tances using Mantel tests. Size show a weak correla-tion (-0.12 but morphological and geographic distanc-es was correlated (0.401. A morphological variation pattern was detected in the second principal warp, ordering geographic groups in a way consistent to clinal variation of shell shapes described to Cerion in the eastern region of Caribbean. All results reinforce the need of a taxonomic review of the genus in Cuba.

  5. The global pattern of trace-element distributions in ocean floor basalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Hugh St C; Jenner, Frances E

    2012-11-29

    The magmatic layers of the oceanic crust are created at constructive plate margins by partial melting of the mantle as it wells up. The chemistry of ocean floor basalts, the most accessible product of this magmatism, is studied for the insights it yields into the compositional heterogeneity of the mantle and its thermal structure. However, before eruption, parental magma compositions are modified at crustal pressures by a process that has usually been assumed to be fractional crystallization. Here we show that the global distributions of trace elements in ocean floor basalts describe a systematic pattern that cannot be explained by simple fractional crystallization alone, but is due to cycling of magma through the global ensemble of magma chambers. Variability in both major and incompatible trace-element contents about the average global pattern is due to fluctuations in the magma fluxes into and out of the chambers, and their depth, as well as to differences in the composition of the parental magmas. PMID:23192147

  6. Dynamical Modelling of the Galactic Bulge and Bar: Pattern Speed, Stellar, and Dark Matter Mass Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Ness, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We construct a large set of dynamical models of the galactic bulge, bar and inner disk using the Made-to-Measure method. Our models are constrained to match the red clump giant density from a combination of the VVV, UKIDSS and 2MASS infrared surveys together with stellar kinematics in the bulge from the BRAVA and OGLE surveys, and in the entire bar region from the ARGOS survey. We are able to recover the bar pattern speed and the stellar and dark matter mass distributions in the bar region, thus recovering the entire galactic effective potential. We find a bar pattern speed of $39.0 \\pm 3.5 \\,\\rm{km\\,s^{-1}\\,kpc^{-1}}$, placing the bar corotation radius at $6.1 \\pm 0.5 \\, \\rm{kpc}$ and making the Milky Way bar a typical fast rotator. We evaluate the stellar mass of the long bar and bulge structure to be $M_{\\rm{bar/bulge}} = 1.88 \\pm 0.12 \\times 10^{10} \\, \\rm{M}_{\\odot}$, larger than the mass of disk in the bar region, $M_{\\rm{inner\\ disk}} = 1.29\\pm0.12 \\times 10^{10} \\, \\rm{M}_{\\odot}$. The total dynamical...

  7. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  8. The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and healthy eating among women in a Latin American city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Unikel, Claudia; Cortez, Irene; Cerecero, Diego

    2015-09-01

    Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward "healthy eating" could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional-modern-healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico-United States (US) border. Women 18-65 years old (n = 2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: "tortillas," "hamburgers" and "vegetables." Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the "hamburgers" pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the "vegetables" pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the "hamburgers" pattern. PMID:25975967

  9. Postmortem distribution pattern of morphine and morphine glucuronides in heroin overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopp, G; Lutz, R; Ganssmann, B; Mattern, R; Aderjan, R

    1996-01-01

    The postmortem distribution of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in four cases of heroin overdose to evaluate some of the factors that influence intravasal blood concentrations. Variables included were the chemical stability of morphine conjugates, hemoconcentration, incomplete distribution of the drug and diffusion processes. Blood samples from different sampling sites including the aorta, the infra- and suprarenal portion of the inferior vena cava, the superior vena cava, the femoral and subclavian veins, and the right and left ventricles were examined for morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide, hematocrit and water content. Drug concentrations were determined by HPLC based on the native fluorescence of the analytes. Morphine glucuronides proved to be stable for a time period of 72 h. The water content ranged from 65 to 83% and hematocrit values from 25 to 75%, and were seen as contributory factors to the dramatic differences observed for drug concentrations from different sampling sites. The differences could neither be attributed to incomplete distribution during life-time nor to a diffusion process following the different distribution volumes of morphine and its conjugates. A definite relationship between the ratio of the molar concentrations of morphine and its glucuronides, as assessed in pharmacokinetical studies after morphine dosing, could not be established. For a better understanding more cases and changes over time and tissue concentrations should be analysed. PMID:8956984

  10. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination

  11. Habitat-preference in South African antelope species and its significance in natural and artificial distribution patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. De V. Pienaar

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available The unequal distribution of species is due to different environmental conditions of the various regions of the globe. The environmental factors governing the occurrence, distribution and abundance of large herbivorous mammals may be divided into physical, historical and biotic. Vegetation is all-important in herbivore biology as it provides habitat, cover and food. Many of the distribution patterns and structural attributes of species are associated with living in and utilizing particular vegetation zones. Africa has an enormous diversity of habitats and animal species utilizing these habitats. An attempt is made to characterize the patterns of habitat preference of South African antelope species and the significance of the habitat requirements of the individual species is discussed in thelight of natural and artificial distribution patterns. It is stressed that artificial introduction of species without prior knowledge of the habitat requirements of such species may lead to disastrous consequences.

  12. Spatial patterns and functional redundancies in a changing boreal lake landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Angeler,David; Allen, Craig R.; Daniel R. Uden; Johnson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Global transformations extend beyond local habitats; therefore, larger-scale approaches are needed to assess community-level responses and resilience to unfolding environmental changes. Using long-term data (1996-2011), we evaluated spatial patterns and functional redundancies in the littoral invertebrate communities of 85 Swedish lakes, with the objective of assessing their potential resilience to environmental change at regional scales (that is, spatial resilience). Multivariate spatial mod...

  13. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    OpenAIRE

    J. Laštovička; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; J. Bremer; Emmert, J. T.; Jacobi, C.; Jarvis, M J; G. Nedoluha; Yu. I. Portnyagin; T. Ulich

    2008-01-01

    In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and conta...

  14. Tajikistan - Economic and Distributional Impact of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus; Reva, Anna; Zaidi, Salman

    2012-01-01

    Tajikistan is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of global climate change, as it already suffers from low agricultural productivity, water stress, and high losses from disasters. Public awareness of the multiple consequences of climate change is high, with possible impacts on health, natural disasters, and agriculture of greatest public concern. Climate change can potentially deepen ...

  15. Fibrocystic change of breast : relation with parenchymal pattern on mammogram and fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relationship between fibrocystic change and parenchymal pattern and fibroadenoma on mammogram. Mammograms of 135 patients with histologically- diagnosed fibrocystic disease after excisional biopsy were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic specimens. Classification of the parenchymal pattern was based on Wolfe's method. On mammogram, we observed abnormality in 88 out of the 135 cases;these latter consisted of 70 cases of DY, 30 of P2, 20 of P1, and 15 of Nl, following Wolfe's parenchymal patterns. Among the 88 abnormal cases we obseved 37 cases of mass with clear boundaries, five cases of mass with unclear boundaries, 22 with clustered microcalcifications, six with macrocalcifications and 18 with asymmetric dense breast. Histologic examination revealed a varying composition of stromal fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia,cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, etc. Histologically fibroadenomatoid change in 18 cases was appeared as a radiopaque mass on mammogram, especially in those cases where the change was well-defined, which were all except three. Fibrocystic disease was prevalent in Wolfe's P2 and DY patterns(about 80%). About 40% of fibrocystic change appearing as a well defined mass on mammogram showed fibroadenomatoid chage histologically and was difficult to differentiate from fibroadenoma. Fibrocystic disease should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass which on mammogram is well-defined

  16. Control Patterns in Dyadic Systems: Marital Group Psychotherapy as Change Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrick, Anne K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined changes in response control patterns exhibited by five married couples who participated in two brief psychotherapy groups. Used the Ericson-Rogers Relational Coding System to score the control direction of interactions between group members. Found individual flexibility increased for each of these relationships over the course of group…

  17. Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, Lindell; Lanfear, Robert; Cassey, Phillip; Gibb, Gillian; Cardillo, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Predicting future species extinctions from patterns of past extinctions or current threat status relies on the assumption that the taxonomic and biological selectivity of extinction is consistent through time. If the driving forces of extinction change through time, this assumption may be unrealistic. Testing the consistency of extinction patterns between the past and the present has been difficult, because the phylogenetically explicit methods used to model present-day extinction risk typically cannot be applied to the data from the fossil record. However, the detailed historical and fossil records of the New Zealand avifauna provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct a complete, large faunal assemblage for different periods in the past. Using the first complete phylogeny of all known native New Zealand bird species, both extant and extinct, we show how the taxonomic and phylogenetic selectivity of extinction, and biological correlates of extinction, change from the pre-human period through Polynesian and European occupation, to the present. These changes can be explained both by changes in primary threatening processes, and by the operation of extinction filter effects. The variable patterns of extinction through time may confound attempts to identify risk factors that apply across time periods, and to infer future species declines from past extinction patterns and current threat status. PMID:22859591

  18. Decelerated invasion and waning-moon patterns in public goods games with delayed distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity because of a decelerated invasion of defectors, who are unable to reap the same high short-term benefits as they do in the absence of delayed distribution. Long delays, however, introduce a risk because the large accumulated wealth might fall into the wrong hands. Indeed, as soon as the curvature of a cooperative cluster turns negative, the engulfed defectors can collect the heritage of many generations of cooperators and by doing so start a waning-moon pattern that nullifies the benefits of decelerated invasion. Accidental meeting points of growing cooperative clusters may also act as triggers for the waning-moon effect, thus linking the success of cooperators with their propensity to fail in a rather bizarre way. Our results highlight that “investing in the future” is a good idea only if that future is sufficiently near and not likely to be burdened by inflation.

  19. We'll meet again: revealing distributional and temporal patterns of social contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Pachur

    Full Text Available What are the dynamics and regularities underlying social contact, and how can contact with the people in one's social network be predicted? In order to characterize distributional and temporal patterns underlying contact probability, we asked 40 participants to keep a diary of their social contacts for 100 consecutive days. Using a memory framework previously used to study environmental regularities, we predicted that the probability of future contact would follow in systematic ways from the frequency, recency, and spacing of previous contact. The distribution of contact probability across the members of a person's social network was highly skewed, following an exponential function. As predicted, it emerged that future contact scaled linearly with frequency of past contact, proportionally to a power function with recency of past contact, and differentially according to the spacing of past contact. These relations emerged across different contact media and irrespective of whether the participant initiated or received contact. We discuss how the identification of these regularities might inspire more realistic analyses of behavior in social networks (e.g., attitude formation, cooperation.

  20. Distribution, Use Pattern and Prospects for Conservation of Medicinal Shrubs in Uttaranchal State, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhupendra S. Adhikari; Mani M. Babu; Prem L. Saklani; Gopal S. Rawat

    2007-01-01

    The present paper gives an insight into the distribution and use pattern of medicinal shrubs in Uttaranchal State. A total of 222 medicinal and aromatic shrub species have been appended based on secondary information. Euphorbiaceae, Rosaceae,Verbenaceae, and Fabaceae have the highest representatives of medicinal shrubs. Twenty one families had one species each in medicinal use. Verbenaceae and Euphorbiaceae in the sub-tropical region,Rosaceae in the temperate region, and Ericaceae and Rosaceae in the sub-alpine and alpine regions,respectively, had the highest representatives of medicinal shrubs. The distribution of medicinal shrubs was 42 % in sub-tropical, 29 % in warm temperate, 13 % in cool temperate, 9 % in sub-alpine and 7 % in the alpine region. Of the total species, 70 medicinal shrubs were native to the Himalayas and 22 native to Himalayan region including other Himalayan countries. The most frequently used plant parts for various ailments were leaves (31%) and roots (23%). Most shrubs are being used for the diseases, viz.skin diseases, dysentery, cough, fever, wounds, and rheumatism. The present paper will help in the execution of strategies for promotion and cultivation of medicinal shrubs in Uttaranchal State.

  1. Epidural fat distribution patterns in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhizhou; Zhu Xiaodong; Li Ming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate epidural fat distribution patterns in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion. Methods: Medical records were selected randomly from 30 patients whose diagnoses were consistent with the inclusion criteria of the study. Thickness of bilateral fat, the longest length of posterior fat, thickness of bilateral yellow ligament and thehernial distance of lumbar discs were measured by MRI at L3/L4, L4/L5 and LS/S 1 levels. According to clinical symptoms of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion, the patients were divided into two groups at all space levels. All data were analyzed by statistical software. Results: The longest length of posterior epidural fat at the symptomatic levels was shorter than that at the non-symptomatic levels in each disc space. The symptomatic levels had no effect on the whole thickness of the lateral fat and lateral yellow ligaments. Conclusion: Epidural fat distribution in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion is different from that in normal adults. It is affected by the hernial distance of lumbar discs. The diagnostic criteria for spinal epidural lipomatosis in normal adults may therefore prove to be inappropriate for patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion.

  2. Pattern of distribution of radium 226 in drinking water of Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of radium (Ra) as high as 65 pCi/L have been reported in some of the public water wells in Texas. Yet, the overall pattern of the geographic distribution of Ra or its decay products has not been determined or mapped. The present study is a step in this direction. The distribution of 226Ra in domestic water, public and individual, in selected regions of the state of Texas was investigated to identify areas where water may contain naturally occurring elevated concentrations of Ra and to provide much need information for well development and water quality management. Two regions with anomalously high Ra concentrations were identified, one in the gulf coast, with some concentrations over 20 pCi/L downdip from uranium deposits, and the other in west-central Texas, with some concentrations up to 65 pCi/L on the periphery of an igneous uplift. Otherwise, the concentrations of Ra were low,particularly in the west and northwest of the state

  3. Optimization of pump operation patterns for reducing the energetic cost of a water distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bouzon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimal management of water supply systems is a critical factor for the well-being of a society. In this context, water companies face a major challenge in the operation of water pumping systems for water supply of cities: to determine the optimal use of its resources in order to minimize the energy cost (EC of operation. This paper presents an optimization model in Linear Programming (LP for the operation of a water distribution system in a city of the São Paulo State comprising two pumps and three water tanks. A model was created to determine the optimal pattern of operation for the two bombs within 24 hours in order to minimize the EC and at the same time, comply with the capacity reservation constraints and meet demand. The results of this study show that the use of PL may be satisfactory for the resolution of this problem and can provide benefits for the water company, the population served and for the environment by improving the  energetic efficiency of a water distribution system.

  4. Tissue distribution patterns of solubilized metals from internalized tungsten alloy in the F344 rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernieda B. Vergara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique physical and chemical properties, tungsten has been increasingly utilized in a variety of civilian and military applications. This expanded use also raises the risk of human exposure through internalization by various routes. In most cases the toxicological and carcinogenic properties of these tungsten-based compounds are not known nor are the dissolution biokinetics and ultimate fate of the associated metals. Using a laboratory rodent model system designed to assess the health effects of embedded metals, and a tungsten alloy comprised of tungsten (91.1%, nickel (6.0%, and cobalt (2.9%, we investigated the tissue distribution patterns of the metals over a six month period. Despite its perceived insolubility, tungsten rapidly solubilized from the implanted metal fragments, as did nickel and cobalt. All three metals distributed systemically over time with extremely elevated levels of all three metals found in kidney, liver, and spleen. Unexpectedly, tungsten was found to cross the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and localize in those tissues. These results, along with recent reports suggesting that tungsten is a tumor promoter, raises serious concerns as to the long-term health effects of exposure to tungsten and tungsten-based compounds.

  5. Decelerated invasion and waning moon patterns in public goods games with delayed distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2013-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity because of a decelerated invasion of defectors, who are unable to reap the same high short-term benefits as they do in the absence of delayed distribution. Long delays, however, introduce a risk because the large accumulated wealth might fall into the wrong hands. Indeed, as soon as the curvature of a cooperative cluster turns negative, the engulfed defectors can collect the heritage of many generations of cooperators, and by doing so start a waning moon pattern that nullifies the benefits of decelerated invasion. Accidental meeting points of growing cooperative clusters may also act as triggers for the waning moon effect, thus linking the success of cooperators with their propensity to fail in a rather bizarre way. Our r...

  6. Geographical distribution patterns of Macromitrium and Orthotrichum in China and their relationship with climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A maximum entropy algorithm modelling program (MaxEnt 3.3.2 and a GIS software system (ArcGIS9.3 were used to study and model the distribution of 131 occurrences of Macromitrium and 66 occurrences of Orthotrichum in China in relation to 19 bioclimatic variables and percent tree cover. The information obtained can help predict the potential distribution range of these species in China, and also provide an understanding of factors influencing their current geographical distribution patterns so as to achieve better conservation of species diversity in the future. The species occurrence data were obtained from field work, relevant literature and herbarium specimens examined. Based on the integrated habitat suitability indices calculated, results show that Macromitrium have higher habitat suitability in the southeast and some southern provinces of China, i.e., in Zhejiang, Taiwan, Hainan, Fujian, Chongqing, and lower distribution probability in northwest, northeast and some northern provinces. Likewise, Orthotrichum has higher habitatsuitability in Yunnan, Beijing, Liaoning, Jilin, Guizhou, Shanxi, Sichuan and Hebei, and lower distributional probability in the southwest. The distribution probability of Macromitrium increases with increased annual precipitation, precipitation in the wettest month, and in both the coldest and wettest quarter of the year. The distribution probability of Orthotrichum increases rapidly with increasing annual precipitation upto 200 mm, and then decreases when annual precipitation exceeds 200 mm. The distribution probability of Orthotrichum reaches its highest peak when the mean temperature of the warmest quarter is between 15 and 20℃. The relationship between species number (Y of Macromitrium and annual rainfall (X1 is described by the equation Y = –0.0369+0.0003X1 (r = 0.5347, P<0.001, n = 131, and with the annual temperature (X2 by Y = 0.0831e0.001X2 (r = 0.5525, P<0.001, n = 131. The relationship between species

  7. Changes in the potential distribution of humid tropical forests on a warmer planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Malhi, Yadvinder; Huntingford, Chris; Sitch, Stephen; Fisher, Joshua B

    2011-01-13

    The future of tropical forests has become one of the iconic issues in climate-change science. A number of studies that have explored this subject have tended to focus on the output from one or a few climate models, which work at low spatial resolution, whereas society and conservation-relevant assessment of potential impacts requires a finer scale. This study focuses on the role of climate on the current and future distribution of humid tropical forests (HTFs). We first characterize their contemporary climatological niche using annual rainfall and maximum climatological water stress, which also adequately describe the current distribution of other biomes within the tropics. As a first-order approximation of the potential extent of HTFs in future climate regimes defined by global warming of 2°C and 4°C, we investigate changes in the niche through a combination of climate-change anomaly patterns and higher resolution (5 km) maps of current climatology. The climate anomalies are derived using data from 17 coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) used in the Fourth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Our results confirm some risk of forest retreat, especially in eastern Amazonia, Central America and parts of Africa, but also indicate a potential for expansion in other regions, for example around the Congo Basin. The finer spatial scale enabled the depiction of potential resilient and vulnerable zones with practically useful detail. We further refine these estimates by considering the impact of new environmental regimes on plant water demand using the UK Met Office land-surface scheme (of the HadCM3 AOGCM). The CO(2)-related reduction in plant water demand lowers the risk of die-back and can lead to possible niche expansion in many regions. The analysis presented here focuses primarily on hydrological determinants of HTF extent. We conclude by discussing the role of other factors, notably the physiological effects of

  8. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A Brown

    Full Text Available Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar's plant diversity in the face of future environmental change is worrying: regional diversity will continue to decrease in response to the combined effects of climate and land cover change, with habitats such as ericoid thickets and eastern lowland and sub-humid forests particularly vulnerable into the future.

  9. Chemosymbiotic species from the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic: distribution, life styles and nutritional patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work in the mud volcanoes from the Gulf of Cadiz (South Iberian Margin revealed a high number of chemosymbiotic species, namely bivalves and siboglinid polychaetes. In this study we give an overview of the distribution and life styles of these species in the Gulf of Cadiz, determine the role of autotrophic symbionts in the nutrition of selected species using stable isotope analyses (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S and investigate the intra-specific variation of isotope signatures within and between study sites. During our studies, we identified twenty siboglinidae and nine bivalve chemosymbiotic species living in fifteen mud volcanoes. Solemyid bivalves and tubeworms of the genus Siboglinum are widespread in the study area, whereas other species were found in a single mud volcano (e.g. "Bathymodiolus" mauritanicus or restricted to deeper mud volcanoes (e.g. Polybrachia sp., Lamelisabella denticulata. Species distribution suggests that different species may adjust their position within the sediment according to their particular needs, and to the intensity and variability of the chemical substrata supply. Tissue stable isotope signatures for selected species are in accordance with values found in other studies, with thiotrophy as the dominant nutritional pathway, and with methanotrophy and mixotrophy emerging as secondary strategies. The heterogeneity in terms of nutrient sources (expressed in the high variance of nitrogen and sulphur values and the ability to exploit different resources by the different species may explain the high diversity of chemosymbiotic species found in the Gulf of Cadiz. This study increases the knowledge on distributional patterns and resource partitioning of chemosymbiotic species and highlights how trophic fuelling varies on spatial scales with direct implications to seep assemblages and potentially to the biodiversity of continental margin.

  10. Searching for generality in the patterns of parasite abundance and distribution: ectoparasites of a South African rodent, Rhabdomys pumilio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Sonja; Krasnov, Boris R

    2009-06-01

    We studied abundance and distribution of seven ectoparasite species (fleas Chiastopsylla rossi and Dynopsyllus ellobius, a louse Polyplax arvicanthis, mites Androlaelaps fahrenholzi and Laelaps giganteus and two ticks Haemaphysalis elliptica and Hyalomma truncatum) exploiting the same populations of the rodent host Rhabdomys pumilio in South Africa. We considered three general patterns of abundance and distribution, namely (i) aggregated distribution of parasites amongst individual hosts; (ii) positive relationships between mean parasite abundance and their prevalence; and (iii) applicability of a simple epidemiological model based on mean parasite abundance and its variance to predict the observed patterns of prevalence. Our aims were to evaluate the relative role of host- versus parasite-associated factors by looking at similarity amongst different parasites in these patterns. In general, all parasites demonstrated strong similarity in each of the three patterns of abundance and distribution. However, the strength of these patterns differed amongst parasite species. We conclude that these patterns are driven mainly by hosts, but differences are caused by differences between various life-history traits of parasite species. Our results support the idea that general laws apply to parasite population ecology. PMID:19168068

  11. How Fair? Changes in Federal Income Taxation and the Distribution of Income, 1978 to 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, James; Lee, Fitzroy; Wallace, Sally

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we determine how tax law and income distribution changes have separately contributed to the changes in tax progressivity over time, and also how a specific pre-tax distribution of income affects the equalizing ability of a given tax change. We use information from the Current Population Survey for years that follow immediately after…

  12. Seismicity pattern changes before the M = 4.8 Aeolian Archipelago (Italy) earthquake of August 16, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Salvatore; Laudani, Antonino; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the seismicity patterns associated with an M = 4.8 earthquake recorded in the Aeolian Archipelago on 16, August, 2010, by means of the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. This earthquake triggered landslides at Lipari; a rock fall on the flanks of the Vulcano, Lipari, and Salina islands, and some damages to the village of Lipari. The RTL algorithm is widely used for investigating precursory seismicity changes before large and moderate earthquakes. We examined both the spatial and temporal characteristics of seismicity changes in the Aeolian Archipelago region before the M = 4.8 earthquake. The results obtained reveal 6-7 months of seismic quiescence which started about 15 months before the earthquake. The spatial distribution shows an extensive area characterized by seismic quiescence that suggests a relationship between quiescence and the Aeolian Archipelago regional tectonics. PMID:24511288

  13. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-à-vis increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Pulak; Saji, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of mean rainfall and its variability of smaller spatial scale are important for the planners in various sectors including water and agriculture. In the present work, long rainfall data series (1901-2006) of districts of Maharashtra in monthly and seasonal scales are constructed and then mean rainfall and coefficient of variability are analyzed to get the spatial pattern and variability. Significant long term changes in monthly rainfall in the district scale are identified by trend analysis of rainfall time series. The seasonality index which is the measure of distribution of precipitation throughout the seasonal cycle is used to classify the different rainfall regime. Also long term changes of the seasonality index are identified by the trend analysis. The state Maharashtra which is to the northwest of peninsular India is highly influenced by the southwest monsoon and the state is facing water scarcity almost every year. This study will help to find out possible reason for the increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra.

  14. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-à-vis increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pulak Guhathakurta; Elizabeth Saji

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of mean rainfall and its variability of smaller spatial scale are important for the planners in various sectors including water and agriculture. In the present work, long rainfall data series (1901–2006) of districts of Maharashtra in monthly and seasonal scales are constructed and then mean rainfall and coefficient of variability are analyzed to get the spatial pattern and variability. Significant long term changes in monthly rainfall in the district scale are identified by trend analysis of rainfall time series. The seasonality index which is the measure of distribution of precipitation throughout the seasonal cycle is used to classify the different rainfall regime. Also long term changes of the seasonality index are identified by the trend analysis. The state Maharashtra which is to the northwest of peninsular India is highly influenced by the southwest monsoon and the state is facing water scarcity almost every year. This study will help to find out possible reason for the increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra.

  15. The Effect of Sudden Change in Pipe Diameter on Flow Patterns of Air-Water Two-Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Flow patterns upstream and downstream of a sudden-contraction cross-section in a vertical straight pipe were presented. By comparing with flow patterns in uniform croes-section vertical tubes, the effect of the sudden change in pipe diameter on flow patterns was analyzed. Flow pattern transition mechanisms were discussed and transition criteria for flow pattern transitions were deduced accordingly using the dimensional analysis.

  16. Predicted impacts of climatic change on ant functional diversity and distributions in eastern North American forests

    OpenAIRE

    Del Toro, Israel; Rogério R. Silva; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Climatic change is expected to rearrange species assemblages and ultimately affect organism-mediated ecosystem processes. We focus on identifying patterns and relationships between common ant species (representing 99% of total ant records) richness and functional diversity; model how these patterns may change at local and regional scales in future climatic conditions; and interpret how these changes might influence ant-mediated ecosystem processes. Location: Forested ecosystems of easte...

  17. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laštovička

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and contains several gaps and a few discrepancies, but the overall pattern of observed long-term changes throughout the upper atmosphere is consistent with model predictions of the effect of greenhouse gas increases. Together with the large body of lower atmospheric trend research, our synthesis indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the atmosphere at nearly all altitudes between ground and space.

  18. Spatio-temporal changes of lymphatic contractility and drainage patterns following lymphadenectomy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkuk Kwon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the redirection of lymphatic drainage post-lymphadenectomy using non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF imaging, and to subsequently assess impact on metastasis. BACKGROUND: Cancer-acquired lymphedema arises from dysfunctional fluid transport after lymphadenectomy performed for staging and to disrupt drainage pathways for regional control of disease. However, little is known about the normal regenerative processes of the lymphatics in response to lymphadenectomy and how these responses can be accelerated, delayed, or can impact metastasis. METHODS: Changes in lymphatic "pumping" function and drainage patterns were non-invasively and longitudinally imaged using NIRF lymphatic imaging after popliteal lymphadenectomy in mice. In a cohort of mice, B16F10 melanoma was inoculated on the dorsal aspect of the paw 27 days after lymphadenectomy to assess how drainage patterns affect metastasis. RESULTS: NIRF imaging demonstrates that, although lymphatic function and drainage patterns change significantly in early response to popliteal lymph node (PLN removal in mice, these changes are transient and regress dramatically due to a high regenerative capacity of the lymphatics and co-opting of collateral lymphatic pathways around the site of obstruction. Metastases followed the pattern of collateral pathways and could be detected proximal to the site of lymphadenectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Both lymphatic vessel regeneration and co-opting of contralateral vessels occur following lymphadenectomy, with contractile function restored within 13 days, providing a basis for preclinical and clinical investigations to hasten lymphatic repair and restore contractile lymphatic function after surgery to prevent cancer-acquired lymphedema. Patterns of cancer metastasis after lymphadenectomy were altered, consistent with patterns of re-directed lymphatic drainage.

  19. The dragonflies (Odonata) species composition changes, spatial distribution and their determining factors in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņš, Mārtiņš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of doctoral thesis is to explore changes in fauna and species distribution regularities of Latvian dragonflies, as also to clarify factors affected species populations. For the first time in Latvia, changes in odonatofauna in a long-term period and emergence of southern species within last 20 years are described. Changes in species distribution are characterized and distribution of Latvian dragonflies is mapped for the first time. New data on impact by microhabitat and vegetation stru...

  20. Distribution patterns predict individual specialization in the diet of dolphin gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Masello

    Full Text Available Many animals show some degree of individual specialization in foraging strategies and diet. This has profound ecological and evolutionary implications. For example, populations containing diverse individual foraging strategies will respond in different ways to changes in the environment, thus affecting the capacity of the populations to adapt to environmental changes and to diversify. However, patterns of individual specialization have been examined in few species. Likewise it is usually unknown whether specialization is maintained over time, because examining the temporal scale at which specialization occurs can prove difficult in the field. In the present study, we analyzed individual specialization in foraging in Dolphin Gulls Leucophaeus scoresbii, a scavenger endemic to the southernmost coasts of South America. We used GPS position logging and stable isotope analyses (SIA to investigate individual specialization in feeding strategies and their persistence over time. The analysis of GPS data indicated two major foraging strategies in Dolphin Gulls from New I. (Falkland Is./Islas Malvinas. Tagged individuals repeatedly attended either a site with mussel beds or seabird and seal colonies during 5 to 7 days of tracking. Females foraging at mussel beds were heavier than those foraging at seabird colonies. Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15N of Dolphin Gull blood cells clustered in two groups, showing that individuals were consistent in their preferred foraging strategies over a period of at least several weeks. The results of the SIA as well as the foraging patterns recorded revealed a high degree of specialization for particular feeding sites and diets by individual Dolphin Gulls. Individual differences in foraging behavior were not related to sex. Specialization in Dolphin Gulls may be favored by the advantages of learning and memorizing optimal feeding locations and behaviors. Specialized individuals may reduce search and handling time and thus

  1. Intra-articular distribution pattern after ultrasound-guided injections in wrist joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesen, Mikael [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: parker@frh.regioh.dk; Jensen, Karl Erik [State Hospital, Department of Radiology, MRI Division, Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: karl.erik.Jensen@rh.regionh.dk; Torp-Pedersen, Soren [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cimmino, Marco A. [Rheumatologic Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa (Italy)], E-mail: cimmino@unige.it; Danneskiold-Samsoe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of an ultrasound-guided intra-articular (IA) injection in the wrist joint of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: An ultrasound-guided IA drug injection into the wrist joint was performed in 17 patients with 1 ml methylprednisolone (40 mg/ml), 0.5 ml Lidocaine (5 mg/ml) and 0.15 ml gadolinium (Omniscan 0.5 mmol/ml). The drug solution was placed in the central proximal part of the wrist between the distal radius and the lunate bone. Coronal and axial MRI sequences were performed after the injection to visualize the distribution. Carpal distribution (radio-carpal, inter-carpal, and carpo-metacarpal) as well as radio-ulnar distribution was recorded. Full distribution in one compartment was given the value 1, partial distribution 0.5 and no distribution 0. A sum of the total distribution for all four compartments was calculated and correlated to the clinical parameters and the MRI OMERACT scores. Results: No uniform pattern was seen in the distribution of the contrast. Only two patients had full contrast distribution to all four compartments, and the mean distribution count for all patients was 2.4 (range 0.5-4). The distribution count correlated with the MRI OMERACT synovitis score (r = 0.60, p = 0.014), but not with the erosions, bonemarrow oedema scores or any clinical parameters. Conclusion: The distribution of contrast on MRI showed patient specific and random patterns after IA injections in active RA wrist joints. The degree of distribution increased with the MRI synovitis score, while no association was found with the erosion- and bonemarrow oedema score. These results indicate that a single injection into a standard injection site in the proximal part of the wrist cannot be assumed to distribute - and treat - the whole joint.

  2. Changes in newcomer job satisfaction over time: examining the pattern of honeymoons and hangovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Wendy R; Shipp, Abbie J; Payne, Stephanie C; Culbertson, Satoris S

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors contribute insight into the temporal nature of work attitudes, examining how job satisfaction changes across the 1st year of employment for a sample of organizational newcomers. The authors examined factors related to job change (i.e., voluntary turnover, prior job satisfaction) and newcomer experiences (i.e., fulfillment of commitments, extent of socialization) that may strengthen or weaken the job satisfaction pattern. Results of a study of 132 newcomers with data collected at 4 unique time periods show a complex curvilinear pattern of job satisfaction, such that satisfaction reached a peak following organizational entry and decreased thereafter. However, examination of moderating factors revealed that individuals who reported less satisfaction with their prior job and those having more positive experiences on the new job, such as greater fulfilled commitments and a higher degree of socialization, were most likely to experience this pattern. Findings from this study offer important implications for theory and research on changes in newcomer attitudes over time as well as practical insight on key factors that shape the pattern of job attitudes as individuals enter and experience a new workplace. PMID:19594229

  3. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  4. Changes in Handset Performance Measures due to Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    ), and mean effective gain (MEG) can be computed. Often this kind of measurements are made with a phantom head next to the handsets in order to simulate the influence of a real user. The measured radiation patterns are only expected to be repeatable if the same setup is used, i.e., the same phantom and...... measurement system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...

  5. Scalable Distributed Change Detection from Astronomy Data Streams using Local, Asynchronous Eigen Monitoring Algorithms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper considers the problem of change detection using local distributed eigen monitoring algorithms for next generation of astronomy petascale data pipelines...

  6. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  7. Novel distribution pattern of fibrinolytic components in rabbit tissues extract: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to investigate the distribution pattern of fibrinolytic factors and their inhibitors in rabbit tissues. Methods: The components of the fibrinolytic system in extracts from a variety of rabbit tissues, including tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), plasminogen (Plg), plasmin (Pl) and α2 plasmin inhibitor (α2PI), were determined by colorimetric assay. Results: The tissue extracts in renal, small intestine, lung, brain and spleen demonstrated strong fibrinolytic function, in which high activity of tPA, Plg and Pl was manifested; whereas in skeletal muscle,tongue and stomach, higher activity of PAI- 1 and α2PI showed obviously. Also excellent linear correlations were found between levels of tPA and PAI- 1, Pl and α2PI, Plg and Pl. In related tissues, renal cortex and renal marrow showed distinctly higher activity of tPA and lower activity of PAI-1, with the levels of Plg and Pl in renal cortex being higher than those in renal marrow, where the α2PI level was higher than that in renal cortex. Similarly, the levels of tPA, Plg and Pl in small intestine were higher than those in large intestine, but with respect to PAI-1 and α2PI, the matter was reverse. In addition, the fibrinolytic activity in muscle tissue was lower, however, the levels of tPA, Plg, and Pl in cardiac muscle were obviously higher than those in skeletal muscles, and the levels of PAI-1 and α2PI were significantly lower than those in skeletal muscle. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that a remarkable difference of the fibrinolytic patterns exists in rabbit tissues, which has probable profound significance in understanding the relationship between the function of haemostasis or thrombosis and the physiologic function in tissues.

  8. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  9. Gradual changes in the age distribution of excess deaths in the years following the 1918 influenza pandemic in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saglanmak, Neslihan; Andreasen, Viggo; Simonsen, Lone;

    2011-01-01

    Background: The 1918 influenza pandemic was associated with an unusual age pattern of mortality, with most deaths occurring among young adults. Few studies have addressed changes in the age distribution for influenza-related mortality in the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic period, which has...... implications for pandemic preparedness. In the present paper, we analyse the age patterns of influenza-related excess mortality in the decades before and after the 1918 pandemic, using detailed historic surveillance data from Copenhagen. Methods: Weekly age-specific rates of respiratory mortality and influenza......-like-illnesses were compiled for 1904–1937. Seasonal excess rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to influenza were calculated using a seasonal regression approach. To characterize the age patterns of influenza-related deaths in individual seasons, we used two rate ratio (RR) measures representing ratios of...

  10. Distributed but Undefined: New Teacher Leader Roles to Change Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jason; Huggins, Kristin Shawn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines teacher leader role development and definition by looking at one emergent model of distributed leadership: the hybrid teacher leader (HTL). HTLs are teachers whose official schedule includes both teaching K-12 students and leading teachers in some capacity. Participants included six HTLs across four school districts over 2…

  11. Spatial patterns in the distribution of kimberlites: relationship to tectonic processes and lithosphere structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemia, Zurab; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of diamonds in kimberlite-type rocks more than a century ago, a number of theories regarding the processes involved in kimberlite emplacement have been put forward to explain the unique properties of kimberlite magmatism. Geological data suggests that pre-existing lithosphere weakness zones may control the spatial patterns of kimberlites, but this hypothesis has never been tested by geophysical methods. As the first step in our analysis of tectonic and lithosphere control of kimberlite-type magmatism, we perform a detailed global analysis of the spatial patterns of kimberlites, and present the first results. The analysis is based on the assumption that the kimberlite emplacement is a two-stage process, and the two stages are controlled by the crustal and lithospheric mantle rheologies, respectively. Stage 1 includes the first-order, lithosphere-scale process that initiate the rise of kimberlite melts through the lithospheric mantle, which forms the major pipe. Stage 2 (second-order process) begins when the major pipe splits into daughter sub-pipes (tree-like pattern) at crustal depths. We apply cluster analysis to the spatial distribution of all known kimberlite fields with the goal of establishing characteristic scales for the stage 1 and stage 2 processes. To reveal similarities between the kimberlite data we use the density-based clustering technique, such as density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN), which is efficient for large data sets, requires one input parameter, and can deal with clusters of any shape. The results indicate that characteristic scales for the stage 2 are almost globally uniform and thus are almost independent of the structure and the mantle lithosphere. In contrast, the characteristic scales for stage 1 (lithosphere-scale process) that initiate the rise of kimberlite melts through the lithospheric mantle forms the major pipes with characteristic distance ranging from 100 to 300 km and are

  12. ST-T Changes of Multichannel Magnetocardiographic Pattern in Myocardial Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial ischemia causes heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization and sometimes produces changes of the ST-T wave in ECG. Therefore, morphological changes of ST-T waveform in ECG have a clinical significance in diagnosing myocardial ischemia. In this study, we investigated the ST-T changes caused by myocardial ischemia in magnetocardiography (MCG). We analyzed MCG patterns of biphasic T, ST segment deviations from baseline, main current angle of Tpeak and Tpeak dispersion in 300 CAD patients without ST elevation in ECG, 122 symptomatic patients and 48 normal subjects. MCGs were recorded by multichannel SQUID system in a magnetically shielded room. As results, we found that appearances of the abnormality were strongly correlated with the severity of myocardial ischemia. Also we found that the percentage of the patients showing MCG changes were higher than those in ECG. These results show that morphological changes of ST-T waveform in MCG can be used as a marker of myocardial ischemia.

  13. [Interpretation of spatial distribution pattern for dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration in coastal estuary using hyperspectral data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Huan

    2010-06-01

    Choosing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) as one of the representative nutritional salt monitoring indexes, a hyperspectral remotely sensed inversion model was built and applied to quantitatively retrieve water quality parameters with its spatial distribution patterns in coastal estuary with high suspended sediment concentration (SSC). It was found that when SSC was larger than 0.1 kg/m3, DIN concentration had a notable inverse correlation with SSC and the correlation coefficient R2 reached 0.617. Based on this conclusion, firstly the in-situ observed water surface remote sensing reflectance was resampled according to the spectral response characters of Hyperion sensor. And then, statistical correlation analysis between reflectance and DIN concentration was carried out. The results showed that band reflectance of R804 and R630 representing the second and first reflectance peak of water spectrum curve were sensitive to the variation of DIN concentration. And then, a pseudo remotely sensed sand parameter index R804 x R630/(R804 - R630) was calculated for the construction of the nonlinear DIN quantitative reversion model. Correlation coefficient R2 between observed and simulated DIN concentrations for 29 calibrating samples and 10 validating samples were 0.746 and 0.67, while their mean absolute errors reached 109.07 and 147.58 microg/L, respectively. The model was then applied on Hyperion hyperspectral image to get the spatial distribution character of DIN concentration in Sheyanghe river estuary and the DIN concentration was between 52 to 513 microg/L. Results indicated that in coastal estuary which was dominated by suspended sediments, the diffusive trends of DIN concentration reversed by remote sensing techniques had an intimate relationship with motions of tidal current and transportation attributes of SSC. As the hydrodynamic conditions were unclear, hyperspectral remote sensing technique was an effective technical way for dynamic survey of DIN concentration

  14. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise R Fernando

    Full Text Available Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg, sulphur (S and calcium (Ca distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress.

  15. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan T; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn) toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn) when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S) and calcium (Ca) distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress. PMID:27391424

  16. Physiological asymmetry in etiolated pea epicotyls: relation to patterns of auxin distribution and phototropic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, H.; Galston, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Etiolated pea seedlings require transformation of Pr phytochrome to Pfr before they display optimal phototropic response to unilateral blue light. This study investigates the possible role of auxin transport in explaining these phenomena. Labeled [2-14C]IAA applied to the intact terminal buds of dark-grown and red light-treated pea seedlings was measured 210 min later on the shaded and illuminated sides of the epicotyl as a function of direction and duration of irradiation with blue light. Totally darkened epicotyls show an asymmetry in distribution of radioactivity in the upper growth zone of the epicotyl, in favor of the side under the concave part of the apical hook. Red light, which greatly potentiates curvature toward subsequent unilateral blue light, lowers this asymmetry. Blue light directed to the epicotyl of red-pretreated plants in a plane parallel to the hook and from the side bearing the convex portion of the hook induces positive phototropic curvature as well as a surplus of radioactivity on the illuminated side of the upper epicotyl and on the shaded side of the lower growth zone of the epicotyl. Light directed to the side bearing the concave part of the hook also causes an accumulation of counts in the upper part of the lighted side but produces neither curvature of the epicotyl nor accumulation of counts in the lower shaded side. Because of this built-in physiological asymmetry in the growth zone just below the apical hook, it is difficult to explain the effects of red and blue light on curvature in terms of patterns of auxin distribution alone.

  17. IMPACT OF SHOOT PRUNING ON ROOT DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF LITCHI (LITCHI CHINESIS SONN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIKASH DAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out at ICAR RCER, Research Centre, Ranchi during 2008 to study the effect of shoot pruning on pattern of root distribution in Senior-adult bearing plants of litchi cv. Shahi growing under alfisols of eastern India. Root samples were collected from control plants and plants which are under treatment of annual shoot pruning at a length of 75 cm at the time of harvesting since 2005. Shoot pruning resulted in significant reduction in the total weight of roots than that of control. The reduction in the total root weight of pruned plants can be attributed to a significant reduction in the weight of Grade-4 roots (>5.0 mm diameter. Significantly higher rate of biomass accumulation in Grade-4 roots of control plants was recorded at soil depths 0-30 cm (20.43 g/3683cc as compared to 3.74 g/3683cc in case of pruned plant and 60-90 cm (15.83 g/3683cc as compared to 4.12 g/3683cc in case of pruned plant. With respect to distribution of roots at different distances from the trunk, significantly higher weight of Grade-4 roots could only be recorded at a distance of 50 cm from the trunk (13.12 g/3683cc as compared to 3.99 g/3683cc in case of pruned plant. With respect to total content of carbohydrate in different grades of roots at different distances and depths of soil, significantly higher values were recorded in case of Grade-4 roots (1.67 g/3683cc as compared to 0.49 g/3683cc in case of pruned plant.

  18. Geographic patterns in the distribution of social systems in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    The role of ecology in the evolution and maintenance of arthropod sociality has received increasing research attention in recent years. In some organisms, such as halictine bees, polistine wasps, and social spiders, researchers are investigating the environmental factors that may contribute to high levels of variation in the degree of sociality exhibited both among and within species. Within lineages that include only eusocial members, such as ants and termites, studies focus more on identifying extrinsic factors that may contribute to the dramatic variation in colony size, number of queens, and division of labour that is evident across these species. In this review, I propose a comparative approach that seeks to identify environmental factors that may have a common influence across such divergent social arthropod groups. I suggest that seeking common biogeographic patterns in the distribution of social systems or key social traits may help us to identify ecological factors that play a common role in shaping the evolution of sociality across different organisms. I first review previous studies of social gradients that form along latitudinal and altitudinal axes. Within families and within species, many organisms show an increasing degree of sociality at lower latitudes and altitudes. In a smaller number of cases, organisms form larger groups or found nests cooperatively at higher latitudes and altitudes. I then describe several environmental factors that vary consistently along such gradients, including climate variables and abundance of predators, and outline their proposed role in the social systems of terrestrial arthropods. Finally, I map distributions of a social trait against several climatic factors in five case studies to demonstrate how future comparative studies could inform empirical research. PMID:20840372

  19. Exploring changes in the spatial distribution of stream baseflow generation during a seasonal recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payn, R.A.; Gooseff, M.N.; McGlynn, B.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Wondzell, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Relating watershed structure to streamflow generation is a primary focus of hydrology. However, comparisons of longitudinal variability in stream discharge with adjacent valley structure have been rare, resulting in poor understanding of the distribution of the hydrologic mechanisms that cause variability in streamflow generation along valleys. This study explores detailed surveys of stream base flow across a gauged, 23 km2 mountain watershed. Research objectives were (1) to relate spatial variability in base flow to fundamental elements of watershed structure, primarily topographic contributing area, and (2) to assess temporal changes in the spatial patterns of those relationships during a seasonal base flow recession. We analyzed spatiotemporal variability in base flow using (1) summer hydrographs at the study watershed outlet and 5 subwatershed outlets and (2) longitudinal series of discharge measurements every ~100 m along the streams of the 3 largest subwatersheds (1200 to 2600 m in valley length), repeated 2 to 3 times during base flow recession. Reaches within valley segments of 300 to 1200 m in length tended to demonstrate similar streamflow generation characteristics. Locations of transitions between these segments were consistent throughout the recession, and tended to be collocated with abrupt longitudinal transitions in valley slope or hillslope-riparian characteristics. Both within and among subwatersheds, correlation between the spatial distributions of streamflow and topographic contributing area decreased during the recession, suggesting a general decrease in the influence of topography on stream base flow contributions. As topographic controls on base flow evidently decreased, multiple aspects of subsurface structure were likely to have gained influence.

  20. Spatial Pattern Change Simulation of Land Use in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riming; WANG; Xingyao; XIONG

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the county scale land use structure during the rapid urbanization and more accurately grasp the dynamic process of land use and cover change,we combine GIS technology with CLUE-S model to research the spatial pattern change of land use in Yongchuan District of Chongqing City. The results show that the forest and farmland were main land use types going through changes in Yongchuan District during 2000-2010,accounting for more than 90% of the total area in each year; during 2000- 2010,the urban area was significantly increased,an increase of 16. 11%,and the urban area during 2005- 2010 was changed more dramatically than during 2000- 2005; forest area was slightly increased and farmland area was reduced by 1660 ha in 10 years. We set three scenarios on land use change in Yongchuan District for simulation and compare the predicted results. It can be concluded that driven by rapid urbanization,the change in land use landscape pattern in Yongchuan District is mainly focused on forest and farmland,the urban area is substantially increased,and the forest area also shows an increasing trend while the farmland area is reduced accordingly. Under ecological protection scenarios,the land use type having a protective effect on the ecological environment achieves better control effect.