WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing center-periphery relations

  1. On the Relationality of Centers, Peripheries and Interactional Regimes: Translanguaging in a Community Interpreting Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynham, Mike; Hanušová, Jolana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a multilingual interactional event that involves both interpreting and literacy work, part of a large scale study on translanguaging in superdiverse urban settings. In the first part of the interaction, the center/periphery dynamic is played out in what might be called "contested translanguaging" between Standard…

  2. Center-Periphery Bargaining in the Age of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siroky, David; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael Norman

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the key concepts used in this special issue – center, periphery, and vertical bargaining – and inquires why some national groups within democratic states demand outright independence, while others mobilize for regional autonomy and still others settle for even less. It then ......This paper introduces the key concepts used in this special issue – center, periphery, and vertical bargaining – and inquires why some national groups within democratic states demand outright independence, while others mobilize for regional autonomy and still others settle for even less...

  3. Population size, center-periphery, and seed dispersers' effects on the genetic diversity and population structure of the Mediterranean relict shrub Cneorum tricoccon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Nogal, Ana; Matesanz, Silvia; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Traveset, Anna; Valladares, Fernando

    2017-09-01

    The effect of population size on population genetic diversity and structure has rarely been studied jointly with other factors such as the position of a population within the species' distribution range or the presence of mutualistic partners influencing dispersal. Understanding these determining factors for genetic variation is critical for conservation of relict plants that are generally suffering from genetic deterioration. Working with 16 populations of the vulnerable relict shrub Cneorum tricoccon throughout the majority of its western Mediterranean distribution range, and using nine polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined the effects of periphery (peripheral vs. central), population size (large vs. small), and seed disperser (introduced carnivores vs. endemic lizards) on the genetic diversity and population structure of the species. Contrasting genetic variation ( H E : 0.04-0.476) was found across populations. Peripheral populations showed lower genetic diversity, but this was dependent on population size. Large peripheral populations showed high levels of genetic diversity, whereas small central populations were less diverse. Significant isolation by distance was detected, indicating that the effect of long-distance gene flow is limited relative to that of genetic drift, probably due to high selfing rates ( F IS  = 0.155-0.887), restricted pollen flow, and ineffective seed dispersal. Bayesian clustering also supported the strong population differentiation and highly fragmented structure. Contrary to expectations, the type of disperser showed no significant effect on either population genetic diversity or structure. Our results challenge the idea of an effect of periphery per se that can be mainly explained by population size, drawing attention to the need of integrative approaches considering different determinants of genetic variation. Furthermore, the very low genetic diversity observed in several small populations and the strong among

  4. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  5. Climate change and related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change

  6. Center-periphery management in the internationalization of executive masters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Celano Teixeira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the process of internationalization of the International Masters Program for Managers (IMPM started in 2012 from a partnership established with a Brazilian institution. Created in 1995 by Henry Mintzberg – also the current director – the IMPM adopted a heterodox model challenging the US traditional MBA model, Mintzberg’s moto “Managers, Not MBA” suggests a new focus on managers instead of overemphasizing analysis and technique. From a critical perspective, this study identifies that, although proposing an appreciation of the culture of the different places where the international modules are hosted, the IMPM still adopts the Anglo-Saxon logic of knowledge imposition. The study reflects the expectation that, when considering the internationalization of management educational programs, from a critical point of view, the voices of peripheral countries are heard, promoting a better balance between the production and consumption of knowledge on management in the contemporary global context. It is necessary, therefore, to work in order to create a more dialogical movement between center and periphery, establishing a dynamic that considers not only cultural aspects, but also that recognizes the production of knowledge in both contexts.

  7. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  8. Age-Related White Matter Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yun Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related white matter changes (WMC are considered manifestation of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and are related to age and vascular risk factors. Most recent studies have shown that WMC are associated with a host of poor outcomes, including cognitive impairment, dementia, urinary incontinence, gait disturbances, depression, and increased risk of stroke and death. Although the clinical relevance of WMC has been extensively studied, to date, only very few clinical trials have evaluated potential symptomatic or preventive treatments for WMC. In this paper, we reviewed the current understanding in the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical importance, chemical biomarkers, and treatments of age-related WMC.

  9. Testing for changes in spatial relative risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Martin L

    2017-07-30

    The spatial relative risk function is a useful tool for describing geographical variation in disease incidence. We consider the problem of comparing relative risk functions between two time periods, with the idea of detecting alterations in the spatial pattern of disease risk irrespective of whether there has been a change in the overall incidence rate. Using case-control datasets for each period, we use kernel smoothing methods to derive a test statistic based on the difference between the log-relative risk functions, which we term the log-relative risk ratio. For testing a null hypothesis of an unchanging spatial pattern of risk, we show how p-values can be computed using both randomization methods and an asymptotic normal approximation. The methodology is applied to data on campylobacteriosis from 2006 to 2013 in a region of New Zealand. We find clear evidence of a change in the spatial pattern of risk between those years, which can be explained in differences by response to a public health initiative between urban and rural communities. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Climate Change and Food-Related Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Juan Mirón Pérez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two principal concepts to take into account relating food and climate change: food security and food safety. Most papers linking climate change to food risks deal with the first one: the security of the food supply.The increase of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, together with the rise of the temperatures on a global level would theorically lead to greater yields of crops grown for human and animal consumption. Howevwe, most of these studies have shown that, in general, crop yields are decreasing as this global change also brings about an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. In adition, these weather anomalies would be unevenly spread and affect developing countries, which are less capable of tackling this change, more severely. All these factors would result in greater uncertainty in the supply of food, which consequently would be less predictable and leave it more exposed to market speculation.A rise in average temperatures would be expected to increase the risk of proliferation of foodborne disease-causing microorganisms such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Nevertheless, a trend of this sort has not been detected yet in developed countries, where information systems allow the temporal evolution of the occurrence of those diseases to be tracked, since means for food preservation and food controls are wide spread.

  11. Considerations in change management related to technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, John S; Hilty, Donald M; Worley, Linda L; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances. The authors reviewed the literature from psychiatry, psychology, sociology, business, and technology to distill common denominators for success and failure related to implementing technology. Beneficial technological innovations that are simple to use and obviously save everyone time and effort are easy to inaugurate. However, innovations that primarily serve management rather than subordinates or front-line utilizers may fail, despite considerable institutional effort. This article reviews and outlines several of the more prominent theoretical models governing successful institutional change. Successful implementation of difficult technological changes requires visionary leadership that has carefully considered the benefits, consulted with influence leaders at all organizational levels to spot unintended consequences and sources of resistance, and developed a detailed plan and continuous quality assurance process to foster implementation over time.

  12. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Kappel, Jannik

    and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report......This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark’s dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008...... challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters explain...

  13. Age-related changes in mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, M A; Woda, A; Bourdiol, P; Hennequin, M

    2017-04-01

    The paper reviews human mastication, focusing on its age-related changes. The first part describes mastication adaptation in young healthy individuals. Adaptation to obtain a food bolus ready to be swallowed relies on variations in number of cycles, muscle strength and volume of emitted saliva. As a result, the food bolus displays granulometric and rheological properties, the values of which are maintained within the adaptive range of deglutition. The second part concerns healthy ageing. Some mastication parameters are slightly modified by age, but ageing itself does not impair mastication, as the adaptation possibilities remain operant. The third part reports on very aged subjects, who display frequent systemic or local diseases. Local and/or general diseases such as tooth loss, salivary defect, or motor impairment are then indistinguishably superimposed on the effects of very old age. The resulting impaired function increases the risk of aspiration and choking. Lastly, the consequences for eating behaviour and nutrition are evoked. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Eustatic and Relative Sea Level Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, A.; Stocchi, P.; Vacchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Sea level changes can be driven by either variationsin the masses or volume of the oceans, or bychanges of the land with respect to the sea surface. Inthe first case, a sea level change is defined ‘eustatic’;otherwise, it is defined ‘relative’. Several techniques canbe used to observe changes in sea

  15. Double preference relations for generalised belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many belief change formalisms employ plausibility orderings over the set of possible worlds to determine how the beliefs of an agent ought to be modified after the receipt of a new epistemic input. While most such possible world semantics rely on a...

  16. Serial measurement of relative changes in net magnetization, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Furuse, Masahiro; Izawa, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    We assessed to what extent relative changes in net magnetization could be measured with the low field (0.043 T) MR imager. By the procedure to stabilize the whole MR imager hardware, we could measure the minute relative changes of the net magnetization (less than 1%) from the forearm presumably related to blood volume change. This method may be useful to measure physiological changes of blood volume in various human tissues though we need further development of hardware to measure minute relative changes in MR signal intensity with small volume selection. (author)

  17. Lover and learner: Exploring relational schema change following relationship dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Julie A; Øverup, Camilla S; Acitelli, Linda K

    2018-03-27

    Romantic relationships are known to be very influential, but less is known about how these relationships, and particularly the breakup of these relationships, may affect individuals' relational schemas, or their expectations for relationships. Undergraduate students reported on how their views of themselves, romantic partners, and relationships changed after breaking up with a past partner. Results suggest that relational schemas change following relationship dissolution and that there are both positive and negative aspects to this change. There was also some evidence that aspects of the past relationship predicted change and the valence of change, and that change and the valence of change were related to aspects of current relationship quality. These results are an important first step in understanding how past romantic relationships influence people's expectations about relationships and, by extension, their health and wellbeing.

  18. Climate change-related migration and infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will have significant impacts on both human migration and population health, including infectious disease. It will amplify and alter migration pathways, and will contribute to the changing ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious disease. However there has been limited consideration of the intersections between migration and health in the context of a changing climate. This article argues that climate-change related migration - in conjunction with other drivers of migration - will contribute to changing profiles of infectious disease. It considers infectious disease risks for different climate-related migration pathways, including: forced displacement, slow-onset migration particularly to urban-poor areas, planned resettlement, and labor migration associated with climate change adaptation initiatives. Migration can reduce vulnerability to climate change, but it is critical to better understand and respond to health impacts - including infectious diseases - for migrant populations and host communities.

  19. Enhancing Resilience to Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing Resilience to Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change in Uganda's ... technologies (ICTs) can be used to help communities address water stress. ... This work will support the Uganda Ministry of Water and Environment's efforts to ...

  20. Traditional forest-related knowledge and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta; Mauro Agnoletti

    2012-01-01

    The holders and users of traditional forest-related knowledge are on the front lines of global efforts to deal with climate change and its impacts. Because of their close connection with, and high dependence on, forest ecosystems and landscapes, indigenous and local communities are among the fi rst to witness, understand, and experience the impacts of climate change on...

  1. Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Desegregated Classroom: The Effects of Cooperation on Prosocial Behavior and Academic Performance. Working Paper, Department of Psychology. Santa Cruz, CA... Behavior Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories Clayton P. .Alderfer Working Paper #66 DTIC ~ELECTE0 B DITRUTION STATEMENTA...unfavorable stereotypes of blacks, they have less reason to change. White stereotypes have long served as rationalizations for white dominance. In

  2. Ego Involvement and Topic Controversiality as Related to Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledden, Elizabeth A.; Fernandez, Katherine A.

    Attitude change was measured on four different topics before and immediately after a persuasion was presented in order to compare the degree of change with the level of ego involvement as it relates to topic controversiality. Ego involvement was based on self-ratings of concern for each topic. Objective topic controversiality was based on the…

  3. Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change. While our knowledge about physical activity and health, physical performance and the risk of injury increases in leaps and bounds, the conversion of this information into action and changed behaviour lags behind. There seems to be a sticking point which often causes a ...

  4. Conditions for Change Related to Groupware in a Distributed Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Pors, Jens Kaaber

    2003-01-01

    general types of settings where the groupware has been used: Newly established organizational units, special interest groups, short term projects, and teams handling recurrent tasks. We characterize these settings and present the overall conditions that have proven to be critical to the deployment...... of groupware in the case. Challenges and expectations are discussed and ideas concerning strategies for change are suggested. It is concluded that change related to groupware faces conditions that challenge ambitious goals in three of the settings, while conditions in general favour successful change related...

  5. Social Relations and Technology: Continuity, Context, and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Toni C; Ajrouch, Kristine J; Manalel, Jasmine A

    2017-11-01

    Social relations, although basic to human nature, health and well-being, have become increasingly complicated as a result of changing population demography and technology. In this essay, we provide a historical overview of social relations, especially as they affect older people. We briefly review the evolution of theory and measurement surrounding social relations as well as early empirical evidence. We consider how social relations have changed over time as well as continuity and change regarding basic characteristics of social relations. Of special interest is the emerging influence of technology on how people maintain contact, especially the changing ways people can use technology to increase, decrease, maintain, or avoid social relations. We consider both negative and positive aspects of these new technologies and their influence on health and well-being. Finally, we conclude that new and emerging technologies hold great promise for the future by overcoming traditional barriers to maintaining social contact, support exchange, and information acquisition. Nevertheless, we caution that these new technologies can have the dehumanizing effect of distance thus creating the potential for insensitivity and increased negativity. In sum, we are cautiously optimistic about the promise of technology to expand, but not replace, traditional forms of social contact.

  6. The Age-Related Changes in Cartilage and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongPing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is closely associated with aging, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent publications were reviewed to elucidate the connection between aging and OA. With increasing OA incidence, more senior people are facing heavy financial and social burdens. Age-related OA pathogenesis is not well understood. Recently, it has been realized that age-related changes in other tissues besides articular cartilage may also contribute to OA development. Many factors including senescence-related secretory phenotypes, chondrocytes’ low reactivity to growth factors, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, and abnormal accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs may all play key roles in the pathogenesis of age-related OA. Lately, epigenetic regulation of gene expression was recognized for its impact on age-related OA pathogenesis. Up to now, few studies have been reported about the role of miRNA and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA in age-related OA. Research focusing on this area may provide valuable insights into OA pathogenesis. OA-induced financial and social burdens have become an increasingly severe threat to older population. Age-related changes in noncartilage tissue should be incorporated in the understanding of OA development. Growing attention on oxidative stress and epigenetics will provide more important clues for the better understanding of the age-related OA.

  7. Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index: Responsiveness, meaningful change, and relative efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Kapral, Moira; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Davis, Aileen M

    2017-12-05

    To study responsiveness and meaningful change of the Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index (MGII) and its relative efficiency compared to other measures. We enrolled 95 patients receiving prednisone, IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PLEX) and 54 controls. Patients were assessed with the MGII and other measures-including the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score, Myasthenia Gravis Composite, and Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living-at baseline and 3-4 weeks after treatment. Statistical markers of responsiveness included between-groups and within-group differences, and we estimated the relative efficiency of the MGII compared to other measures. Patient-meaningful change was assessed with an anchor-based method, using the patient's impression of change. We determined the minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal important difference (MID) at the group and individual level. Treated patients had a higher change in MGII scores than controls (analysis of covariance p 1 favoring the MGII. The MGII demonstrated responsiveness to prednisone, IVIg, and PLEX in patients with myasthenia. There is a differential response in ocular and generalized symptoms to type of therapy. The MGII has higher relative efficiency than comparison measures and is viable for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Career-Related Learning and Science Education: The Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…

  9. Institutional framework in relation to climate change in West and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... This paper maps the institutions working in West and Central Africa on issues related to climate change, vulnerability, and adaptation, and assesses a range of institutional strengths and weaknesses. Representatives of 16 institutions in the sub region were surveyed and interviewed.

  10. Pregnancy related biometric changes in the ovaries and uterus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Pregnancy related biometric changes in the ovaries and uterus of the sahelian goat. AZJaji1* ... (Butterfly Brand) were used to measure length and widths of uteri and ovaries. .... Sahelian goat, being grazed in harsh climate. The uterine horn of ...

  11. Reference chart for relative weight change to detect hypernatraemic dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Buuren, S. van; Verkerk, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The validity of the rule of thumb that infants may have a weight loss of 10% in the first days after birth is unknown. We assessed the validity of this and other rules to detect breast-fed infants with hypernatraemic dehydration. Design: A reference chart for relative weight change was

  12. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yper, L.N. Van; Vermeire, K.; Vel, E.F. De; Beynon, A.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The

  13. Learning Styles of Medical Students Change in Relation to Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated…

  14. Productivity Change, Technical Progress, and Relative Efficiency Change in the Public Accounting Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Hsihui Chang; Ram Natarajan

    2005-01-01

    We present evidence on components of productivity change in the public accounting industry toward the end of the 20th century. Using revenue and human resource data from 64 of the 100 largest public accounting firms in the United States for the 1995--1999 period, we analyze productivity change, technical progress, and relative efficiency change over time. The average public accounting firm experienced a productivity growth of 9.5% between 1995 and 1999. We find support for the hypothesis that...

  15. Rising stakeholder expectations and the changing role of public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossberndt, D. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The role of public relations is changing along with growing public awareness of stakeholder's ability to intervene in the development of energy projects. Public relations and community consultation departments must work closely together to ensure that consistent messages are being delivered to the public. This presentation explained how to develop a successful public relations strategy ranging from environmental risk assessment to community consultation. It also discussed the degree to which effective and ongoing communication with stakeholders prevents opposition and negative media coverage.

  16. Relative blood volume changes underestimate total blood volume changes during hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Pruim, Jan; Nijnuis, Hugo; Wiersum, Anneke; de Jong, Paul E.; Huisman, Roel M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Measurements of relative blood volume changes (ARBV) during hemodialysis (HD) are based on hemoconcentration and assume uniform mixing of erythrocytes and plasma throughout the circulation. However, whole-body hematocrit (Ht) is lower than systemic Ht. During HD, a change in the ratio

  17. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular (VOR and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC, it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarises and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  18. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa's ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  19. The monitoring of relative changes in compartmental compliances of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Carrera, Emmanuel; Castellani, Gianluca; Zweifel, Christian; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Marek; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Lavinio, Andrea; Sutcliffe, Michael P F

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to develop a computational method for assessing relative changes in compartmental compliances within the brain: the arterial bed and the cerebrospinal space. The method utilizes the relationship between pulsatile components in the arterial blood volume, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP). It was verified by using clinical recordings of intracranial pressure plateau waves, when massive vasodilatation accompanying plateau waves produces changes in brain compliances of the arterial bed (C a ) and compliance of the cerebrospinal space (C i ). Ten patients admitted after head injury with a median Glasgow Coma Score of 6 were studied retrospectively. ABP was directly monitored from the radial artery. Changes in the cerebral arterial blood volume were assessed using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography by digital integration of inflow blood velocity. During plateau waves, ICP increased (P = 0.001), CPP decreased (P = 0.001), ABP remained constant (P = 0.532), blood flow velocity decreased (P = 0.001). Calculated compliance of the arterial bed C a increased significantly (P = 0.001); compliance of the CSF space C i decreased (P = 0.001). We concluded that the method allows for continuous monitoring of relative changes in brain compartmental compliances. Plateau waves affect the balance between vascular and CSF compartments, which is reflected by the inverse change of compliance of the cerebral arterial bed and global compliance of the CSF space

  20. Fruit response to water-scarcity and biochemical changes : Water relations and biochemical changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, P.; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Collado-González, J.; Medina, S.; Corell, M.; Memmi, H.; Girón, I.F.; Centeno, A.; Martín-Palomo, M.J.; Cruz, Z.N.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Hernandez, F.; Torrecillas, A.; Moriana, A.; Pérez-López, D.; Garcia Tejero, Ivan Francisco; Duran Zuazo, Victor Hugo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a general idea of the fruit response to water-scarcity conditions, paying special attention to fruit water relations modification and fruit composition changes, which are key for fruit quality. The strengths and weaknesses of fruit water relations measurement

  1. Age-related changes in crowding and reading speed

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong; Patel, Bhavika N.; Kwon, MiYoung

    2017-01-01

    Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, is known to play a role in developmental changes in reading speed. Here, we investigated whether crowding also plays a role in age-related changes in reading speed. We recruited 18 young (mean age: 22.6???3.5; range: 18~31) and 21 older adults (mean age: 58.2???7.0; range: 50~73) with normal vision. Reading speed was measured with short blocks of text. The degree of crowding was determined by measuring crowding zone (the distance betwee...

  2. THE CHANGING DIMENSIONS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKER, E. PELİN BAYTEKİN MİNE YENİÇERİ ALEMDAR

    2008-01-01

    The changes in the dimensions of public relations, due to the globalization effect on the business enterprises, are remarkable. In this manner, the relationship of public relations with re-engineering, total quality management, six sigma approach, event management, crisis management, reputation management, knowledge management and customer relationship management is evaluated in this study. Moreover, after establishing these interactions, the relationship between public relations and brand ma...

  3. Age-related changes of monoaminooxidases in rat cerebellar cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Tranquilli Leali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes of the monoaminoxidases, evaluated by enzymatic staining, quantitative analysis of images, biochemical assay and statistical analysis of data were studied in cerebellar cortex of young (3-month-old and aged (26- month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The enzymatic staining shows the presence of monoamino-oxidases within the molecular and granular layers as well as within the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum of young and aged animals. In molecular layer, and in Purkinje neurons the levels of monoaminooxidases were strongly increased in old rats. The granular layer showed, on the contrary, an age-dependent loss of enzymatic staining. These morphological findings were confirmed by biochemical results. The possibility that age-related changes in monoaminooxidase levels may be due to impaired energy production mechanisms and/or represent the consequence of reduced energetic needs is discussed.

  4. Hegemonic Masculinity and the Possibility of Change in Gender Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Duncanson, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hegemonic masculinity was introduced as a concept which, due to its understanding of gender as dynamic and relational, and of power as consent, could explain both the persistence of male power and the potential for social change. Yet, when hegemonic masculinity is applied in empirical cases, it is most often used to demonstrate the way in which hegemonic masculinity shifts and adopts new practices in order to enable some men to retain power over others. This is especially so in feminist Inter...

  5. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with ( 3 H)-dexamethasone (( 3 H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol ( 3 H)Dex/10 6 cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms

  6. Adolescence and changing family relations in the Central Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, R G

    1990-04-01

    This paper reports on a ten-year longitudinal study of adolescent development and socialization conducted in the Copper Inuit community of Holman. This research has documented how demographic, social, and economic changes have dramatically altered the patterning and sequencing of traditional Inuit life stages, thus giving rise to a prolonged adolescent life stage which was non-existent in the precontact period. At the same time, Inuit family relations have undergone drastic changes as a result of population increase, population concentration, access to government housing, introduction of formal schooling, and the availability of social subsides. Today, the Copper Inuit family has lost its focus as the primary agent of socialization and learning, and many young Inuit now spend most of their time within the context of a greatly expanded peer group which has gradually acquired the values and aspirations of the southern adolescent sub-culture. This paper will discuss the impact of these changing attitudes upon parent-child relations as well as the social adjustment problems experienced by young Inuit as they strive to find a place in the North's changing social landscape.

  7. Quantifying morphological changes of cape-related shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Adams, P. N.; Parra, S. M.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2017-12-01

    The rising demand for marine resources has motivated the study of inner shelf transport processes, especially in locations with highly-developed coastlines, endangered-species habitats, and valuable economic resources. These characteristics are found at Cape Canaveral shoals, on the Florida Atlantic coast, where transport dynamics and morphological evolution are not well understood. To study morphological changes at these shoals, two sets of paired upward- and downward-pointing acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were deployed in winter 2015-2016. One set was deployed at the inner swale of Shoal E, 20 km southeast of the cape tip in 13 m depth, while the other set was located at the edge of Southeast shoal in 5 m deep. Upward-pointing velocity profiles and suspended particle concentrations were implemented in the Exner equation to quantify instantaneous rates of change in bed elevation. This computation includes changes in sediment concentration and the advection of suspended particles, but does not account for spatial gradients in bed-load fluxes and water velocities. The results of the computation were then compared to bed change rates measured directly by the downward-pointing ADCPs. At the easternmost ridge, quantified bed elevation change rates ranged from -7×10-7 to 4×10-7 m/s, and those at the inner swale ranged from -4×10-7 to 8×10-7 m/s. These values were two orders of magnitude smaller than rates measured by downward-pointing ADCPs. Moreover, the cumulative changes were two orders of magnitude larger at the ridge (-0.33 m, downward, and -0.13, m upward) than at the inner swale (cf. -6×10-3 m, downward, and 3×10-3 m, upward). These values suggest that bedform migration may be occurring at the ridge, that suspended sediments account for up to 30% of total bed changes, and that gradients in bed-load fluxes exert control on morphological change over the shoals. Despite uncertainties related to the ADCP-derived sediment concentrations, these

  8. Initiatives related to climate change in Ghana. Towards change in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuertenberger, L.; Bunzeck, I.G.; Van Tilburg, X.

    2011-04-01

    To support the development of a National Climate Change Policy Framework (NCCPF) and a further harmonization of climate change related activities in Ghana, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MoFEP) and the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MEST) expressed demand for a mapping of the most important past and current climate change related initiatives in the country, and of international climate change related funding opportunities, that Ghana might be able to access. The initiatives mapping demonstrates Ghana's longstanding engagement with climate change, dating back to more than 15 years ago. The report shows a multitude of activities including a number of large (5 mln. USD to > 100 mln. USD), GEF or World Bank financed projects, and a range of smaller projects (in the order of 100 000 - 500 000 USD). The majority of current initiatives are related to forestry and REDD. This report concludes with a discussion on observed trends, such as a broadening involvement of MDAs in adaptation initiatives and a focus on low carbon growth, and of points for attention, such as a need for coordination, for private sector involvement and supporting systems (such as institutional capacity, governance and monitoring systems)

  9. Glucose and age-related changes in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E

    2005-12-01

    Epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, enhances memory in young rats and mice and apparently does so, at least in part, by increasing blood glucose levels. Like epinephrine, administration of glucose enhances cognitive functions in humans and rodents, including reversing age-related impairments in learning and memory. Epinephrine responses to training are increased in aged rats but the subsequent increase in blood glucose levels is severely blunted. The absence of increases in blood glucose levels during training might contribute to age-related deficits in learning and memory. Also, extracellular glucose levels in the hippocampus are depleted during spontaneous alternation testing to a far greater extent in aged than in young rats. Importantly, systemic injections of glucose block the depletion in the hippocampus and also enhance performance on the alternation task. Thus, the extensive depletion of extracellular glucose during training in aged rats may be associated with age-related memory impairments, an effect that might be related to - or may exacerbate - the effects on learning and memory of an absence of the increases in blood glucose levels to training as seen in young rats. Together, these findings suggest that age-related changes in both peripheral and central glucose physiology contribute to age-related impairments in memory.

  10. Bovine Ephemeral Fever As A Disease Related To Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF is one of arbovirus diseases infecting in ruminants especially cattle and buffaloes, which is transmitted by mosquito vectors. In general, vector borne disease is also related to climate change, that mosquito as a vector will significantly increase when the environment temperature increases. The disease was found in many countries in Asia, Africa and Australia. The clinical sign of the disease such as fever to paralysis causes economical impact to the farmer, eventhough the mortality is very low. This review will discuss the disease in relation to climate change, which affects vector population that spread the disease. The more population of vector is the higher chance of animal to be infected. This condition describes that the spread of BEF will depend on some factors included the increase of vectors, the availability of susceptible host and vector media facilities, climate condition and supportive ecology. This paper will discuss the feature of BEF, mode of transmission, the impact of environment and climate change, disease prevention and control, and other aspects to prevent further economical impact. It will also discuss how to the transmission, prevention and control of disease BEF. The information can be taken as an input for policy makers to prevent BEF infection in Indonesia.

  11. Age Related Changes in Hematological Values of Myanmar Local Puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandar Oo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The hematological parameters were used to monitor the health status and its components also changed according to the ages. However, there were no reports for this issues in Myanmar local dogs. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the age-related changes on the hematological parameters of local puppies in Myanmar. Ten local puppies with the age of 2-3 month old were used in this experiment, which was lasted for 8 weeks.The daily clinical examinations were conducted throughout the entire experimental period for general health check-up. Haematological parameters (Total WBC count and its differential counts, and RBC, HCT, MCV, HGB, MCH, MCHC and platelets were measured bi-weekly with Abacus Vet-5 automate haematology analyser. According to the results, the total WBC and eosinophil counts were not significantly different (P>0.05, while lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and basophils were significantly different (P0.05 throughout the experimental periods. Thus, the age-related changes were observed on cell counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils in Myanmar local puppies.

  12. Professional relations in sport healthcare: workplace responses to organisational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Dominic; Scott, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    This article examines the impact of organisational changes in UK elite sport on the professional relations among and between different healthcare providers. The article describes the processes by which demand for elite sport healthcare has increased in the UK. It further charts the subsequent response within medicine and physiotherapy and, in particular, the institutionalisation of sport-specific sub-disciplines through the introduction of specialist qualifications. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 14 doctors and 14 physiotherapists, the article argues that organisational changes have led to intra-professional tensions within both professional groups but in qualitatively different forms reflecting the organisational traditions and professional identities of the respective disciplines. Organisational changes promoting multi-disciplinary healthcare teams have also fostered an environment conducive to high levels of inter-professional cooperation though significant elements of inter-professional conflict remain. This study illustrates how intra-professional relations are affected by specialisation, how legitimation discourses are used by different professions, and how intra- and inter-professional conflict and cooperation should be seen as highly interdependent processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prepulse inhibition of auditory change-related cortical responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Koji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle response is an important tool to investigate the biology of schizophrenia. PPI is usually observed by use of a startle reflex such as blinking following an intense sound. A similar phenomenon has not been reported for cortical responses. Results In 12 healthy subjects, change-related cortical activity in response to an abrupt increase of sound pressure by 5 dB above the background of 65 dB SPL (test stimulus was measured using magnetoencephalography. The test stimulus evoked a clear cortical response peaking at around 130 ms (Change-N1m. In Experiment 1, effects of the intensity of a prepulse (0.5 ~ 5 dB on the test response were examined using a paired stimulation paradigm. In Experiment 2, effects of the interval between the prepulse and test stimulus were examined using interstimulus intervals (ISIs of 50 ~ 350 ms. When the test stimulus was preceded by the prepulse, the Change-N1m was more strongly inhibited by a stronger prepulse (Experiment 1 and a shorter ISI prepulse (Experiment 2. In addition, the amplitude of the test Change-N1m correlated positively with both the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked response and the degree of inhibition, suggesting that subjects who are more sensitive to the auditory change are more strongly inhibited by the prepulse. Conclusions Since Change-N1m is easy to measure and control, it would be a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms of sensory gating or the biology of certain mental diseases such as schizophrenia.

  14. Age-Related Changes in Electroencephalographic Signal Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappasodi, Filippo; Marzetti, Laura; Olejarczyk, Elzbieta; Tecchio, Franca; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The study of active and healthy aging is a primary focus for social and neuroscientific communities. Here, we move a step forward in assessing electrophysiological neuronal activity changes in the brain with healthy aging. To this end, electroencephalographic (EEG) resting state activity was acquired in 40 healthy subjects (age 16–85). We evaluated Fractal Dimension (FD) according to the Higuchi algorithm, a measure which quantifies the presence of statistical similarity at different scales in temporal fluctuations of EEG signals. Our results showed that FD increases from age twenty to age fifty and then decreases. The curve that best fits the changes in FD values across age over the whole sample is a parabola, with the vertex located around age fifty. Moreover, FD changes are site specific, with interhemispheric FD asymmetry being pronounced in elderly individuals in the frontal and central regions. The present results indicate that fractal dimension well describes the modulations of brain activity with age. Since fractal dimension has been proposed to be related to the complexity of the signal dynamics, our data demonstrate that the complexity of neuronal electric activity changes across the life span of an individual, with a steady increase during young adulthood and a decrease in the elderly population. PMID:26536036

  15. Age-Related Changes in Trabecular and Cortical Bone Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayue Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly population has substantially increased worldwide. Aging is a complex process, and the effects of aging are myriad and insidious, leading to progressive deterioration of various organs, including the skeleton. Age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis in the elderly population increase the risk for fractures and morbidity. Osteoporosis is one of the most common conditions associated with aging, and age is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. With the development of noninvasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT, micro-CT, and high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT, imaging of the bone architecture provides important information about age-related changes in bone microstructure and estimates of bone strength. In the past two decades, studies of human specimens using imaging techniques have revealed decreased bone strength in older adults compared with younger adults. The present paper addresses recently studied age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure based primarily on HR-pQCT and micro-CT. We specifically focus on the three-dimensional microstructure of the vertebrae, femoral neck, and distal radius, which are common osteoporotic fracture sites.

  16. Age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayue; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2013-01-01

    The elderly population has substantially increased worldwide. Aging is a complex process, and the effects of aging are myriad and insidious, leading to progressive deterioration of various organs, including the skeleton. Age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis in the elderly population increase the risk for fractures and morbidity. Osteoporosis is one of the most common conditions associated with aging, and age is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. With the development of noninvasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), micro-CT, and high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT), imaging of the bone architecture provides important information about age-related changes in bone microstructure and estimates of bone strength. In the past two decades, studies of human specimens using imaging techniques have revealed decreased bone strength in older adults compared with younger adults. The present paper addresses recently studied age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure based primarily on HR-pQCT and micro-CT. We specifically focus on the three-dimensional microstructure of the vertebrae, femoral neck, and distal radius, which are common osteoporotic fracture sites.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE AGE RELATED CHANGES OF THE CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjushree Chakravarty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disease of the cervix is a common clinical condition in females, worldwide and especially in a developing country like India. The study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the cervix. AIM The study was done to observe the age related changes in the cervix and compare the same with the different studies done by the previous workers around the world so as to help clinicians to diagnose the pathologies of this part of the female reproductive system better. MATERIALS AND METHOD The specimens were divided into three groups viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal. Twenty specimens were collected of each group. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was employed to find out the significant difference between the mean value. SUMMARY A study of the 60 specimens collected were done to find the morphological parameters of each group viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal and the findings of each group were compared to one another and were related to the finding of previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of the three groups and these differences tallied with that of the previous workers.

  18. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  19. Changing doping-related attitudes in soccer players: how can we get stable and persistent changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajo, Javier; de la Vega, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to analyse the consequences of changing attitudes related to doping through thoughtful versus non-thoughtful processes. Participants were young soccer players. They received a persuasive message either against or in favour of the legalisation of several doping behaviours in soccer (e.g., the use of anabolic androgenic steroid - AAS), and participants' level of elaboration (i.e., deliberative thinking) was manipulated in two different experimental (high vs. low) conditions. Attitudes towards the legalisation proposal were assessed immediately following the message and one week later. Results showed attitude change was a function of message direction and was relatively equivalent for both high and low elaboration participants immediately after reading the message. That is, those who received the message against legalisation showed significantly more unfavourable attitudes towards the proposal than did those who received the message in favour of legalisation regardless of the extent of elaboration. However, attitude change was found to be persistent only for high elaboration participants one week after message exposure. In the present paper, we discuss implications of changing attitudes related to doping depending on whether the change occurred through psychological processes that require either extensive or small amounts of deliberative thinking and elaboration.

  20. Age-related changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Gu

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in the retina are often accompanied by visual impairment but their mechanistic details remain poorly understood.Proteomic studies were pursued toward a better molecular understanding of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE aging mechanisms. RPE cells were isolated from young adults (3-4 month-old and old (24-25 month-old F344BN rats, and separated into subcellular fractions containing apical microvilli (MV and RPE cell bodies (CB lacking their apical microvilli. Proteins were extracted in detergent, separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in situ with trypsin and analyzed by LC MS/MS. Select proteins detected in young and old rat RPE were further studied using immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis.A total of 356 proteins were identified in RPE MV from young and 378 in RPE MV from old rats, 48% of which were common to each age group. A total of 897 proteins were identified in RPE CB from young rats and 675 in old CB, 56% of which were common to each age group. Several of the identified proteins, including proteins involved in response to oxidative stress, displayed both quantitative and qualitative changes in overall abundance during RPE aging. Numerous proteins were identified for the first time in the RPE. One such protein, collectrin, was localized to the apical membrane of apical brush border of proximal tubules where it likely regulates several amino acid transporters. Elsewhere, collectrin is involved in pancreatic β cell proliferation and insulin secretion. In the RPE, collectrin expression was significantly modulated during RPE aging. Another age-regulated, newly described protein was DJ-1, a protein extensively studied in brain where oxidative stress-related functions have been described.The data presented here reveals specific changes in the RPE during aging, providing the first protein database of RPE aging, which will facilitate future studies of age-related retinal diseases.

  1. Changing Relations between High Castes and Tamang in Melamchi Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Pokharel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the processes of transformation of social relations between high caste groups and Tamang in Melamchi Valley for the period of 1980-2010. Development interventions made by government of Nepal and (I NGOs, a decade long undergoing Melamchi Water Supply Project and labor migration are major factors for ongoing changes in the study area. Spread of literacy classes and primary education, availability of credit institutions, introduction of modern farming, road networks, seasonal out migration from the area, etc. primarily define new relations among the groups. Borrowing and lending money were one of the basis of high caste and Tamang relation in past. The latter was regarded as borrower loan from first one. Before 1980s, money and agriculture commodities were controlled by few rich and high castes people. Cash income from various sources made enable the Tamang to stand on an equal footing with high caste people. Open political economy and liberal policy for issuing pass port in 1990s and after that encourage the people to diversify the destination of seasonal migration from India to Gulf countries and East Asia. Various processes of socio-economic and political changes led to local peoples to seek their position and identity in the changing context. Discourse of Tamang, high castes and Dalit entered into the Valley along with the development resources of (INGO and political movements of the country. This made possible to Tamang and other disadvantage groups to define and redefine their ethnic identity. Keywords: High castes; Tamang; credit facilities; subsistence farming; identity construction; money lending; wage labor DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4513 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.65-84

  2. Changes in Holocene relative sea-level and coastal morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Sander, Lasse; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2015-01-01

    Changes in relative sea-level (RSL) during the Holocene are reconstructed based on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data collected across a raised beach ridge system on the island of Samsø, Denmark. The internal architecture of the beach ridge and swale deposits is divided into characteristic radar...... ridge progradation through time. The vertical levels of identified downlap points are combined with an age model based on optically stimulated luminescence-dated samples to reconstruct RSL for the past c. 5000 years. Overall, the reconstruction shows that the period between c. 4800 and 3800 yr BP...

  3. Color changes in pork in relation to high pressure treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard

    treatment and during a six-day storage period was investigated via surface reflectance. Spectroscopic studies (in the form of surface reflectance, UV-vis, and circular dichroism) on the effect of HP treatment on the soluble protein fraction of porcine LD were conducted attempting to explain the color......-denatured ferric myoglobin species was not similar to the heat-denatured pigment, ferrihemochrome, but instead a closely related species sharing features of denatured gobin, ferric iron, and brown color. The reversibility of the pressure-induced changes often observed for various myoglobin forms in solution were...

  4. [Histopathological changes in human placentas related to hypertensive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Luciano Guimarães; Madi, José Mauro; Godoy, Alessandra Eifler Guerra; Coelho, Celso Piccoli; Rombaldi, Renato Luís; Artico, Graziela Rech

    2009-01-01

    to determine the prevalence of histopathological changes, in human placentas, related to hypertensive syndromes. a transversal study that compares histopathological changes identified in 43 placentae from hypertensive pregnant women (HypPr), with the ones from 33 placentae from normotensive pregnant women (NorPr). The weight, volume and macroscopic and microscopic occurrence of infarctions, clots, hematomas, atherosis (partial obliteration, thickness of layers and presence of blood vessels hyalinization) and Tenney-Parker changes (absent, discreet and prominent), as well as the locating of infarctions and clots (central, peripheral or the association of both) have been analyzed. The chi2 and t Student tests have been used for the statistical analysis, as well as medians, standard deviations and ratios. It has been considered as significant, p<0.05. the macroscopic study of HypPr placentae have presented lower weight (461.1 versus 572.1 g) and volume (437.4 versus 542.0 cm(3)), higher infarction (51.2 versus 45.5%; p<0.05: OR=1.15) and clots (51.2 versus 15.1%; p<0.05; OR=5.4) ratios, as compared to the NorPr's. In the HypPr and NorPr, microscopic clots have occurred in 83.7 versus 45.5% (p<0.05; OR=4.3), respectively. Atherosis and Tenney-Parker changes have been statistically associated to the hypertensive syndromes (p<0.05). the obtained data allow us to associate lower placentary weight and volume, higher ratio of macro and microscopic infarction, clots, atherosis and Tenney-Parker changes to placentae of gestations occurring with hypertensive syndromes.

  5. Transcriptome changes in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitmore S Scott

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a debilitating, common cause of visual impairment. While the last decade has seen great progress in understanding the pathophysiology of AMD, the molecular changes that occur in eyes with AMD are still poorly understood. In the current issue of Genome Medicine, Newman and colleagues present the first systematic transcriptional profile analysis of AMD-affected tissues, providing a comprehensive set of expression data for different regions (macula versus periphery, tissues (retina versus retinal pigment epithelium (RPE/choroid, and disease state (control versus early or advanced AMD. Their findings will serve as a foundation for additional systems-level research into the pathogenesis of this blinding disease. Please see related article: http://genomemedicine.com/content/4/2/16

  6. SECULAR GROWTH AND MATURATION CHANGES IN HUNGARY IN RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzsar, Eva B; Zsakai, Annamaria; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyses the secular changes in the body development patterns of Hungarian children between the 1910s and the beginning of the 2000s in relation to socioeconomic and demographic changes in the country. Individual growth data of children were available from two national growth studies (1983-86, 2003-06), while sample-size weighted means of children's body dimensions were collected through regional studies between the 1920s and 1970s. Gross domestic product, Gini index, life expectancy at birth and under-5 mortality rate were used to assess the changes in economic status, income inequalities of the society and the population's general health status, respectively. Secular changes in food consumption habits were also examined. The positive Hungarian secular changes in socioeconomic status were associated with a continuous increase in children's body dimensions. The negative socioeconomic changes reflected only in wartime and post-war periods of children's growth, and the considerable socioeconomic changes at the beginning of the 1990s did not appear to influence the positive trend in children's growth. The positive secular trend in stature and body mass did not level off at the beginning of the 2000s: the socioeconomic conditions that support optimal growth and maturation could improve in Hungary.

  7. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm/sup 2/) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author).

  8. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm 2 ) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author)

  9. Structural changes of the brain in relation to occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2015-06-01

    Despite mounting reports about the negative effects of chronic occupational stress on cognitive functions, it is still uncertain whether and how this type of stress is associated with cerebral changes. This issue was addressed in the present MRI study, in which cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes were compared between 40 subjects reporting symptoms of chronic occupational stress (38 ± 6 years) and 40 matched controls (36 ± 6 years). The degree of perceived stress was measured with Maslach Burnout Inventory. In stressed subjects, there was a significant thinning of the mesial frontal cortex. When investigating the correlation between age and Cth, the thinning effect of age was more pronounced in the stressed group in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, their amygdala volumes were bilaterally increased (P = 0.020 and P = 0.003), whereas their caudate volumes were reduced (P = 0.040), and accompanied by impaired fine motor function. The perceived stress correlated positively with the amygdala volumes (r = 0.44, P = 0.04; r = 0.43, P = 04). Occupational stress was found to be associated with cortical thinning as well as with selective changes of subcortical volumes, with behavioral correlates. The findings support the hypothesis that stress-related excitotoxicity might be an underlying mechanism, and that the described condition is a stress related illness. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Phenotypic changes in neutrophils related to anti-inflammatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A E; Bayley, D L; Mikami, M; Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Stockley, R A

    2000-01-03

    Previous work from the group has shown that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents given to volunteers and patients inhibit PMN function possibly by affecting the developing neutrophil during the differentiation process. In this study indomethacin treatment in vivo reduced neutrophil chemotaxis and proteolytic degradation of fibronectin, with a maximal effect after 14 days. Stimulated neutrophil adherence to fibronectin was also reduced but this was not due to quantitative changes in beta(2) integrin expression or function. L-Selectin expression on resting and stimulated neutrophils was increased after 14 days and there was a small decrease in plasma levels of soluble L-selectin. These effects, however, could not be reproduced by treatment of neutrophils with indomethacin in vitro, suggesting they are due to effects on differentiating/maturing PMNs. In an attempt to interpret these changes, studies were performed with dexamethasone, which is known to alter neutrophil function and kinetics. Dexamethasone treatment reduced chemotaxis and increased superoxide generation after 1 day and was associated with increased expression of activated beta(2) integrins and reduced L-selectin expression on resting neutrophils. This suggests the appearance of mainly 'activated' cells as a result of demargination and indicates that the effects of indomethacin are distinctive and not related to changes in compartmentalisation.

  11. Goal disturbance changes pre/post-renal transplantation are related to changes in distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Alicia M; Schulz, Torben; Westerhuis, Ralf; Navis, Gerjan J; Niesing, Jan; Ranchor, Adelita V; Schroevers, Maya J

    2017-09-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) is considered the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) given its association with lower mortality, and improved overall quality of life and psychological functioning compared to dialysis. However, much less is known about which factors underlie these psychological improvements across RTx. Goal theory suggests that experienced disturbances in important goals are related to lower psychological functioning. This study aimed to (1) identify the most disturbed and most important goals for patients before RTx, (2) to examine changes in goal disturbance and goal importance pre/post-RTx, and (3) to examine whether changes in goal disturbance are associated with changes in psychological distress over time, and whether this relationship is mediated by changes in perceived control. In this longitudinal study, 220 patients completed questionnaires before and after RTx, including questionnaires to assess goals (GOALS questionnaire), psychological distress (GHQ-12), and perceived control (Mastery scale). End-stage renal disease affected both general and disease-specific goals. Approximately 30% of the patients indicated to experience high or very high disturbance before transplantation. Goal disturbance generally decreased significantly pre- to post-RTx, whereas goal importance did not change significantly pre- to post-RTx. No mediation effect of perceived control was found. Instead, both changes in goal disturbance and perceived control showed independent effects on changes in distress. Intervention strategies targeting attainable and realistic goal setting, and perceived control in RTx recipients who do not benefit optimally from RTx, might enhance psychological functioning in this population. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Kidney transplantation improves patients' psychological functioning. Experienced disturbances in important life goals are related to lower psychological functioning in chronic

  12. Predominant mycotoxins, mycotoxigenic fungi and climate change related to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R Russell M; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson; Guilloux-Bénatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Wine is a significant contributor to the economies of many countries. However, the commodity can become contaminated with mycotoxins produced by certain fungi. Most information on mycotoxins in wine is from Spain, Italy and France. Grapes can be infected by mycotoxigenic fungi, of which Aspergillus carbonarius producing ochratoxin A (OTA) is of highest concern. Climate is the most important factor in determining contamination once the fungi are established, with high temperatures being a major factor for OTA contamination: OTA in wine is at higher concentrations in warmer southern Europe than northern. Contamination by fumonisins is a particular concern, related to Aspergillus niger producing these compounds and the fungus being isolated frequently from grapes. Aflatoxins can be present in wine, but patulin is seldom detected. Alternaria mycotoxins (e.g. alternariol) have been frequently observed. There are indications that T-2 toxin may be common. Also, the combined effects of mycotoxins in wine require consideration. No other mycotoxins are currently of concern. Accurate fungal identifications and mycotoxin detection from the fungi are important and a consideration of practical methods are required. There is a diversity of wines that can be contaminated (e.g. red, white, sweet, dry and fortified). The occurrence of OTA is higher in red and sweet than white wines. Steps to control mycotoxins in wine involve good agriculture practices. The effect of climate change on vines and mycotoxins in wine needs urgent consideration by well-constructed modelling studies and expert interpretation of existing data. Reliable models of the effect of climate change on vines is a priority: the health of vines affects mycotoxin contamination. A modelling study of OTA in grapes at higher temperatures over 100years is required. Progress has been made in reducing OTA in wine. The other mycotoxins require consideration and the effects of climate change will become crucial. Copyright

  13. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Beynon, Andy J; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The present study investigates binaural interaction at the level of the auditory brainstem. It is hypothesized that brainstem binaural interaction deteriorates with advancing age. Forty-two subjects of various age participated in the study. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded using clicks and 500 Hz tone-bursts. ABRs were elicited by monaural right, monaural left, and binaural stimulation. Binaural interaction was investigated in two ways. First, grand averages of the binaural interaction component were computed for each age group. Second, wave V characteristics of the binaural ABR were compared with those of the summed left and right ABRs. Binaural interaction in the click ABR was demonstrated by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes in the binaural compared with the summed monaural responses. For 500 Hz tone-burst ABR, no latency differences were found. However, amplitudes were significantly smaller in the binaural than summed monaural condition. An age-effect was found for 500 Hz tone-burst, but not for click ABR. Brainstem binaural interaction seems to decline with age. Interestingly, these changes seem to be stimulus-dependent.

  14. Glucocorticoid-related bone changes from endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Amy H; Saag, Kenneth G

    2013-12-01

    Glucocorticoids have a negative impact on bone through direct effects on bone cells and indirect effects on calcium absorption. Here, recent findings regarding glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, bone changes in patients with endogenous glucocorticoid derangements, and treatment of steroid-induced bone disease are reviewed. Although the majority of our understanding arises from the outcomes of patients treated with exogenous steroids, endogenous overproduction appears to be similarly destructive to bone, but these effects are reversible with cure of the underlying disease process. Additionally, there are bone changes that occur in diseases that interrupt adrenal glucocorticoid production, both in response to our inability to perfectly match glucocorticoid replacement and also related to the underlying disease process. More investigation is required to understand which patients with endogenous overproduction or underproduction of glucocorticoid would benefit from osteoporosis treatment. Better understood is the benefit that can be achieved with currently approved treatments for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis from exogenous steroids. With growing concern of long-term use of bisphosphonates, however, further investigation into the duration of use and use in certain populations, such as children and premenopausal women, is essential. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is a complex disease that is becoming better understood through advances in the study of exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoid exposure. Further advancement of proper treatment and prevention is on the horizon.

  15. Does osmotic distillation change the isotopic relation of wines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently partial alcohol reduction of wine is in the focus of research worldwide. There are several technologies available to achieve this target. These techniques are either based on distilling or membrane processes. Osmotic distillation, one of the possibilities, is a quite modern membrane process that can be used. During that process, wine is pumped in counter flow to water along a micro porous, hydrophobic membrane. The volatile components of the wine can permeate that membrane and are dissolved in water. The driving force of that process is the vapor pressure difference between the volatiles on the wine and water side of the membrane. The aim of this work was to determine if the alcohol reduction by osmotic distillation can change the isotopic relation in a wine. Can this enological practice change the composition of a wine in a way that an illegal water addition is simulated? Different wines were reduced by 2% alcohol v/v with varying process parameters. The isotopic analysis of the O 16/18 ratio in the wine were performed according to the OIV methods (353/2009 These analyses showed that the isotopic ratio is modified by an alcohol reduction of 2% v/v in a way that corresponds to an addition of 4–5% of external water.

  16. Relations of Change in Condition Severity and School Self-Concept To Change in Achievement-Related Behavior in Children with Asthma or Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Thomas J.; Austin, Joan K.; Huster, Gertrude A.; Dunn, David W.

    2000-01-01

    Explores relation of gender, change in condition of severity, and change in school self-concept, to change in teachers' ratings of academic-related behaviors in children with asthma or epilepsy. Tests showed that these children were near population mean in academic-related behaviors, except students with high-severity epilepsy. (Author/JDM)

  17. Smart health and innovation: facilitating health-related behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, J

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death globally. Smart health technology and innovation is a potential strategy for increasing reach and for facilitating health behaviour change. Despite rapid growth in the availability and affordability of technology there remains a paucity of published and robust research in the area as it relates to health. The objective of the present paper is to review and provide a snapshot of a variety of contemporary examples of smart health strategies with a focus on evidence and research as it relates to prevention with a CVD management lens. In the present analysis, five examples will be discussed and they include a physician-directed strategy, consumer directed strategies, a public health approach and a screening strategy that utilises external hardware that connects to a smartphone. In conclusion, NCD have common risk factors and all have an association with nutrition and health. Smart health and innovation is evolving rapidly and may help with diagnosis, treatment and management. While on-going research, development and knowledge is needed, the growth of technology development and utilisation offers opportunities to reach more people and achieve better health outcomes at local, national and international levels.

  18. Gender effects on age-related changes in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Iijima, K; Okada, K; Yamashita, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that brain atrophy is associated with aging and that there are gender differences in brain atrophy with aging. These reports, however, neither exclude silent brain lesions in "healthy subjects" nor divide the brain into subregions. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of gender on age-related changes in brain subregions by MR imaging. A computer-assisted system was used to calculate the brain matter area index (BMAI) of various regions of the brain from MR imaging of 331 subjects without brain lesions. There was significantly more brain atrophy with aging in the posterior parts of the right frontal lobe in male subjects than there was in female subjects. Age-related atrophy in the middle part of the right temporal lobe, the left basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, and the cerebellum also was found in male subjects, but not in female subjects. In the temporal lobe, thalamus, parieto-occipital lobe, and cerebellum, brain volume in the left hemisphere is significantly smaller than in the right hemisphere; sex and age did not affect the hemisphere differences of brain volume in these regions. The effect of gender on brain atrophy with aging varied in different subregions of the brain. There was more brain atrophy with aging in male subjects than in female subjects.

  19. Stroke survivors' and relatives' negotiation of relational and activity changes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Cathrine; Hamran, Torunn

    2016-01-01

    This study explores stroke survivors' and relatives' negotiation of relational and activity change in their interrelated long-term meaning-making processes of everyday life and what it means for the experience of progress and well-being. Repeated retrospective in-depth interviews were conducted with both the stroke survivor and relatives. A Critical Psychological Perspective gives the frame of reference to study more closely what is going on in and across particular contexts in family members' ongoing social practices. An asymmetric problematic relationship can develop among the participants in the context of family life. However, the analysis identifies six beneficial relational and activity changes, which contribute to a reciprocal, balanced repositioning, and help the family move in a more positive direction. The repositioning processes facilitate a new transformation of family we-ness, which is important for the participants' experience of process and well-being. The comprehensive family work that has to be done is about managing the imbalance of everyday life, upholding separate activities outside the family sphere and dealing with the fact that peripheral others become more peripheral. The study addresses some arguments for taking a family-centred perspective in occupational therapy practice, as well as in a stroke rehabilitation service in general.

  20. How directional change in reading/writing habits relates to directional change in displayed pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hachoung; Oh, Songjoo

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that reading/writing habits may influence the appreciation of pictures. For example, people who read and write in a rightward direction have an aesthetic preference for pictures that face rightward over pictures that face leftward, and vice versa. However, correlations for this phenomenon have only been found in cross-cultural studies. Will a directional change in reading/writing habits within a culture relate to changes in picture preference? Korea is a good place to research this question because the country underwent gradual changes in reading/writing direction habits, from leftward to rightward, during the 20th century. In this study, we analyzed the direction of drawings and photos published in the two oldest newspapers in Korea from 1920-2013. The results show that the direction of the drawings underwent a clear shift from the left to the right, but the direction of the photos did not change. This finding suggests a close psychological link between the habits of reading/writing and drawing that cannot be accounted for simply by an accidental correspondence across different cultures.

  1. Are changes in workplace bullying status related to changes in salivary cortisol?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace...... Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30min after awakening and at 8p.m.). All participants responding...... to the item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after...

  2. Age-related changes in factor VII proteolysis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, F A; Craven, S; Dewar, L; Anvari, N; Andrew, M; Blajchman, M A

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have reported that pre-operative plasmas of patients over the age of 40 years who developed post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) had approximately twice the amount of proteolysed factor VII found in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis with heparin or low M(r) heparin was successful. These and other studies also reported higher concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin III in pre- and post-operative plasmas of patients who developed post-operative thrombosis than in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis was successful. Whether the extent of factor VII proteolysis seen in the patients who developed post-operative DVT is related to the severity of their disease or age is not known. This report investigated age-related changes in the concentrations of total factor VII protein, factor VII zymogen, factor VIIa, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin III, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in normal plasmas and the relationships between these parameters. With the exception of thrombin-antithrombin III, statistically significant increases in the concentrations of these parameters with age were found. Additionally, the differences between the concentrations of total factor VII protein and factor VII zymogen, an index factor VII proteolysis in vivo, were statistically significant only for individuals over age 40. Using linear regression analysis, a significant correlation was found to exist between the concentrations of plasma factor VIIa and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Since factor VIIa-tissue factor probably initiates coagulation in vivo, we hypothesize that the elevated plasma factor VIIa (reflecting a less tightly regulated tissue factor activity and therefore increased thrombin production in vivo) accounts for the high risk for post-operative thrombosis seen in individuals over the age of 40.

  3. Age-related changes in contextual associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trinh T; Pirogovsky, Eva; Gilbert, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a critical role in processing contextual information. Although age-related changes in the hippocampus are well documented in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents, few studies have examined contextual learning deficits in old rats. The present study investigated age-related differences in contextual associative learning in young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) rats using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli consisted of common odors mixed in sand and placed in clear plastic cups. Testing was conducted in two boxes that represented two different contexts (Context 1 and Context 2). The contexts varied based on environmental features of the box such as color (black vs. white), visual cues on the walls of the box, and flooring texture. Each rat was simultaneously presented with two cups, one filled with Odor A and one filled with Odor B in each context. In Context 1, the rat received a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A, but did not receive a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor B. In Context 2, the rat was rewarded for digging in the cup containing Odor B, but did receive a reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A. Therefore, the rat learned to associate Context 1 with Odor A and Context 2 with Odor B. The rat was tested for eight days using the same odor problem throughout all days of testing. The results showed no significant difference between young and old rats on the first two days of testing; however, young rats significantly outperformed old rats on Day 3. Young rats continued to maintain superior performance compared to old rats on Days 4-8. The results suggest that aging results in functional impairments in brain regions that support memory for associations between specific cues and their respective context.

  4. MR imaging of proximal femur: age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Heon; Jeon, Woo Jin; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Park, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong Mun; Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Pyun, Young Sik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate MR patterns of signal intensity of proximal femur in normal subjects according to the age distribution. T1-weighted MR images of the proximal femur in 125 subjects, aged 13 days to 25 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Age distribution was classified to 4 groups; below 4 months, 5 months to 4 years, 5 years to 14 years, and 15 years to 25 years. By the age of 4 months, the non-ossified femoral epiphysis was seen as intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage. At 5 months-4 years, the ossified femoral capital epiphysis was seen within intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow surrounded by a rim of low-signal-intensity cortical bone. At 5-14 years, the ossified femoral capital and greater trochanteric epiphysis were seen within the intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow. At 15-25 years, the proximal metaphyseal marrow showed increased signal intensity. Four patterns of the metaphyseal marrow were recognized by Ricci et al. The frequency of pattern 1 a progressively decreased with age. Pattern 2 and 3 were visible in the 15-25 years age group. An understanding of the spectrum of normal age-related change of the proximal femoral cartilage and marrow patterns serves as the foundation for interpretation of proximal femur pathologies

  5. Heterogeneity in age-related white matter changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, R.; Schmidt, H.; Haybaeck, J.; Loitfelder, M.; Weis, S.; Cavalieri, M.; Seiler, S.; Enzinger, C.; Ropele, S.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Pantoni, L.; Scheltens, P.; Fazekas, F.; Jellinger, K.

    2011-01-01

    White matter changes occur endemically in routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly persons. MRI appearance and histopathological correlates of white matter changes are heterogeneous. Smooth periventricular hyperintensities, including caps around the ventricular horns,

  6. CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RELATED TO THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT COMPLEXITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DOVAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in organizations appear as a reaction to the organizational environment changes. In order to manage these changes successfully, the managers need to anticipate and design alternative strategies by preparing different options.  Nevertheless, the complexity of the global environment forces the managers to adopt strategies for their organizations that are facilitating the creation of new strategic competences and competitive advantages to face the environmental rapid changes. In this context, this paper is aiming to illustrate the main directions the change management may consider to change the organization strategies in order to harmonize them to the external environment, such as: integration versus externalization, flexible specialization and flexible organization, standardization versus adaptation, market segmentation, relationship building and maintaining and communication integration.  However, the new strategies are based on a changed attitude of the managers towards the competitive advantage that is dynamic and focused on creation rather then to operations.

  7. Mitigating climate change: Decomposing the relative roles of energy conservation, technological change, and structural shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Zakerinia, Saleh; Yeh, Sonia; Teter, Jacob; Morrison, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO 2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals over 2005–2100 for various climate policy scenarios. This study contributes to the decomposition literature in three ways. First, it disaggregates drivers of energy demand into technological progress and demand for energy services, represented in terms of useful energy, allowing us to estimate their contributions independently — an improvement over other economy-wide decomposition studies. Secondly, this approach reduces the ambiguity present in many previous measures of structural change. We delineate structural shifts into two separate measures: changes in fuel mix within a given resource or service pathway; and changes in mix among distinct energy resources or end-use services. Finally, this study applies decomposition methods to energy and emission trajectories from two mutually informing perspectives: (i) primary energy resources — crude oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and renewables; and (ii) end-uses of energy services — residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation. Our results show that technological improvements and energy conservation are important in meeting climate goals in the first half of the coming century; and that nuclear and renewable energy and CCS technology are crucial in meeting more stringent goals in the second half of the century. We examine the relative roles of the drivers in reducing CO 2 emissions separately for developed and developing regions. Although the majority of energy and emission growth – and by extension the greatest opportunities for mitigation – will occur in developing countries, the decomposition shows that the relative roles of the five drivers are broadly consistent between these two regions. - Highlights: • We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals • We analyze differences

  8. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  9. The effect on organizational change on relational coordination – a multi case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    This study presents results from an original empirical study of 11 organizational change projects in different wards at two Danish hospitals. The purpose of the study was to study was to study changes in relation coordination as a consequence of organizational change. We measured relational...... coordination before and after the organizational change using the 7 question relational coordination questionnaire. A group of employees were interviewed after the change project to uncover the nature and extent of the changes. We find that organizations’ relational coordination score change very little – even...... for organizational change that introduces new work relations and new processes....

  10. Climate Change-Related Water Disasters' Impact on Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Bender, Annah K; Seal, Stella; Corley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Rising global temperatures have resulted in an increased frequency and severity of cyclones, hurricanes, and flooding in many parts of the world. These climate change-related water disasters (CCRWDs) have a devastating impact on communities and the health of residents. Clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base planning, prevention, and disaster response to these events. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the impact of CCRWDs on public health in order to identify factors in these events that are amenable to preparedness and mitigation. Ultimately, this evidence could be used by nurses to advocate for greater preparedness initiatives and inform national and international disaster policy. A systematic literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) was conducted using a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach in January 2017 to describe major themes and associated factors of the impact of CCRWDs on population health. Three major themes emerged: environmental disruption resulting in exposure to toxins, population susceptibility, and health systems infrastructure (failure to plan-prepare-mitigate, inadequate response, and lack of infrastructure). Direct health impact was characterized by four major categories: weather-related morbidity and mortality, waterborne diseases/water-related illness, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and psychiatric/mental health effects. Scope and duration of the event are factors that exacerbate the impact of CCRWDs. Discussion of specific factors amenable to mitigation was limited. Flooding as an event was overrepresented in this analysis (60%), and the majority of the research reviewed was conducted in high-income or upper

  11. Age-related changes in oscillatory power affect motor action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Liu

    Full Text Available With increasing age cognitive performance slows down. This includes cognitive processes essential for motor performance. Additionally, performance of motor tasks becomes less accurate. The objective of the present study was to identify general neural correlates underlying age-related behavioral slowing and the reduction in motor task accuracy. To this end, we continuously recorded EEG activity from 18 younger and 24 older right-handed healthy participants while they were performing a simple finger tapping task. We analyzed the EEG records with respect to local changes in amplitude (power spectrum as well as phase locking between the two age groups. We found differences between younger and older subjects in the amplitude of post-movement synchronization in the β band of the sensory-motor and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. This post-movement β amplitude was significantly reduced in older subjects. Moreover, it positively correlated with the accuracy with which subjects performed the motor task at the electrode FCz, which detects activity of the mPFC and the supplementary motor area. In contrast, we found no correlation between the accurate timing of local neural activity, i.e. phase locking in the δ-θ frequency band, with the reaction and movement time or the accuracy with which the motor task was performed. Our results show that only post-movement β amplitude and not δ-θ phase locking is involved in the control of movement accuracy. The decreased post-movement β amplitude in the mPFC of older subjects hints at an impaired deactivation of this area, which may affect the cognitive control of stimulus-induced motor tasks and thereby motor output.

  12. Age-related changes in neural control of posture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma

    2016-01-01

    As we get older many physiological functions decline, including muscle strength, flexibility, and memory. Also in the aging brain there are changes, such as shrinkage of its volume. Since we need our brain to keep our balance while standing, it seems likely that these changes also affect our balance

  13. Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, David B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Ørngreen, Mette C.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that morphological changes at the cellular level occur in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but changes in muscle structure with fat infiltration and gross variation of muscle fiber size with giant fibers, normally encountered in the muscular dystrophies, have...... typically not been associated with mitochondrial disease. We investigated gross and microscopic muscle morphology in thigh muscles by muscle biopsy and MRI in 16 patients with MM, and compared findings with those obtained in muscular dystrophy patients and healthy subjects. Changes of muscle architecture...

  14. Reflections on the Individual–Collective Relation in Change Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Samsø Renewable Energy Island project, change agency ... The reason for this achievement is found in the co-ownership of the wind turbines, ... quantifiable environmental and economic costs, and benefits of individual and ...

  15. Driving forces behind the stagnancy of China's energy-related CO2 emissions from 1996 to 1999: the relative importance of structural change, intensity change and scale change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, S.; Matsuoka, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is noteworthy that income elasticity of energy consumption in China shifted from positive to negative after 1996, accompanied by an unprecedented decline in energy-related CO 2 emissions. This paper therefore investigate the evolution of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1985 to 1999 and the underlying driving forces, using the newly proposed three-level 'perfect decomposition' method and provincially aggregated data. The province-based estimates and analyses reveal a 'sudden stagnancy' of energy consumption, supply and energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1996 to 1999. The speed of a decrease in energy intensity and a slowdown in the growth of average labor productivity of industrial enterprises may have been the dominant contributors to this 'stagnancy'. The findings of this paper point to the highest rate of deterioration of state-owned enterprises in early 1996, the industrial restructuring caused by changes in ownership, the shutdown of small-scale power plants, and the introduction of policies to improve energy efficiency as probable factors. Taking into account the characteristics of those key driving forces, we characterize China's decline of energy-related CO 2 emissions as a short-term fluctuation and incline to the likelihood that China will resume an increasing trend from a lower starting point in the near future. (author)

  16. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a change of perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A. P.; Schultz, M. J.; Juffermans, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Two decades ago, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was considered a rare complication of transfusion medicine. Nowadays, TRALI has emerged as the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality, presumably as a consequence of reaching international agreement on defining TRALI with

  17. Age-Related Psychophysical Changes and Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnelie, Gislin

    2013-01-01

    When considering the burden of visual impairment on aging individuals and society at large, it is important to bear in mind that vision changes are a natural aspect of aging. In this article, we consider vision changes that are part of normal aging, the prevalence of abnormal vision changes caused by disorders of the visual system, and the anticipated incidence and impact of visual impairment as the US population ages. We then discuss the services available to reduce the impact of vision loss, and the extent to which those services can and should be improved, not only to be better prepared for the anticipated increase in low vision over the coming decades, but also to increase the awareness of interactions between visual impairment and comorbidities that are common among the elderly. Finally, we consider how to promote improved quality, availability, and acceptance of low vision care to lessen the impact of visual impairment on individuals, and its burden on society. PMID:24335074

  18. Changes in environmental radon related with the day eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso P, M.I.; Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia A, N.; Espindola, V.H.

    1992-05-01

    Systematic studies of radon and of gamma dose in air in the Nuclear Center of Mexico during a period of nine months that include the total Sun eclipse happened at July 11, 1991 were carried out. The radon concentrations were measured with an electronic equipment that measures in continuous form and the rate of gamma dose in air was obtained with a ionization chamber. The results show that the radon fluctuations in air are influenced by the meteorological changes showing behaviors different to long and short term. The variations of long term are correlated directly with the external temperature while those of short term have an inverse relationship with the temperature. These last results are discussed regarding drastic atmospheric changes happened in the period and those light changes result of the total Sun eclipse. The rate of gamma dose in air showed stability during the study. (Author)

  19. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  20. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Aretha

    2009-01-01

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  1. The Determinants of Relative Wage Change in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Webster; Yi-Ping Tseng

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses micro data from over 4000 Australian individuals to investigate which factors have had a significant influence on microeconomic wage growth over the past 3 years. The relative importance of four type of factors: outside incomes, demand for labour, workers' relative bargaining strength and category of wage contract are compared. Basic individual demographic characteristics (partial substitute variables for outside incomes), and some indicators of workers' bargaining power provi...

  2. Programmable Relations for Managing Change During Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-15

    POSTGRES [37], in which attributes of relations can include abstract data types, although not other relations. POSTGRES [39] also includes other...that programmability of this type is missing from both POSTGRES and ALGRES. Nevertheless, programmable implementations are not mutually incompatible...December 1975. [37] L. A. Rowe and Michael R. Stonebraker. "The POSTGRES Data Model". In Proc. of the 13th VLDB Conference, pages 83-96, 1987. [38

  3. Modic changes, possible causes and relation to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Hanne Birgit; Kjær, Per; Jensen, Tue Secher

    2007-01-01

    In patients with low back pain (LBP) it is only possible to diagnose a small proportion, (approximately 20%), on a patho-anatomical basis. Therefore, the identification of relevant LBP subgroups, preferably on a patho-anatomical basis, is strongly needed. Signal changes on MRI in the vertebral body......, and type 3 is sclerotic bone. The temporal evolution of MC is uncertain, but the time span is years. Subchondral bone marrow signal changes associated with pain can be observed in different specific infectious, degenerative and immunological diseases such as osseous infections, osteoarthritis, ankylosing...... cannot thrive in the highly aerobic environment of the MC type 1. Perspectives: One or both of the described mechanisms can - if proven - be of significant importance for this specific subgroup of patients with LBP. Hence, it would be possible to give a more precise and relevant diagnosis to 20...

  4. Age related changes in erythrocyte A and B antigen strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B; Ishii, Goro

    1961-11-01

    The strength of A and B antigens of the erythrocyte, as indicated by agglutinability with dilutions of specific antibody, has been investigated in a group of subjects in Hiroshima. Antigen strength was found to rise to maximal levels at age 25 to 29, and decline with advancing years. Degree of irradiation from the Hiroshima atomic bomb in 1945 did not appear in the limited sample to affect this age-dependent structural property of erythrocytes. Antigen strength of females was somewhat less than that of males for those individuals from 20 to 40 years of age. When compared with group A or B subjects, individuals of group AB demonstrated full strength of both A and B antigens. Since Rh antigenicity also has been reported to change with age, it seems probable that multiple changes in the erythrocyte membrane occur with age. Further investigation into the nature of these changes may be fruitful to an understanding of aging processes at the cellular level. 13 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  5. Pregnancy related biometric changes in the ovaries and uterus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovaries and uteri of 40 apparently normal, sexually mature female Sahelian goats (30 pregnant and10 non-pregnant) were obtained and measured, immediately after slaughter, at the Metropolitan abattoir, Maiduguri, Nigeria, over a period of one year. This was with the aim of documenting pregnancy related biometrical ...

  6. Management of Gender Relations and Response To Change at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of the UDSM reflected the societal gender relations that influenced the perpetuation of gender inequalities in student's admission, academic and administrative recruitments, and management of staff through policies, directives and governance structures. Earlier initiatives directed by national politics and ...

  7. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  8. European Insecurity: Managing Changing Relations at Home and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fraser interviews Dr. M Drent and Dr. B van Ginkel of the Clingendael Institute

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Interviews with Dr. Margriet Drent and Dr. Bibi van Ginkel of the Security and Conflict Programme of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael' Dr. Margriet Drent is a Senior Research Fellow at the Security and Conflict Programme of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael' and Assistant Professor at the International Relations and International Organisation Department of the University of Groningen. Dr. Drent's PhD on the 'Europeanisation of security' focused on what is now known as the Common Security and Defence Policy. She is also a member of the Peace and Security Committee of the Advisory Council on International Affairs. Dr. Bibi van Ginkel, LL.M. is a Senior Research Fellow at Security and Conflict Programme of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations 'Clingendael'. She is also a fellow at the International Centre on Counter-Terrorism. Her research concentrates on legal aspects of security issues. She received her doctorate at Utrecht University with a dissertation on the practice of the United Nations on combating terrorism. She is also a member of the Peace and Security Committee of the Advisory Council of International Affairs.   

  9. [Age-related changes in swallowing. Physiology and pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, P; Wirth, R; Glahn, J; Dziewas, R

    2015-04-01

    The term presbyphagia refers to all changes of swallowing physiology that are manifested with increasing age. Alterations in the pattern of deglutition that are part of healthy aging are called primary presbyphagia. Primary presbyphagia is not an illness in itself but contributes to a more pervasive naturally diminished functional reserve, making older adults more susceptible to dysphagia. If disorders in swallowing occur in the elderly as a comorbidity of a specific disease, for example stroke or neurodegenerative disorders, this is called secondary presbyphagia. Increasing age has an impact on each stage of deglutition. In the oral preparatory phase a diminished input for smell and taste as well as a usually multifactorial cause of dry mouth are the most important influencing factors. Sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging, interferes in particular with the oropharyngeal phase. A decreased sensory feedback from the oropharyngeal mucosa leads to a delayed triggering of the swallowing reflex. Finally, a reduction in connective tissue elasticity and changes of the axial skeleton lead to various modifications of the swallowing pattern with advanced age.

  10. Ecological Footprint in relation to Climate Change Strategy in Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belčáková, Ingrid; Diviaková, Andrea; Belaňová, Eliška

    2017-10-01

    Ecological footprint determines how much natural resources are consumed by an individual, city, region, state or all inhabitants of our planet in order to ensure their requirements and needs. It includes all activities, from food consumption, housing, transport to waste produced and allows us to compare particular activities and their impacts on the environment and natural resources. Ecological footprint is important issue for making sustainable development concept more popular using simplifications, which provide the public with basic information on situation on our planet. Today we know calculations of global (worldwide), national and local ecological footprints. During our research in cities, we were concentrated on calculation of city’s ecological footprint. The article tries to outline theoretical and assumptions and practical results of climate change consequences in cities of Bratislava and Nitra (Slovakia), to describe potential of mitigating adverse impacts of climate change and to provide information for general and professional public on theoretical assumptions in calculating ecological footprint. The intention is to present innovation of ecological footprint calculation, taking into consideration ecological stability of a city (with a specific focus on micro-climate functions of green areas). Present possibilities to reduce ecological footprint are presented.

  11. [Behavioural problems and personality change related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) belongs to the group of amyloidoses that are characterized by the deposition of insoluble and tissue-damaging amyloid proteins. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is the common clinical presentation of CAA resulting from the degenerative effect of beta amyloid on the cerebral vascular system. Though CAA is rather a neurological disease psychiatric symptoms can occur and even dominate the clinical picture. A case report is presented in order to illustrate the association between CAA and psychiatric symptoms. We report the case of a 54-year-old female patient with radiologic references to a probable CAA and mild cognitive impairment who developed behavioural difficulties and personality change that necessitated a psychiatric treatment. Psychiatric symptoms were most likely due to CAA. CAA can be associated with psychiatric symptoms and hence should be considered in the treatment of elderly patients with behavioural problems or personality changes. Diagnostic neuroimaging and examination of cerebrospinal fluid is recommended. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Age-related functional brain changes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; Benischek, Alina; Dewey, Deborah; Lebel, Catherine

    2017-07-15

    Brain function and structure change significantly during the toddler and preschool years. However, most studies focus on older or younger children, so the specific nature of these changes is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed 77 functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 44 children aged 2-6 years. We extracted measures of both local (amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and regional homogeneity) and global (eigenvector centrality mapping) activity and connectivity, and examined their relationships with age using robust linear correlation analysis and strict control for head motion. Brain areas within the default mode network and the frontoparietal network, such as the middle frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule and the posterior cingulate cortex, showed increases in local and global functional features with age. Several brain areas such as the superior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus presented opposite development trajectories of local and global functional features, suggesting a shifting connectivity framework in early childhood. This development of functional connectivity in early childhood likely underlies major advances in cognitive abilities, including language and development of theory of mind. These findings provide important insight into the development patterns of brain function during the preschool years, and lay the foundation for future studies of altered brain development in young children with brain disorders or injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expertise and age-related changes in components of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, H; Horn, J

    2001-06-01

    In a sample of 263 male GO players at 48 levels of expertise and ranging from 18 to 78 years of age, it was found that factors of expertise deductive reasoning (EDR) and expertise working memory (EWM) were independent of factors of fluid reasoning (Gf) and short-term working memory (STWM) that, along with cognitive speed (Gs), have been found to characterize decline of intelligence in adulthood. The main effects of analyses of cross-sectional age differences indicated age-related decline in EDR and EWM as well as in Gf, STWM, and Gs. However, interaction and partialing analyses indicated that decline in EDR and EWM decreased to no decline with increase in level of expertise. The results thus suggest that with increase in factors known to raise the level of expertise--particularly, intensive, well-designed practice--there may be no age-related decline in the intelligence that is measured in the abilities of expertise.

  14. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B.; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  15. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  16. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  17. Age Related Changes in Cognition during the Working Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-31

    Psscholog-, 1979, 30, 63-102# Craik , F. I. H., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memor5 research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal...progressively lower levels of performance* The decline is assumed tu be due to the biological aging process . Reductions in physiological functioning lead in turn... levels of cognitive processing were taken -- for examplep measures of masking could be related to performance In situations requiring visual scanningp

  18. Disease related tissue damage and subsequent changes in fillet structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the fish and subsequent a reduction in price. Despite this, the impact of infectious diseases on the meat quality and the mechanisms behind are poorly investigated. Wound repair is a dynamic, interactive response to tissue injury that involves a complex interaction and cross talk of various cell types......, extracellular matrix molecules, soluble mediators and cytokines. In order to describe the molecular mechanisms and processes of wound repair, a panel of genes covering immunological factors and tissue regeneration were used to measure changes at the mRNA level following mechanical tissue damage in rainbow trout...... (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Needle disrupted muscle tissue was sampled at different time points and subject to real-time RT-PCR for measuring the expression of the genes IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-β, Myostatin-1ab, MMP-2, CTGF, Collagen-1α, VEGF, iNOS, Arg-2 and FGF. The results showed an initial phase with up...

  19. Three conceptions of the changing relations between education and work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2009-01-01

    the organization of work and draw special attention to the problems of reductionism and determinism in each of these approaches. As conclusion a conceptual framework is outlined that combines the three conceptions and opens up for understanding the complex interplay between the various types of dynamics at play......Education and training is the key to transform the organization of work into more knowing work. This is a common assumption in a number of political discourses about the demise of Fordist, Taylorist and bureaucratic ways of organizing work. It is though not very clear what the relationship...... is between education and training and the organization of work. In this chapter I will describe three different conceptions of the interaction between education and training and work and of the different dynamics of this interaction. I explore the scope for education and training policy in changing...

  20. Changing gender relations in Thailand: a historical and cultural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwiramanond, D

    1997-01-01

    In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation.

  1. Motivational and behavioural models of change: A longitudinal analysis of change among men with chronic haemophilia-related joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elander, J; Richardson, C; Morris, J; Robinson, G; Schofield, M B

    2017-09-01

    Motivational and behavioural models of adjustment to chronic pain make different predictions about change processes, which can be tested in longitudinal analyses. We examined changes in motivation, coping and acceptance among 78 men with chronic haemophilia-related joint pain. Using cross-lagged regression analyses of changes from baseline to 6 months as predictors of changes from 6 to 12 months, with supplementary structural equation modelling, we tested two models in which motivational changes influence behavioural changes, and one in which behavioural changes influence motivational changes. Changes in motivation to self-manage pain influenced later changes in pain coping, consistent with the motivational model of pain self-management, and also influenced later changes in activity engagement, the behavioural component of pain acceptance. Changes in activity engagement influenced later changes in pain willingness, consistent with the behavioural model of pain acceptance. Based on the findings, a combined model of changes in pain self-management and acceptance is proposed, which could guide combined interventions based on theories of motivation, coping and acceptance in chronic pain. This study adds longitudinal evidence about sequential change processes; a test of the motivational model of pain self-management; and tests of behavioural versus motivational models of pain acceptance. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  2. Changing relations between intelligence and brain activity in late childhood: A longitudinal event-related potential study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauder, J.E.A.; van der Molen, M.W.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    In studying the relationship between Raven intelligence and event-related brain potentials to a visual oddball task in the same children, at respectively 9, 10 and 11 years of age, dramatic changes were observed with age. The event-related amplitude data suggest a shift in relation between

  3. Parotid radiosensitivity changes: a temporal relation to glandular circadian rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mofty, S.K.; Hovenga, T.L.; Russell, J.E.; Simmons, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the rat parotid gland to X-radiation increased considerably towards the end of the daily light span (0800-2000 hours) and to a lesser extent before the onset of that period. The major sensitivity peak occurred at 1600 hours and coincides with a diurnal nadir in the rates of protein and RNA synthesis. The minor peak occurred at 0400 hours and was temporally related to a daily period of maximal secretory activity. It is suggested that suboptimal repair and secretion-linked cellular perturbations might contribute to the pathogenesis of the circadian increases in radiosensitivity of parotid cells. (author)

  4. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  5. Climate change and agriculture under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and related documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan; Angelo, Mary Jane; du Plessis, Anél

    Agriculture contributes to climate change to a considerable extent. Agriculture is also among the sectors that will suffer the largest negative impacts of climate change, for which, consequently, huge adaptation efforts are needed. At the same time this sector faces the challenge of feeding a

  6. 7 CFR 718.205 - Substantive change in farming operation, and changes in related legal entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest in the farming operation with respect to management, financing, and accounting. The county... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantive change in farming operation, and changes... Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM MARKETING QUOTAS, ACREAGE...

  7. Women's employment and changing gender relations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alice Colón

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000, using excerpts from interviews conducted with women workers displaced from a clothing and a tuna factory between 2001 and 2002 (Colón et al. 2008), as well as data from the Public Use Sample (PUMS) of the U.S. Census Puerto Rico Community Survey 2005-2007. It is argued that women's employment has resulted in advances in women's autonomy, gender equity, and renegotiations of the provider role, but, intensified by men's unstable earnings, it has also led to the increase of female family headship even among married women. Women's education and employment have been an important means of reducing family poverty both among dual earner families and female heads. Yet, the continuing joblessness in the Island places even higher educated sectors on the verge of economic precariousness.

  8. Determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Goossensen, Dorien; Genugten, Lenneke van; Lingsma, Hester; Dippel, Diederik; Koudstaal, Peter; Hertog, Heleen den

    2016-04-01

    To assess determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or ischemic stroke. In this prospective cohort study, 100 patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke completed questionnaires on behavioral intention and sociocognitive factors including perception of severity, susceptibility, fear, response-efficacy and self-efficacy at baseline. Questionnaires on physical activity, diet and smoking were completed at baseline and at 3 months. Associations between sociocognitive factors and behavioral intention and actual change were studied with multivariable linear and logistic regression. Self-efficacy, response efficacy, and fear were independently associated with behavioral intention, with self-efficacy as the strongest determinant of intention to increase physical activity (aBeta 0.40; 95% CI 0.12-0.71), adapt a healthy diet (aBeta 0.49; 95% CI 0.23-0.75), and quit smoking (aBeta 0.51; 95% CI 0.13-0.88). Intention to change tended to be associated with actual health-related behavior change. Self-efficacy, fear, and response-efficacy were determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke. These determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke should be taken into account in the development of future interventions promoting health-related behavior change in these group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Gerjo; Lo, Siu Hing; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  10. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  11. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  12. Changes in markers of liver function in relation to changes in perfluoroalkyl substances - A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihovic, Samira; Stubleski, Jordan; Kärrman, Anna; Larsson, Anders; Fall, Tove; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica

    2018-08-01

    While it is known that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) induce liver toxicity in experimental studies, the evidence of an association in humans is inconsistent. The main aim of the present study was to examine the association of PFAS concentrations and markers of liver function using panel data. We investigated 1002 individuals from Sweden (50% women) at ages 70, 75 and 80 in 2001-2014. Eight PFASs were measured in plasma using isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Bilirubin and hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were determined in serum using an immunoassay methodology. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the changes in markers of liver function and changes in PFAS levels. The changes in majority of PFAS concentrations were positively associated with the changes in activity of ALT, ALP, and GGT and inversely associated with the changes in circulating bilirubin after adjustment for gender and the time-updated covariates LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides, BMI, statin use, smoking, fasting glucose levels and correction for multiple testing. For example, changes in perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were associated with the changes liver function markers β BILIRUBIN  = -1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.93 to -1.19, β ALT  = 0.04, 95% CI 0.03-0.06, and β ALP  = 0.11, 95% CI 0.06-0.15. Our longitudinal assessment established associations between changes in markers of liver function and changes in plasma PFAS concentrations. These findings suggest a relationship between low-dose background PFAS exposure and altered liver function in the general population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating clinically significant changes in health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate change and predictors of change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during rehabilitation, and to analyse associations between changes in HRQoL and symptoms of anxiety...

  14. 75 FR 6289 - Commission Guidance Regarding Disclosure Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Regarding Disclosure Related to Climate Change; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 25... Disclosure Related to Climate Change AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Interpretation... requirements as they apply to climate change matters. DATES: Effective Date: February 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  15. Slope instability related to permafrost changes on Mexican volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Granados, Hugo; Molina, Victor Soto

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost is present above 4,500 meters at the three highest Mexican mountains, Citlaltépetl, Popocatépetl and Iztaccihuatl (5,675, 5,452 and 5,286m asl, respectively), all active volcanoes. During the rainy season in the central region of Mexico, the occurrence of small debris-flows in the ice-free parts of the mountains, as well as small lanslides is frequent. At Popocatépetl volcano, flows are mostly related to a combination of the eruptive activity and climatic factors. However, the volcanic activity is different at Citlaltépetl and Iztaccihuatl where there is no eruptive activity, but landslides have occurred in recent years on their steep slopes because its stability has been altered as a result of an increase in the air temperature which in turn has caused variations in the thickness of the active layer of permafrost, causing as a consequence, the increase of an even more unstable soil. Additionally, cracks in the rock walls are subject to an increasing hydrostatic pressure due to continuous daily freezing and thawing of seasonal water produced by a warmer and less solid precipitation accumulating in the cracks over time and in the unconsolidated potentially unstable material.

  16. Changing relations between civil and military nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has inhabited two distinct environments since its inception - the environments of nuclear deterrence and of electricity supply. The relationships between the technologies and institutions inhabiting these environments have been both intimate and troublesome. As both nuclear weapons and nuclear power rely upon the fission energy of uranium and plutonium, and as both generate harmful by-products, they are bound to have technologies, materials and liabilities in common. However, nuclear deterrence belongs in the realm of high politics, whilst electricity production is part of the commercial world rooted in civil society. Establishing a political, industrial and regulatory framework that allows nuclear activities to develop safely and acceptably in both domains has been a difficult and contentious task. In this paper I wish to make some observations about the relations between military and civil nuclear technology at the end of this century, and about their likely character in years ahead. My main contention is that developments in the military sector and in international security will remain influential, but that their consequences will be of a different kind than in the past. (orig.)

  17. Phase-change related epigenetic and physiological changes in Pinus radiata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Mario F; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2002-08-01

    DNA methylation and polyamine levels were analysed before and after Pinus radiata D. Don. phase change in order to identify possible molecular and physiological phase markers. Juvenile individuals (without reproductive ability) were characterised by a degree of DNA methylation of 30-35% and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates greater than 1, while mature trees (with reproductive ability) had 60% 5-methylcytosine and a ratio of free polyamines to perchloric acid-soluble polyamine conjugates of less than 1. Results obtained with trees that attained reproductive capacity during the experimental period confirmed that changes in the degree of DNA methylation and polyamine concentrations found among juvenile and mature states come about immediately after the phase change. We suggest that both indicators may be associated with the loss of morphogenic ability during ageing, particularly after phase change, through a number of molecular interactions, which are subsequently discussed.

  18. Autogenous Deformation and Change of the Relative Humidity in Silica Fume-Modified Cement Paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1996-01-01

    Even during sealed curing and at a constant temperature a hardening cement paste will deform and the relative humidity within its pores will lower. This autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change may be so significant that the cement paste cracks if the deformation is restrained....... This article focuses on the influence of silica fume addition on autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change. Continuous measurement of autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change for more than 1 year and 1« years, respectively, was performed. The investigations show...... thatsilica fume addition markedly increases the autogenous shrinkage as well as the autogenous relative humidity change....

  19. Stages of Change or Changes of Stage? Predicting Transitions in Transtheoretical Model Stages in Relation to Healthy Food Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J.; Sheeran, Paschal; Conner, Mark; Arden, Madelynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little research has examined factors that account for transitions between transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change. The present study (N=787) used sociodemographic, TTM, and theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables, as well as theory-driven interventions to predict changes in stage. Longitudinal analyses revealed that…

  20. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  1. Age-related changes in human tendo calcaneus collagen fibrils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargon, Mustafa F.; Ozlu, Korhan; Oken, Fuad

    2005-01-01

    The ruptures of tendo calcaneus often occur between the age group of 30-45 years as described by several text books. It is also described that some diseases and drugs are said to be responsible in the etiology; however, there are no studies related with the detailed histological structure of collagen fibrils found in the tendon in the age groups of humans. In view there of, this study was aimed to obtain further information on the etiology and to find an answer regarding the frequency the ruptures occurring between the age of 30-45 years in human. In the study, the biopsy specimen taken from 28 patients age (1-68) years who had undergone surgery due to tendo calcaneus ruptures or acilloplasty operations were examined by transmission electron microscope. All the specimens were prepared according to routine electronic microscope tissue preparation technique. The patients were divided into 7 age groups (1-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, >60 years) and there were 4 patients in each group. The transverse diameters of collagen fibers were measured from the ultra thin sections and statistical analysis of the results were performed. The study was carried out in the electron microscopy laboratory of the Anatomy Department of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between January 2004 and September 2004. The diameters of the collagen fibers were higher in the 20-29 year-old groups compared to other groups and it showed a statistically significant difference. In patients who were in the 30-39 year old group or older, the diameters of the collagen fibers were lesser than the 20-29 year-old group. However, an increase was observed in the collagen fibril concentration of these groups. In examination of the specimens of patients who were under 20-year old, the diameter of the collagen fibers were less than 20-29 year -old group. The electron microscopic appearance of the tissue sample of a one year-old patient had a specific organization and in this patient, both the

  2. The future of nuclear energy in relation with climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.

    2001-01-01

    especially of the potentially most dangerous and difficult to treat, that is plutonium (and its daughters), leads thus necessarily to a 'plutonium (and its daughters) plan'. Nuclear safety is a major preoccupation. The French electronuclear stock is a recognized success and when it will be necessary to replace the latter, it will be possible to use the European Pressurized Reactor French-German project; the latter includes protections against very unlikely events and its implementation would be a factor of substantial progress for nuclear safety. Radioprotection, as well as its scientific bases, epidemiology and radiobiology, have funding that is not at the level of the funding devoted to the technical and industrial realizations. As for proliferation, it can be noticed that the countries that have recently at their disposal nuclear weapons have done it independently of their eventual electronuclear stock and furthermore each of the latter used a different scientific and technical process. As for the eventual relations between reprocessing and proliferation, the problem should be solved if the total produced plutonium could be denatured in the reactors of the electronuclear stock. It must be noticed that the major potential danger would rather be the dispersion of radio-toxic products about which the department of ONU in charge of all of these questions is aware of increasing contraband from eastern Europe since some years. (author)

  3. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, L.W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma and President, Canter Associates, Inc., Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States); Chawla, M.K. [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Swor, C.T. [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  4. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

  5. Interdecadal changes of summer aerosol pollution in the Yangtze River Basin of China, the relative influence of meteorological conditions and the relation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Duo; Yang, Yuanqin; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Yaqiang; Che, Haochi; Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Yangmei

    2018-07-15

    Winter is a season of much concern for aerosol pollution in China, but less concern for pollution in the summertime. There are even less concern and larger uncertainty about interdecadal changes in summer aerosol pollution, relative influence of meteorological conditions, and their links to climate change. Here we try to reveal the relation among interdecadal changes in summer's most important circulation system affecting China (East Asian Summer Monsoon-EASM), an index of meteorological conditions (called PLAM, Parameter Linking Air Quality and Meteorological Elements, which is almost linearly related with aerosol pollution), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (M-LYR) in central eastern China during summertime since the 1960's. During the weak monsoon years, the aerosol pollution load was heavier in the M-LYR and opposite in the strong monsoon years mainly influenced by EASM and associated maintenance position of the anti-Hadley cell around 115°E. The interdecadal changes in meteorological conditions and their associated aerosol pollution in the context of such climate change have experienced four periods since the 1960's, which were a relatively large decreased period from 1961 to 1980, a large rise between 1980 and 1999, a period of slow rise or maintenance from 1999 to 2006, and a relatively rapid rise between 2006 and 2014. Among later three pollution increased periods, about 51%, 25% and 60% of the aerosol pollution change respectively come from the contribution of worsening weather conditions, which are found to be greatly affected by changes in EASM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of FEV1 decline in relatively healthy heavy smokers: implications of expressing changes in FEV1 in relative terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Laura H; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B; Skovgaard, Lene T; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2014-02-01

    Progressive decline in lung function has been widely accepted as the hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, recent evidence indicates that the rate of decline measured as decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is higher in mild to moderate COPD than in severe COPD. Usually changes in FEV1 are measured in ml that is "absolute"; however, changes can also be measured "relative" as a percentage of the actual FEV1. We hypothesize that relative measurements could be more appropriate than absolute measurements for describing changes in lung function. We analyzed data from 3,218 relatively healthy heavy smokers who participated in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The influences of age, sex, height, body mass index, smoking, and severity of airflow limitation on FEV1 were analyzed in mixed effects models. In absolute terms those with the best lung function consistently showed the steepest decline, whereas in relative terms most fast decliners are found among those with low lung function. Measuring changes in relative terms implied statistically significant acceleration of decline with advancing age, smoking (pack-years) and severity of airflow limitation. Relative measurements may lead to a better understanding of changes in lung function. Smoking and severity of airflow limitation speed up the loss of lung function, and this emphasizes the importance of abstaining from smoking the sooner the better. Measuring changes in relative terms could have important implications for the interpretation of results from clinical trials where FEV1 is the primary outcome. DLCST; www.ClinicalTrials.org , registration number: NCT00496977.

  7. Consequences of changes to the NRCS rainfall-runoff relations on hydrologic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    A proposed quantification of the fundamental concepts in the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) rainfall-runoff relation is examined to determine changes relevant to peak discharge estimation and drainage design. Changes to the NRCS curve number, storage, and initial abstraction relations...

  8. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  9. Onset of impaired sleep as a predictor of change in health-related behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in health-related behaviour may be a key mechanism linking impaired sleep to poor health, but evidence on this is limited. In this study, we analysed observational data to determine whether onset of impaired sleep is followed by changes in health-related behaviours. METHODS: W...

  10. Age-related changes in visual temporal order judgment performance: Relation to sensory and cognitive capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Thomas; Craig, James; Clark, Chris; Humes, Larry

    2010-08-06

    Five measures of temporal order judgments were obtained from 261 participants, including 146 elder, 44 middle aged, and 71 young participants. Strong age group differences were observed in all five measures, although the group differences were reduced when letter discriminability was matched for all participants. Significant relations were found between these measures of temporal processing and several cognitive and sensory assays, and structural equation modeling revealed the degree to which temporal order processing can be viewed as a latent factor that depends in part on contributions from sensory and cognitive capacities. The best-fitting model involved two different latent factors representing temporal order processing at same and different locations, and the sensory and cognitive factors were more successful predicting performance in the different location factor than the same-location factor. Processing speed, even measured using high-contrast symbols on a paper-and-pencil test, was a surprisingly strong predictor of variability in both latent factors. However, low-level sensory measures also made significant contributions to the latent factors. The results demonstrate the degree to which temporal order processing relates to other perceptual and cognitive capacities, and address the question of whether age-related declines in these capacities share a common cause. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Affan Bin; Reichlin Tobias R.; Twerenbold Raphael; Meister Marc; Moehring Berit; Wildi Karin; Bassetti Stefano; Zellweger Christa; Gimenez Maria Rubini; Hoeller Rebeca; Murray Karsten; Sou SeoungMann; Mueller Mira; Mosimann Tamina; Reiter Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Absolute changes in high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. Methods: In a prospective international multicenter study high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs cTn) was ...

  12. The relative importance of impacts from climate change vs. emissions change on air pollution levels in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Hedegaard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available So far several studies have analysed the impacts of climate change on future air pollution levels. Significant changes due to impacts of climate change have been made clear. Nevertheless, these changes are not yet included in national, regional or global air pollution reduction strategies. The changes in future air pollution levels are caused by both impacts from climate change and anthropogenic emission changes, the importance of which needs to be quantified and compared. In this study we use the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM driven by meteorological input data from the coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model ECHAM5/MPI-OM and forced with the newly developed RCP4.5 emissions. The relative importance of the climate signal and the signal from changes in anthropogenic emissions on the future ozone, black carbon (BC, total particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5 μm (total PM2.5 including BC, primary organic carbon (OC, mineral dust and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA and total nitrogen (including NHx + NOy has been determined. For ozone, the impacts of anthropogenic emissions dominate, though a climate penalty is found in the Arctic region and northwestern Europe, where the signal from climate change dampens the effect from the projected emission reductions of anthropogenic ozone precursors. The investigated particles are even more dominated by the impacts from emission changes. For black carbon the emission signal dominates slightly at high latitudes, with an increase up to an order of magnitude larger, close to the emission sources in temperate and subtropical areas. Including all particulate matter with a diameter below 2.5 μm (total PM2.5 enhances the dominance from emissions change. In contrast, total nitrogen (NHx + NOy in parts of the Arctic and at low latitudes is dominated by impacts of climate change.

  13. Educating dental students about diet-related behavior change: does experiential learning work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W; Stumpos, Madelyn L; Kerschbaum, Wendy; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether an experiential exercise in a nutrition class would a) increase dental students' motivation to change their own diet-related behavior, b) improve their understanding of theoretical concepts related to behavior change, and c) improve their attitudes towards educating their patients about diet-related behavior. Data were collected from 218 senior dental students in one dental school (2010: 106; 2011: 112) during their nutrition class. The students agreed at the beginning that it was important to change their own diet-related behavior. After one week, the majority agreed that they had changed how they felt and thought about the targeted behavior and what they actually did. After three weeks and at the end of the term, they rated the exercise as helpful for gaining a better understanding of health education theories. The majority indicated that the exercise had helped them understand the difficulty of diet-related behavior change and that it had increased their interest in helping patients change their diet-related behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that experiential learning about diet-related behavior change is likely to affect students' own behavior positively and to result in increased understanding of behavior change theories and positive behavioral intentions concerning future health education efforts with patients.

  14. The relation between smoking-specific parenting and smoking trajectories of adolescents: How are changes in parenting related to changes in smoking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we tested to what extent smoking-specific parenting and changes in parenting are related to adolescents' smoking trajectories. Data were used from a four-wave prospective study including 428 adolescents (aged M = 15.2; SD = 0.60). Latent Class Growth Analyses were conducted to

  15. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas Jyotirmay; Raman Rajiv

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, ...

  16. Exploring employees' perceptions, job-related attitudes and characteristics during a planned organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsaros, K.K.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores employee perceptions regarding organizational readiness to change, supervisory support, trust in management and appropriateness of change during a planned organizational change in a public hospital. Survey data were collected at two time periods, before and five months after the initiation of the planned change. Research findings show a significant increase in perceptive organizational readiness to change, supervisory support, trust in management and appropriateness of change after the planned change implementation. Findings also suggest that differences in the aforementioned perceptions are moderated by certain job-related attitudes, namely, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job involvement; and job-related characteristics, namely, skill variety, task identity, task significance feedback, autonomy and goal clarity. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving: The role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinault, T; Lemaire, P

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of how age-related changes in executive control influence aging effects in arithmetic processing. More specifically, we consider the role of executive control in strategic variations with age during arithmetic problem solving. Previous studies found that age-related differences in arithmetic performance are associated with strategic variations. That is, when they accomplish arithmetic problem-solving tasks, older adults use fewer strategies than young adults, use strategies in different proportions, and select and execute strategies less efficiently. Here, we review recent evidence, suggesting that age-related changes in inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory processes underlie age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving. We discuss both behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying age-related changes in these executive control processes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 andobesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all Pobesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor.

  19. Echoic memory of a single pure tone indexed by change-related brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Inui, Koji; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamashiro, Koya; Otsuru, Naofumi; Takeshima, Yasuyuki; Nishihara, Makoto; Motomura, Eishi; Kida, Tetsuo; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The rapid detection of sensory change is important to survival. The process should relate closely to memory since it requires that the brain separate a new stimulus from an ongoing background or past event. Given that sensory memory monitors current sensory status and works to pick-up changes in real-time, any change detected by this system should evoke a change-related cortical response. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the single presentation of a sound is en...

  20. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  1. Why are agricultural impacts of climate change so uncertain? The importance of temperature relative to precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobell, David B; Burke, Marshall B

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts are often characterized by large uncertainties that reflect ignorance of many physical, biological, and socio-economic processes, and which hamper efforts to anticipate and adapt to climate change. A key to reducing these uncertainties is improved understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors. We evaluated uncertainties for projections of climate change impacts on crop production for 94 crop-region combinations that account for the bulk of calories consumed by malnourished populations. Specifically, we focused on the relative contributions of four factors: climate model projections of future temperature and precipitation, and the sensitivities of crops to temperature and precipitation changes. Surprisingly, uncertainties related to temperature represented a greater contribution to climate change impact uncertainty than those related to precipitation for most crops and regions, and in particular the sensitivity of crop yields to temperature was a critical source of uncertainty. These findings occurred despite rainfall's important contribution to year-to-year variability in crop yields and large disagreements among global climate models over the direction of future regional rainfall changes, and reflect the large magnitude of future warming relative to historical variability. We conclude that progress in understanding crop responses to temperature and the magnitude of regional temperature changes are two of the most important needs for climate change impact assessments and adaptation efforts for agriculture

  2. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Raman, Rajiv

    2002-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch's membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark's classification. Twenty-four donor eyes (48%) had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  3. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch′s membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark′s classification. RESULTS: Twenty-four donor eyes (48% had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  4. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  5. Performance variability is related to change in cognition: evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-09-01

    Performance variability across repeated task administrations may be an important indicator of age-related cognitive functioning. In the present investigation, the authors examined whether age differences and change in inconsistency were related to 6-year (3 occasion) cognitive change. Inconsistency scores were computed from 4 reaction time tasks performed by 446 older adults (54-89 years). Replicating previous cross-sectional results, greater inconsistency was observed for older participants even after controlling for differences in response speed. New longitudinal results demonstrated (a) associations between inconsistency at baseline measurement and 6-year change in cognitive performance; (b) longitudinal change in inconsistency; and (c) intraindividual covariation between 6-year change in inconsistency and 6-year change in level of cognitive function. These findings support the view that performance variability serves as a marker of cognitive aging.

  6. Effective and responsible teaching of climate change in Earth Science-related disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Z. P.; Greenhough, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is a core topic within Earth Science-related courses. This vast topic covers a wide array of different aspects that could be covered, from past climatic change across a vast range of scales to environmental (and social and economic) impacts of future climatic change and strategies for reducing anthropogenic climate change. The Earth Science disciplines play a crucial role in our understanding of past, present and future climate change and the Earth system in addition to understanding leading to development of strategies and technological solutions to achieve sustainability. However, an increased knowledge of the occurrence and causes of past (natural) climate changes can lead to a lessened concern and sense of urgency and responsibility amongst students in relation to anthropogenic causes of climatic change. Two concepts integral to the teaching of climate change are those of scientific uncertainty and complexity, yet an emphasis on these concepts can lead to scepticism about future predictions and a further loss of sense of urgency. The requirement to understand the nature of scientific uncertainty and think and move between different scales in particular relating an increased knowledge of longer timescale climatic change to recent (industrialised) climate change, are clearly areas of troublesome knowledge that affect students' sense of responsibility towards their role in achieving a sustainable society. Study of the attitudes of university students in a UK HE institution on a range of Earth Science-related programmes highlights a range of different attitudes in the student body towards the subject of climate change. Students express varied amounts of ‘climate change saturation' resulting from both media and curriculum coverage, a range of views relating to the significance of humans to the global climate and a range of opinions about the relevance of environmental citizenship to their degree programme. Climate change is therefore a challenging

  7. Management, restructuring and industrial relations : organizational change within the United Kingdom broadcasting industry, 1979-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade researchers began to remedy a literature deficit in the study of broadcasting institutions – addressing in particular the issues of labour process, restructuring and industrial relations. This thesis which considers management change, industrial relations and restructuring within the United Kingdom (‘UK’) broadcasting industry employs a case study format with a view to highlighting the variations of industry (macro) and firm (micro) based restructuring. Organizational chang...

  8. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    irritation and possible physiological/pathological changes in the mucosal membranes in relation to studies of indoor air. Two studies (study 1 and study 2) were conducted to investigate changes in conjunctival hyperemia and conjunctival fluid cytology for subjects exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... and conjunctival fluid was sampled before and after exposure. Moreover, the perceived irritation intensities were registered continuously during exposure. Overall, perceived irritation intensity and conjunctival hyperemia increased with increasing exposure concentrations, whereas cytological changes...

  9. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Lyle R.; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within...

  10. Influence of temperature on autogenous deformation and relative humidity change in hardening cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change (RH change) in hardening cement paste. Theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented, which elucidate the influence of temperature on these properties. This is an important subject in the control...

  11. Crop wild relatives range shifts and conservation in Europe under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre Gutierrez, Jesus; Treuren, van R.; Hoekstra, R.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Climate change is expected to have a great impact on the distribution of wild flora around the world. Wild plant species are an important component of the genetic resources for crop improvement, which is especially important in face of climate change impacts. Still, many crop wild relatives

  12. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2)

  13. Changes in time and frequency related aspects of motor unit action potentials during fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Bouwens, Jeroen S.; Baten, Christian T.M.

    1996-01-01

    During fatigue the shape of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) change. Characteristics of the MUAPs described before concern several time related aspects. No attention has been given to the frequency spectrum changes of MUAPS. The median frequency of MUAPS has now been determined for motor units

  14. FEATURES OF INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF REFORMATORY CHANGES IN SYSTEM OF THE LAND RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana ZAVOLICHNA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors investigated the state of land reform in Ukraine evaluated the prospects of its development following on from the experience of Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. An innovative algorithm of change management in the system of administration of land relations was suggested, which role is to provide opportunities to expeditiously manage land conversion, effectively overcome resistance to change.

  15. Projecting Future Heat-Related Mortality under Climate Change Scenarios: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard; Wang, Xiaoming; Vaneckova, Pavla; FitzGerald, Gerard; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heat-related mortality is a matter of great public health concern, especially in the light of climate change. Although many studies have found associations between high temperatures and mortality, more research is needed to project the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of research and methods for projecting future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios. Data sources and extraction: A literature search was conducted in August 2010, using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 through July 2010. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most projections showed that climate change would result in a substantial increase in heat-related mortality. Projecting heat-related mortality requires understanding historical temperature–mortality relationships and considering the future changes in climate, population, and acclimatization. Further research is needed to provide a stronger theoretical framework for projections, including a better understanding of socioeconomic development, adaptation strategies, land-use patterns, air pollution, and mortality displacement. Conclusions: Scenario-based projection research will meaningfully contribute to assessing and managing the potential impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. PMID:21816703

  16. To master or perform? Exploring relations between achievement goals and conceptual change learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M

    2013-09-01

    Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Seventy-three undergraduate students were assessed on their prior knowledge and misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics, and then reported their achievement goals and participated in think-aloud protocols while reading Newtonian physics texts. A mastery-approach goal orientation positively predicted deep processing strategies, shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change. In contrast, a performance-approach goal orientation did not predict either of the processing strategies, but negatively predicted conceptual change. A performance-avoidance goal orientation negatively predicted deep processing strategies and conceptual change. Moreover, deep and shallow processing strategies positively predicted conceptual change as well as recall. Finally, both deep and shallow processing strategies mediated relations between mastery-approach goals and conceptual change. Results provide some support for Dole and Sinatra's (1998) Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model of conceptual change but also challenge specific facets with regard to the role of depth of processing in conceptual change. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Mapping of Danish Law Related to Companies' Impact on Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Østergaard, Kim; Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    for Danish law related to environment and climate change and CSR in a general sense, sources of law and jurisdiction specific issues, types of companies, shareholding structure etc. (section 1); the purpose of the company, duties and competence of the company organs, and corporate governance issues (section......This overview of Danish law related to companies’ conduct and impact on environment and climate change has been undertaken under the ‘Sustainable Companies’ project hosted at the Department of Private Law at the University of Oslo. The ‘mapping’ of national law – including in particular company law....... Environmental law has been seen under the project as essentially related to climate change. Some other issues related to sustainable development and company conduct have been addressed as well, in particular in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In the current paper, this particularly applies...

  18. Changes in social relations in old age. Are they influenced by functional ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland......, close friends, acquaintances, and neighbors; 2) diversity of social relations (number of types of social contacts); 3) telephone contacts; and 4) social participation. The function of social relations was measured by instrumental social support. Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need......), Göteborg (Sweden) and Glostrup (Denmark). The present analyses include the 743 persons who participated in both studies and who answered the questions about social relations. The structure of social relations was measured by: 1) frequency of contacts with children, grand/greatgrandchildren, relatives...

  19. Gender-related personality traits, self-efficacy, and social support: how do they relate to women's waist circumference change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankonen, Nelli; Konttinen, Hanna; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated whether gender-role related traits agency and communion contribute to successful health behavior change, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors, namely, agency, mediated by health-related self-efficacy, and communion, moderated by social support. Data from women (N = 282) participating in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Agency and increase in self-efficacy both independently predicted waist circumference reduction in the 1-year follow-up. Individuals high in communion succeeded in waist reduction only if they received social support. Initial self-efficacy increase predicted 3-year waist reduction. Gender-role orientation, together with social environment, influences behavior change intervention outcomes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Values, inter-attitudinal structure, and attitude change: value accessibility can increase a related attitude's resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2015-12-01

    Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. National labour relations in internationalized markets : a comparative study of institutions, change, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traxler, F.; Blaschke, S.; Kittel, B.E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents and examines evidence and theories about changing patterns of industrial relations and their links to convergence on the one hand, and economic competitiveness on the other. Includes a comprehensive set of comparable date on industrial relations in twenty OECD countries including Australia,

  2. Automatic detection of lexical change: an auditory event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Roye, Anja; Kirmse, Ursula; Saupe, Katja; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2007-10-29

    We investigated the detection of rare task-irrelevant changes in the lexical status of speech stimuli. Participants performed a nonlinguistic task on word and pseudoword stimuli that occurred, in separate conditions, rarely or frequently. Task performance for pseudowords was deteriorated relative to words, suggesting unintentional lexical analysis. Furthermore, rare word and pseudoword changes had a similar effect on the event-related potentials, starting as early as 165 ms. This is the first demonstration of the automatic detection of change in lexical status that is not based on a co-occurring acoustic change. We propose that, following lexical analysis of the incoming stimuli, a mental representation of the lexical regularity is formed and used as a template against which lexical change can be detected.

  3. Early diagnosis of myocardial infarction using absolute and relative changes in cardiac troponin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Affan; Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Meister, Marc; Moehring, Berit; Wildi, Karin; Bassetti, Stefano; Zellweger, Christa; Gimenez, Maria Rubini; Hoeller, Rebeca; Murray, Karsten; Sou, Seoung Mann; Mueller, Mira; Mosimann, Tamina; Reiter, Miriam; Haaf, Philip; Ziller, Ronny; Freidank, Heike; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Absolute changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) seem to have higher diagnostic accuracy in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction compared with relative changes. It is unknown whether the same applies to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assays and whether the combination of absolute and relative change might further increase accuracy. In a prospective, international multicenter study, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) was measured with 3 novel assays (hs-cTnT, Roche Diagnostics Corp, Indianapolis, Ind; hs-cTnI, Beckman Coulter Inc, Brea, Calif; hs-cTnI, Siemens, Munich, Germany) in a blinded fashion at presentation and after 1 and 2 hours in a blinded fashion in 830 unselected patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was significantly higher for 1- and 2-hour absolute versus relative hs-cTn changes for all 3 assays (P Siemens, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.99]) were high and provided some benefit compared with the use of absolute change alone for hs-cTnT, but not for the hs-cTnI assays. Reclassification analysis confirmed the superiority of absolute changes versus relative changes. Absolute changes seem to be the preferred metrics for both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The combination of absolute and relative changes provides a small added value for hs-cTnT, but not for hs-cTnI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in urban-related precipitation in the summer over three city clusters in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deming; Wu, Jian

    2017-09-01

    The impacts of urban surface expansion on the summer precipitations over three city clusters [Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD)] in eastern China under different monsoonal circulation backgrounds were explored using the nested fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model version 3.7 (MM5 V3.7), including the urban-related thermal and dynamical parameters. Ten-year integrations were performed using satellite image data from 2000 and 2010 to represent the urban surface distributions and expansions in China. Changes in the precipitation revealed obvious subregional characteristics, which could be explained by the influences of the vertical wind velocity and moisture flux. With urban-related warming, vertical wind motion generally intensified over urban surface-expanded areas. Meanwhile, the increase in impervious surface areas induced rapid rainwater runoff into drains, and the Bowen ratio increased over urban areas, which further contributed to changes in the local moisture fluxes in these regions. The intensities of the changes in precipitation were inconsistent over the three city clusters, although the changes in vertical motion and local evaporation were similar, which indicates that the changes in precipitation cannot be solely explained by the changes in the local evaporation-related moisture flux. The changes in precipitation were also influenced by the changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation and the corresponding moisture flux, which are expressed in marked subregional characteristics. Therefore, the influence of urban-related precipitation over the three city clusters in China, for which changes in moisture flux from both the impacted local evaporation and EASM circulation should be considered, varied based on the precipitation changes of only a single city.

  5. Age-related slowing of digit symbol substitution revisited: what do longitudinal age changes reflect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    A previous investigation reported that cross-sectional age differences in Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) test performance reflect declines in perceptual processing speed. Support for the tenability of the processing speed hypothesis requires examining whether longitudinal age-related change in DSS performance is largely mediated by changes in speed. The present study used data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine patterns and predictors of longitudinal change in DSS for 512 older adults (M(age) = 68.37 years, SD = 7.43). On the basis of multilevel modeling, baseline DSS performance was poorer for older participants and men, with longitudinal declines more pronounced with increasing age and decreasing speed. In contrast to the present cross-sectional findings, statistical control of change trajectories in perceptual speed using the same data did not substantially attenuate age changes. These discrepancies suggest different sources of variance may underlie cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal age changes for DSS.

  6. Motivators and Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change-Related Health Risks in Environmental Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilu Tong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA, there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  7. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  8. Gene expression changes for antioxidants pathways in the mouse cochlea: relations to age-related hearing deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif F Tadros

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the number one neurodegenerative disorder and top communication deficit of our aged population. Like many aging disorders of the nervous system, damage from free radicals linked to production of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively may play key roles in disease progression. The efficacy of the antioxidant systems, e.g., glutathione and thioredoxin, is an important factor in pathophysiology of the aging nervous system. In this investigation, relations between the expression of antioxidant-related genes in the auditory portion of the inner ear - cochlea, and age-related hearing loss was explored for CBA/CaJ mice. Forty mice were classified into four groups according to age and degree of hearing loss. Cochlear mRNA samples were collected and cDNA generated. Using Affymetrix® GeneChip, the expressions of 56 antioxidant-related gene probes were analyzed to estimate the differences in gene expression between the four subject groups. The expression of Glutathione peroxidase 6, Gpx6; Thioredoxin reductase 1, Txnrd1; Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, Idh1; and Heat shock protein 1, Hspb1; were significantly different, or showed large fold-change differences between subject groups. The Gpx6, Txnrd1 and Hspb1 gene expression changes were validated using qPCR. The Gpx6 gene was upregulated while the Txnrd1 gene was downregulated with age/hearing loss. The Hspb1 gene was found to be downregulated in middle-aged animals as well as those with mild presbycusis, whereas it was upregulated in those with severe presbycusis. These results facilitate development of future interventions to predict, prevent or slow down the progression of presbycusis.

  9. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. [Change of awareness level of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and relation with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaizumi, Kanae; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of those who are unaware of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (Food Guide). A longitudinal study was conducted using an Internet-based questionnaire with 1,012 Japanese adults (40.2 +/- 10.0 years, mean +/- SD) recruited from registrants of a Japanese social research company. Conducted between November 2007 (T1) and December 2008 (T2), the survey included items on awareness level ("I know the contents." "I have heard of this Guide." or "I have not heard of this Guide.") of the Food Guide as the dependent variable, and demographics factors (e.g., age, education status, marital status, household income, and employment status) and health-related characteristics (obesity, abdominal obesity, and insufficient physical activity) as the independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation between awareness level and each variable. The relation between change of awareness level (T1-T2) and each variable was analyzed using a chi-square test. All the analyses were stratified by gender. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for all variables, men with a household income of 5,000,000-10,000,000 yen (OR=1.78; 95% CI=1.10-2.88) were positively associated with awareness level ("I have heard of this Guide."). In contrast, unmarried women were negatively associated with awareness level in T1 ("I know the contents"; OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.17-0.70. "I have heard of this Guide"; OR=0.50; 95% CI=0.27-0.92). In men, the awareness level of the Food Guide increased from T1 to T2, change of awareness level (T1; "I have not heard of this Guide") and education status being related (P=0.023). In women, the awareness levels overall did not improve from T1 to T2, but change of awareness level (T1; "I have heard of this Guide") was associated with household income (Plevel was not associated with health-related characteristics. The results

  11. Phase characteristics of rheograms. Original classification of phase-related changes of rheos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Y. Rudenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The phase characteristics of a rheogram are described in literature in general only. The existing theory of impedance rheography is based on an analysis of the form of rheogram envelopes, but not on the phase-related processes and their interpretation according to the applicable laws of physics. The aim of the present paper is to describe the phase-related characteristics of a rheogram of the ascending aorta. The method of the heart cycle phase analysis has been used for this purpose. By synchronizing an ECG of the aorta and a rheogram, an analysis of specific changes in the aorta blood filling in each phase is provided. As a result, the phase changes of a rheogram associated with the ECG phase structure are described and tabulated for first time. The author hereof offers his own original classification of the phase-related changes of rheograms.

  12. Implications of Age-Related Changes in Anatomy for Geriatric-Focused Difficult Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function surrounding the airway change by the age, which may ultimately result in having anatomic features of difficult airways in the elderly. Hence, we reviewed the literature focusing on the age-related anatomic changes and accordingly to compare the characteristics of difficult airways. With age, teeth wear and loss, protein and collagen synthesis reduction, and bone loss and muscle atrophy results in aged face (chin protrusion, cheek retraction and drooping, jaw restriction (temporo-madibular joint disc displacement and osteoarthritis, neck and back stiffness, and kyphotic deformities (degeneration of spinal articular cartilage, intervertebral discs, and spinal osteoporosis. These age-related changes in anatomy are compatible with the predictors of a difficult airway. We hope that these age-related anatomic approaches will prospectively allow a detailed understanding of the hallmarks resulting in geriatric-focused difficult airways in the future studies.

  13. Are changes in workplace bullying status related to changes in salivary cortisol? A longitudinal study among Danish employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mors, Ole; Kaerlev, Linda; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30 min after awakening and at 8 p.m.). All participants responding to the item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after newly onset of and discontinuance of workplace bullying. All analyses were adjusted for the potentially confounding effect of differences from baseline to follow-up in education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, cohort, sampling waves, time of awakening, and time of sampling. We found no indication of statistically significant difference in saliva cortisol, neither when participants changed their self-labelling from not bullied at baseline to being bullied at follow-up, nor when they at follow-up two years later reported discontinuance of bullying. This longitudinal study on the impact of changes in bullying status on change in cortisol levels showed consistent lack of associations with onset and discontinuance of workplace bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent Trends of Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    SOMOGYI, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses two related issues. One is whether, and how, growth patterns of standmean height have changed in Hungary in the last few decades, and the other is whether recentlyobserved increases in mean annual temperature might have caused changes in growth trends. Changesin tree growth were investigated for beech (Fagus sylvatica), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) andTurkey oak (Quercus cerris) by comparing stand mean heights over age using data from the forestinventories of 1981 and 200...

  15. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  16. Alcohol-related problems and life satisfaction predict motivation to change among mandated college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diulio, Andrea R; Cero, Ian; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the role specific types of alcohol-related problems and life satisfaction play in predicting motivation to change alcohol use. Participants were 548 college students mandated to complete a brief intervention following an alcohol-related policy violation. Using hierarchical multiple regression, we tested for the presence of interaction and quadratic effects on baseline data collected prior to the intervention. A significant interaction indicated that the relationship between a respondent's personal consequences and his/her motivation to change differs depending upon the level of concurrent social consequences. Additionally quadratic effects for abuse/dependence symptoms and life satisfaction were found. The quadratic probes suggest that abuse/dependence symptoms and poor life satisfaction are both positively associated with motivation to change for a majority of the sample; however, the nature of these relationships changes for participants with more extreme scores. Results support the utility of using a multidimensional measure of alcohol related problems and assessing non-linear relationships when assessing predictors of motivation to change. The results also suggest that the best strategies for increasing motivation may vary depending on the types of alcohol-related problems and level of life satisfaction the student is experiencing and highlight potential directions for future research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Predictors of health-related behaviour change in parents of overweight children in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Hae; Falconer, Catherine L; Croker, Helen; Saxena, Sonia; Kessel, Anthony S; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-05-01

    Providing parents with information about their child's overweight status (feedback) could prompt them to make lifestyle changes for their children. We assessed whether parents of overweight children intend to or change behaviours following feedback, and examined predictors of these transitions. We analysed data from a cohort of parents of children aged 4-5 and 10-11 years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme in five areas of England, 2010-2011. Parents of overweight children (body mass index ≥91st centile) with data at one or six months after feedback were included (n=285). The outcomes of interest were intention to change health-related behaviours and positive behaviour change at follow-up. Associations between respondent characteristics and outcomes were assessed using logistic regression analysis. After feedback, 72.1% of parents reported an intention to change; 54.7% reported positive behaviour change. Intention was associated with recognition of child overweight status (OR 11.20, 95% CI 4.49, 27.93). Parents of older and non-white children were more likely to report behaviour changes than parents of younger or white children. Intention did not predict behaviour change. Parental recognition of child overweight predicts behavioural intentions. However, intentions do not necessarily translate into behaviours; interventions that aim to change intentions may have limited benefits. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Predictors of health-related behaviour change in parents of overweight children in England☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Hae; Falconer, Catherine L.; Croker, Helen; Saxena, Sonia; Kessel, Anthony S.; Viner, Russell M.; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objective Providing parents with information about their child's overweight status (feedback) could prompt them to make lifestyle changes for their children. We assessed whether parents of overweight children intend to or change behaviours following feedback, and examined predictors of these transitions. Methods We analysed data from a cohort of parents of children aged 4–5 and 10–11 years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme in five areas of England, 2010–2011. Parents of overweight children (body mass index ≥ 91st centile) with data at one or six months after feedback were included (n = 285). The outcomes of interest were intention to change health-related behaviours and positive behaviour change at follow-up. Associations between respondent characteristics and outcomes were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results After feedback, 72.1% of parents reported an intention to change; 54.7% reported positive behaviour change. Intention was associated with recognition of child overweight status (OR 11.20, 95% CI 4.49, 27.93). Parents of older and non-white children were more likely to report behaviour changes than parents of younger or white children. Intention did not predict behaviour change. Conclusions Parental recognition of child overweight predicts behavioural intentions. However, intentions do not necessarily translate into behaviours; interventions that aim to change intentions may have limited benefits. PMID:24518007

  19. Earthquake related dynamic groundwater pressure changes observed at the Kamaishi Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shunji; Yasuike, Shinji; Komada, Hiroya; Kobayashi, Yoshimasa; Kawamura, Makoto; Aoki, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    From 342 seismic records observed at the Kamaishi Mine form 1990 to 1998, a total of 92 data whose acceleration is greater than 1 gal or ground water pressure is greater than 1 kPa were selected and dynamic ground water pressure changes associated with earthquakes were studied. The results obtained are as follows: (1) A total of 27 earthquakes accompanied by static ground water pressure changes were observed. Earthquake-related static ground water pressure changes are smaller than 1/10 of the annual range of ground water pressure changes. There is also a tendency that the ground water pressure changes recovers to its original trend in several weeks after earthquakes. (2) Dynamic ground water pressure changes associated with earthquakes occur when P-waves arrive. However, the largest dynamic ground water pressure changes occur on S-wave part arrivals where the amplitude of seismic wave is the largest. A positive correlation is recognized between the maximum value of velocity wave form and that of dynamic ground water pressure changes. (3) The characteristic of dynamic change in ground water pressure due to earthquakes can be explained qualitatively by mechanism in which the P-wave converted from an incident SV wave propagates along the borehole. (author)

  20. Relevance of the land use changes related to a megacity development in a Colombian river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arias, Alicia; Romero Hernández, Claudia Patricia; Francés, Félix

    2017-04-01

    A megacity development is a main driving force for land uses changes. Population in these megacities usually rise depending on some or all of the natural resources related to the occupied area and, among them, water is a pivotal requirement. On the other hand, land use changes determine the catchment hydrology and, in consequence, its management. The better knowledge on land uses cover distribution and characteristics, the higher capabilities to increase the accuracy of hydrological predictions and the efficiency of water management. This study aims to describe the land uses changes occurred during the recent expansion of the megacity of Bogotá (Colombia) and to understand the expected changes. In addition, we propose the base for the consideration of this land use changes in the TETIS distributed hydrological modelling approach. The discussion focus on the necessity of considering this kind of scenarios in hydrological modelling for a responsible management of the water resources.

  1. The political solidarity model of social change: dynamics of self-categorization in intergroup power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Emina; Reynolds, Katherine J; Turner, John C

    2008-11-01

    Social and political change involves a challenge to the status quo in intergroup power relations. Traditionally, the social psychology of social change has focused on disadvantaged minority groups collectively challenging the decisions, actions, and policies of those in positions of established authority. In contrast, this article presents a political solidarity model of social change that explores the process by which members of the majority challenge the authority in solidarity with the minority. It is argued that political solidarity as a social change process involves a contest between the authority and the minority over the meaning of a shared (higher order) identity with the majority. When identity ceases to be shared with the authority and becomes shared with the minority, majority challenge to authority in solidarity with the minority becomes possible. The model's contributions to existing social psychological approaches to social change are also discussed.

  2. Stability and change in structural social relations as predictor of mortality among elderly women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Modvig, J; Due, P

    2000-01-01

    In a follow-up study of 70-95 years old women and men (n = 911) we studied the association between change and stability in three structural aspects of social relations (contact frequency, contact diversity, cohabitation status) from 1986-1990 and mortality after the next four years in 1994. Women.......02-14.94) and ORdiv: 6.04 (1.30-28.03). In summary, we found rather larger age differences in the strength of the association between change in structural social relations and mortality. Furthermore, the associations seemed stronger among women than men, which may however mainly be explained by the small number...

  3. Social media and related technology:drivers of change in managing the contemporary sales force

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrief, William C.; Marshall, Greg W.; Rudd, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The selling environment has undergone tremendous transformation over the past 2 decades. Perhaps the greatest change has centered on changes and advancements in technology. The latest dramatic change has been the rapidly increasing use of social media and other related technologies in the business-to-business realm. The sales world began the use of technology through the use of Web 1.0, which was primarily webpage oriented; now we see the world of social media as the paradigm of how firms sho...

  4. Strategic Change in a Construction Contractor's Purchasing Organisation and Supplier Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The paper adopts a combined supply chain management and purchasing theory approach to changes in a contractor's purchasing organization and suppliers relations. This is seen to be a complex prolonged change process emerging over long time. The method is qualitative and longitudinal combining ex...... ante studies with ex post elements. As the time frame is ten years a necessary combination of studies with different aims has been done. The case of a major contractor's efforts within supply chain and purchasing exhibits a number of change elements in interaction; new business concepts, processes...

  5. Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartomeus, Ignasi; Ascher, John S; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan N; Wagner, David L; Hedtke, Shannon M; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-03-19

    Pollinators such as bees are essential to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. However, despite concerns about a global pollinator crisis, long-term data on the status of bee species are limited. We present a long-term study of relative rates of change for an entire regional bee fauna in the northeastern United States, based on >30,000 museum records representing 438 species. Over a 140-y period, aggregate native species richness weakly decreased, but richness declines were significant only for the genus Bombus. Of 187 native species analyzed individually, only three declined steeply, all of these in the genus Bombus. However, there were large shifts in community composition, as indicated by 56% of species showing significant changes in relative abundance over time. Traits associated with a declining relative abundance include small dietary and phenological breadth and large body size. In addition, species with lower latitudinal range boundaries are increasing in relative abundance, a finding that may represent a response to climate change. We show that despite marked increases in human population density and large changes in anthropogenic land use, aggregate native species richness declines were modest outside of the genus Bombus. At the same time, we find that certain ecological traits are associated with declines in relative abundance. These results should help target conservation efforts focused on maintaining native bee abundance and diversity and therefore the important ecosystems services that they provide.

  6. A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing process: Technical, relational, and conditional process models of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly; Apodaca, Timothy R; Borsari, Brian; Gaume, Jacques; Hoadley, Ariel; Gordon, Rebecca E F; Tonigan, J Scott; Moyers, Theresa

    2018-02-01

    In the present meta-analysis, we test the technical and relational hypotheses of Motivational Interviewing (MI) efficacy. We also propose an a priori conditional process model where heterogeneity of technical path effect sizes should be explained by interpersonal/relational (i.e., empathy, MI Spirit) and intrapersonal (i.e., client treatment seeking status) moderators. A systematic review identified k = 58 reports, describing 36 primary studies and 40 effect sizes (N = 3,025 participants). Statistical methods calculated the inverse variance-weighted pooled correlation coefficient for the therapist to client and the client to outcome paths across multiple target behaviors (i.e., alcohol use, other drug use, other behavior change). Therapist MI-consistent skills were correlated with more client change talk (r = .55, p technical hypothesis was supported. Specifically, proportion MI consistency was related to higher proportion change talk (r = .11, p = .004) and higher proportion change talk was related to reductions in risk behavior at follow up (r = -.16, p technical hypothesis path effect sizes was partially explained by inter- and intrapersonal moderators. This meta-analysis provides additional support for the technical hypothesis of MI efficacy; future research on the relational hypothesis should occur in the field rather than in the context of clinical trials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Cognitive flexibility modulates maturation and music-training-related changes in neural sound discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikivi, Katri; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that musicians show superior neural sound discrimination when compared to non-musicians, and that these changes emerge with accumulation of training. Our aim was to investigate whether individual differences in executive functions predict training-related changes in neural sound discrimination. We measured event-related potentials induced by sound changes coupled with tests for executive functions in musically trained and non-trained children aged 9-11 years and 13-15 years. High performance in a set-shifting task, indexing cognitive flexibility, was linked to enhanced maturation of neural sound discrimination in both musically trained and non-trained children. Specifically, well-performing musically trained children already showed large mismatch negativity (MMN) responses at a young age as well as at an older age, indicating accurate sound discrimination. In contrast, the musically trained low-performing children still showed an increase in MMN amplitude with age, suggesting that they were behind their high-performing peers in the development of sound discrimination. In the non-trained group, in turn, only the high-performing children showed evidence of an age-related increase in MMN amplitude, and the low-performing children showed a small MMN with no age-related change. These latter results suggest an advantage in MMN development also for high-performing non-trained individuals. For the P3a amplitude, there was an age-related increase only in the children who performed well in the set-shifting task, irrespective of music training, indicating enhanced attention-related processes in these children. Thus, the current study provides the first evidence that, in children, cognitive flexibility may influence age-related and training-related plasticity of neural sound discrimination. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Age-related changes in the transmission properties of the human lens and their relevance to circadian entrainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Herbst, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    To characterize age-related changes in the transmission of light through noncataractous human lenses.......To characterize age-related changes in the transmission of light through noncataractous human lenses....

  9. Potential impact of climate change on air pollution-related human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Delucia, Anthony J; Deck, Leland; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-07-01

    The potential health impact of ambient ozone and PM2.5 concentrations modulated by climate change over the United States is investigated using combined atmospheric and health modeling. Regional air quality modeling for 2001 and 2050 was conducted using CMAQ Modeling System with meteorology from the GISS Global Climate Model, downscaled regionally using MM5,keeping boundary conditions of air pollutants, emission sources, population, activity levels, and pollution controls constant. BenMap was employed to estimate the air pollution health outcomes at the county, state, and national level for 2050 caused by the effect of meteorology on future ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. The changes in calculated annual mean PM2.5 concentrations show a relatively modest change with positive and negative responses (increasing PM2.5 levels across the northeastern U.S.) although average ozone levels slightly decrease across the northern sections of the U.S., and increase across the southern tier. Results suggest that climate change driven air quality-related health effects will be adversely affected in more then 2/3 of the continental U.S. Changes in health effects induced by PM2.5 dominate compared to those caused by ozone. PM2.5-induced premature mortality is about 15 times higher then that due to ozone. Nationally the analysis suggests approximately 4000 additional annual premature deaths due to climate change impacts on PM2.5 vs 300 due to climate change-induced ozone changes. However, the impacts vary spatially. Increased premature mortality due to elevated ozone concentrations will be offset by lower mortality from reductions in PM2.5 in 11 states. Uncertainties related to different emissions projections used to simulate future climate, and the uncertainties forecasting the meteorology, are large although there are potentially important unaddressed uncertainties (e.g., downscaling, speciation, interaction, exposure, and concentration-response function of the human health studies).

  10. The Course of Neurocognitive Changes in Acute Psychosis: Relation to Symptomatic Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liss Anda

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a core aspect of psychosis, but the course of cognitive functioning during acute psychosis remains poorly understood, as does the association between symptom change and neurocognitive change. Some studies have found cognitive improvement to be related to improvement in negative symptoms, but few have examined cognitive changes in the early acute phase, when clinical improvement mainly happens. This study's aim was to investigate the relation between cognitive and symptomatic change in clinically heterogeneous patients during the early acute phase of psychosis.Participants (n = 84, including both first-episode and previously ill patients, were recruited from consecutive admissions to the acute psychiatric emergency ward of Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, as part of the Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP. The RBANS neurocognitive test battery was administered on admission and again at discharge from the acute ward (mean time 4.1 weeks, SD 1.86 weeks. Symptomatic change was measured by PANSS.The proportion of subjects with cognitive impairment (t < 35 was 28.6% in the acute phase and 13.1% at follow-up. A sequential multiple linear regression model with RBANS change as the dependent variable found PANSS negative symptoms change to significantly predict total RBANS performance improvement (beta = -.307, p = .016. There was no significant difference between subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychotic disorders in terms of cognitive change.The proportion of subjects with mild to moderate impairment in cognitive test performance is reduced across the acute phase of psychosis, with improvement related to amelioration of negative symptoms.

  11. Age-related changes in the testes and prostate of the Beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowseth, L.A.; Gerlach, R.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Age-related changes in the histologic morphology of the Beagle dog prostate and testes must be separated from those changes that may result from the testing of experimental compounds. The prostate and testes of healthy age-matched Beagle dogs 3 to 14 yr of age were obtained. Serum to evaluate testosterone levels was also obtained from each dog at the time of euthanasia. Tissue sections from the prostate and testes were examined by light microscopy for both qualitative and quantitative morphologic assessment. A statistically significant increase in prostatic weight with increased age was noted. Significant morphometric findings in the prostate included a decrease in the relative percent of epithelial cells and an increase in the relative lumen size of glandular acini with increased age. The absolute volume of prostate interstitial tissue and inflammation showed a statistically significant increase with age. Stereological analysis of the testes showed a decrease in the relative percent epithelium with increasing age. No distinct age-related trend could be detected in serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels did not correlate with the morphologic age-related changes observed in the testes or prostate. (author)

  12. Age- and treatment-related associations with health behavior change among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsea; Sandler, Dale P; Weinberg, Clarice R; Houck, Kevin; Chunduri, Minal; Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Sabatino, Susan A; White, Mary C; Rodriguez, Juan L; Nichols, Hazel B

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and treatment-related factors associated with health-promoting behavior changes after a breast cancer diagnosis. Changes in health behaviors were also evaluated according to weight, exercise, diet and alcohol consumption patterns before breast cancer diagnosis. We examined self-reported behavior changes among 1415 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the NIEHS Sister Study cohort. Women reported changes in exercising, eating healthy foods, maintaining a healthy body weight, drinking alcohol, smoking, getting enough sleep, spending time with family and friends, and participating in breast cancer awareness events. On average, women were 3.7 years from their breast cancer diagnosis. Overall, 20-36% reported positive changes in exercise, eating healthy foods, maintaining a healthy weight, or alcohol consumption. However, 17% exercised less. With each 5-year increase in diagnosis age, women were 11-16% less likely to report positive change in each of these behaviors (OR = 0.84-0.89; p exercise, eating healthy foods, efforts to maintain a healthy weight, alcohol consumption, sleep patterns, or time spent with family or friends. Many women reported no change in cancer survivorship guideline-supported behaviors after diagnosis. Positive changes were more common among younger women or those who underwent chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  14. Negative and Positive Partial Mobility: A Study of the Relative Changes in Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Atanu; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered the issues concerning dynamic changes in HDI and its various components from a relative standpoint. The analysis of HDI mobility should entail directional movement introduced by Fields (in Distribution and development: a new look at the developing world. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001). However, Fields' analysis was…

  15. Age-related changes of structures in cerebellar cortex of cat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied the structures of the cerebellar cortex of young adult and old cats for age-related changes, which were statistically analysed. Nissl staining was used to visualize the cortical neurons. The immunohistochemical method was used to display glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive (IR) astrocytes and ...

  16. Association of gait and balance disorders with age-related white matter changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baezner, H.; Blahak, C.; Poggesi, A.; Pantoni, L.; Inzitari, D.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Scheltens, P.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Hennerici, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) Study, 11 European centers are evaluating the role of age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent determinant of the transition to disability in the elderly (65 to 84 years). We aimed at determining the influence of ARWMC on

  17. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  18. Age-related functional brain changes in FMR1 premutation carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S.G. Brown

    2018-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time functional imaging-based evidence for early movement-related neurodegeneration in Fragile X premutation carriers. These changes pre-exist the diagnosis of FXTAS and are greatest in older carriers suggesting that they may be indicative of FXTAS vulnerability.

  19. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  20. Adapting to Changing Memory Retrieval Demands: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Roland G.; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Mecklinger, Axel; Kray, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated preparatory processes involved in adapting to changing episodic memory retrieval demands. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a general old/new recognition task and a specific task that also required retrieval of perceptual details. The relevant task remained either constant or changed…

  1. Transportation into narrative worlds and the motivation to change health-related behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebbers, Timon; de Wit, J.B.F.; Appel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Stories are considered to be a potent means to change health-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavior because of recipients’ transportation into the narrative world. Little emphasis, however, has been given to the link between transportation and process variables that are pertinent to health

  2. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross-fostering reveals seasonal changes in the relative fitness of two competing species of flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qvarnstrom, A; Svedin, N; Wiley, C; Veen, T; Gustafsson, L

    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in relative fitness of competing species is a key factor affecting the structure of communities. However, it is not intuitive whys species that are ecologically similar should differ in their response to environmental changes. Here we show that two sympatric

  4. Toastmaster's Inspired Pedagogical Changes: From a Speech Class into a Public Relations Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Action research is used to view pedagogical changes, first in a speech class and then in a public relations course over a five-year period. The course instructor gained experience as a member of a Toastmasters International club and used Toastmasters-like activities, to revise content in the courses. Ultimately, students in the public relations…

  5. Allergen-induced changes in airway responsiveness are related to baseline airway responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; RijssenbeekNouwens, LHM; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    In the literature, bronchial allergen challenge is usually reported to result in an increase in histamine-induced airway responsiveness (AR). The present study investigated the relation between baseline AR and allergen-induced changes in AR. The effect of allergen challenge on AR was investigated in

  6. Obesity and Age-Related Changes in Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Across Four Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Picavet, H. Susan J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dollé, Martijn E T; Smit, Henriette A; Monique Verschuren, W M

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity increases with age and is higher in each younger generation (unfavorable generation shift). This may influence patterns of oxidative stress and inflammation. Age-related changes and generation shifts in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were

  7. Obesity and Age-Related Changes in Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Across Four Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Susan, H; Picavet, J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dollé, Martijn E T; Smit, Henriette A; Monique Verschuren, W M

    ObjectiveThe prevalence of obesity increases with age and is higher in each younger generation (unfavorable generation shift). This may influence patterns of oxidative stress and inflammation. Age-related changes and generation shifts in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were

  8. Risk perception: The social construction of spatial knowledge around climate change-related scenarios in Lima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.

    2016-01-01

    Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow changes related to affective speech presentation in persistent vegetative state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, BM; Willemsen, ATM; Paans, AMJ

    A story told by his mother was presented on tape to a trauma patient in persistent vegetative state (PVS). During auditory presentation, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed by means of positron emission tomography (PET). Changes in rCBF related to this stimulus

  10. Changing State-University Relations: The Experiences of Japan and Lessons for Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirat, Morshidi; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the changing state-university relations in Japan and Malaysia. Its main objective is to identify and examine possible lessons for Malaysia, based on the Japanese experience. Notably, since the late 1970s, Malaysia has been looking towards Japan as a model for socio-economic development (the "look-east" Policy)…

  11. Event-related EEG changes preceding saccadic eye movements before and after dry immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilovskaya, E S; Kirenskaya, A V; Novototski-Vlasov, V Yu; Kozlovskaya, I B

    2004-07-01

    Objectives of this work were to quantify antisaccade characteristics, presaccadic slow negative EEG-potentials, and event-related EEG frequency band power (theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2 and beta3) changes (ERD) in healthy volunteers before and after 6-day simulated weightlessness (dry immersion).

  12. Proceedings - Limits of Acceptable Change and related planning processes: Progress and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool; David N. Cole

    1997-01-01

    Experience with Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) and related planning processes has accumulated since the mid-1980's. These processes were developoed as a means of dealing with recreation carrying capacity issues in wilderness and National Parks. These processes clearly also have application outside of protected areas and to issues other than recreation...

  13. ESTIMATION OF INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC ENVIRONMENT FACTORS OF AGE-RELATED TOOTH COLOUR CHANGES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyšpler, P.; Jezbera, D.; Fürst, T.; Mikšík, Ivan; Waclawek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2010), s. 515-525 ISSN 1898-6196 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : age-related colour changes of teeth * intrinsic and extrinsic factors * 3D mathematical regression models * estimation of real age Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.294, year: 2010

  14. Changes in computed tomography features following preoperative chemotherapy for nephroblastoma: relation to histopathological classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Jeanes, Annmarie C.; Roebuck, Derek J.; Owens, Catherine M.; Sebire, Neil J.; Risdon, Rupert A.; Michalski, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess computed tomography (CT) changes, both volume estimates and subjective features, following preoperative chemotherapy for nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumour) in patients treated on the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group Wilms' Tumour Study-3 (UKW-3) protocol and to compare CT changes and histopathological classification. Twenty-one nephroblastomas in 15 patients treated on UKW-3 were included. All patients were examined by CT before and after preoperative chemotherapy treatment. CT images were reviewed (estimated volume change and subjectively assessed features). CT changes were compared to histopathological classification. Of the 21 tumours, all five high-risk tumours decreased in volume following chemotherapy (median -79%; range -37 to -91%). The sole low-risk tumour decreased in volume by 98%. Ten intermediate-risk tumours decreased in volume (median -72%; range -6 to -98%) and five intermediate-risk tumours increased (median +110%; range +11 to +164%). None of the five high-risk tumours, compared to 15/16 intermediate or low-risk tumours, became less dense and/or more homogeneous, or virtually disappeared, following chemotherapy. Volume change following chemotherapy did not relate to histopathological risk group. Changes in subjectively assessed qualitative CT features were more strongly related to histopathological risk group. (orig.)

  15. Age-related changes in cutaneous sensation in the healthy human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous sensation deteriorates with age. It is not known if this change is consistent over the entire hand or if sensation is affected by changes in skin mechanics. Cutaneous perceptual thresholds were tested at eight sites in the glabrous skin and two in the hairy skin of both hands in 70 subjects (20-88 years), five male and five female per decade, using calibrated von Frey filaments, two-point discrimination, and texture discrimination. Venous occlusion at the wrist (40 ± 10 mmHg) and moisturizer were used to alter skin mechanics. Cutaneous thresholds increased significantly with age (p sensation varied according to the site tested with smaller changes on the fingers compared to the palm. Two-point discrimination deteriorated with age (p = 0.046), but with no interaction between sex, handedness, or changes in skin mechanics. There were no significant differences for texture discrimination. Changes in skin mechanics improved cutaneous thresholds in the oldest males after moisturizing (p = 0.001) but not otherwise. These results emphasize the complex pattern of age-related deterioration in cutaneous sensation with differences between sexes, the hands, sites on the hand, and the mode of testing. As the index fingertip is not a sensitive indicator of sensory decline, the minimum assessment of age-related changes in cutaneous sensation should include both hands, and sites on the palm.

  16. The double-eyelid operation in Japan: its evolution as related to cultural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakabe, Y; Kinugasa, T; Kawata, M; Kishimoto, T; Shirakabe, T

    1985-09-01

    Of the many aspects of aesthetic surgery, the double-eyelid operation generates the most interest for Japanese surgeons, as there has been an enormous demand for it by patients who are fashion-conscious. It has been possible to locate 32 operative procedures that have been published in the Japanese literature over the past ninety years. Some of these procedures have been reviewed here in relation to the cultural and social changes which are important factors determining the extent of the demand for the operation and which correlate with various changes in surgical technique. This study chronologically describes each of the principal methods related to these social changes and also considers the influence of cultural fads and fashions.

  17. Analysing countries' contribution to climate change: scientific and policy-related choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hoehne, Niklas; Trudinger, Cathy; Lowe, Jason; Matthews, Ben; Romstad, Bard; Pires de Campos, Christiano; Andronova, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of different policy-related and scientific choices on the calculated regional contributions to global climate change (the 'Brazilian Proposal'). Policy-related choices include the time period of emissions, the mix of greenhouse gases and different indicators of climate change impacts. The scientific choices include historical emissions and model representations of the climate system. We generated and compared results of several simple climate models. We find that the relative contributions of different nations to global climate change-from emissions of greenhouse gases alone-are quite robust, despite the varying model complexity and differences in calculated absolute changes. For the default calculations, the average calculated contributions to the global mean surface temperature increase in 2000 are about 40% from OECD, 14% from Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union, 24% from Asia and 22% from Africa and Latin America. Policy-related choices, such as time period of emissions, climate change indicator and gas mix generally have larger influence on the results than scientific choices. More specifically, choosing a later attribution start date (1990 instead of 1890) for historical emissions, decreases the contributions of regions that started emitting early, such as the OECD countries by 6 percentage points, whereas it increases the contribution of late emitters such as Asia by 8 percentage points. However, only including the fossil CO 2 emissions instead of the emissions of all Kyoto gases (fossil and land use change), increases the OECD contributions by 21 percentage points and decreases the contribution of Asia by 14 percentage points

  18. Echoic memory of a single pure tone indexed by change-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Koji; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamashiro, Koya; Otsuru, Naofumi; Takeshima, Yasuyuki; Nishihara, Makoto; Motomura, Eishi; Kida, Tetsuo; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2010-10-20

    The rapid detection of sensory change is important to survival. The process should relate closely to memory since it requires that the brain separate a new stimulus from an ongoing background or past event. Given that sensory memory monitors current sensory status and works to pick-up changes in real-time, any change detected by this system should evoke a change-related cortical response. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the single presentation of a sound is enough to elicit a change-related cortical response, and therefore, shape a memory trace enough to separate a subsequent stimulus. Under a paradigm where two pure sounds 300 ms in duration and 800 or 840 Hz in frequency were presented in a specific order at an even probability, cortical responses to each sound were measured with magnetoencephalograms. Sounds were grouped to five events regardless of their frequency, 1D, 2D, and 3D (a sound preceded by one, two, or three different sounds), and 1S and 2S (a sound preceded by one or two same sounds). Whereas activation in the planum temporale did not differ among events, activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) was clearly greater for the different events (1D, 2D, 3D) than the same event (1S and 2S). One presentation of a sound is enough to shape a memory trace for comparison with a subsequent physically different sound and elicits change-related cortical responses in the STG. The STG works as a real-time sensory gate open to a new event.

  19. Echoic memory of a single pure tone indexed by change-related brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motomura Eishi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid detection of sensory change is important to survival. The process should relate closely to memory since it requires that the brain separate a new stimulus from an ongoing background or past event. Given that sensory memory monitors current sensory status and works to pick-up changes in real-time, any change detected by this system should evoke a change-related cortical response. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the single presentation of a sound is enough to elicit a change-related cortical response, and therefore, shape a memory trace enough to separate a subsequent stimulus. Results Under a paradigm where two pure sounds 300 ms in duration and 800 or 840 Hz in frequency were presented in a specific order at an even probability, cortical responses to each sound were measured with magnetoencephalograms. Sounds were grouped to five events regardless of their frequency, 1D, 2D, and 3D (a sound preceded by one, two, or three different sounds, and 1S and 2S (a sound preceded by one or two same sounds. Whereas activation in the planum temporale did not differ among events, activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG was clearly greater for the different events (1D, 2D, 3D than the same event (1S and 2S. Conclusions One presentation of a sound is enough to shape a memory trace for comparison with a subsequent physically different sound and elicits change-related cortical responses in the STG. The STG works as a real-time sensory gate open to a new event.

  20. Effects of organizational change on work-related empowerment, employee satisfaction, and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Härkönen, Eeva; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Doran, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a longitudinal quantitative study on nurses' views on factors promoting and impeding empowerment and examines the relationship between work-related empowerment and background variables in one hospital. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed statistically. Nurses gave lowest assessments of promoting factors on the second measurement occasion, a time when the organization was going through major changes. Both job satisfaction and motivation showed a positive relationship with factors promoting empowerment. Organizational changes have a direct effect on the work environment in terms of empowerment and job satisfaction. To cope successfully with changes, special attention must be paid to personnel management. It seems that factors promoting and impeding empowerment can be used to measure effects of organizational changes as well.

  1. Monitoring changes in seismic velocity related to an ongoing rapid inflation event at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.

  2. The changes of cerebral morphology related to aging in Taiwanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study with the 3-dimensional (3D MRI reconstruction technique was conducted to investigate cerebral complexity changes related to age differences in native Taiwanese population. In our sample of 85 participants aged between 25 and 81, age was associated with gradual ventricular expansion. A nonlinear quadratic relationship between white matter volume and age was found overall in the brain. Widespread age-related reduction in white matter was detected from late adulthood onwards. However, no significant age-related changes in the cortex and whole brain volume were determined throughout adulthood. These findings provided information in describing brain structural complexity, which might in the future serve as an objective diagnostic index or as a predictive parameter for neurological diseases. Our method then may be used for cross-cultural longitudinal studies to evaluate the effect of disease, environment and aging on the brain.

  3. Changes in the Relation Between Competence Beliefs and Achievement in Math Across Elementary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Anne F; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-03-01

    Math competence beliefs and achievement are important outcomes of school-based learning. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on whether skill development, self-enhancement, or reciprocal effects account for the interplay among them. A development-related change in the direction of their relation in the early school years might explain the inconsistency. To test this, 542 German elementary school students (M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.58) were repeatedly investigated over 24 months from Grade 2 to Grade 4. Math competence beliefs declined and had a growing influence on subsequent math grades. This suggests changes in the dominant direction of the relation from a skill development to a reciprocal effects model during elementary school. Findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical and practical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. DIURNAL CHANGES IN LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATIVE WATER CONTENT OF GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in light intensity, air temperature and relative air humidity leads to diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and leaf relative water content. In order to determine the diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate of vine plants and influence of the main environmental factors, gas exchange in the vine leaves were measure using a portable plant CO2 analysis package. The results show that diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate could be interpreted as single-peak curve, with a maximum at noon (10.794 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Leaf relative water content has maximum value in the morning; the values may slightly decrease during the day (day of June, with normal temperature, no rain, no water restriction in soil.

  5. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  6. Oxidative stress participates in age-related changes in rat lumbar intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gang; Lu, Huading; Chen, Mingjuan; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Huiqing

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a major factor associated with lumber intervertebral disc degeneration, and oxidative stress is known to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress in intervertebral discs of Wistar rats in three different age groups: youth, adult, and geriatric. Age-related intervertebral disc changes were examined by histological analysis. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated by assessing nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). Intervertebral disc, but not serum, NO concentrations significantly differed between the three groups. Serum and intervertebral disc SOD activity gradually decreased with age. Furthermore, both serum and intervertebral disc MDA and AOPP levels gradually increased with age. Our studies suggest that oxidative stress is associated with age-related intervertebral disc changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation-related ophthalmologic changes and aging among the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Finch, S.C.; Choshi, Kanji; Takaku, Isao; Mishima, Hiromu; Takase, Tomoko.

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of ionizing radiation to the age-related ophthalmologic findings of the 1978-80 ophthalmologic examination of the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been reanalyzed using Dosimetry System 1986 eye organ dose estimates. The main purpose of this re-evaluation was to determine whether age and radiation exposure have an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect on ophthalmologic changes. The best model fitting axial opacities gives a significant positive effect for both linear dose-response and linear age-related regression coefficients and a significant negative effect for an interaction between radiation dose and age. Such a negative interaction implies an antagonistic effect in that the relative risks with relation to radiation doses decrease with increasing age. This phenomenon suggests that the lenses of younger persons are more sensitive to radiation than are those of older persons. However, the best-fitting relationship for posterior subcapsular changes suggested a linear-quadratic dose response and linear age-related effects. The quadratic estimate of radiation dose squared showed a highly significant effect with a negative trend, but the negative quadratic estimate was so extremely small it had almost no contributive value within an appropriative dose area. These data suggest an additive relationship between aging and radiation for the induction of posterior subcapsular changes, and they also indicate that there is no distinct evidence of a radiation-induced aging effect. The radiation-related relative risks increase with a log linearity. The decrease of visual acuity and accommodation with increasing age were comparable in both exposed and control subjects, with age-related visual acuity decreasing more than accommodation. (J.P.N.)

  8. Impact of Climate Change on Heat-Related Mortality in Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate.

  9. Impact of climate change on heat-related mortality in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Lesk, Corey; Jiang, Leiwen; Jones, Bryan; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-05-01

    A warming climate is anticipated to increase the future heat-related total mortality in urban areas. However, little evidence has been reported for cause-specific mortality or nonurban areas. Here we assessed the impact of climate change on heat-related total and cause-specific mortality in both urban and rural counties of Jiangsu Province, China, in the next five decades. To address the potential uncertainty in projecting future heat-related mortality, we applied localized urban- and nonurban-specific exposure response functions, six population projections including a no population change scenario and five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and 42 temperature projections from 21 global-scale general circulation models and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Results showed that projected warmer temperatures in 2016-2040 and 2041-2065 will lead to higher heat-related mortality for total non-accidental, cardiovascular, respiratory, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes occurring annually during May to September in Jiangsu Province, China. Nonurban residents in Jiangsu will suffer from more excess heat-related cause-specific mortality in 2016-2065 than urban residents. Variations across climate models and RCPs dominated the uncertainty of heat-related mortality estimation whereas population size change only had limited influence. Our findings suggest that targeted climate change mitigation and adaptation measures should be taken in both urban and nonurban areas of Jiangsu Province. Specific public health interventions should be focused on the leading causes of death (stroke, IHD, and COPD), whose health burden will be amplified by a warming climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Customization of flexographic printing plates related to uvc-induced changes in the crosslinking degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tomašegović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the swelling properties of photopolymer flexographic printing plates related to the variations of UVC post-treatment have been analysed. The aim of the research was to interconnect the changes in the crosslinking degree of the photopolymer material occurring due to the modified UVC radiation of the printing plate and the changes of its surface free energy crucial in the graphic reproduction process. Changes in the crosslinking degree in the photopolymer materials have been analysed by the swelling experiments. Results have proven that the partial dissolution of the photopolymer material caused by the immersion of the printing plates in various solvents is in the direct relation with the changes of the dispersive surface free energy. UVC post-treatment, used for the crosslinking termination and the definition of the surface properties of printing plates, is therefore directly affecting the resistivity of the printing plate in the solvent environment. By calculating the correlation coefficients for the weight loss of the photopolymer material in solvents and the dispersive surface free energy, the relation between the crosslinking degree and the UVC post-treatment has been established.

  11. Age-related changes in normal adult pancreas: MR imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Noda, Yasufumi; Higaki, Atsushi; Kanki, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate age-related changes in normal adult pancreas as identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We examined 115 patients without pancreatic diseases (21–90 years) who underwent upper abdominal MRI to evaluate the normal pancreatic MRI findings related to aging. The parameters examined were the pancreatic anteroposterior (AP) diameter, pancreatic lobulation, pancreatic signal intensity (SI), depiction of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), grade of the visual SI decrease on the opposed-phase T1-weighted images compared with in-phase images, and enhancement effect of the pancreas in the arterial phase of dynamic imaging. Results: The pancreatic AP diameter significantly reduced (head, p = 0.0172; body, p = 0.0007; tail, p < 0.0001), and lobulation (p < 0.0001) and parenchymal fatty change (p < 0.0001) became more evident with aging. No significant correlation was observed between aging and pancreatic SI, however the SI on the in-phase T1-weighted images tended to decrease with aging. No significant correlation was observed between aging and the depiction of the MPD as well as aging and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: MRI findings of pancreatic atrophy, lobulation, and fatty degeneration are characteristic changes related to aging, and it is necessary to recognize these changes in the interpretation of abdominal MRI in patients with and without pancreatic disease

  12. Functional and Homeostatic Impact of Age-Related Changes in Lymph Node Stroma

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    Heather L. Thompson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults over 65 years of age are more vulnerable to infectious disease and show poor responses to vaccination relative to those under 50. A complex set of age-related changes in the immune system is believed to be largely responsible for these defects. These changes, collectively termed immune senescence, encompass alterations in both the innate and adaptive immune systems, in the microenvironments where immune cells develop or reside, and in soluble factors that guide immune homeostasis and function. While age-related changes in primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, and, in particular, the thymus, which involutes in the first third of life have been long appreciated, changes affecting aging secondary lymphoid organs, and, in particular, aging lymph nodes (LNs have been less well characterized. Over the last 20 years, LN stromal cells have emerged as key players in maintaining LN morphology and immune homeostasis, as well as in coordinating immune responses to pathogens. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the contributions of LN stromal cells to immune senescence. We discuss approaches to understand the mechanisms behind the decline in LN stromal cells and conclude by considering potential strategies to rejuvenate aging LN stroma to improve immune homeostasis, immune responses, and vaccine efficacy in the elderly.

  13. Therapeutic Change in Group Therapy For Interpersonal Trauma: A Relational Framework for Research and Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouliara, Zoë; Karatzias, Thanos; Gullone, Angela; Ferguson, Sandra; Cosgrove, Katie; Burke Draucker, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of therapeutic change processes in group therapy for complex interpersonal trauma has been limited. The present study aimed at addressing this gap by developing a framework of therapeutic change in this field from a survivor and therapist perspective. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semistructured individual interviews. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to identify recurrent themes. A final sample of n = 16 patients and n = 5 facilitators completed the interview. Main change processes identified by survivors were as follows: self versus others, trust versus threat, confrontation versus avoidance, and "patching up" versus true healing. Therapeutic processes identified by therapist facilitators included managing group dynamics, unpredictability and uncertainty, and process versus content. The proposed framework explains therapeutic change in group therapy in relational terms, that is, therapeutic dissonance, the dynamic interaction of self and experience as well as building empathic trusting relations. The importance of managing dissonance to aid personally meaningful recovery was highlighted. These findings have implications for the usefulness of relational and person-centered approaches to clinical practice in the area of interpersonal and complex trauma, especially in the early identification, prevention, and management of dropouts.

  14. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  15. Disorders Related to Use of Psychoactive Substances in DSM-5: Changes and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhad, Roshan; Lal, Rakesh; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    In the most recent edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) that is DSM-5 many modifications have been made in substance use disorder section. These include changes in terminology; sections and categories; diagnostic criteria; threshold for diagnosis; severity; and specifier. Additionally, there have been certain additions and omissions from the earlier version. Critical evaluation of the changes made to the section on disorders related to use of psychoactive substances in India context has not been published so far. The current paper presents a critique of the changes made to the substance use disorder section in DSM-5. The rationale for these changes put forth by DSM-5 work group on substance related disorders have been discussed. Additionally, attempt has been made to highlight the possible future challenges consequent to the current nosological revision for substance use disorder category. Overall DSM-5 seems to be promising in fulfilling its goal of DSM-ICD harmonisation and movement towards an internationally compatible and practical diagnostic system for mental health disorders. It has increased the scope of addiction by inclusion of behavioural addiction. It has also tried to balance the categorical and dimensional approach to diagnosis. However, the real test of this newer edition of one of the most commonly used nosological systems will be during clinical care and research. This will help address the debatable issues regarding the changes that DSM-5 brings with it.

  16. Postglacial relative sea level change at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (West Antarctic

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    K. V. Polishchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and integration of data obtained in our field and laboratory investigations of 2008–2012 together with results of previous paleogeographic studies were conducted to reveal parameters and factors of the post-glacial changes in the relative sea-level on the Fildes Peninsula and the King George Island. Results of dating of organic material taken from cross-sections of Quaternary deposits, data on morphology of marine landforms as well as on bottom sediments in lakes were used to construct a curve of changes in the relative sea-level.Our research has shown that the rapid rise of relative sea level in the area (since the beginning of the Holocene decelerated about 8000 years BP, achieving its maximum about 7000 years BP. This was followed by the fall of relative sea-level (the land elevation by 18–20  m in total, and it was characterized by relatively high rate of fall during periods of 6000– 5000 years BP, 4000–2500 years BP, and during the last 1500 years; the rate decreased in 5000–4000 years BP and 2500– 1600 years BP. The changes in relative sea level in this region were determined by the following factors: the eustatic component of the global changes in sea-level and, possibly, oscillations in the global sea level of another nature; local parameters of the Last glacial maximum; a course of the Peninsula deglaciation; regional physical characteristics of the Earth's crust and the mantle substances; local tectonic processes, including the isostatic rebound. Since the beginning of the Holocene up to about 7000 years BP, the main contribution to changes of the relative sea-level in this area was made by the global eustatic factor. The subsequent fall of the relative sea-level (elevation of the Peninsula surface proceeded under condition of reduced role of the eustatic factor and predominance of other factors.

  17. Social relations: A critical reflection on the notion of social impacts as change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serje, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to reflect upon the dominant conception of social impacts as the change produced by development projects and programs, and the ways in which those affected perceive and experience them. Identifying change may be a necessary but not sufficient step in acknowledging the complexity of social life. Engaging with critical scholarship produced in the fields of both social impact assessment (SIA) and of the social studies of technical/planned interventions, I discuss how the understanding of social impacts as change responds ultimately to a causal–instrumental logic that, in order to make sense of the complexity of social life, tends to reduce it to a series of variables and matrices. I suggest a complementary dialectical approach focusing on social relations. This approach, allows an alternative means of analysing social impacts concerning the way policies and projects reconfigure conditions and possibilities on a societal level. To accomplish this, and in order to go beyond the sequence of potential impacts (or changes) and their generic indicators, I propose a set of analytical questions that highlight how social relations are structured. Besides, on the assumption that development is both a form of governance and a space of contestation, negotiation, and activism, this approach may contribute to further the potential for reflection and mobilisation that the practice of SIA presents. - Highlights: •Change, which is inherent to social life, is insufficient to determine social impacts. •The critique of causal-instrumental logic provides insights to reflect on social impacts. •Social impacts should rather refer to how interventions reconfigure social relations. •The complex, mutually constitutive nature of social phenomena may thus be recognized. •SIA should go beyond change to the understanding of its socio-political significance.

  18. Three-dimensional anatomy of equine incisors: tooth length, enamel cover and age related changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Equine incisors are subjected to continuous occlusal wear causing multiple, age related changes of the extragingival crown. It is assumed that the occlusal wear is compensated by continued tooth elongation at the apical ends of the teeth. In this study, μCT-datasets offered the opportunity to analyze the three-dimensional appearance of the extra- and intraalveolar parts of the enamel containing dental crown as well as of the enamel-free dental root. Multiple morphometric measurements elucidated age related, morphological changes within the intraalveolar part of the incisors. Results Equine incisors possess a unique enamel cover displaying large indentations on the mesial and distal sides. After eruption tooth elongation at the apical end outbalances occlusal wear for two to four years resulting in increasing incisor length in this period of time. Remarkably, this maximum length is maintained for about ten years, up to a tooth age of 13 to 15 years post eruption. Variances in the total length of individual teeth are related to different Triadan positions (central-, middle- and corner incisors) as well as to the upper and lower arcades. Conclusion Equine incisors are able to fully compensate occlusal wear for a limited period of time. However, after this ability ceases, it is expected that a diminished intraalveolar tooth length will cause massive changes in periodontal biomechanics. The time point of these morphodynamic and biomechanical changes (13 to 15 years post eruption) occurs in coincidence with the onset of a recently described destructive disease of equine incisor (equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis) in aged horses. However, further biomechanical, cell biological and microbiological investigations are needed to elucidate a correlation between age related changes of incisor morphology and this disease. PMID:24321365

  19. Fear conditioning-related changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell activities in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear conditioning-induced changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus have been reported in rabbits. It has been suggested that synaptic long-term potentiation and the resulting increases in firing rates of Purkinje cells are related to the acquisition of conditioned fear in mammals. However, Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of conditioned fear have not been analysed, and changes in Purkinje cell activities throughout the development of conditioned fear have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we tracked Purkinje cell activities throughout a fear conditioning procedure and aimed to elucidate further how cerebellar circuits function during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. Methods Activities of single Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebelli were tracked throughout a classical fear conditioning procedure in goldfish. A delayed conditioning paradigm was used with cardiac deceleration as the conditioned response. Conditioning-related changes of Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus were examined. Results The majority of Purkinje cells sampled responded to the conditioned stimulus by either increasing or decreasing their firing rates before training. Although there were various types of conditioning-related changes in Purkinje cells, more than half of the cells showed suppressed activities in response to the conditioned stimulus after acquisition of conditioned fear. Purkinje cells that showed unconditioned stimulus-coupled complex-spike firings also exhibited conditioning-related suppression of simple-spike responses to the conditioned stimulus. A small number of Purkinje cells showed increased excitatory responses in the acquisition sessions. We found that the magnitudes of changes in the firing frequencies of some Purkinje cells in response to the conditioned stimulus correlated with the magnitudes of the conditioned

  20. Ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes in children undergoing corrective open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schibler, Andreas; Pham, Trang M T; Moray, Amol A; Stocker, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can determine ventilation and perfusion relationship. Most of the data obtained so far originates from experimental settings and in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that EIT measures the perioperative changes in pulmonary blood flow after repair of a ventricular septum defect in children with haemodynamic relevant septal defects undergoing open heart surgery. In a 19 bed intensive care unit in a tertiary children's hospital ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes were measured using EIT before and after surgery in 18 spontaneously breathing patients. The EIT signals were either filtered for ventilation (ΔZV) or for cardiac (ΔZQ) related impedance changes. Impedance signals were then normalized (normΔZV, normΔZQ) for calculation of the global and regional impedance related ventilation perfusion relationship (normΔZV/normΔZQ). We observed a trend towards increased normΔZV in all lung regions, a significantly decreased normΔZQ in the global and anterior, but not the posterior lung region. The normΔZV/normΔZQ was significantly increased in the global and anterior lung region. Our study qualitatively validates our previously published modified EIT filtration technique in the clinical setting of young children with significant left-to-right shunt undergoing corrective open heart surgery, where perioperative assessment of the ventilation perfusion relation is of high clinical relevance. (paper)

  1. Ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes in children undergoing corrective open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, Andreas; Pham, Trang M T; Moray, Amol A; Stocker, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can determine ventilation and perfusion relationship. Most of the data obtained so far originates from experimental settings and in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that EIT measures the perioperative changes in pulmonary blood flow after repair of a ventricular septum defect in children with haemodynamic relevant septal defects undergoing open heart surgery. In a 19 bed intensive care unit in a tertiary children's hospital ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes were measured using EIT before and after surgery in 18 spontaneously breathing patients. The EIT signals were either filtered for ventilation (ΔZV) or for cardiac (ΔZQ) related impedance changes. Impedance signals were then normalized (normΔZV, normΔZQ) for calculation of the global and regional impedance related ventilation perfusion relationship (normΔZV/normΔZQ). We observed a trend towards increased normΔZV in all lung regions, a significantly decreased normΔZQ in the global and anterior, but not the posterior lung region. The normΔZV/normΔZQ was significantly increased in the global and anterior lung region. Our study qualitatively validates our previously published modified EIT filtration technique in the clinical setting of young children with significant left-to-right shunt undergoing corrective open heart surgery, where perioperative assessment of the ventilation perfusion relation is of high clinical relevance.

  2. Parental High-Fat Diet Promotes Inflammatory and Senescence-Related Changes in Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbhushan Tikoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and dietary habits are associated with increased incidences of aging-related prostatic diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate transgenerational effects of chronic high-fat diet (HFD feeding on inflammation and senescence-related changes in prostate. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were kept on either normal or HFD one. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal activity, inflammation, and cellular proliferation were determined in the prostate. Results. Increased SA β-gal activity, expression of p53, and cell proliferation marker PCNA were observed in ventral prostate of HFD-fed rats. Immunostaining for p53 and PCNA revealed that the p53 immunopositive cells were primarily in stroma while PCNA immunopositive cells were epithelial cells. An increase in expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB was observed in prostate of weaning pups HFD-fed parents. However, in adult pups, irrespective of dietary habit, a significant increase in the expression of COX-2, PCNA, phosphorylation of NF-kB, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and SA β-gal activity was observed. Conclusions. Present investigation reports that HFD feeding promotes accumulation of p53 expressing cells, proliferation of epithelial cells, and senescence-related changes in prostate. Further, parental HFD-feeding upholds inflammatory, proliferative, and senescence-related changes in prostate of pups.

  3. Extreme Events in China under Climate Change: Uncertainty and related impacts (CSSP-FOREX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2016-04-01

    Suitable adaptation strategies or the timely initiation of related mitigation efforts in East Asia will strongly depend on robust and comprehensive information about future near-term as well as long-term potential changes in the climate system. Therefore, understanding the driving mechanisms associated with the East Asian climate is of major importance. The FOREX project (Fostering Regional Decision Making by the Assessment of Uncertainties of Future Regional Extremes and their Linkage to Global Climate System Variability for China and East Asia) focuses on the investigation of extreme wind and rainfall related events over Eastern Asia and their possible future changes. Here, analyses focus on the link between local extreme events and their driving weather systems. This includes the coupling between local rainfall extremes and tropical cyclones, the Meiyu frontal system, extra-tropical teleconnections and monsoonal activity. Furthermore, the relation between these driving weather systems and large-scale variability modes, e.g. NAO, PDO, ENSO is analysed. Thus, beside analysing future changes of local extreme events, the temporal variability of their driving weather systems and related large-scale variability modes will be assessed in current CMIP5 global model simulations to obtain more robust results. Beyond an overview of FOREX itself, first results regarding the link between local extremes and their steering weather systems based on observational and reanalysis data are shown. Special focus is laid on the contribution of monsoonal activity, tropical cyclones and the Meiyu frontal system on the inter-annual variability of the East Asian summer rainfall.

  4. Longitudinal Mediation of Processing Speed on Age-Related Change in Memory and Fluid Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Annie; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Muniz, Graciela; Hoffman, Lesa; Johansson, Boo; Deeg, Dorly J.H.; Aartsen, Marja J.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Hofer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related decline in processing speed has long been considered a key driver of cognitive aging. While the majority of empirical evidence for the processing speed hypothesis has been obtained from analyses of between-person age differences, longitudinal studies provide a direct test of within-person change. Using recent developments in longitudinal mediation analysis, we examine the speed–mediation hypothesis at both the within- and between-person levels in two longitudinal studies, LASA and OCTO-Twin. We found significant within-person indirect effects of change in age, such that increasing age was related to lower speed which, in turn, relates to lower performance across repeated measures on other cognitive outcomes. Although between-person indirect effects were also significant in LASA, they were not in OCTO-Twin. These differing magnitudes of direct and indirect effects across levels demonstrate the importance of separating between- and within-person effects in evaluating theoretical models of age-related change. PMID:23957224

  5. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  6. Relating climate change signals and physiographic catchment properties to clustered hydrological response types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Köplin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach to reduce a comprehensive set of 186 mesoscale catchments in Switzerland to fewer response types to climate change and to name sensitive regions as well as catchment characteristics that govern hydrological change. We classified the hydrological responses of our study catchments through an agglomerative-hierarchical cluster analysis, and we related the dominant explanatory variables, i.e. the determining catchment properties and climate change signals, to the catchments' hydrological responses by means of redundancy analysis. All clusters except for one exhibit clearly decreasing summer runoff and increasing winter runoff. This seasonal shift was observed for the near future period (2025–2046 but is particularly obvious in the far future period (2074–2095. Within a certain elevation range (between 1000 and 2500 m a.s.l., the hydrological change is basically a function of elevation, because the latter governs the dominant hydro-climatological processes associated with temperature, e.g. the ratio of liquid to solid precipitation and snow melt processes. For catchments below the stated range, hydrological change is mainly a function of precipitation change, which is not as pronounced as the temperature signal is. Future impact studies in Switzerland can be conducted on a reduced sample of catchments representing the sensitive regions or covering a range of altitudes.

  7. A reaction-diffusion model for market fluctuations - A relation between price change and traded volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvan, Steven; Bier, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Two decades ago Bak et al. (1997) [3] proposed a reaction-diffusion model to describe market fluctuations. In the model buyers and sellers diffuse from opposite ends of a 1D interval that represents a price range. Trades occur when buyers and sellers meet. We show analytically and numerically that the model well reproduces the square-root relation between traded volumes and price changes that is observed in real-life markets. The result is remarkable as this relation has commonly been explained in terms of more elaborate trader strategies. We furthermore explain why the square-root relation is robust under model modifications and we show how real-life bond market data exhibit the square-root relation.

  8. Different responses of spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha activity to ambient luminance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Alessandro; Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-12-04

    Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse-correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear. Here, we investigated the effect of ambient luminance changes, known to dramatically modulate neural oscillations, on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha. We investigated the effect of ambient luminance on EEG alpha during spontaneous human brain activity at rest (experiment 1) and during visual stimulation (experiment 2). Results show that spontaneous alpha amplitude increased by decreasing ambient luminance, while alpha frequency remained unaffected. In the second experiment, we found that under low-luminance viewing, the stimulus-related alpha amplitude was lower, and its frequency was slightly faster. These effects were evident in the phase-locked part of the alpha response (echo function), but weaker or absent in the induced (non-phase-locked) alpha responses. Finally, we explored the possible behavioural correlates of these modulations in a monocular critical flicker frequency task (experiment 3), finding that dark adaptation in the left eye decreased the temporal threshold of the right eye. Overall, we found that ambient luminance changes impact differently on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha expression. We suggest that stimulus-related alpha activity is crucial in determining human temporal segmentation abilities. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Changes in Body Mass Index and Stoma Related Problems in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeps, Raymond; McMullen, Carmit K.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Bulkley, Joanna; Grant, Marcia; Mohler, Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.; Herrinton, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Weight gain can cause retraction of an intestinal stoma, possibly resulting in difficulty with wafer and pouch fit, daily care challenges, and discomfort. This cross-sectional study examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and ostomy-related problems among long-term (>5 years post-diagnosis) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Materials and Methods CRC survivors from three Kaiser Permanente Regions completed a mailed survey. The response rate for those with an ostomy was 53% (283/529). Questions included stoma-related problems and time to conduct daily ostomy care. Poisson regression evaluated associations between report of problems and change in BMI. Our analysis sample included 235 survivors. Results Sample was 76% ≥65 years of age. Since their surgeries, BMI remained stable in 44% (ST), decreased in 20% (DE), and increased in 35% (IN) of survivors. Compared to ST, male IN (RR 2.15 [1.09–4.25]) and female DE (RR 5.06 [1.26–25.0]) were more likely to spend more than 30 minutes per day on stoma care. IN (vs. ST) were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.51 [1.06–2.17]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 2.32 [1.30–4.14]). Survivors who were obese at time of survey were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.88 [1.38–2.56]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 1.68 [1.07–2.65]). Conclusion A change in BMI is associated with ostomy-related problems among long-term CRC survivors. Equipment and care practices may need to be adapted for changes in abdominal shape. Health care providers should caution that a significant increase or decrease in BMI may cause ostomy-related problems. PMID:24071496

  10. Stages of change and health-related quality of life among employees of an institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siow Yen; Shafie, Asrul A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Othman, Ahmad Tajuddin; Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Hamdi, Menal A

    2013-06-01

    Transtheoretical Model of change has been used successfully in promoting behaviour change. To examine the relationships between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with the stages of change of adequate physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among employees of the main campus and Engineering campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during October 2009 and March 2010. Data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake was collected using the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factors surveillance. The Short Form-12 health survey (SF-12) was used to gather information on participants' HRQoL. The current stages of change are measured using the measures developed by the Pro-Change Behaviour Systems Incorporation. One way ANOVA and its non-parametric equivalent Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the differences between SF-12 scores with the stages of change. A total of 144 employees were included in this analysis. A large proportion of the participants reported inadequate fruits and vegetable intake (92.3%) and physical activity (84.6%). Mean physical and mental component scores of SF-12 were 50.39 (SD = 7.69) and 49.73 (SD = 8.64) respectively. Overall, there was no statistical significant difference in the SF-12 domains scores with regards to the stages of change for both the risk factors. There were some evidence of positive relationship between stages of change of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake with SF-12 scores. Further studies need to be conducted to confirm this association. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Stages of change and health‐related quality of life among employees of an institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siow Yen; Shafie, Asrul A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Othman, Ahmad Tajuddin; Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Hamdi, Menal A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Transtheoretical Model of change has been used successfully in promoting behaviour change. Objective  To examine the relationships between health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) scores with the stages of change of adequate physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake. Design  This was a cross‐sectional study conducted among employees of the main campus and Engineering campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during October 2009 and March 2010. Main variables studied: Data on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake was collected using the WHO STEPS instrument for chronic disease risk factors surveillance. The Short Form‐12 health survey (SF‐12) was used to gather information on participants’ HRQoL. The current stages of change are measured using the measures developed by the Pro‐Change Behaviour Systems Incorporation. Statistical analysis: One way ANOVA and its non‐parametric equivalent Kruskal‐Wallis were used to compare the differences between SF‐12 scores with the stages of change. Results  A total of 144 employees were included in this analysis. A large proportion of the participants reported inadequate fruits and vegetable intake (92.3%) and physical activity (84.6%). Mean physical and mental component scores of SF‐12 were 50.39 (SD = 7.69) and 49.73 (SD = 8.64) respectively. Overall, there was no statistical significant difference in the SF‐12 domains scores with regards to the stages of change for both the risk factors. Conclusions  There were some evidence of positive relationship between stages of change of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake with SF‐12 scores. Further studies need to be conducted to confirm this association. PMID:21645189

  12. Relational invariance of expressive microstructure across global tempo changes in music performance: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, B H

    1994-01-01

    This study addressed the question of whether the expressive microstructure of a music performance remains relationally invariant across moderate (musically acceptable) changes in tempo. Two pianists played Schumann's "Träumerei" three times at each of three tempi on a digital piano, and the performance data were recorded in MIDI format. In a perceptual test, musically trained listeners attempted to distinguish the original performances from performances that had been artificially speeded up or slowed down to the same overall duration. Accuracy in this task was barely above chance, suggesting that relational invariance was largely preserved. Subsequent analysis of the MIDI data confirmed that each pianist's characteristic timing patterns were highly similar across the three tempi, although there were statistically significant deviations from perfect relational invariance. The timing of (relatively slow) grace notes seemed relationally invariant, but selective examination of other detailed temporal features (chord asynchrony, tone overlap, pedal timing) revealed no systematic scaling with tempo. Finally, although the intensity profile seemed unaffected by tempo, a slight overall increase in intensity with tempo was observed. Effects of musical structure on expressive microstructure were large and pervasive at all levels, as were individual differences between the two pianists. For the specific composition and range of tempi considered here, these results suggest that major (cognitively controlled) temporal and dynamic features of a performance change roughly in proportion with tempo, whereas minor features tend to be governed by tempo-independent motoric constraints.

  13. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. N/A. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

  14. Age-related change in emotional experience in a sample of Chinese adults: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhanbiao; Wang, Li; Li, Huanhuan

    2009-08-01

    Age-related change in emotional experience was explored in a Chinese community sample. 968 healthy adults (483 women, 485 men) ranging in age from 18 to 66 years (M = 37.5, SD = 12.3) took part. The frequency of experiencing negative and positive emotion was self-reported on the general dimension scales of Positive and Negative Affect Scale-Expanded Form (PANAS-X). Regression analyses indicated that the frequency of negative affect decreased with age, and the frequency of positive affect was not significantly associated with age. These findings are similar to those found in Western samples, as discussed in relation to socioemotional selectivity theory.

  15. Short term change in relative humidity during the festival of Diwali in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Nandita D.

    2015-07-01

    The changes in humidity levels during the Diwali festivities have been examined over a period of 13 years at three Indian metro cities: Ahmedabad, New Delhi and Kolkata. A small short term increase in relative humidity even in the absence of transport of humid air from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal has been observed. The relative humidity levels were found to be exceeding the ambient levels during night and lying below the ambient levels during morning hours, indicating an increase in the survival rates of viruses responsible for the transmission of viral infections, as well as triggering immune-mediated illnesses such as asthma during Diwali.

  16. Indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity affected by a change of ventilation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tuneo

    2006-01-01

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into shortened weekday ventilation of 8:00-21:00 with weekend halts. This change of ventilation manner brought a clear alteration for the concentrations of radon-related natural radioactivity in indoor air. The present paper concerns an investigation of the effect of the ventilation strategy on the indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity. (author)

  17. Changes in the vibrational properties of graphene and other related nanostructures under strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codorniu Pujals, D.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the presence of strain in solids modifies their vibrational properties due to the variation of the atomic position and the changes of the interatomic distances. Monolayer graphene is especially sensible to the effects of strain, for example, to that produced by the curvature of some region of the graphene plane. These changes in the vibrational properties of graphene modifies in different way its Raman spectrum. In the case of other graphene-related materials as fullerenes, nano-onions and nano tubes, the curvature is always present, consequently, there is a modification of the vibrational properties in relation with those in graphene, due to the strain provoked by curvature. In this paper, the overall picture of the effect of strain on the vibrational properties of graphene and other carbon nanostructures is presented from a theoretical point of view and the main considerations are correlated with experimental results from Raman spectroscopy (Author)

  18. Combining voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmbeck, Jan T; Brassen, Stefanie; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-04-03

    The present study combined optimized voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes. We compared grey matter density maps (grey matter voxel-based morphometry) and white matter fractional anisotropy maps (diffusion tensor imaging-voxel-based morphometry) between two groups of 17 younger and 17 older women. Older women exhibited reduced white matter fractional anisotropy as well as decreased grey matter density most prominently in the frontal, limbic, parietal and temporal lobes. A discriminant analysis identified four frontal and limbic grey and white matter areas that separated the two groups most effectively. We conclude that grey matter voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based morphometry are well suited for the detection of age-related changes and their combination provides high accuracy when detecting the neural correlates of aging.

  19. Study of climate change related to deforestation in the Xishuangbanna area, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chungcheng Li; Cong Lai

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of the results of deforestation and the meteorological data of the Xinshuangbanna region of China shows that there are possible relations between the deforestation and climate change. With the forest area decreased by 33% during the past 30 years, the climate of this region has also been changed. The annual mean temperature has been increased by 0.7C, of which the increase is 0.97C in the dry season and 0.53C in the wet season. Together with the annual temperature increase the temperature variations have also been increased, which has resulted in more frequent low temperature damage to the local plantation agriculture. The relative humidity decreased by 3% annually; and the annual precipitation also decreased, with a decrease in the wet season of 6.8% and an increase in the dry season of 20.8%

  20. Mechanical and morphological evaluation of age-related changes in the Beagle spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, N.A.; Gerlach, R.; Cassidy, J.; Brown, S.

    1986-01-01

    Age-related changes were evaluated in the spines of Beagle dogs by biomechanical testing, radiology and pathology. Thirty age-matched healthy Beagle dogs were divided into five groups having mean ages of 2, 5, 8, 11, and 14 years. Spinal radiographs of anesthetized dogs were taken prior to euthanasia and on defleshed pines following necropsy. Cervical, thoracic, and lumbar segments were tested in compression to calculate peak stress, peak strain, and elastic modulus. Adjacent spinal segments were examined histologically. Histological evidence of the disc degeneration and changes in the mechanical properties of the intervertebral disc joint preceded radiographical evidence of spondylosis. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc space were probably a result of the disc degeneration rather than the spondylytic lesions. 3 references, 4 figures

  1. Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functional foods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health.

  2. Impacts of Participatory Modeling on Climate Change-related Water Management Impacts in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, K. E.; Kossak, D. J.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Robles-Morua, A.; Gamez Molina, V.; Dana, K.; Mirchi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change-related impacts on water resources are expected to be particularly severe in the arid developing world. As a result, we conducted a series of participatory modeling workshops on hydrologic and water resources systems modeling in the face of climate change in Sonora, Mexico. Pre-surveys were administered to participants on Day 1 of a series of four workshops spaced out over three months in 2013. Post-surveys repeated many pre-survey questions and included questions assessing the quality of the workshops and models. We report on significant changes in participant perceptions of water resource models and problems and their assessment of the workshops. These findings will be of great value to future participatory modeling efforts, particularly within the developing world.

  3. Relation of anthropometric measurements to ocular biometric changes and refractive error in children with thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkitkat, Rania S; El-Shazly, Amany A; Ebeid, Weam M; Deghedy, Marwa R

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate and correlate anthropometric, biometric, and refractive error changes in thalassemia major (TM). One hundred children with TM and another hundred healthy controls were recruited. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) were the anthropometric parameters recorded. Full ophthalmologic examination was performed, including best-corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, indirect ophthalmoscopy, keratometry (K readings), and ocular biometry. Compared to controls, children with TM were shorter and lighter, with a smaller BMI (pbiometric data, patients with thalassemia had steeper mean K readings (p = 0.03), shorter axial length (AXL) (p = 0.005), shorter vitreous chamber depth (pbiometric changes (steeper corneas and thicker lenses) to reach emmetropization, with an exaggerated response and subsequent myopic shift. However, growth retardation is not directly related to ocular growth changes, myopic shift, or variations in biometric parameters.

  4. Age-related functional changes in gustatory and reward processing regions: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Aaron; Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2010-11-01

    Changes in appetite in older adults may result in unhealthy weight change and negatively affect overall nutrition. Research examining gustatory processing in young adults has linked changes in patterns of the hemodynamic response of gustatory and motivation related brain regions to the physiological states of hunger and satiety. Whether the same brain regions are involved in taste processing in older adults is unknown. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine age-related changes in gustatory processing during hedonic assessment. Caffeine, citric acid, sucrose, and NaCl were administered orally during two event-related fMRI sessions, one during hunger and one after a pre-load. Participants assessed the pleasantness of the solutions in each session. Increased activity of the insula was seen in both age groups during hunger. Activity of secondary and higher order taste processing and reward regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and caudate nucleus was also observed. Hunger and satiety differentially affected the hemodynamic response, resulting in positive global activation during hunger and negative during satiety in both age groups. While in a state of hunger, the frequency and consistency of positive activation in gustatory and reward processing regions was greater in older adults. Additional regions not commonly associated with taste processing were also activated in older adults. Investigating the neurological response of older adults to taste stimuli under conditions of hunger and satiety may aid in understanding appetite, health, and functional changes in this population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapy-related longitudinal brain perfusion changes in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstanner, Christian; Mordasini, Livio; Thalmann, George N; Verma, Rajeev K; Rummel, Christian; Federspiel, Andrea; Kessler, Thomas M; Wiest, Roland

    2017-08-03

    The imaging method most frequently employed to identify brain areas involved in neuronal processing of nociception and brain pain perception is blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Arterial spin labelling (ASL), in contrast, offers advantages when slow varying changes in brain function are investigated. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a disorder of, mostly, young males that leads to altered pain perceptions in structures related to the pelvis. We aimed to investigate the potential of ASL to monitor longitudinal cranial blood flow (CBF) changes in patients with CPPS. In a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind single centre trial, we investigated treatment effects in CPPS after 12 weeks in patients that underwent sono-electro-magnetic therapy vs placebo. We investigated changes of CBF related to treatment outcome using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (pCASL)-MRI. We observed CBF downregulation in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex and upregulation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in responders. Nonresponders presented with CBF upregulation in the hippocampus. In patients with a history of CPPS of less than 12 months, there were significant correlations between longitudinal CBF changes and the Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index pain subscore within the joint clusters anterior cingulate cortex and left anterior prefrontal cortex in responders, and the right hippocampus in nonresponders. We demonstrated therapy-related and stimulus-free longitudinal CBF changes in core areas of the pain matrix using ASL. ASL may act as a complementary noninvasive method to functional MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography / positron emission tomography, especially in the longitudinal assessment of pain response in clinical trials.

  6. Histopathological changes in kidneys of free ranging animals in relation to lead and cadmium residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiglboeck, C.

    2000-05-01

    Kidney samples of 234 roe deer and 45 wild boars were collected in Lower Austria and Vienna, and were analyzed for lead and cadmium contents. Samples of the organs were examined histologically, considering 12 different morphological parameters. Influences of age, sex and origin of the animals on heavy metal burdens were assessed, and the possible correlation between histopathological changes and age, sex, origin and heavy metal concentrations in the kidneys was tested. Lead concentrations were low with medians (mg/kg wet tissue) being 0,062 in roe deer and 0,044 in wild boars. Neither age nor sex nor origin influenced the lead contents of the kidneys. Cadmium burden was fairly high, both in roe deer (median: 0,954) and wild boars (median: 3,009). It increased with age in both species, while female roe deer showed higher contents as well. No influence of the animals' origin was found. The correlation between histopathological changes and age, sex, origin and heavy metal concentrations in the kidneys was tested in 208 roe deer and 44 wild boars which showed no signs of kidney related diseases. In roe deer, the frequency of vacuolic degeneration, pycnotic nuclei, caryolysis and necrosis was related with increased cadmium concentrations. Increasing age correlated with lymphohistiocytic infiltration, interstitial fibrosis and swelling of glomeruli. Pigment deposits and thickening of the Bowman's capsule could be related to both cadmium and age. Furthermore, roe deer from Vienna more frequently showed alterations as observed in animals from Lower Austria. No correlation existed between morphological changes and lead concentrations or sex. In wild boars, there was no obvious relationship between all parameters tested and the frequency of histopathologic changes, except changes in pigmentation. Possible nephrotoxic agents in free ranging animals and the demonstrated influence of cadmium on severe kidney damage are discussed. (author)

  7. Relationship between functional assessments and exercise-related changes during static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Harrison, Blain C; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2013-04-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is currently used for injury risk prediction, although researchers have not studied its relationships to injury risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare FMS scores at rest to changes in static balance after exercise. Second, we examined FMS scores pre and post exercise. Twenty-five participants performed center of pressure (COP) measures and FMS testing. An acclimatization session for the FMS occurred on day 1, whereas day 2 involved COP measures for static balance and FMS testing before and after a 36-minute exercise protocol. Center of pressure standard deviations in the frontal (COPML-SD) and sagittal (COPAP-SD) planes, center of pressure velocity (COP-Velocity), center of pressure area (COP-Area), and FMS scores were recorded. No significant correlations occurred between preexercise FMS scores and change in COP measures. Preexercise hurdle step scores related to preexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46), COPAP-SD (p = -0.43), and COP-Area (p = -0.50). Preexercise in-line lunge scores related to postexercise COPAP-SD (p = -0.44) and COP-Velocity (p = -0.39), whereas preexercise active straight leg raise (ASLR) scores related to postexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46). Functional Movement Screen scores were not related to changes in static balance after exercise and may therefore not be useful to predict who will experience greater static balance deficits after exercise. Additionally, FMS scores did not differ before and after exercise. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a general static balance standpoint may find the hurdle step, in-line lunge, and ASLR useful. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a change in static balance standpoint may need to explore other screening tools.

  8. Long-Term Changes in Species Composition and Relative Abundances of Sharks at a Provisioning Site

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-...

  9. Local extinction and colonisation in native and exotic fish in relation to changes in land use

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp , Dorothée; Figuerola , Jordi; Compin , Arthur; Santoul , Frédéric; Céréghino , Régis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Distribution patterns of many native and exotic fish species are well documented, yet little is known about the temporal dynamics of native and exotic diversity in relation to changes in land use. We hypothesised that colonisation rates would be higher for exotic fish species and that extinction rates would be higher for native species in large stream systems. We also predicted that cold-water species would be more impacted than thermally tolerant species. To test thes...

  10. Age-Related Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Decision Making Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Isella, Valeria; Mapelli, Cristina; Morielli, Nadia; Pelati, Oriana; Franceschi, Massimo; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco

    2008-01-01

    The ?frontal aging hypothesis? predicts that brain senescence affects predominantly the prefrontal regions. Preliminary evidence has recently been gathered in favour of an age-related change in a typically frontal process, i.e. decision making, using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), but overall findings have been conflicting. Following the traditional scoring method, coupled with a qualitative analysis, in the present study we compared IGT performance of 40 young (mean age: 27.9 ? 4.7) and 40 ol...

  11. Conformal and related changes of metric on the product of two almost contact metric manifolds.

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studies conformal and related changes of the product metric on the product of two almost contact metric manifolds. It is shown that if one factor is Sasakian, the other is not, but that locally the second factor is of the type studied by Kenmotsu. The results are more general and given in terms of trans-Sasakian, α-Sasakian and β-Kenmotsu structures.

  12. Impact of Changes in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Pain in String Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Judith; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Guay, Manon

    2018-03-01

    During their training, musicians must develop good work habits that they will carry on throughout their professional career in order to avoid potential chronic health problems, such as musculoskeletal pain. The effect of sudden changes in instrument playing-time on the development of playing-related musculoskeletal pain (PRMP) has not been thoroughly investigated in music students playing bowed string instruments (BSI), even though they are regularly exposed to such changes to perfect their playing skills. To explore the association between sudden changes in instrument playing-time and changes in PRMP in BSI players. A prospective cohort study was completed with BSI students attending a summer music camp offering high-level training. Participants completed a self-administered 23-item questionnaire designed for the study upon arrival at camp (T1) and then 7 days later (T2). Ninety-three BSI students (16±4 yrs old) completed the questionnaires, for a 23% response rate. Their playing-time increased by 23±14 hrs between T1 and T2. Complaints in pain frequency (e.g., from never to most of the time) and intensity (19±24 mm on VAS) significantly increased between T1 and T2 and were correlated with an increase in playing-time. A sudden increase in playing-time, such as that experienced by elite BSI students attending an intensive music camp, was related to an increase in PRMP. However, in this study, changes in pain characteristics were only partly explained by the change in playing-time.

  13. Low-Dose, Ionizing Radiation and Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Alwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis can profoundly affect the aged as a consequence of progressive bone loss; high-dose ionizing radiation can cause similar changes, although less is known about lower doses (≤100 cGy. We hypothesized that exposure to relatively low doses of gamma radiation accelerates structural changes characteristic of skeletal aging. Mice (C57BL/6J-10 wk old, male were irradiated (total body; 0-sham, 1, 10 or 100 cGy 137Cs and tissues harvested on the day of irradiation, 1 or 4 months later. Microcomputed tomography was used to quantify microarchitecture of high turnover, cancellous bone. Irradiation at 100 cGy caused transient microarchitectural changes over one month that were only evident at longer times in controls (4 months. Ex vivo bone cell differentiation from the marrow was unaffected by gamma radiation. In conclusion, acute ionizing gamma irradiation at 100 cGy (but not at 1 cGy or 10 cGy exacerbated microarchitectural changes normally found during progressive, postpubertal aging prior to the onset of age-related osteoporosis.

  14. Impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality and morbidity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Andersson, Camilla; Ebi, Kristie L; Langner, Joakim; Aström, Christofer; Forsberg, Bertil

    2013-02-01

    Ozone is a highly oxidative pollutant formed from precursors in the presence of sunlight, associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. All else being equal, concentrations of ground-level ozone are expected to increase due to climate change. Ozone-related health impacts under a changing climate are projected using emission scenarios, models and epidemiological data. European ozone concentrations are modelled with the model of atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH)-RCA3 (50×50 km). Projections from two climate models, ECHAM4 and HadCM3, are applied under greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. We applied a European-wide exposure-response function to gridded population data and country-specific baseline mortality and morbidity. Comparing the current situation (1990-2009) with the baseline period (1961-1990), the largest increase in ozone-associated mortality and morbidity due to climate change (4-5%) have occurred in Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Comparing the baseline period and the future periods (2021-2050 and 2041-2060), much larger increases in ozone-related mortality and morbidity are projected for Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal, with the impact being stronger using the climate projection from ECHAM4 (A2). However, in Nordic and Baltic countries the same magnitude of decrease is projected. The current study suggests that projected effects of climate change on ozone concentrations could differentially influence mortality and morbidity across Europe.

  15. Active assistance technology for health-related behavior change: an interdisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-06-14

    Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in dialog systems for behavior change, with

  16. Monoamine oxidase enzymes and oxidative stress in the rat optic nerve: age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebbioso, Marcella; Pascarella, Antonia; Cavallotti, Carlo; Pescosolido, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    In this study, age-related changes in the monoamine oxidases (MAO) were studied in the optic nerve (ON) of both young and aged male rats. The aim of the study was to assess the role of MAO in age-related changes in the rat ON and explain the mechanisms of neuroprotection mediated by MAO-B-specific inhibitors. Fifteen three month old and fifteen 26 month old Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The animals were killed by terminal anaesthesia. Staining of MAO, quantitative analysis of images, biochemical assays and statistical analysis of data were carried out. Samples of the ON were washed in water, fixed in Bowen fluid, dehydrated and embedded in Entellan. Histological sections were stained for MAO-enzymatic activities. The specificity of the reaction was evaluated by incubating control sections in a medium either without substrate or without dye. The quantitative analysis of images was carried out at the same magnification and the same lighting using a Zeiss photomicroscope. The histochemical findings were compared with the biochemical results. After enzymatic staining, MAO could be demonstrated in the ON fibres of both young and aged animals; however, MAO were increased in the nerve fibres of the elderly rats. These morphological findings were confirmed biochemically. The possibility that age-related changes in MAO levels may be attributed to impaired energy production mechanisms and/or represent the consequence of reduced energy needs is discussed. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2012 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  17. Magnetic resonance fiber density mapping of age-related white matter changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Ganslandt, Oliver; Salomonowitz, Erich; Buchfelder, Michael; Hammen, Thilo; Bachmair, Johanna; Eberhardt, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To introduce fiber density mapping (FDM) for investigation of age-related white matter (WM) changes and to compare its capabilities with conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) post-processing. Methods: DTI data with 1.9 mm 3 isotropic voxels were acquired from 44 healthy volunteers (18–88 years) at 3 T. FDM is a 3-step approach which includes diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, fiber reconstruction for the whole brain, and calculation of fiber density (FD) values. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were additionally calculated. Voxel-based analyses were performed to determine volume clusters of significant correlation with age. Bivariate linear regression models and Hotelling–Williams tests were used to detect significant differences between correlations. Results: FDM detected a larger WM volume affected by age-related changes concomitant with fewer significant clusters compared to FA and MD. This indicates that WM alterations due to normal aging occur rather globally than locally. FD values showed a significant stronger correlation with age in frontal lobes (prefrontal and precentral gyrus), limbic lobes (cingulate and parahippocampal gyrus), the corpus callosum (genu) and temporal lobes. Conclusions: FDM shows higher sensitivity for detection of age-related WM changes because it includes all surrounding fiber structures into the evaluation of each DTI data voxel.

  18. Relation between stages of change and motivation in the treatment of psychiatric patients1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilov-Jerković Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aim of this research was to investigate the relation between psychiatric patients’ motivation for their participation in treatment and a stage of change they were in. Hypothesis on relation quality of examined variables have been defined from the perspective of transtheoretical model created by Prochaska and associates. Decision balance, specific and general self-efficacy and inclination to relapse have been examined as indicators of motivation. One hundred and twenty-nine psychiatric patients with diagnosis of neurosis or personality disorders have been examined in this research. Results have shown that stages of changes are significantly related to inspected motivational variables. Patients in higher stages of readiness express specific motivational profile characterized by the proactive optimism, which means that they rely on their own resources and expect positive outcome of the treatment. Patients in lower stages of readiness express motivational profile characterized by passive resignation receptiveness, by inclination towards demoralization and low trust in their own strength. Results of this research are in conformity with the basic hypothesis of transtheoretical model of change. .

  19. Non-Equilibrium Relations for Bounded Rational Decision-Making in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Grau-Moya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms from single cells to humans need to adapt continuously to respond to changes in their environment. The process of behavioural adaptation can be thought of as improving decision-making performance according to some utility function. Here, we consider an abstract model of organisms as decision-makers with limited information-processing resources that trade off between maximization of utility and computational costs measured by a relative entropy, in a similar fashion to thermodynamic systems undergoing isothermal transformations. Such systems minimize the free energy to reach equilibrium states that balance internal energy and entropic cost. When there is a fast change in the environment, these systems evolve in a non-equilibrium fashion because they are unable to follow the path of equilibrium distributions. Here, we apply concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to characterize decision-makers that adapt to changing environments under the assumption that the temporal evolution of the utility function is externally driven and does not depend on the decision-maker’s action. This allows one to quantify performance loss due to imperfect adaptation in a general manner and, additionally, to find relations for decision-making similar to Crooks’ fluctuation theorem and Jarzynski’s equality. We provide simulations of several exemplary decision and inference problems in the discrete and continuous domains to illustrate the new relations.

  20. Magnetic resonance fiber density mapping of age-related white matter changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.at [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Ganslandt, Oliver [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Salomonowitz, Erich [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Buchfelder, Michael [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Hammen, Thilo [Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-90429 Erlangen (Germany); Bachmair, Johanna [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, A-3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Eberhardt, Knut [Krankenhaus Schloss Werneck, MRT-Kompetenzzentrum, Balthasar-Neumann-Platz 1, D-97440 Werneck (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To introduce fiber density mapping (FDM) for investigation of age-related white matter (WM) changes and to compare its capabilities with conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) post-processing. Methods: DTI data with 1.9 mm{sup 3} isotropic voxels were acquired from 44 healthy volunteers (18–88 years) at 3 T. FDM is a 3-step approach which includes diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, fiber reconstruction for the whole brain, and calculation of fiber density (FD) values. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were additionally calculated. Voxel-based analyses were performed to determine volume clusters of significant correlation with age. Bivariate linear regression models and Hotelling–Williams tests were used to detect significant differences between correlations. Results: FDM detected a larger WM volume affected by age-related changes concomitant with fewer significant clusters compared to FA and MD. This indicates that WM alterations due to normal aging occur rather globally than locally. FD values showed a significant stronger correlation with age in frontal lobes (prefrontal and precentral gyrus), limbic lobes (cingulate and parahippocampal gyrus), the corpus callosum (genu) and temporal lobes. Conclusions: FDM shows higher sensitivity for detection of age-related WM changes because it includes all surrounding fiber structures into the evaluation of each DTI data voxel.

  1. Is change in health behavior of Dutch medical students related to change in their ideas on how a physician's lifestyle influences their patient's lifestyle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    A change of medical students' health behavior over time may be related to a change in their opinion regarding the relationship between physicians' own health behavior and effective healthy lifestyle counseling in patients. To investigate Dutch medical students' (1) change of health behavior over

  2. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L.; Black, Mairi

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a ‘carbon debt’ with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC. PMID:22482030

  3. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.M.; Driever, S.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Gelder, de A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. Leaf patch clamp pressure changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different

  4. Changes in event-related potential functional networks predict traumatic brain injury in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlan, Lorre S; Lan, Ingrid S; Smith, Colin; Margulies, Susan S

    2018-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of cognitive and behavioral deficits in children in the US each year. None of the current diagnostic tools, such as quantitative cognitive and balance tests, have been validated to identify mild traumatic brain injury in infants, adults and animals. In this preliminary study, we report a novel, quantitative tool that has the potential to quickly and reliably diagnose traumatic brain injury and which can track the state of the brain during recovery across multiple ages and species. Using 32 scalp electrodes, we recorded involuntary auditory event-related potentials from 22 awake four-week-old piglets one day before and one, four, and seven days after two different injury types (diffuse and focal) or sham. From these recordings, we generated event-related potential functional networks and assessed whether the patterns of the observed changes in these networks could distinguish brain-injured piglets from non-injured. Piglet brains exhibited significant changes after injury, as evaluated by five network metrics. The injury prediction algorithm developed from our analysis of the changes in the event-related potentials functional networks ultimately produced a tool with 82% predictive accuracy. This novel approach is the first application of auditory event-related potential functional networks to the prediction of traumatic brain injury. The resulting tool is a robust, objective and predictive method that offers promise for detecting mild traumatic brain injury, in particular because collecting event-related potentials data is noninvasive and inexpensive. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Capturing Context-Related Change in Emotional Dynamics via Fixed Moderated Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf, Janne K; Voelkle, Manuel C; Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Much of recent affect research relies on intensive longitudinal studies to assess daily emotional experiences. The resulting data are analyzed with dynamic models to capture regulatory processes involved in emotional functioning. Daily contexts, however, are commonly ignored. This may not only result in biased parameter estimates and wrong conclusions, but also ignores the opportunity to investigate contextual effects on emotional dynamics. With fixed moderated time series analysis, we present an approach that resolves this problem by estimating context-dependent change in dynamic parameters in single-subject time series models. The approach examines parameter changes of known shape and thus addresses the problem of observed intra-individual heterogeneity (e.g., changes in emotional dynamics due to observed changes in daily stress). In comparison to existing approaches to unobserved heterogeneity, model estimation is facilitated and different forms of change can readily be accommodated. We demonstrate the approach's viability given relatively short time series by means of a simulation study. In addition, we present an empirical application, targeting the joint dynamics of affect and stress and how these co-vary with daily events. We discuss potentials and limitations of the approach and close with an outlook on the broader implications for understanding emotional adaption and development.

  6. The Non-economic Dimension of Changes Prompted by Cross-border Acquisitions: A Relational View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Fernando Loureiro Rezende

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Building on the relational view of M&A suggested by the Industrial Network Approach, we looked at the noneconomic dimension of post-acquisition changes in the relationships of the acquired firm. Based on a 2x2 matrix, this is illustrated by the relationships between the acquired firm with for-profit organizations through which noneconomic resources are transacted (called Social or with non-profit organizations with which it transacts either economic (called Partnership or non-economic resources (called Community. We built a qualitative case study from the acquisition of the Brazilian firm Paraíso Group by the Swiss multinational Holcim, and focused on ten relationships of the acquired firm. We found that these relationships changed in terms of professionalism, degree of dependence and number of actors. An increase in professionalism is observed in all the relationships. This type and direction of change was considered the most important post-acquisition change. The degree of dependence and number of actors changes happened in specific segments of the acquired firm’s network, represented by the Community and Social relationships, respectively.

  7. Change in running kinematics after cycling are related to alterations in running economy in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Green, Daniel; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Franettovich, Melinda; Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment during running and whether changes in limb movement or muscle recruitment are associated with changes in running economy (RE) after cycling. RE, muscle activity (surface electromyography) and limb movement (sagittal plane kinematics) were compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in 15 moderately trained triathletes. Muscle recruitment and kinematics during running after cycling were altered in 7 of 15 (46%) triathletes. Changes in kinematics at the knee and ankle were significantly associated with the change in VO(2) after cycling (precruitment in some triathletes and that changes in kinematics, especially at the ankle, are closely related to alterations in running economy after cycling. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in foot posture during pregnancy and their relation with musculoskeletal pain: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico Pardo, Francisco Javier; López Del Amo, Andres; Pardo Rios, Manuel; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Yuste, Cristina Castro

    2018-04-01

    To examine foot posture changes during the three trimesters of pregnancy and to determine whether there is a relationship between these changes and the pain experienced in this period. The study sample consisted of 62 pregnant women who attended the Gynaecology Service at Hospital ​Santa María del Puerto (Cádiz, Spain), between January 2013 and May 2014. In their first visit, the following sociodemographic and anthropometric data were recorded: age, weight, height and foot size. In addition, information was obtained regarding pain in the lower back, knees, ankles and feet. In this first visit, too, the Foot Posture Index (FPI) was assessed, and three subsequent controls were performed during the first, second and third months of pregnancy (termed Stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively). In Stage 1, the average foot size (i.e., shoe size) was 38.3 (SD 1.5). This size did not change between Stages 1, 2 and 3. However, body weight and BMI did present statistically significant changes during this period (ppregnancy but no relation was observed between these changes and the onset of pain. During pregnancy, pronation increases but this does not appear to influence the onset of pain in the lower limbs. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Episodic radon changes in subsurface soil gas along active faults and possible relation to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.

    1980-01-01

    Subsurface soil gas along active faults in central California has been continuously monitored by the Track Etch method to test whether its radon-isotope content may show any premonitory changes useful for earthquake prediction. The monitoring network was installed in May 1975 and has since been gradually expanded to consist of more than 60 stations along a 380-km section of the San Andreas fault system between Santa Rosa and Cholame. This network has recorded several episodes, each lasting several weeks to several months, during which the radon concentration increased by a factor of approximately 2 above average along some long, but limited, fault segments (approx.100 km). These episodes occurred in different seasons and do not appear to be systematically related to changes in meteorological conditions. However, they coincided reasonably well in time and space with larger local earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of about 4.0. These episodic radon changes may be caused by a changing outgassing rate in the fault zones in response to some episodic strain changes, which incidentally caused the earthquakes

  10. Comprehensive identification of age-related lipidome changes in rat amygdala during normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Šmidák

    Full Text Available Brain lipids are integral components of brain structure and function. However, only recent advancements of chromatographic techniques together with mass spectrometry allow comprehensive identification of lipid species in complex brain tissue. Lipid composition varies between the individual areas and the majority of previous reports was focusing on individual lipids rather than a lipidome. Herein, a mass spectrometry-based approach was used to evaluate age-related changes in the lipidome of the rat amygdala obtained from young (3 months and old (20 months males of the Sprague-Dawley rat strain. A total number of 70 lipid species with significantly changed levels between the two animal groups were identified spanning four main lipid classes, i.e. glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterol lipids. These included phospholipids with pleiotropic brain function, such as derivatives of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The analysis also revealed significant level changes of phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin and ceramide that directly represent lipid signaling and affect amygdala neuronal activity. The amygdala is a crucial brain region for cognitive functions and former studies on rats and humans showed that this region changes its activity during normal aging. As the information on amygdala lipidome is very limited the results obtained in the present study represent a significant novelty and may contribute to further studies on the role of lipid molecules in age-associated changes of amygdala function.

  11. Relative Contribution of Monsoon Precipitation and Pumping to Changes in Groundwater Storage in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka, Akarsh; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of groundwater resources threatens food and water security in India. However, the relative influence of groundwater pumping and climate variability on groundwater availability and storage remains unclear. Here we show from analyses of satellite and local well data spanning the past decade that long-term changes in monsoon precipitation are driving groundwater storage variability in most parts of India either directly by changing recharge or indirectly by changing abstraction. We find that groundwater storage has declined in northern India at the rate of 2 cm/yr and increased by 1 to 2 cm/yr in southern India between 2002 and 2013. We find that a large fraction of the total variability in groundwater storage in north-central and southern India can be explained by changes in precipitation. Groundwater storage variability in northwestern India can be explained predominantly by variability in abstraction for irrigation, which is in turn influenced by changes in precipitation. Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized teleconnection between ocean temperatures and groundwater storage.

  12. Public Health-Related Impacts of Climate Change inCalifornia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drechsler, D.M.; Motallebi, N.; Kleeman, M.; Cayan, D.; Hayhoe,K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Miller, N.L.; Jin, J.; VanCuren, R.A.

    2005-12-01

    In June 2005 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger issued Executive Order S-3-05 that set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for California, and directed the Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency to report to the governor and the State legislature by January 2006 and biannually thereafter on the impacts to California of global warming, including impacts to water supply, public health, agriculture, the coastline, and forestry, and to prepare and report on mitigation and adaptation plans to combat these impacts. This report is a part of the report to the governor and legislature, and focuses on public health impacts that have been associated with climate change. Considerable evidence suggests that average ambient temperature is increasing worldwide, that temperatures will continue to increase into the future, and that global warming will result in changes to many aspects of climate, including temperature, humidity, and precipitation (McMichael and Githeko, 2001). It is expected that California will experience changes in both temperature and precipitation under current trends. Many of the changes in climate projected for California could have ramifications for public health (McMichael and Githeko, 2001), and this document summarizes the impacts judged most likely to occur in California, based on a review of available peer-reviewed scientific literature and new modeling and statistical analyses. The impacts identified as most significant to public health in California include mortality and morbidity related to temperature, air pollution, vector and water-borne diseases, and wildfires. There is considerable complexity underlying the health of a population with many contributing factors including biological, ecological, social, political, and geographical. In addition, the relationship between climate change and changes in public health is difficult to predict for the most part, although more detailed information is available on temperature-related

  13. Study of ECG changes and its relation to mortality in cases of cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Suja; Salmani, Deepalaxmi; Prarthana, Kaleramma Gopalakrishna; Bandelkar, Srinidhi Muddanna Gundappa; Varghese, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    Its being long recognized about the highly debilitating and destructive nature of cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Around the world CVAs has posed as a major factor in medical morbidity and mortality. It has thrown up challenges with regards to their medical management and also towards posttreatment rehabilitation. It is well-known that neurologic disorder contributes variously towards varied electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and stroke is no exception. To study the ECG changes and its relation to mortality in cases of CVA. A total of 100 patients with acute stroke were enrolled in the study. All the 100 patients underwent ECG recording within first 24 h of admission. The patients were divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic group depending on the nature of lesion. Out of 100 cases, 58 were ischemic and 42 were hemorrhagic. The ECG changes were noted in 78 patients. Among the ischemic group, the changes noted in the ECG were: T wave inversion (34.48%), ST segment depression (32.75%), QTc prolongation (29.31%), and presence of U waves (27.58%). In cases of hemorrhagic stroke, it was: T wave inversion (33.33%), arrhythmias (33.33%), U waves (30.95%), and ST segment depression (23.80%). Mortality was higher in patients with ST-T changes in ischemic group (66.66%) and in patients with positive U waves (60%) in hemorrhagic group. In acute stroke patients, changes in ECG were commonly seen. The changes varied from T-wave inversion to ST segment depression in ischemic stroke. In hemorrhagic stroke it consisted of T wave inversion and arrhythmias. Overall mortality was high in cases of hemorrhagic compared to ischemic group.

  14. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fone David

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1 alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2 alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3 Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4 alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1 multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2 spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics

  15. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  16. Using Geomorphic Change Detection to Understand Restoration Project Success Relative to Stream Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A.; Segura, C.

    2017-12-01

    Large wood (LW) jams have long been utilized as a stream restoration strategy to create fish habitat, with a strong focus on Coho salmon in the Pacific Northwest. These projects continue to be implemented despite limited understanding of their success in streams of different size. In this study, we assessed the changes triggered by LW introductions in 10 alluvial plane bed reaches with varying drainage areas (3.9-22 km²) and bankfull widths (6.4-14.7 m) in one Oregon Coast Range basin. In this basin, LW was added in an effort to improve winter rearing habitat for Coho salmon. We used detailed topographic mapping (0.5 m² resolution) to describe the local stream and floodplain geometry. Pebble counts were used to monitor changes in average substrate size after the LW addition. Field surveys were conducted immediately after the LW were installed, in the summer of 2016, and one year after installation, in the summer of 2017. We used geomorphic change detection analysis to quantify the amount of scour and deposition at each site along with changes in average bankfull width. Then we determined the relative amount of change among all sites to identify which size stream changed the most. We also modeled fluctuations in water surface elevation at each site, correlating frequency and inundation of the LW with geomorphic changes detected from the topographic surveys. Preliminary results show an increase in channel width and floodplain connectivity at all sites, indicating an increase in off-channel habitat for juvenile Coho salmon. Bankfull widths increased up to 75% in small sites and up to 25% in large sites. Median grain size became coarser in large streams (increased up to 20%), while we saw a similar amount of fining at smaller sites. The overall increase in channel width is compensated by an overall decrease in bed elevation at both large and small sites, suggesting the maintenance of overall geomorphic equilibrium. Further work will include quantifying these

  17. Sociology, Music Education, and Social Change: The Prospect of Addressing Their Relations by Attending to Some Central, Expanded Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Studies on sociology and music education are important because they can enlighten how music education relates to social change. By studying how music education changes and is changed by society we enable ourselves to describe how it can contribute to the understanding of social change generally. This may lay the ground for us in contributing to…

  18. [Gender relations and interdependence: reflections on changes in the hospital configuration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Oliveira, Simone Santos

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes changes that have occurred in hospitals over the years, with a focus on the dynamics of gender relations as experienced by healthcare workers. We use the notions of configuration and interdependence, taken from Norbert Elias' theory of the civilizing process, along with discussions of gender relations at work; drawing from Michel Foucault, we also reference the disciplinary practices employed down through hospital history. This linkage of discussions on gender issues and on interdependent relations opens up to a reflection on conflicts of interests, power struggles, and the balance of tensions, which in turn makes it possible to problematize gender inequalities with the ultimate aim of achieving an interdisciplinary effort that will promote health care of an integral nature.

  19. Implementation of public management of social relations in the face of social changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Leonidovych Prokopenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of regulation of social relations in Ukraine, particularly in the economic, political and humanitarian sphere. Based on the analysis of works of Western social theorists, as well as international experience, defines the basic directions of modernization of public management of social relations in the conditions of social changes. Deals with the historical background of review governance model and consider it as a system that creates and develops the potential of self-government of private and public, individual and collective social actors. Highlights the role of the implementation of public management approaches that stimulate engagement of public institutions, individual and organized public services users to develop policy initiatives for better public management of social relations.

  20.  Age-related changes of skeletal muscles: physiology, pathology and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ławniczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  This review provides a short presentation of the aging-related changes of human skeletal muscles. The aging process is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia and strength. This results from fibre atrophy and apoptosis, decreased regeneration capacity, mitochondrial dysfunction, gradual reduction of the number of spinal cord motor neurons, and local and systemic metabolic and hormonal alterations. The latter involve age-related decrease of the expression and activity of some mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes, triacylglycerols and lipofuscin accumulation inside muscle fibres, increased proteolytic activity, insulin resistance and decreased serum growth hormone and IGF-1 concentrations. Aging of the skeletal muscles is also associated with a decreased number of satellite cells and their proliferative activity. The age-related reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function may be partially prevented by dietary restriction and systematic physical exercises.

  1. miRNA-mediated functional changes through co-regulating function related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs play important roles in various biological processes involving fairly complex mechanism. Analysis of genome-wide miRNA microarray demonstrate that a single miRNA can regulate hundreds of genes, but the regulative extent on most individual genes is surprisingly mild so that it is difficult to understand how a miRNA provokes detectable functional changes with such mild regulation. RESULTS: To explore the internal mechanism of miRNA-mediated regulation, we re-analyzed the data collected from genome-wide miRNA microarray with bioinformatics assay, and found that the transfection of miR-181b and miR-34a in Hela and HCT-116 tumor cells regulated large numbers of genes, among which, the genes related to cell growth and cell death demonstrated high Enrichment scores, suggesting that these miRNAs may be important in cell growth and cell death. MiR-181b induced changes in protein expression of most genes that were seemingly related to enhancing cell growth and decreasing cell death, while miR-34a mediated contrary changes of gene expression. Cell growth assays further confirmed this finding. In further study on miR-20b-mediated osteogenesis in hMSCs, miR-20b was found to enhance osteogenesis by activating BMPs/Runx2 signaling pathway in several stages by co-repressing of PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1. CONCLUSIONS: With its multi-target characteristics, miR-181b, miR-34a and miR-20b provoked detectable functional changes by co-regulating functionally-related gene groups or several genes in the same signaling pathway, and thus mild regulation from individual miRNA targeting genes could have contributed to an additive effect. This might also be one of the modes of miRNA-mediated gene regulation.

  2. The relative contribution of climate to changes in lesser prairie-chicken abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James

    2016-01-01

    Managing for species using current weather patterns fails to incorporate the uncertainty associated with future climatic conditions; without incorporating potential changes in climate into conservation strategies, management and conservation efforts may fall short or waste valuable resources. Understanding the effects of climate change on species in the Great Plains of North America is especially important, as this region is projected to experience an increased magnitude of climate change. Of particular ecological and conservation interest is the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), which was listed as “threatened” under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in May 2014. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify the effects of extreme climatic events (extreme values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]) relative to intermediate (changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation) and long-term climate variability (changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) on trends in lesser prairie-chicken abundance from 1981 to 2014. Our results indicate that lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks responded to environmental conditions of the year previous by positively responding to wet springs (high PDSI) and negatively to years with hot, dry summers (low PDSI), but had little response to variation in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Additionally, greater variation in abundance on leks was explained by variation in site relative to broad-scale climatic indices. Consequently, lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks in Kansas is more strongly influenced by extreme drought events during summer than other climatic conditions, which may have negative consequences for the population as drought conditions intensify throughout the Great Plains.

  3. Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.

    2013-01-01

    Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC~T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a data set of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009–2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine-silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 microns). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC~T relations. Changes of only 5 microns in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC~T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC~T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity-limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply-limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

  4. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Abrantes, Kátya G; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark

  5. Projecting future air pollution-related mortality under a changing climate: progress, uncertainties and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Yu, Weiwei; Tong, Shilu

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may affect mortality associated with air pollutants, especially for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Projection studies of such kind involve complicated modelling approaches with uncertainties. We conducted a systematic review of researches and methods for projecting future PM2.5-/O3-related mortality to identify the uncertainties and optimal approaches for handling uncertainty. A literature search was conducted in October 2013, using the electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 to September 2013. Fifteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that an increase of climate change-induced PM2.5 and O3 may result in an increase in mortality. However, little research has been conducted in developing countries with high emissions and dense populations. Additionally, health effects induced by PM2.5 may dominate compared to those caused by O3, but projection studies of PM2.5-related mortality are fewer than those of O3-related mortality. There is a considerable variation in approaches of scenario-based projection researches, which makes it difficult to compare results. Multiple scenarios, models and downscaling methods have been used to reduce uncertainties. However, few studies have discussed what the main source of uncertainties is and which uncertainty could be most effectively reduced. Projecting air pollution-related mortality requires a systematic consideration of assumptions and uncertainties, which will significantly aid policymakers in efforts to manage potential impacts of PM2.5 and O3 on mortality in the context of climate change. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive

  7. Motivation and body-related factors as discriminators of change in adolescents' exercise behavior profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona B; Standage, Martyn; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relative contributions of weight-related self-perceptions and exercise-related motivation variables in predicting change in leisure-time exercise within a sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom. A cohort of 310 adolescents (51% male, Mean age = 14.08 ± .32 years at baseline) was classified into four groups on the basis of reported change in leisure-time exercise over 10-months: those who maintain, drop out from exercise, take up exercise, and those who were continually inactive. Discriminant function analyses were conducted to predict group membership from adolescents' profiles of motivational and weight-related perceptions at baseline. For boys, the first discriminant function (DF1) revealed that exercise maintainers reported higher identified regulation, introjected regulation, competence, relatedness, and body satisfaction than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .45). DF2 was more indicative of current exercise levels than change, indicating higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation for both active groups at baseline (between-group R(2) = .40). In girls, DF1 showed that exercise maintainers reported higher intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and lower external regulation than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .58). DF2 indicated that higher body mass index, and perceiving greater pressure to lose weight positively predicted drop out, and negatively predicted exercise uptake (between-group R(2) = .26). Fostering autonomous (self-determined) motivation seems a key determinant to maintaining leisure-time exercise for both boys and girls. Additionally, reducing perceptions of pressure to lose weight and promoting positive interactions with others during exercise may be particularly useful to prevent dropout in girls. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms and Attribution of Changes in Austral Summer Precipitation Related to the South Atlantic Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Marcia Terezinha

    Austral summer (DJF) precipitation over tropical South America (SA) is characterized by the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). The increase in atmospheric temperature and water vapor content over the SA during the last decades of the 20 th century could affect the duration and amplitude of the SAMS and the intensity of the SACZ. This research examines the spatial variability of precipitation trends over SE Brazil, focusing on the SACZ. More specifically, this study investigates trends in precipitation over Southeastern Brazil (SE Brazil) and examines changes in the position and intensity of the SACZ. SE Brazil is the most densely populated region in the country with a large portion of this population living in urban centers. The SACZ is important for agriculture and water supply for millions of people. One of the main goals of this research is to identify mechanisms associated with the observed changes in the characteristics of the SACZ during the last three decades of the 20th century, and examine the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic forcing to precipitation trends. The first chapter investigates the pattern of spatial variability of precipitation trends over the coastal region of SE Brazil. This study shows that over the southern portion of the study area, precipitation is increasing due to the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Over the northern portion of the area, while the intensity of extreme events is increasing, the number of precipitating days is decreasing. This spatial pattern of precipitation trends suggests a poleward shift of the SACZ, which is investigated in the second chapter. Chapter 2 focuses on the underlying mechanisms associated with changes in precipitation intensity related to the position of the SACZ. Decadal variations in the mean state of the atmosphere suggest that the observed changes in precipitation over SE Brazil are associated with a

  9. Changes in Ecosystem Services and related Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Renaud, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta (Vietnam) is highly vulnerable to the many impacts of global environmental change as well as to the accelerating anthropogenic changes in the catchment and in the delta itself. Today the delta is an agricultural landscape controlled by engineering structures such as channels, dykes, embankments, and sluice gates. These structures have been constructed gradually over the last 200 years mainly for irrigation and flood control in the upper part of the delta and to control saline intrusion in the coastal areas. Recent changes in the hydrology mainly driven by upstream hydropower development on the mainstream and the tributaries of the Mekong will likely have far reaching impacts on the delta´s social-ecological systems through changes in e.g. sedimentation processes, nutrient transport as well as the health of aquatic ecosystems. Further threats to the delta include sea level rise and an increase in seasonal rainfall variability leading to an increase in flood variability. These changes affect the lives of millions of low-income inhabitants who depend on the ecosystem services provided by the Mekong for their livelihoods and sustenance. Since the changes in ecosystem service provision are occurring relatively fast while the resource dependency of the delta population is very high, adaptation becomes a challenge. An assessment of livelihood dependencies on ecosystem services requires an understanding of ecosystem services affected by different drivers of change, as well as of the types of livelihoods likely to be jeopardized as a result of these changes. We will present main ecosystem services supporting specific livelihoods, discuss how they are threatened, and analyse the merits of potential solutions. Options based solely on grey infrastructure might be problematic on the long term while an integration of ecosystem based solution such as a (re)adaptation of agricultural production systems to floods in the upper delta might be a more sustainable

  10. Discordant inflammatory changes in the apophyseal and sacroiliac joints: serial observations in enthesitis-related arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amies, Thomas; Vendhan, Kanimozhi; Humphries, Paul; Sen, Debajit; Ioannou, Yiannis; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which inflammation of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) and apophyseal joints (AJs) changes concordantly after treatment in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA). Methods: A retrospective study was performed with institutional review board approval. 31 young patients with ERA who had been scanned between March 2009 and November 2014 were included. All patients had post-contrast imaging of the SIJs and lumbar spine and short tau inversion-recovery (STIR) images of the SIJs. The severity of sacroiliitis was scored using a modification of an established technique, and inflammation of the AJs was evaluated using a recently described grading system. The changes in SIJ and AJ scores after treatment were classified as either concordant or discordant, and the proportion of scan pairs in these groups was recorded. In addition, the correlation between change in SIJ STIR score (Δnfla) and change in AJ score (ΔAJ) was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 43 scan pairs, the changes in inflammation were concordant in 16 scan pairs and discordant in 27 scan pairs. There was no significant correlation between Δnfla and ΔAJ (R = 0.14, p = 0.37). Conclusion: Inflammatory changes in the SIJs and AJs are often discordant. This may be a reason why patients experience ongoing back pain despite apparent improvement in one or the other site. Advances in knowledge: Inflammation may behave differently at different anatomical sites. The SIJs and AJs should both be imaged in patients with ERA with back pain. PMID:27376529

  11. Children's dynamic RSA change during anger and its relations with parenting, temperament, and control of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4-6-year-old children's dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N=180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was related to children's better regulation of aggression. For anger-themed materials, low levels of authoritarian parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for more anger-prone children, whereas more authoritative parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for less anger-prone children. These findings suggest that children's adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change can be characterized by latent growth curve modeling, and that these patterns may be differentially shaped by parent socialization experiences as a function of child temperament. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Climate change impact on microclimate of work environment related to occupational health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Capone, Pasquale; Freda, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global emergency that influences human health and occupational safety. Global warming characterized by an increase in temperature of the ambience and humidity affects human health directly impairing body thermoregulation with serious consequences: dehydration, fatigue, heat stroke and even death. Several studies have demonstrated negative effects of climate change on working populations in a wide variety of workplaces with particular regard to outdoor and uncooled indoor workplaces. Most vulnerable workers are outdoor workers in tropical and subtropical countries usually involved in heavy labor during hot seasons. Many of the consequences therefore, regarding working people are possible, even without health symptoms by reducing work productivity. The scope of this review is to investigate effects of climate change on workers both in relation to health and work productivity. This study has been realized by analyzing recent international literature. In order to reduce negative effects of climate change on working populations it is essential to implement preventive measures with a multidisciplinary strategy limiting health risks and improving work productivity.

  13. Enhanced reactivity and related optical changes of Ag nanoparticles on amorphous Al2O3 supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peláez, R J; Castelo, A; Afonso, C N; Borrás, A; Espinós, J P; Riedel, S; Leiderer, P; Boneberg, J

    2013-01-01

    Pairs of samples containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) of different dimensions have been produced under the same conditions but on different substrates, namely standard glass slides and a thin layer of amorphous aluminum oxide (a-Al 2 O 3 ) on-glass. Upon storage in ambient conditions (air and room temperature) the color of samples changed and a blue-shift and damping of the surface plasmon resonance was observed. The changes are weaker for the samples on-glass and tend to saturate after 12 months. In contrast, the changes for the samples on a-Al 2 O 3 appear to be still progressing after 25 months. While x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows a slight sulfurization and negligible oxidation of the Ag for the on-glass samples upon 25 months aging, it shows that Ag is strongly oxidized for the on a-Al 2 O 3 samples and sulfurization is negligible. Both optical and chemical results are consistent with the production of a shell at the expense of a reduction of the metal core dimensions, the latter being responsible for the blue-shift and related to the small ( 2 O 3 supports goes along with specific morphological changes of the Ag NPs and the observation of nitrogen. (paper)

  14. Microarray evaluation of age-related changes in human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranasi, Michelangelo; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Zizzari, Vincenzo; D'Apolito, Giuseppe; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Salini, Luisa; Stuppia, Liborio; Tetè, Stefano

    2009-09-01

    The dental pulp undergoes age-related changes that could be ascribed to physiological, defensive, or pathological irritant-induced changes. These changes are regulated by pulp cell activity and by a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules, playing important roles in growth regulation, tissue differentiation and organization, formation of calcified tissue, and defense mechanisms and reactions to inflammatory stimuli. The aim of this research was to better understand the genetic changes that underlie the histological modification of the dental pulp in aging. The gene expression profile of the human dental pulp in young and older subjects was compared by RNA microarray analysis that allowed to simultaneously analyze the expression levels of thousands of genes. Data were statistically analyzed by Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Semiquantitative and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to confirm the results. Microarray analysis revealed several differentially expressed genes that were categorized in growth factors, transcription regulators, apoptosis regulators, and genes of the ECM. The comparison analysis showed a high expression level of the biological functions of cell and tissue differentiation, development, and proliferation and of the immune, lymphatic, and hematologic system in young dental pulp, whereas the pathway of apoptosis was highly expressed in older dental pulp. Expression profile analyses of human dental pulp represent a sensible and useful tool for the study of mechanisms involved in differentiation, growth and aging of human dental pulp in physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Gender-based differences and menstrual cycle-related changes in specific diseases: implications for pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, M H

    2000-05-01

    Pharmacists should be aware of gender-based differences and menstrual cycle-related changes in six diseases: asthma, arthritis, migraine, diabetes, depression, and epilepsy. In general, women report symptoms of physical illness at higher rates, visit physicians more frequently, and make greater use of other health care services than men. Whereas reasons for these gender differences are not fully clear, a combination of biologic, physiologic, social, behavioral, psychologic, and cultural factors most likely contributes. A significant percentage of women with asthma, arthritis, migraine, diabetes, depression, or epilepsy experience worsening of their disease premenstrually. The mechanism is unknown, but is speculated to be multifactorial because of many endogenous and exogenous modulators and mediators of each disease. As part of general therapy for cycle-related exacerbations of any one of these disorders, patients should be encouraged to use a menstrual calendar to track signs and symptoms for two to three cycles; if cyclic trends are identified, the women should anticipate exacerbations and avoid triggering factors. Cyclic modulation with pharmacotherapy may be attempted. If unsuccessful, a trial of medical ovulation suppression with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog may be warranted. If that is successful, continuous therapy with a GnRH analog and steroid add-back therapy or less expensive alternatives may be effective. If pharmacotherapy is impractical, hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy with estrogen replacement therapy is a last resort. Gender differences and menstrual cycle-related changes are important areas for clinical and mechanistic research.

  16. Small vertical changes in jaw relation affect motor unit recruitment in the masseter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebesi, S; Giannakopoulos, N N; Brüstle, F; Hellmann, D; Türp, J C; Schindler, H J

    2016-04-01

    Strategies for recruitment of masseter muscle motor units (MUs), provoked by constant bite force, for different vertical jaw relations have not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of small changes in vertical jaw relation on MU recruitment behaviour in different regions of the masseter during feedback-controlled submaximum biting tasks. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 24·6 ± 2·4 years) were involved in the investigation. Intra-muscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter was recorded in different regions of the muscle. MUs were identified by the use of decomposition software, and root-mean-square (RMS) values were calculated for each experimental condition. Six hundred and eleven decomposed MUs with significantly (P recruitment behaviour were organised into localised MU task groups. MUs with different task specificity in seven examined tasks were observed. The RMS EMG values obtained from the different recording sites were also significantly (P recruitment was significantly (P recruited MUs and the RMS EMG values decreased significantly (P recruitment behaviour in discrete subvolumes of the masseter in response to small changes in vertical jaw relations. These fine-motor skills might be responsible for its excellent functional adaptability and might also explain the successful management of temporomandibular disorder patients by somatic intervention, in particular by the use of oral splints. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Age-related changes in hand dominance and functional asymmetry in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sebastjan

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate fine motor performance and ascertain age-related changes in laterality between the dominant and non-dominant hand. A representative sample of 635 adults (144 males and 491 females aged 50 years and over completed a test battery MLS (Motor Performance Series to assess a broad range of hand functions. Functional asymmetry was observed in all four motor tests (postural tremor, aiming, tapping, and inserting long pins. Significant differences between the dominant and non-dominant hand were obtained in both sexes across all age groups, except in the oldest female group (age >70 for the aiming (number of hits and errors and postural tremor (number of errors tasks. These differences in age-related changes may be attributed to hemispheric asymmetry, environmental factors, or use-dependent plasticity. Conflicting evidence in the literature warrants additional research to better explain age-related alterations of hand dominance and manual performance in old age.

  18. Changes in the perception of alcohol-related stigma in Germany over the last two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Lucht, Michael J; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol dependence is a severely stigmatized disorder. Perceived stigma may deter help-seeking and is associated with higher co-morbidity and self-stigma in persons with alcohol dependence. We assess changes in the perception of alcohol-related stigma over 21 years in the general population. Two representative population surveys using identical methodology were conducted in Germany in 1990 and 2011 (n=1022 and n=967), eliciting the perceived discrimination and devaluation of someone with a history of alcohol problems as measured with an adoption of Link's Perceived Discrimination and Devaluation Scale (aPDDS), and perceived negative stereotypes of an "alcoholic." Both on item level and using factor scores, attitudes changed significantly between 1990 and 2011. Perceived discrimination and devaluation of someone with a history of alcohol dependence decreased considerably by 0.44 standard deviations (SD). Perceived negative stereotypes related to unpredictability of an "alcoholic" increased slightly by 0.15 SD, while perceived stereotypes related to strangeness decreased (-0.23 SD). Our findings suggest that particularly the image of someone who has received treatment for alcohol dependence has improved in Germany. This parallels increasing acceptance of professional treatment for alcohol dependence among the general population over the last twenty years, and contrasts with overall unchanged negative attitudes toward persons who actually suffer from alcohol problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Encouragement to Approach Novelty: A Curvilinear Relation to Change in Anxiety for Inhibited Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Premo, Julie E; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-04-01

    Various parenting behaviors (e.g., protection, intrusiveness, sensitivity) have been shown to impact young children's anxiety development, particularly for temperamentally inhibited children. These behaviors have sometimes predicted both increases and decreases in anxiety in inhibited children, suggesting that linear relations may not adequately model their influence. In the current study, we proposed the dimension of encouragement to approach novelty to characterize parenting behavior ranging from very little encouragement (i.e., protective behavior) to very strong encouragement (i.e., intrusiveness), with gentle encouragement residing in the middle. In a sample of 110 toddlers (48 female, 62 male) and their mothers, the linear and curvilinear effects of this parenting dimension were investigated in relation to change in child separation anxiety and shyness from age 2 to age 3. Inhibited temperament was also investigated as a moderator. Encouragement to approach novelty displayed the hypothesized curvilinear relation to change in separation anxiety, but not shyness, at extreme levels of inhibited temperament. Toddlers increased in separation anxiety when mothers' encouragement resided at either extreme end of the continuum, with lower child anxiety occurring when mothers displayed behavior closer to the middle of the continuum. Implications for the study of parenting outcomes for inhibited toddlers are discussed.

  20. Age-related changes in the endocytic capacity of rat liver Kupffer and endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, A.; Barelds, R.J.; Knook, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    There are many indications that the functional capacity of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) declines with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular basis of age-related changes in the clearance function of the RES. The experiments were focused mainly on Kupffer and endothelial cells of the liver which represent a major part of the RES and are primarily responsible for clearance of colloidal material from the circulation. The clearance capacity of the RES was tested clinically and experimentally by intravenous injection of colloids, such as radiolabeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin. Age-related changes in the endocytosis of 125 I-labeled colloidal albumin (CA) in rats were determined by clearance and organ distribution of different doses of intravenously injected CA, uptake of CA by Kupffer and endothelial liver cells in vivo as determined after isolation of the cells from injected rats and kinetic studies on CA uptake by Kupffer cells in culture. The results show that, at a low dose, the clearance of CA is primarily determined by liver blood flow. At a higher saturating dose, plasma clearance and uptake by the liver are not significantly decreased with age. Endocytosis by endothelial cells, which accounts for about 60% of that of the whole liver, is also unchanged with age. In contrast, a significant decrease in endocytic capacity was observed for Kupffer cells in vivo. This age-related functional decline was also observed in Kupffer cells which were isolated from rats of different ages and maintained in culture

  1. Novel Behavioral and Neural Evidences for Age-Related changes in Force complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Linda L; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2018-02-17

    This study investigated age-related changes in behavioral and neural complexity for a polyrhythmic movement, which appeared to be an exception to the loss of complexity hypothesis. Young (n = 15; age = 24.2 years) and older (15; 68.1 years) adults performed low-level force-tracking with isometric index abduction to couple a compound sinusoidal target. Multi-scale entropy (MSE) of tracking force and inter-spike interval (ISI) of motor unit (MU) in the first dorsal interosseus muscle were assessed. The MSE area of tracking force at shorter time scales of older adults was greater (more complex) than that of young adults, whereas an opposite trend (less complex for the elders) was noted at longer time scales. The MSE area of force fluctuations (the stochastic component of the tracking force) were generally smaller (less complex) for older adults. Along with greater mean and coefficient of ISI, the MSE area of the cumulative discharge rate of elders tended to be lower (less complex) than that of young adults. In conclusion, age-related complexity changes in polyrhythmic force-tracking depended on the time scale. The adaptive behavioral consequences could be multi-factorial origins of the age-related impairment in rate coding, increased discharge noises, and lower discharge complexity of pooled MUs.

  2. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion...... in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist...... in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion...

  3. Postmortem Changes in Pork Muscle Protein Phosphorylation in Relation to the RN Genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lametsch, René; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Postmortem changes in pork muscle protein phosphorylation in relation to the RN(-) genotype were investigated using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and a phosphor specific staining. The phosphorylation levels of several protein bands were found to be affected by the RN(-) genotype and to change...... of phosphorylation of these key enzymes during the postmortem metabolism. The results illustrate that the protein phosphorylation level of the muscle proteins could be interpreted as a global metabolic fingerprint containing information about the activity status of the enzymes in the postmortem metabolism....... during postmortem development. Glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase were found in protein bands affected by the RN(-) genotype, and the phosphorylation profile indicates that part of the increased rate and extended pH decline of the RN(-) genotype could be a consequence...

  4. Age-related changes in brain hemodynamics; A calibrated MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Hendrikse, J; Bhogal, A

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in response to stimuli have been used to evaluate age-related changes in neuronal activity. Contradictory results from these types of experiments have been attributed to differences in cerebral blood....... A dual-echo pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was performed during normocapnic, hypercapnic, and hyperoxic breathing challenges. Whole brain and regional gray matter values of CBF, ASL cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), BOLD CVR, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and CMRO2 were...... calculated. RESULTS: Whole brain CBF was 49 ± 14 and 40 ± 9 ml/100 g/min in young and older subjects respectively (P brain, in the frontal...

  5. Headache under simulated microgravity is related to endocrine, fluid distribution, and tight junction changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerecker, Matthias; van Oosterhout, Willebrordus P J; Feuerecker, Benedikt; Matzel, Sandra; Schelling, Gustav; Rehm, Markus; Vein, Alla A; Choukèr, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Head-down-tilted bed rest (HDTBR) induces headaches similar to headaches during space flights. The objective of this investigation was to study hematological, endocrinological, fluid changes and tight junctions in HDTBR-induced headaches as a proxy for space headache. The randomized crossover HDTBR design by the European Space Agency included 12 healthy, nonheadache male subjects. Before, during, and after confined HDTBR periods, epinephrine (urine), cortisol (saliva), hematological, endothelium markers, and fluid distribution parameters were measured. Headaches were assessed with a validated headache questionnaire. Compared with baseline, HDTBR in all subjects was associated with higher hematocrit, hemoglobin, and epinephrine levels, higher erythrocyte counts, and lower relative plasma volumes (all P zonulin was elevated (vs headache-free subjects in HDTBR days 1, 3, 5; P < 0.05). HDTBR induces hemoconcentration and fluid redistribution in all subjects. During headache episodes, endocrinological changes, fluid distribution, and tight junctions were more pronounced, suggesting an additional role in headache pathophysiology.

  6. Hippocampus age-related microstructural changes in schizophrenia: a case-control mean diffusivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-08-01

    Macrostructural-volumetric abnormalities of the hippocampus have been described in schizophrenia. Here, we characterized age-related changes of hippocampal mean diffusivity as an index of microstructural damage by carrying out a neuroimaging study in 85 patients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia and 85 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We performed analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor, mean diffusivity as dependent variable and age as covariate. Patients showed an early increase in mean diffusivity in the right and left hippocampus that increased with age. Thus, microstructural hippocampal changes associated with schizophrenia cannot be confined to a specific time window. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption dynamics and technological change - exemplified by the mobile phone and related technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    The point of departure of this paper is the belief that the lifestyles and constantly growing consumption of the rich countries carry a large responbility for environmental problems and make it difficult to provide the necessary scope for increasing consumption for the poor. There is an urgent need...... dynamics that operate on the micro level and compel most consumers in the rich countries to be willing contributors to the growing consumption. The second purpose is to investigate how the families use the new technologies, and how these technologies eventually become integrated in gradual changes...... of everyday life. In the long run, the changes of everyday life can be decisive for the development of the consumption dynamics and for the related environmental effects....

  8. Histological Osteoarthritic Changes in the Human Cervical Spine Facet Joints Related to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Charles, Annie Vesterby; Gregersen, Markil

    2018-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional autopsy study. OBJECTIVE: Quantify histological changes in the lower cervical spine facet joints with regard to age and gender using systematic random sampling of entire joints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a common debilitating musculoskeletal condition...... and one of the highest ranked causes of years lived with disability. The cause of neck pain is multifactorial and osteoarthritis is one potential cause. The cervical spine facet joints have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic neck pain. Hence, a detailed description of their anatomy and age......- and gender related changes is needed. METHODS: The lower four cervical spine segments (C4-C7 included) were obtained from 72 subjects during autopsy; 29 females (median age 53 years [22-77]) and 43 males (median age 38 years [20-78]). A total of 1132 articular facets were embedded in toto in hard plastic...

  9. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation

  10. Longitudinal changes in total brain volume in schizophrenia: relation to symptom severity, cognition and antipsychotic medication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Veijola

    Full Text Available Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999-2001 at the age of 33-35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008-2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p = 0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain. The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p = 0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain. In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions.

  11. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation mechanism of brain

  12. Longitudinal relations of television, electronic games, and digital versatile discs with changes in diet in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe, Jennifer; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard; Gortmaker, Steve L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Field, Alison E

    2014-10-01

    Youth spend more time with screens than any activity except sleeping. Screen time is a risk factor for obesity, possibly because of the influence of food and beverage advertising on diet. We sought to assess longitudinal relations of screen time [ie, television, electronic games, digital versatile discs (DVDs)/videos, and total screen time] with the 2-y changes in consumption of foods of low nutritional quality (FLNQ) that are commonly advertised on screens [ie, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food, sweets, salty snacks, and the sum of these foods (total FLNQ)] and fruit and vegetables. With the use of 2004, 2006, and 2008 waves of the Growing Up Today Study II, which consisted of a cohort of 6002 female and 4917 male adolescents aged 9-16 y in 2004, we assessed screen time (change and baseline) in relation to the 2-y dietary changes. Regression models included 4604 girls and 3668 boys with complete screen time and diet data on ≥2 consecutive questionnaires. Each hour-per-day increase in television, electronic games, and DVDs/videos was associated with increased intake of total FLNQ (range: 0.10-0.28 servings/d; P food, sweets, and salty snacks (range: 0.02-0.06 servings/d; P food groups and in sensitivity analyses, television was most consistently associated with dietary changes. Increases in screen time were associated with increased consumption of foods and beverages of low nutritional quality and decreased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Our results caution against excessive use of screen media, especially television, in youth. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Islamic Religious Leaders in Israel as Social Agents for Change on Health-Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Dar, Michal; Obeid, Samira

    2017-12-01

    Islamic religious leaders (IRLs) have the potential to influence health education, health promotion, and positive health outcomes among their own communities. This study aims to examine the role and effectiveness of Arab Muslim religious leaders, in Israel, as social agents for change on health-related issues, focusing on reduction in infant mortality, prematurity, and congenital malformations attributed to consanguineous marriage. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to 127 IRLs, in 2012, to gain insights into practice, attitudes, and perceptions of IRLs toward their role as social agents for change on health-related issues. The results indicate that two-thirds (58%) of the surveyed IRLs have provided frequent advice on issues related to preventing infant mortality, congenital malformation, and prematurity over the past two years. Most IRLs indicated that they have keen interest in their communities' health matters (97%) and regard dealing with them as part of their job (85%). The study identified three enabling factors that had significant influence on the IRLs' attitude. These influences are: awareness and knowledge of the health issues, the perception that these issues and their impact on the community are part of their responsibility, and the empowerment they felt through the participation in the Ministry of Health (Northern Region Health Office) educational seminar series, in the year 2000. The main conclusion from this study indicates that IRLs are effective social agents for change and that the educational interventions can be a useful and effective strategy to encourage IRLs to cooperate with health providers and promote public health among their own communities.

  14. Neuropeptides in the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis: Mass spectrometric analysis, localization, and age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Franziska; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas; Wegener, Christian; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    Cataglyphis desert ants exhibit an age-related polyethism, with ants performing tasks in the dark nest for the first ∼4 weeks of their adult life before they switch to visually based long-distance navigation to forage. Although behavioral and sensory aspects of this transition have been studied, the internal factors triggering the behavioral changes are largely unknown. We suggest the neuropeptide families allatostatin A (AstA), allatotropin (AT), short neuropeptide F (sNPF), and tachykinin (TK) as potential candidates. Based on a neuropeptidomic analysis in Camponotus floridanus, nano-LC-ESI MS/MS was used to identify these neuropeptides biochemically in Cataglyphis fortis. Furthermore, we show that all identified peptide families are present in the central brain and ventral ganglia of C. fortis whereas in the retrocerebral complex only sNPF could be detected. Immunofluorescence staining against AstA, AT, and TK in the brain revealed arborizations of AstA- and TK-positive neurons in primary sensory processing centers and higher order integration centers, whereas AT immunoreactivity was restricted to the central complex, the antennal mechanosensory and motor center, and the protocerebrum. For artificially dark-kept ants, we found that TK distribution changed markedly in the central complex from days 1 and 7 to day 14 after eclosion. Based on functional studies in Drosophila, this age-related variation of TK is suggestive of a modulatory role in locomotion behavior in C. fortis. We conclude that the general distribution and age-related changes in neuropeptides indicate a modulatory role in sensory input regions and higher order processing centers in the desert ant brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:901-918, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Absence of age-related prefrontal NAA change in adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Y; Abe, O; Yahata, N; Kuwabara, H; Natsubori, T; Iwashiro, N; Takano, Y; Inoue, H; Kawakubo, Y; Gonoi, W; Sasaki, H; Murakami, M; Katsura, M; Nippashi, Y; Takao, H; Kunimatsu, A; Matsuzaki, H; Tsuchiya, K J; Kato, N; Kasai, K; Yamasue, H

    2012-10-23

    Atypical trajectory of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been recognized as a potential etiology of an atypical course of behavioral development. Numerous neuroimaging studies have focused on childhood to investigate atypical age-related change of brain structure and function, because it is a period of neuron and synapse maturation. Recent studies, however, have shown that the atypical age-related structural change of autistic brain expands beyond childhood and constitutes neural underpinnings for lifelong difficulty to behavioral adaptation. Thus, we examined effects of aging on neurochemical aspects of brain maturation using 3-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) with single voxel in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in 24 adult men with non-medicated high-functioning ASDs and 25 age-, IQ- and parental-socioeconomic-background-matched men with typical development (TD). Multivariate analyses of covariance demonstrated significantly high N-acetylaspartate (NAA) level in the ASD subjects compared with the TD subjects (F=4.83, P=0.033). The low NAA level showed a significant positive correlation with advanced age in the TD group (r=-0.618, P=0.001), but was not evident among the ASD individuals (r=0.258, P=0.223). Fisher's r-to-z transformation showed a significant difference in the correlations between the ASD and TD groups (Z=-3.23, P=0.001), which indicated that the age-NAA relationship was significantly specific to people with TD. The current (1)H-MRS study provided new evidence that atypical age-related change of neurochemical aspects of brain maturation in ASD individuals expands beyond childhood and persists during adulthood.

  16. Energy institutional and organisational changes in EU and Russia: Revisiting gas relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.; Locatelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article tries to shed light on why gas relations between the EU and Russia, which were previously stable, have deteriorated since the introduction of institutional changes in the two regions. After identifying the areas of divergence in the context of European gas market liberalization, we then attempt to examine them in the context of the differing approaches to structuring this sector. The model of vertically unbundled network industries promoted by the EU is no longer the one that Russia intends to implement in its gas sector, despite the big changes taking place in its domestic market. All this is happening in a context where the economic stakes are very high. For the EU and its gas companies, access to Russia’s hydrocarbon resources is a key question. For Gazprom, the question is whether or not it can define strategies that are flexible enough to adapt to the changing conditions in the European gas market. - Highlights: ► In this study, we analyse the evolution of EU–Russia gas relation since the 1990s. ► The problems of defining new gas relations between the EU and Russia stem from a clash of values. ► The problem: Russia’s rejection of the EU’s power to enact rules for the gas industries and markets. ► For the EU and its gas companies, access to Russia’s hydrocarbon resources is a key question. ► For Gazprom, the question is whether it can define flexible strategies on the European gas market

  17. Perceived work-related stress and early atherosclerotic changes in healthy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska, Joanna; Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Radkiewicz, Piotr; Pasierski, Tomasz; Szulczyk, Grazyna Anna; Zabek, Jakub; Wojciechowska, Bozena; Jedryka-Góral, Anna

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived work-related stress and preclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 100 managers and 50 office workers aged 35-65 participated in a questionnaire study. Individual, family and work-related stress risk factors and coping were evaluated in all the studied individuals. Serum levels of biochemical (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TG, glucose) and serological risk factors of atherosclerosis (anticardiolipin, anti-beta(2) GPI, anti-oxLDL, anti-HSP and anti-hsCRP antibodies) were evaluated. A computer analysis of B-mode ultrasound images was used to assess carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and atherosclerotic plaque in carotid arteries. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS v. 11.5. The studied individuals showed average ranges of both the global stress level and of coping results. In 71% no changes were found in the ultrasound image and in 29% of individuals (43) the presence of plaque was shown. The mean value of the IMT measure was 0.0618 +/- 0.013 mm. IMT and plaque correlated negatively with the level of global work-related stress (r = -0.26; P related stress and coping, or between coping and IMT (P > 0.05), or between work-related stress and healthy lifestyle (no smoking, no excessive use of alcohol, high physical activity), or between healthy lifestyle and IMT (P > 0.05). Positive correlation between IMT and LDL and smoking did not result from higher stress reaction in the studied individuals. The explanation of the negative correlation between perceived work-related stress and preclinical atherosclerosis was not confirmed either by the subjects under high stress undertaking healthy protective activities or by their escaping into unhealthy behaviour. The most probable interpretation of the results is that in individuals with a low level of perceived work-related stress, somatization of stress takes place.

  18. Quantitation of maxillary remodeling. 1. A description of osseous changes relative to superimposition on metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Ben-Bassat, Y; West, E E

    1987-01-01

    Lateral skull radiographs for a set of 31 human subjects were examined using computer-aided methods in an attempt to quantify modal trends of maxillary remodeling during the mixed dentition and adolescent growth periods. Cumulative changes in position of anterior nasal spine (ANS), posterior nasal spine (PNS), and Point A are reported at annual intervals relative to superimposition on previously placed maxillary metallic implants. This in vivo longitudinal study confirms at a high level of confidence earlier findings by Enlow, Björk, Melsen, and others to the effect that the superior surface of the maxilla remodels downward during the period of growth and development being investigated. However, the inter-individual variability is relatively large, the mean magnitudes of change are relatively small, and the rate of change appears to diminish by 13.5 years. For the 19 subjects for whom data were available for the time interval from 8.5 to 15.5 years, mean downward remodeling at PNS was 2.50 mm with a standard deviation of 2.23 mm. At ANS, corresponding mean value was 1.56 mm with a standard deviation of 2.92 mm. Mean rotation of the ANS-PNS line relative to the implant line was 1.1 degree in the "forward" direction. However, this rotational change was particularly variable with a standard deviation of 4.6 degrees and a range of 11.3 degrees "forward" to 6.7 degrees "backward." The study provides strong evidence that the palate elongates anteroposteriorly mainly by the backward remodeling of structures located posterior to the region in which the implants were placed. There is also evidence that supports the idea of modal resorptive remodeling at ANS and PNS, but here the data are somewhat more equivocal. It appears likely, but not certain, that there are real differences in the modal patterns of remodeling between treated and untreated subjects. Because of problems associated with overfragmentation of the sample, sex differences were not investigated.

  19. Power Relative to Body Mass Best Predicts Change in Core Temperature During Exercise-Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Willmott, Ashley G B; James, Carl A; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-02-01

    Gibson, OR, Willmott, AGB, James, CA, Hayes, M, and Maxwell, NS. Power relative to body mass best predicts change in core temperature during exercise-heat stress. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 403-414, 2017-Controlling internal temperature is crucial when prescribing exercise-heat stress, particularly during interventions designed to induce thermoregulatory adaptations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the rate of rectal temperature (Trec) increase, and various methods for prescribing exercise-heat stress, to identify the most efficient method of prescribing isothermic heat acclimation (HA) training. Thirty-five men cycled in hot conditions (40° C, 39% R.H.) for 29 ± 2 minutes. Subjects exercised at 60 ± 9% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with methods for prescribing exercise retrospectively observed for each participant. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated for each prescriptive variable against the rate of change in Trec (° C·h), with stepwise multiple regressions performed on statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression identified the predicted intensity required to increase Trec by 1.0-2.0° C between 20- and 45-minute periods and the duration taken to increase Trec by 1.5° C in response to incremental intensities to guide prescription. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships with the rate of change in Trec were observed for prescriptions based on relative power (W·kg; r = 0.764), power (%Powermax; r = 0.679), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.577), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak; r = 0.562), heart rate (HR) (%HRmax; r = 0.534), and thermal sensation (r = 0.311). Stepwise multiple regressions observed relative power and RPE as variables to improve the model (r = 0.791), with no improvement after inclusion of any anthropometric variable. Prescription of exercise under heat stress using power (W·kg or %Powermax) has the strongest relationship with the rate of change in

  20. Ecological grief as a mental health response to climate change-related loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunsolo, Ashlee; Ellis, Neville R.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change is increasingly understood to impact mental health through multiple pathways of risk, including intense feelings of grief as people suffer climate-related losses to valued species, ecosystems and landscapes. Despite growing research interest, ecologically driven grief, or `ecological grief', remains an underdeveloped area of inquiry. We argue that grief is a natural and legitimate response to ecological loss, and one that may become more common as climate impacts worsen. Drawing upon our own research in Northern Canada and the Australian Wheatbelt, combined with a synthesis of the literature, we offer future research directions for the study of ecological grief.

  1. Student beliefs and learning environments: Developing a survey of factors related to conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Mary

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents a model for the type of classroom environment believed to facilitate scientific conceptual change. A survey based on this model contains items about students' motivational beliefs, their study approach and their perceptions of their teacher's actions and learning goal orientation. Results obtained from factor analyses, correlations and analyses of variance, based on responses from 113 students, suggest that an empowering interpersonal teacher-student relationship is related to a deep approach to learning, a positive attitude to science, and positive self-efficacy beliefs, and may be increased by a constructivist approach to teaching.

  2. Aging and cellular defense mechanisms: age-related changes in resistance of mice to Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P J

    1981-01-01

    Age-related changes in resistance of mice to infection with Listeria monocytogenes were investigated. One-month-old mice exhibited the least resistance, and the resistance level increased over the first few months to reach a maximum by 8 months. Increase in age thereafter was accompanied by a slow but progressive decrease in resistance. Thus, 50% lethal doses for 1-, 8-, and 24-month-old mice were 10(4.2), 10(6.6), and 10(5.2), respectively. In spite of differences in resistance, the growth o...

  3. Event-related potentials elicited by pre-attentive emotional changes in temporal context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Fujimura

    Full Text Available The ability to detect emotional change in the environment is essential for adaptive behavior. The current study investigated whether event-related potentials (ERPs can reflect emotional change in a visual sequence. To assess pre-attentive processing, we examined visual mismatch negativity (vMMN: the negative potentials elicited by a deviant (infrequent stimulus embedded in a sequence of standard (frequent stimuli. Participants in two experiments pre-attentively viewed visual sequences of Japanese kanji with different emotional connotations while ERPs were recorded. The visual sequence in Experiment 1 consisted of neutral standards and two types of emotional deviants with a strong and weak intensity. Although the results indicated that strongly emotional deviants elicited more occipital negativity than neutral standards, it was unclear whether these negativities were derived from emotional deviation in the sequence or from the emotional significance of the deviants themselves. In Experiment 2, the two identical emotional deviants were presented against different emotional standards. One type of deviants was emotionally incongruent with the standard and the other type of deviants was emotionally congruent with the standard. The results indicated that occipital negativities elicited by deviants resulted from perceptual changes in a visual sequence at a latency of 100-200 ms and from emotional changes at latencies of 200-260 ms. Contrary to the results of the ERP experiment, reaction times to deviants showed no effect of emotional context; negative stimuli were consistently detected more rapidly than were positive stimuli. Taken together, the results suggest that brain signals can reflect emotional change in a temporal context.

  4. Influence of global change-related impacts on the mercury toxicity of freshwater algal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Jonatan; Muñiz, Selene; Gomà, Joan; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The climatic-change related increase of temperatures, are expected to alter the distribution and survival of freshwater species, ecosystem functions, and also the effects of toxicants to aquatic biota. This study has thus assessed, as a first time, the modulating effect of climate-change drivers on the mercury (Hg) toxicity of freshwater algal photosynthesis. Natural benthic algal communities (periphyton) have been exposed to Hg under present and future temperature scenarios (rise of 5 °C). The modulating effect of other factors (also altered by global change), as the quality and amount of suspended and dissolved materials in the rivers, has been also assessed, exposing algae to Hg in natural river water or a synthetic medium. The EC50 values ranged from the 0.15-0.74 ppm for the most sensitive communities, to the 24-40 ppm for the most tolerant. The higher tolerance shown by communities exposed to higher Hg concentrations, as Jabarrella was in agreement with the Pollution Induced Community Tolerance concept. In other cases, the dominance of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata explained the tolerance or sensitivity of the community to the Hg toxicity. Results shown that while increases in the suspended solids reduced Hg bioavailability, changes in the dissolved materials - such as organic carbon - may increase it and thus its toxic effects on biota. The impacts of the increase of temperatures on the toxicological behaviour of periphyton (combining both changes at species composition and physiological acclimation) would be certainly modulated by other effects at the land level (i.e., alterations in the amount and quality of dissolved and particulate substances arriving to the rivers). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Global assessment of rural-urban interface in Portugal related to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Marj; Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G.

    2018-06-01

    The rural-urban interface (RUI), known as the area where structures and other human developments meet or intermingle with wildland and rural area, is at present a central focus of wildfire policy and its mapping is crucial for wildfire management. In the Mediterranean Basin, humans cause the vast majority of fires and fire risk is particularly high in the proximity of infrastructure and of rural/wildland areas. RUI's extension changes under the pressure of environmental and anthropogenic factors, such as urban growth, fragmentation of rural areas, deforestation and, more in general, land use/land cover change (LULCC). As with other Mediterranean countries, Portugal has experienced significant LULCC in the last decades in response to migration, rural abandonment, ageing of population and trends associated with the high socioeconomic development. In the present study, we analyzed the LULCC occurring in this country in the 1990-2012 period with the main objective of investigating how these changes affected RUI's evolution. Moreover, we performed a qualitative and quantitative characterization of burnt areas within the RUI in relation to the observed changes. Obtained results disclose important LULCC and reveal their spatial distribution, which is far from uniform within the territory. A significant increase in artificial surfaces was registered near the main metropolitan communities of the northwest, littoral-central and southern regions, whilst the abandonment of agricultural land near the inland urban areas led to an increase in uncultivated semi-natural and forest areas. Within agricultural areas, heterogeneous patches suffered the greatest changes and were the main contributors to the increase in urban areas; moreover, this land cover class, together with forests, was highly affected by wildfires in terms of burnt area. Finally, from this analysis and during the investigated period, it appears that RUI increased in Portugal by more than two-thirds, while the total

  6. Possible impacts of climate change on heavy rainfall-related flooding risks in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.S.; Li, G.; Li, Q; Auld, H. [Meteorological Service of Canada Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The overarching purpose of this study is to project changes in occurrence frequency of future heavy rainfall and high-flow events under downscaled climate change scenarios for four selected river watersheds (Grand, Humber, Thames, Rideau Rivers) in Ontario, Canada. This study comprises of three major parts: (1) historical simulation modeling to verify the events, (2) statistical downscaling to provide station-scale climate change scenarios, and (3) estimates of changes in frequency and magnitude of future events in 21st century. To achieve these goals, in addition to synoptic weather typing, the modeling conceptualizations in meteorology/hydrology and various regression techniques were applied. Furthermore, a formal model result verification process has been built into the entire modeling exercise. The results of the verification, based on historical observations of the outcome variables predicted by the models, showed very good agreement. This talk will introduce this research project and outline the modeling exercise and result verification process. The major findings on future estimates from the study will be summarized in the presentation as well. The results show that under downscaled climate change scenarios, frequency of the future heavy rainfall and high-/low-flow events for four selected river basins in Ontario could increase in the future. One of the major conclusions from the studies is that the procedures used in the study have the potential to be incorporated into municipal/community emergency response plans, thus providing them with real-time forecasting information to minimize the risks. The implementation of the significant increases in future heavy rainfall-related flooding risks should be taken into consideration when revising engineering infrastructure design standards (including infrastructure maintenance and new construction) and developing adaptation strategies and policies. (author)

  7. Possible impacts of climate change on heavy rainfall-related flooding risks in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.S.; Li, G.; Li, Q; Auld, H.

    2008-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this study is to project changes in occurrence frequency of future heavy rainfall and high-flow events under downscaled climate change scenarios for four selected river watersheds (Grand, Humber, Thames, Rideau Rivers) in Ontario, Canada. This study comprises of three major parts: (1) historical simulation modeling to verify the events, (2) statistical downscaling to provide station-scale climate change scenarios, and (3) estimates of changes in frequency and magnitude of future events in 21st century. To achieve these goals, in addition to synoptic weather typing, the modeling conceptualizations in meteorology/hydrology and various regression techniques were applied. Furthermore, a formal model result verification process has been built into the entire modeling exercise. The results of the verification, based on historical observations of the outcome variables predicted by the models, showed very good agreement. This talk will introduce this research project and outline the modeling exercise and result verification process. The major findings on future estimates from the study will be summarized in the presentation as well. The results show that under downscaled climate change scenarios, frequency of the future heavy rainfall and high-/low-flow events for four selected river basins in Ontario could increase in the future. One of the major conclusions from the studies is that the procedures used in the study have the potential to be incorporated into municipal/community emergency response plans, thus providing them with real-time forecasting information to minimize the risks. The implementation of the significant increases in future heavy rainfall-related flooding risks should be taken into consideration when revising engineering infrastructure design standards (including infrastructure maintenance and new construction) and developing adaptation strategies and policies. (author)

  8. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  9. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Merel R.; Winkels, Renate M.; Janssen, Silvie H.M.; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel

  10. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Guo, Yuming; Sera, Francesco; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria; Huber, Veronika; Tong, Shilu; de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario; Lavigne, Eric; Matus Correa, Patricia; Valdes Ortega, Nicolas; Kan, Haidong; Osorio, Samuel; Kyselý, Jan; Urban, Aleš; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Ryti, Niilo R I; Pascal, Mathilde; Goodman, Patrick G; Zeka, Ariana; Michelozzi, Paola; Scortichini, Matteo; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Hurtado-Diaz, Magali; Cesar Cruz, Julio; Seposo, Xerxes; Kim, Ho; Tobias, Aurelio; Iñiguez, Carmen; Forsberg, Bertil; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Ragettli, Martina S; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Bell, Michelle L; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Van, Dung Do; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Hajat, Shakoor; Haines, Andy; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can directly affect human health by varying exposure to non-optimal outdoor temperature. However, evidence on this direct impact at a global scale is limited, mainly due to issues in modelling and projecting complex and highly heterogeneous epidemiological relationships across different populations and climates. We collected observed daily time series of mean temperature and mortality counts for all causes or non-external causes only, in periods ranging from Jan 1, 1984, to Dec 31, 2015, from various locations across the globe through the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network. We estimated temperature-mortality relationships through a two-stage time series design. We generated current and future daily mean temperature series under four scenarios of climate change, determined by varying trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions, using five general circulation models. We projected excess mortality for cold and heat and their net change in 1990-2099 under each scenario of climate change, assuming no adaptation or population changes. Our dataset comprised 451 locations in 23 countries across nine regions of the world, including 85 879 895 deaths. Results indicate, on average, a net increase in temperature-related excess mortality under high-emission scenarios, although with important geographical differences. In temperate areas such as northern Europe, east Asia, and Australia, the less intense warming and large decrease in cold-related excess would induce a null or marginally negative net effect, with the net change in 2090-99 compared with 2010-19 ranging from -1·2% (empirical 95% CI -3·6 to 1·4) in Australia to -0·1% (-2·1 to 1·6) in east Asia under the highest emission scenario, although the decreasing trends would reverse during the course of the century. Conversely, warmer regions, such as the central and southern parts of America or Europe, and especially southeast Asia, would experience a sharp surge in heat-related

  11. Empowering the village communities for sustained observation of permafrost-related environmental changes, Upper Kuskokwim, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S. K.; Kholodov, A. L.; Hanson, T.

    2016-12-01

    A suite of environmental changes are underway in the North directly affecting the socio-economic state of native communities in remote Arctic villages. We cannot possibly have enough scientists and professionals on the ground to timely predict and effectively respond to the major changes. We believe the most cost-effective and possibly sustainable approach to cover more ground for monitoring and prediction of changes is by building community capacity for monitoring and research, and supporting communities to use resulting data and new findings to address emerging environmental issues and ensuing socio-economic challenges. The goal of this project is to help the communities of Upper Kuskokwim region take the lead in assessing and responding to the environmental changes that are coming with warmer climate and thawing permafrost. The permafrost related societal impacts that the communities are aware of are a) drying of lakes which affect their fishing and trapping, b) lower water level in Rivers due to bank erosion which affect their main mode of transportation in summer, c) appearance of sinkholes that pose threat to the safety of the community members and their properties, and d) eruption of a sand dune in the middle of the Telida village air strip. In August 2016 we will spend ten days in the Nikolai and Telida communities to understand the community need for monitoring through a community survey. We will offer training workshop on climate science and landscape change, and in making scientific observation and data collection. Also, we will install sensors to monitor air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture, and snow at 12 sites spread across different ecotypes and topographic settings. Also, we will survey sites of major change to help develop a geo-hazard map for the region to facilitate safe subsistence practices and land use. As broader impact, the project will offer the traditionally-underserved native communities of the Upper Kuskokwim region an

  12. Changes in health indicators related to health promotion and microcredit programs in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anita L; Chávez, Andrea; Dohn, Michael N; Saturria, Luis; Pimentel, Carlos

    2004-03-01

    , given that the parallel microcredit and health promotion programs resulted in greater change in the measured health indicators than either program alone. As far as we authors know, this is the first published study to quantify changes in health indicators related to parallel health promotion and microcredit programs as compared to control communities with only a health promotion program or a microcredit program.

  13. Regular versus cutback-related change: the role of employee job crafting in organizational change contexts of different nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, P.; Demerouti, E.; Xanthopoulou, D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses how job characteristics (e.g., autonomy, workload, and their interaction) relate to employee job crafting (i.e., seeking resources, seeking challenges, and reducing demands), and whether job crafting relates to employee work-related well-being (i.e., work engagement and

  14. Climate- and successional-related changes in functional composition of European forests are strongly driven by tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Zavala, Miguel A; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Vilà-Cabrera, Albert; Lloret, Francisco; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Wirth, Christian; Greenwood, Sarah; Kändler, Gerald; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kattge, Jens; Dahlgren, Jonas; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Intense droughts combined with increased temperatures are one of the major threats to forest persistence in the 21st century. Despite the direct impact of climate change on forest growth and shifts in species abundance, the effect of altered demography on changes in the composition of functional traits is not well known. We sought to (1) quantify the recent changes in functional composition of European forests; (2) identify the relative importance of climate change, mean climate and forest development for changes in functional composition; and (3) analyse the roles of tree mortality and growth underlying any functional changes in different forest types. We quantified changes in functional composition from the 1980s to the 2000s across Europe by two dimensions of functional trait variation: the first dimension was mainly related to changes in leaf mass per area and wood density (partially related to the trait differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms), and the second dimension was related to changes in maximum tree height. Our results indicate that climate change and mean climatic effects strongly interacted with forest development and it was not possible to completely disentangle their effects. Where recent climate change was not too extreme, the patterns of functional change generally followed the expected patterns under secondary succession (e.g. towards late-successional short-statured hardwoods in Mediterranean forests and taller gymnosperms in boreal forests) and latitudinal gradients (e.g. larger proportion of gymnosperm-like strategies at low water availability in forests formerly dominated by broad-leaved deciduous species). Recent climate change generally favoured the dominance of angiosperm-like related traits under increased temperature and intense droughts. Our results show functional composition changes over relatively short time scales in European forests. These changes are largely determined by tree mortality, which should be further

  15. Age-related changes in dermal fiber-like structures in facial cheeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, K; Hirayama, K

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent progress in non-invasive measurement methods, such as in vivo laser confocal microscopy (CLSM), it is difficult to quantitatively measure age-related changes in dermal fibrous structures in the face using these methods and qualitative characteristics. We used characteristics extracted from the analysis of CLSM images to quantitatively investigate the effects of aging on dermal fibrous structures in the face. CLSM images of dermal fibrous structures were obtained from 90 Japanese females, ranging in age from 20 to 60 years. The feature values of CLSM images were extracted using image analysis methods, such as short-line segment-matching processing and spatial frequency analysis. The qualitative characteristics of the dermal fibrous structures in the CLSM images were obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) of these feature values. The fibrous structures were scored on the basis of qualitative characteristics and then age-related changes in the scores among the subjects were quantitatively evaluated. The PCA results showed that there were two characteristics in the images of fibrous structures: clearness and directionality. The clearness of fibrous structures decreased and directionality isotropy increased with age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, M; Mielcarek, A; Nowak, I

    2018-04-29

    Evaluation of skin condition on the basis of parametrization and objective measurements of the parameters has become obligatory. The aim of this study was to assess sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using the skin testing equipment. The study was carried out on the group of 40 volunteers (20 females and 20 males) of the mean age 24 ± 3 years. The skin parameters were measured using 3 devices: Visioscan ®  VC 98 (skin topography), Visioline ® VL 650 (skin macro relief) and Ultrascan UC22 (ultrasound imaging of the skin). All measurements were performed on the inner part of the left forearm. The skin parameters measured revealed significant differences in skin surface and structure between females and males. The skin of all women subjects was more homogenous in its structure with the presence of more abundant superficial skin lines and wrinkles in comparison to male skin. The higher number of skin furrows in the skin of women is in agreement with literature reports claiming that men's skin has lower number of wrinkles which are deeper and more pronounced. Ultrasound imaging of the skin indicated greater thickness and lower density of the dermis of men subjects compared to those of females. Non-invasive methods of skin testing using new and advanced equipment have provided a possibility of objective parametrization and evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessing social cognition: age-related changes in moral reasoning in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, V; Vera-Estay, E; Lalonde, G; Dooley, J J; Beauchamp, M H

    2017-04-01

    There is increasing recognition that socio-cognitive skills, such as moral reasoning (MR), are affected in a wide range of developmental and neuropsychological conditions. However, the lack of appropriate measures available to neuropsychologists poses a challenge for the direct assessment of these skills. This study sought to explore age-related changes in MR using an innovative visual tool and examine the developmental sensitivity of the task. To address some of the methodological limitations of traditional measures of MR, a novel, visual task, the Socio-Moral Reasoning Aptitude Level (So-Moral), was used to evaluate MR in 216 healthy participants aged 6-20 years. The findings show a linear increase in MR from childhood to late adolescence with significant group differences between childhood (6-8 years) and preadolescence (9-11 years), and between early adolescence (12-14 years) and middle adolescence (15-17 years). Interpreted in light of current brain development research, the results highlight age-related changes in MR that offer insight into typical MR development and opportunities for comparisons with clinical populations. The findings also provide evidence of the potential of the So-Moral as a developmentally appropriate measure of MR throughout childhood and adolescence.

  18. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES TH E INSURANCE INDU STRY FACING WITH IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekete Mária FARKASNÉ

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the financial risk the insurance industry are facing with in association with climate change, there are also opportun ities to the sector to develop new markets and provide coverage against weather related risks. This study presents a possible method to examine the potential for introducing a new insurance product, namely an agricultural flood insurance scheme in the United Kingdom. The investigation included the calculation of agricultural flood damage costs, the possible changes in flood risk, the description of farmers’ risk attitude and interests in insurance. In a small scale survey, farmers were asked their experiences related to flooding, farm management practices and thei r willingness to pay for flood insurance using a contingent valuation method. Using statistical analysis it was found the insurance demand is positively correlated with the damage cost predicted and association is likely between farm types and WTP for insurance. Linear regression model suggests that the demand for flood insurance is low amongst farmers in the present risk level. The findi ngs of this research highlight that there is little evidence for the viability of a farmer financed agricultural flood insurance scheme at the moment in the United Kingdom.

  19. Your brain on drugs: imaging of drug-related changes in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrazi, Benita; Almast, Jeevak

    2012-01-01

    Drug abuse is a substantial problem in society today and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Various drugs are associated with serious complications affecting the brain, and it is critical to recognize the imaging findings of these complications to provide prompt medical management. The central nervous system (CNS) is a target organ for drugs of abuse as well as specific prescribed medications. Drugs of abuse affecting the CNS include cocaine, heroin, alcohol, amphetamines, toluene, and cannabis. Prescribed medications or medical therapies that can affect the CNS include immunosuppressants, antiepileptics, nitrous oxide, and total parenteral nutrition. The CNS complications of these drugs include neurovascular complications, encephalopathy, atrophy, infection, changes in the corpus callosum, and other miscellaneous changes. Imaging abnormalities indicative of these complications can be appreciated at both magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT). It is critical for radiologists to recognize complications related to drugs of abuse as well as iatrogenic effects of various medications. Therefore, diagnostic imaging modalities such as MR imaging and CT can play a pivotal role in the recognition and timely management of drug-related complications in the CNS.

  20. Economic growth and health progress in England and Wales: 160 years of a changing relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A

    2012-03-01

    Using data for England and Wales during the years 1840-2000, a negative relation is found between economic growth--measured by the rate of growth of gross domestic product (GDP)--and health progress--as indexed by the annual increase in life expectancy at birth (LEB). That is, the lower is the rate of growth of the economy, the greater is the annual increase in LEB for both males and females. This effect is much stronger, however, in 1900-1950 than in 1950-2000, and is very weak in the 19th century. It appears basically at lag zero, though some short-lag effects of the same negative sign are found. In the other direction of causality, there are very small effects of the change in LEB on economic growth. These results add to an emerging consensus that in the context of long-term declining trends, mortality oscillates procyclically during the business cycle, declining faster in recessions. Therefore, LEB increases faster during recessions than during expansions. The investigation also shows how the relation between economic growth and health progress changed in England and Wales during the study period. No evidence of cointegration between income--as indexed by GDP or GDP per capita--and health--as indexed by LEB--is found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative diffusion tensor fiber tracking of age-related changes in the limbic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Salomonowitz, Erich; Strunk, Guido; Hammen, Thilo; Ganslandt, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral white matter is known to undergo degradation with aging, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is capable of revealing the white matter integrity. We assessed age-related changes of quantitative diffusivity parameters and fiber characteristics within the fornix and the cingulum. Thirty-eight healthy subjects aged 18-88 years were examined at 3 Tesla using a 1.9-mm isotropic DTI sequence. Quantitative fiber tracking was performed for 3D-segmentation of the fornix and the cingulum to determine fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), eigenvalues (λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 ), number of fibers (NoF), and mean NoF/voxel (FpV). In the fornix, all diffusivity parameters (FA, MD, and eigenvalues) were moderately correlated with age. Strong and moderate negative correlations for NoF and FpV were found, respectively. In the cingulum, no correlation was observed between FA and age, and only weak correlations for the other quantitative parameters. Differences in correlations between the fornix and the cingulum were significant for all diffusivity parameters and for NoF, but not for FpV. The strongest relative changes per decade of age were found in the fornix: FA -2.1%, MD 4.2%, NoF -10.6%, and FpV -4.6%. Our quantitative 3D fiber tracking approach shows that the cingulum is resistant to aging while the fornix is not. (orig.)

  2. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Von Böhl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals.

  3. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernthal, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  4. The auditory comprehension changes over time after sport-related concussion can indicate multisensory processing dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białuńska, Anita; Salvatore, Anthony P

    2017-12-01

    Although science findings and treatment approaches of a concussion have changed in recent years, there continue to be challenges in understanding the nature of the post-concussion behavior. There is growing a body of evidence that some deficits can be related to an impaired auditory processing. To assess auditory comprehension changes over time following sport-related concussion (SRC) in young athletes. A prospective, repeated measures mixed-design was used. A sample of concussed athletes ( n  = 137) and the control group consisted of age-matched, non-concussed athletes ( n  = 143) were administered Subtest VIII of the Computerized-Revised Token Test (C-RTT). The 88 concussed athletes selected for final analysis (neither previous history of brain injury, neurological, psychiatric problems, nor auditory deficits) were evaluated after injury during three sessions (PC1, PC2, and PC3); controls were tested once. Between- and within-group comparisons using RMANOVA were performed on the C-RTT Efficiency Score (ES). ES of the SRC athletes group improved over consecutive testing sessions ( F  =   14.7, p   2.0, Ps integration and/or motor execution can be compromised after a concussion.

  5. Age related changes in striatal resting state functional connectivity in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarthi ePadmanabhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the nature of developmental change is critical to understanding the mechanisms that are impaired in complex neurodevelopment disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and, pragmatically, may allow us to pinpoint periods of plasticity when interventions are particularly useful. Although aberrant brain development has long been theorized as a characteristic feature of ASD, the neural substrates have been difficult to characterize, in part due to a lack of developmental data and to performance confounds. To address these issues, we examined the development of intrinsic functional connectivity with resting state fMRI from late childhood to early adulthood (8-36 years, using a seed based functional connectivity method with the striatum. Overall, we found that both groups show decreases in cortico-striatal circuits over age. However, when controlling for age, ASD participants showed increased connectivity with parietal cortex and decreased connectivity with prefrontal cortex relative to TD participants. In addition, ASD participants showed aberrant age-related changes in connectivity with anterior aspects of cerebellum, and posterior temporal regions (e.g. fusiform gyrus, inferior and superior temporal gyri. In sum, we found prominent differences in the development of striatal connectivity in ASD, most notably, atypical development of connectivity in striatal networks that may underlie cognitive and social reward processing. Our findings highlight the need to identify the biological mechanisms of perturbations in brain reorganization over development, which also may help clarify discrepant findings in the literature.

  6. Stages of Physical Activity Change and Health-Related Quality of Life among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozafar Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health-related quality of life encompasses the perception of valued characteristics of health such as well being and a feeling of comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individuals’ physical activity level on their quality of life. Material and Methods : This was a descriptive-analytic study. The studied sample consisted of 404 high school boys and girls of the district 1 of Qom city. The tools used in the research included self-administered questionnaire regarding quality of life, the process of changing physical activity and demographic variables. SPSS18, ANOVA test and descriptive statistics were applied for analysis. Results: In this study, regarding the stages of change for physical activity, 41.2% of the students were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, in which this variable showed a significant correlation with students’ quality of life. More physically active individuals had a better quality of life (p Conclusion : To make a decision for doing physical activity and to do exercises, have positive and decisive impact on health-related quality of life; therefore, it is recommended that necessary trainings are given to students to modify and strengthen their attitudes toward physical activity. Also, sport facilities should be provided in natural environments through government-organized planning.

  7. Recent Trends of Tree Growth in Relation to Climate Change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOMOGYI, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses two related issues. One is whether, and how, growth patterns of standmean height have changed in Hungary in the last few decades, and the other is whether recentlyobserved increases in mean annual temperature might have caused changes in growth trends. Changesin tree growth were investigated for beech (Fagus sylvatica, sessile oak (Quercus petraea andTurkey oak (Quercus cerris by comparing stand mean heights over age using data from the forestinventories of 1981 and 2001, and for sessile oak using stand mean height data from permanentsample plots since 1961. Tree growth was found to have accelerated for each species mentioned, withTurkey oak showing the largest acceleration. To study the second issue, stand mean height was relatedto elevation, wich in turn was related to mean annual temperature and precipitation. For theseanalyses, too, data of many thousands of stands in the forest inventory was used. Stand mean heightwas found to increase with decreasing elevation, i.e. with increasing mean annual temperature, foreach of the three species. As the annual precipitation and air humidity decreases with decreasingelevation, it was concluded that increases of mean annual temperature could positively have affectedtree growth in the last few decades. However, this effect is expected to be soon limited by wateravailability.

  8. Age-related differences in plasma proteins: how plasma proteins change from neonates to adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ignjatovic

    Full Text Available The incidence of major diseases such as cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and cancer increases with age and is the major cause of mortality world-wide, with neonates and children somehow protected from such diseases of ageing. We hypothesized that there are major developmental differences in plasma proteins and that these contribute to age-related changes in the incidence of major diseases. We evaluated the human plasma proteome in healthy neonates, children and adults using the 2D-DIGE approach. We demonstrate significant changes in number and abundance of up to 100 protein spots that have marked differences in during the transition of the plasma proteome from neonate and child through to adult. These proteins are known to be involved in numerous physiological processes such as iron transport and homeostasis, immune response, haemostasis and apoptosis, amongst others. Importantly, we determined that the proteins that are differentially expressed with age are not the same proteins that are differentially expressed with gender and that the degree of phosphorylation of plasma proteins also changes with age. Given the multi-functionality of these proteins in human physiology, understanding the differences in the plasma proteome in neonates and children compared to adults will make a major contribution to our understanding of developmental biology in humans.

  9. Wave forcing and morphological changes of New Caledonia lagoon islets: Insights on their possible relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucan, Jérôme; Vendé-Leclerc, Myriam; Dumas, Pascal; Bricquir, Marianne

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, we examine how waves may contribute to the morphological changes of islets in the New Caledonia lagoon. We collected in situ wave data to investigate their characteristics. Three types of waves are identified and quantified: (1) high-frequency waves generated within the lagoon, (2) low-frequency waves originating from swells in the Tasman Sea, and (3) infragravity waves. We found out that high-frequency waves are the dominant forcing on the islets during typical wind events throughout the year, while infragravity waves, likely generated by the breaking of low-frequency waves, dominate during seasonal swell events. During swell events, low-frequency waves can also directly propagate to the islets through channels across the barrier reef, or be tidally modulated across the barrier reef before reaching the islets. Topographic surveys and beach profiles on one islet indicate areas with seasonal morphological changes and other areas with longer, interannual or decadal, erosion patterns. Although more data are needed to validate this hypothesis, we suspect that a relation exists between wave forcing and morphological changes of the islets.

  10. Examination of changes in pathology tests ordered by Diagnosis-Related Group (DRGs) following CPOE introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio, Elia; Georgiou, Andrew; Toouli, George; Eigenstetter, Alex; Li, Ling; Wilson, Roger; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2013-01-01

    Electronic test ordering, via the Electronic Medical Record (EMR), which incorporates computerised provider order entry (CPOE), is widely considered as a useful tool to support appropriate pathology test ordering. Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are clinically meaningful categories that allow comparisons in pathology utilisation by patient groups by controlling for many potentially confounding variables. This study used DRG data linked to pathology test data to examine changes in rates of test ordering across four years coinciding with the introduction of an EMR in six hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. This method generated a list of high pathology utilisation DRGs. We investigated patients with a Chest pain DRG to examine whether tests rates changed for specific test groups by hospital emergency department (ED) pre- and post-EMR. There was little change in testing rates between EDs or between time periods pre- and post-EMR. This is a valuable method for monitoring the impact of EMR and clinical decision support on test order rates.

  11. Developing Health-Related Indicators of Climate Change: Australian Stakeholder Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navi, Maryam; Hansen, Alana; Nitschke, Monika; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Pisaniello, Dino

    2017-05-22

    Climate-related health indicators are potentially useful for tracking and predicting the adverse public health effects of climate change, identifying vulnerable populations, and monitoring interventions. However, there is a need to understand stakeholders' perspectives on the identification, development, and utility of such indicators. A qualitative approach was used, comprising semi-structured interviews with key informants and service providers from government and non-government stakeholder organizations in South Australia. Stakeholders saw a need for indicators that could enable the monitoring of health impacts and time trends, vulnerability to climate change, and those which could also be used as communication tools. Four key criteria for utility were identified, namely robust and credible indicators, specificity, data availability, and being able to be spatially represented. The variability of risk factors in different regions, lack of resources, and data and methodological issues were identified as the main barriers to indicator development. This study demonstrates a high level of stakeholder awareness of the health impacts of climate change, and the need for indicators that can inform policy makers regarding interventions.

  12. Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Martin; Kaes, Matthias; Albert, Andreas; Wuttig, Matthias; Salinga, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Memory based on phase change materials is currently the most promising candidate for bridging the gap in access time between memory and storage in traditional memory hierarchy. However, multilevel storage is still hindered by the so-called resistance drift commonly related to structural relaxation of the amorphous phase. Here, we present the temporal evolution of infrared spectra measured on amorphous thin films of the three phase change materials Ag4In3Sb67Te26, GeTe and the most popular Ge2Sb2Te5. A widening of the bandgap upon annealing accompanied by a decrease of the optical dielectric constant ε∞ is observed for all three materials. Quantitative comparison with experimental data for the apparent activation energy of conduction reveals that the temporal evolution of bandgap and activation energy can be decoupled. The case of Ag4In3Sb67Te26, where the increase of activation energy is significantly smaller than the bandgap widening, demonstrates the possibility to identify new phase change materials with reduced resistance drift.

  13. Withdrawal-Related Changes in Delay Discounting Predict Short-Term Smoking Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglin, Rickie; Kable, Joseph W; Bowers, Maureen E; Ashare, Rebecca L

    2017-06-01

    Impulsive decision making is associated with smoking behavior and reflects preferences for smaller, immediate rewards and intolerance of temporal delays. Nicotine withdrawal may alter impulsive decision making and time perception. However, little is known about whether withdrawal-related changes in decision making and time perception predict smoking relapse. Forty-five smokers (14 female) completed two laboratory sessions, one following 24-hour abstinence and one smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced; biochemically verified abstinence). During each visit, participants completed measures of time perception, decision making (ie, discount rates), craving, and withdrawal. Following the second laboratory session, subjects underwent a well-validated model of short-term abstinence (quit week) with small monetary incentives for each day of biochemically confirmed abstinence. Smokers significantly overestimated time during abstinence, compared to smoking-as-usual (p = .021), but there were no abstinence effects on discount rates (p = .6). During the quit week, subjects were abstinent for 3.5 days (SD = 2.15) and smoked a total of 12.9 cigarettes (SD = 15.8). Importantly, higher discount rates (ie, preferences for immediate rewards) during abstinence (abstinence minus smoking difference score) predicted greater number of days abstinent (p = .01) and fewer cigarettes smoked during the quit week (p = .02). Withdrawal-related change in time reproduction did not predict relapse (p = .2). These data suggest that individuals who have a greater preference for immediate rewards during abstinence (vs. smoking-as-usual) may be more successful at maintaining short-term abstinence when provided with frequent (eg, daily) versus less frequent incentive schedules (eg, 1 month). Abstinence-induced changes in decision making may be important for identifying smokers who may benefit from interventions that incentivize abstinence such as contingency management (CM). The present results

  14. Increasing weather-related impacts on European population under climate and demographic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Cescatti, Alessandro; Batista e Silva, Filipe; Kovats, Sari R.; Feyen, Luc

    2017-04-01

    Over the last three decades the overwhelming majority of disasters have been caused by weather-related events. The observed rise in weather-related disaster losses has been largely attributed to increased exposure and to a lesser degree to global warming. Recent studies suggest an intensification in the climatology of multiple weather extremes in Europe over the coming decades in view of climate change, while urbanization continues. In view of these pressures, understanding and quantifying the potential impacts of extreme weather events on future societies is imperative in order to identify where and to what extent their livelihoods will be at risk in the future, and develop timely and effective adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategies. Here we show a comprehensive assessment of single- and multi-hazard impacts on the European population until the year 2100. For this purpose, we developed a novel methodology that quantifies the human impacts as a multiplicative function of hazard, exposure and population vulnerability. We focus on seven of the most impacting weather-related hazards - including heat and cold waves, wildfires, droughts, river and coastal floods and windstorms - and evaluated their spatial and temporal variations in intensity and frequency under a business-as-usual climate scenario. Long-term demographic dynamics were modelled to assess exposure developments under a corresponding middle-of-the-road scenario. Vulnerability of humans to weather extremes was appraised based on more than 2300 records of weather-related disasters. The integration of these elements provides a range of plausible estimates of extreme weather-related risks for future European generations. Expected impacts on population are quantified in terms of fatalities and number of people exposed. We find a staggering rise in fatalities from extreme weather events, with the projected death toll by the end of the century amounting to more than 50 times the present number of people

  15. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki; Osawa, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Sugawara, Kenichi

    2017-09-29

    To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion (Increasing phase), the peak value of the sine wave, during the gradual reduction (Decreasing phase), and after completion of the task. The MEP ratio, as the ratio of imaged MEPs to resting-state, was compared between pre- and post-training at each time point. In the ECR muscle, the MEP ratio significantly increased during the Increasing phase and at the peak force of dorsiflexion imagery after training. Moreover, the MEP ratio was significantly greater in the Increasing phase than in the Decreasing phase. In the FCR, there were no significant consistent changes. Corticospinal excitability during motor imagery in an isometric contraction task was modulated in relation to the phase of force control after image construction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in health-related behaviors and their effect on dissatisfaction with body weight in youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16s1p79 The aim of the present study was to establish whether changes in health related behaviors are associated with changes in the satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight in youths. It was a prospective study that performed a secondary analysis of data from Project “Saúde na Boa”, which included youths attending night classes in secondary public schools in Recife in the state of Pernambuco and Florianópolis in the state of Santa Catarina. Data on the youths’ body type (thinness or excess weight and degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with body weight and lifestyle (level of physical activity, participation in physical education classes, sedentary behavior and snacks, soda and alcohol intake were collected at 10 schools from each town (five in the intervention group and five in the control group. The percentages of youths dissatisfied with their body weight were 50.5% and 48.6% at baseline and after intervention, respectively. The percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness decreased (21.4% vs. 16.5%, while the percentage of youths with body dissatisfaction due to excess weight increased (29.1% vs. 32.1%. Approximately 41.2% of the youths with body dissatisfaction due to thinness and 18.3% of those dissatisfied due to excess weight became satisfied with their body weight after intervention. The intervention targeting health-related behaviors induced changes in the youths’ degree of satisfaction with their body weight.

  17. Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Løtvedt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens.We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds. Keywords: Animal domestication, Stress response, HPA axis, Glucocorticoid receptor, Gene expression, Chicken

  18. Three empirical essays on consumer behavior related to climate change and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Grant Douglas

    This dissertation consists of three essays. All of the chapters address a topic in the area of household and consumer behavior related to climate change or energy. The first chapter is titled "The Al Gore Effect: An Inconvenient Truth and Voluntary Carbon Offsets". This chapter examines the relationship between climate change awareness and household behavior by testing whether Al Gore's documentary An Inconvenient Truth caused an increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The analysis shows that in the two months following the film's release, zip codes within a 10-mile radius of a zip code where the film was shown experienced a 50 percent relative increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The second chapter is titled "Are Building Codes Effective at Saving Energy? Evidence from Residential Billing Data in Florida". The analysis shows that Florida's energy-code change that took effect in 2002 is associated with a 4-percent decrease in electricity consumption and a 6-percent decrease in natural-gas consumption in Gainesville, FL. The estimated private payback period for the average residence is 6.4 years and the social payback period ranges between 3.5 and 5.3 years. The third chapter in this dissertation is titled "Do Environmental Offsets Increase Demand for Dirty Goods? Evidence from Residential Electricity Demand". This study evaluates the relationship between green products and existing patterns of consumer behavior by examining the relationship between household enrollment in a green electricity program and consumption of residential electricity. The results suggest there are two different types of green consumers. One type makes a small monthly donation and partially views the donation as a substitute for a previously existing pattern of green behavior, in this case, energy conservation. The other type makes a larger monthly donation and views the donation as a way to make strictly additional improvements in environmental quality.

  19. Visual food stimulus changes resting oscillatory brain activities related to appetitive motive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Yoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-09-26

    Changes of resting brain activities after visual food stimulation might affect the feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and spontaneous appetitive motives. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify brain areas related to the activity changes. Fifteen healthy, right-handed males [age, 25.4 ± 5.5 years; body mass index, 22.5 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 (mean ± SD)] were enrolled. They were asked to watch food or mosaic pictures for 5 min and to close their eyes for 3 min before and after the picture presentation without thinking of anything. Resting brain activities were recorded during two eye-closed sessions. The feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and appetitive motives in the study setting were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. The γ-band power of resting oscillatory brain activities was decreased after the food picture presentation in the right insula [Brodmann's area (BA) 13], the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (BA11), and the left frontal pole (BA10). Significant reductions of the α-band power were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (BA46). Particularly, the feeling of pleasure in eating food was positively correlated with the power decrease in the insula and negatively with that in the DLPFC. The changes in appetitive motives were associated with the power decrease in the frontal pole. These findings suggest automatic brain mechanics whereby changes of the resting brain activity might be associated with positive feeling in dietary life and have an impact on the irresistible appetitive motives through emotional and cognitive brain functions.

  20. Explaining time changes in oral health-related quality of life in England: a decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakos, Georgios; Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; O'Connor, Rhiannon; Wildman, John; Steele, Jimmy G; Allen, Patrick Finbarr

    2017-12-01

    Oral diseases are highly prevalent and impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). However, time changes in OHRQoL have been scarcely investigated in the current context of general improvement in clinical oral health. This study aims to examine changes in OHRQoL between 1998 and 2009 among adults in England, and to analyse the contribution of demographics, socioeconomic characteristics and clinical oral health measures. Using data from two nationally representative surveys in England, we assessed changes in the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), in both the sample overall (n=12 027) and by quasi-cohorts. We calculated the prevalence and extent of oral impacts and summary OHIP-14 scores. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition analysis was used to assess the contribution of demographics (age, gender, marital status), socioeconomic position (education, occupation) and clinical measures (presence of decay, number of missing teeth, having advanced periodontitis). There were significant improvements in OHRQoL, predominantly among those that experienced oral impacts occasionally, but no difference in the proportion with frequent oral impacts. The decomposition model showed that 43% (-4.07/-9.47) of the decrease in prevalence of oral impacts reported occasionally or more often was accounted by the model explanatory variables. Improvements in clinical oral health and the effect of ageing itself accounted for most of the explained change in OHRQoL, but the effect of these factors varied substantially across the lifecourse and quasi-cohorts. These decomposition findings indicate that broader determinants could be primarily targeted to influence OHRQoL in different age groups or across different adult cohorts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Citrulline diet supplementation improves specific age-related raft changes in wild-type rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Clamagirand, Christine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Rose, Christiane; Sargueil, Françoise; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Cynober, Luc; Moinard, Christophe; Allinquant, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    The levels of molecules crucial for signal transduction processing change in the brain with aging. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains involved in cell signaling. We describe here substantial biophysical and biochemical changes occurring within the rafts in hippocampus neurons from aging wild-type rats and mice. Using continuous sucrose density gradients, we observed light-, medium-, and heavy raft subpopulations in young adult rodent hippocampus neurons containing very low levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and almost no caveolin-1 (CAV-1). By contrast, old rodents had a homogeneous age-specific high-density caveolar raft subpopulation containing significantly more cholesterol (CHOL), CAV-1, and APP. C99-APP-Cter fragment detection demonstrates that the first step of amyloidogenic APP processing takes place in this caveolar structure during physiological aging of the rat brain. In this age-specific caveolar raft subpopulation, levels of the C99-APP-Cter fragment are exponentially correlated with those of APP, suggesting that high APP concentrations may be associated with a risk of large increases in beta-amyloid peptide levels. Citrulline (an intermediate amino acid of the urea cycle) supplementation in the diet of aged rats for 3 months reduced these age-related hippocampus raft changes, resulting in raft patterns tightly close to those in young animals: CHOL, CAV-1, and APP concentrations were significantly lower and the C99-APP-Cter fragment was less abundant in the heavy raft subpopulation than in controls. Thus, we report substantial changes in raft structures during the aging of rodent hippocampus and describe new and promising areas of investigation concerning the possible protective effect of citrulline on brain function during aging.

  3. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Patricia J; Vanak, Abi T; Muggeo, Vito M R; Ferreira, Salamon M; Slotow, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana), in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009). Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or other extrinsic shifts in ecological studies, rather than arbitrarily fixed definitions

  4. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana, in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009. Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or

  5. Potential impact of climate-related changes is buffered by differential responses to recruitment and interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Menge, Bruce A.

    2011-08-01

    Detection of ecosystem responsiveness to climatic perturbations can provide insight into climate change consequences. Recent analyses linking phytoplankton abundance and mussel recruitment to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) revealed a paradox. Despite large increases in mussel recruitment beginning in 2000, adult mussel responses were idiosyncratic by site and intertidal zone, with no response at one long-term site, and increases in the low zone (1.5% per year) and decreases in the mid zone (1.3% per year) at the other. What are the mechanisms underlying these differential changes? Species interactions such as facilitation by barnacles and predation are potential determinants of successful mussel colonization. To evaluate these effects, we analyzed patterns of barnacle recruitment, determined if predation rate covaried with the increase in mussel recruitment, and tested facilitation interactions in a field experiment. Neither magnitude nor season of barnacle recruitment changed meaningfully with site or zone from the 1990s to the 2000s. In contrast to the relationship between NPGO and local-scale mussel recruitment, relationships between local-scale patterns of barnacle recruitment and climate indices were weak. Despite differences in rates of prey recruitment and abundance of sea stars in 1990–1991, 1999–2000, and 2007–2008, predation rates were nearly identical in experiments before, during, and after 1999–2000. The facilitation experiment showed that mussels M. trossulus only became abundant when barnacle recruitment was allowed, when abundance of barnacles reached high abundance of ∼50% cover, and when mussel recruitment was sufficiently high. Thus, in the low zone minimal changes in mussel abundance despite sharply increased recruitment rates are consistent with the hypothesis that change in adult mussel cover was buffered by the relative insensitivity of barnacle recruitment to climatic fluctuations, and a resultant lack of change in

  6. Potential impact of climate-related changes is buffered by differential responses to recruitment and interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Menge, Bruce A.; Hacker, Sally D.; Freidenburg, Tess; Lubchenco, Jane; Craig, Ryan; Rilov, Gil; Noble, Mae Marjore; Richmond, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Detection of ecosystem responsiveness to climatic perturbations can provide insight into climate change consequences. Recent analyses linking phytoplankton abundance and mussel recruitment to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) revealed a paradox. Despite large increases in mussel recruitment beginning in 2000, adult mussel responses were idiosyncratic by site and intertidal zone, with no response at one long-term site, and increases in the low zone (1.5% per year) and decreases in the mid zone (1.3% per year) at the other. What are the mechanisms underlying these differential changes? Species interactions such as facilitation by barnacles and predation are potential determinants of successful mussel colonization. To evaluate these effects, we analyzed patterns of barnacle recruitment, determined if predation rate covaried with the increase in mussel recruitment, and tested facilitation interactions in a field experiment. Neither magnitude nor season of barnacle recruitment changed meaningfully with site or zone from the 1990s to the 2000s. In contrast to the relationship between NPGO and local-scale mussel recruitment, relationships between local-scale patterns of barnacle recruitment and climate indices were weak. Despite differences in rates of prey recruitment and abundance of sea stars in 1990–1991, 1999–2000, and 2007–2008, predation rates were nearly identical in experiments before, during, and after 1999–2000. The facilitation experiment showed that mussels M. trossulus only became abundant when barnacle recruitment was allowed, when abundance of barnacles reached high abundance of ∼50% cover, and when mussel recruitment was sufficiently high. Thus, in the low zone minimal changes in mussel abundance despite sharply increased recruitment rates are consistent with the hypothesis that change in adult mussel cover was buffered by the relative insensitivity of barnacle recruitment to climatic fluctuations, and a resultant lack of change in

  7. Parkinson-related changes of activation in visuomotor brain regions during perceived forward self-motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk van der Hoorn

    Full Text Available Radial expanding optic flow is a visual consequence of forward locomotion. Presented on screen, it generates illusionary forward self-motion, pointing at a close vision-gait interrelation. As particularly parkinsonian gait is vulnerable to external stimuli, effects of optic flow on motor-related cerebral circuitry were explored with functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy controls (HC and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Fifteen HC and 22 PD patients, of which 7 experienced freezing of gait (FOG, watched wide-field flow, interruptions by narrowing or deceleration and equivalent control conditions with static dots. Statistical parametric mapping revealed that wide-field flow interruption evoked activation of the (pre-supplementary motor area (SMA in HC, which was decreased in PD. During wide-field flow, dorsal occipito-parietal activations were reduced in PD relative to HC, with stronger functional connectivity between right visual motion area V5, pre-SMA and cerebellum (in PD without FOG. Non-specific 'changes' in stimulus patterns activated dorsolateral fronto-parietal regions and the fusiform gyrus. This attention-associated network was stronger activated in HC than in PD. PD patients thus appeared compromised in recruiting medial frontal regions facilitating internally generated virtual locomotion when visual motion support falls away. Reduced dorsal visual and parietal activations during wide-field optic flow in PD were explained by impaired feedforward visual and visuomotor processing within a magnocellular (visual motion functional chain. Compensation of impaired feedforward processing by distant fronto-cerebellar circuitry in PD is consistent with motor responses to visual motion stimuli being either too strong or too weak. The 'change'-related activations pointed at covert (stimulus-driven attention.

  8. Relative influences of climate change and human activity on the onshore distribution of polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Atwood, Todd C.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Miller, Susanne; Divoky, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is altering habitat for many species, leading to shifts in distributions that can increase levels of human-wildlife conflict. To develop effective strategies for minimizing human-wildlife conflict, we must understand the relative influences that climate change and other factors have on wildlife distributions. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land during summer and autumn due to sea ice loss, leading to higher incidents of conflict and concerns for human safety. We sought to understand the relative influence of sea ice conditions, onshore habitat characteristics, and human-provisioned food attractants on the distribution and abundance of polar bears while on shore. We also wanted to determine how mitigation measures might reduce human-polar bear conflict associated with an anthropogenic food source. We built a Bayesian hierarchical model based on 14 years of aerial survey data to estimate the weekly number and distribution of polar bears on the coast of northern Alaska in autumn. We then used the model to predict how effective two management options for handling subsistence-harvested whale remains in the community of Kaktovik, Alaska might be. The distribution of bears on shore was most strongly influenced by the presence of whale carcasses and to a lesser extent sea ice and onshore habitat conditions. The numbers of bears on shore were related to sea ice conditions. The two management strategies for handling the whale carcasses reduced the estimated number of bears near Kaktovik by > 75%. By considering multiple factors associated with the onshore distribution and abundance of polar bears we discerned what role human activities played in where bears occur and how successful efforts to manage the whale carcasses might be for reducing human-polar bear conflict.

  9. Age-related changes in compensatory stepping in response to unpredictable perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, W E; Maki, B E

    1996-11-01

    Recent studies highlight the importance of compensatory stepping to preserve stability, and the spatial and temporal demands placed on the control of this reaction. Age-related changes in the control of stepping could greatly influence the risk of falling. The present study compares, in healthy elderly and young adults, the characteristics of compensatory stepping responses to unpredictable postural perturbations. A moving platform was used to unpredictably perturb the upright stance of 14 naive, active and mobile subjects (5 aged 22 to 28 and 9 aged 65 to 81). The first 10 randomized trials (5 forward and 5 backward) were evaluated to allow a focus on reactions to relatively novel perturbations. The behavior of the subjects was not constrained. Forceplate and kinematic measures were used to evaluate the responses evoked by the brief (600 msec) platform translation. Subjects stepped in 98% of the trials. Although the elderly were less likely to execute a lateral anticipatory postural adjustment prior to foot-lift, the onset of swing-leg unloading tended to begin at the same time in the two age groups. There was remarkable similarity between the young and elderly in many other characteristics of the first step of the response. In spite of this similarity, the elderly subjects were twice as likely to take additional steps to regain stability (63% of trials for elderly). Moreover, in elderly subjects, the additional steps were often directed so as to preserve lateral stability, whereas the young rarely showed this tendency. Given the functional significance of base-of-support changes as a strategy for preserving stability and the age-related differences presently revealed, assessment of the capacity to preserve stability against unpredictable perturbation, and specific measures such as the occurrence or placement of multiple steps, may prove to be a significant predictor of falling risk and an important outcome in evaluating or developing intervention strategies to

  10. Where the wild things are: Seasonal variation in caribou distribution in relation to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa McNeil

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a method to analyse the relationships between seasonal caribou distribution and climate, to estimate how climatic conditions affect interactions between humans and caribou, and ultimately to predict patterns of distribution relative to climate change. Satellite locations for the Porcupine (Rangifer tarandus granti and Bathurst (R. t. groenlandicus caribou herds were analysed for eight ecologically-defined seasons. For each season, two levels of a key environmental factor influencing caribou distribution were identified, as well as the best climate data available to indicate the factor's annual state. Satellite locations were grouped according to the relevant combination of season and environmental factor. Caribou distributions were compared for opposing environmental factors; this comparison was undertaken relative to hunting access for the Porcupine Herd and relative to exposure to mining activity for the Bathurst Herd. Expected climate trends suggest an overall increase in access to Porcupine caribou for Aklavik (NWT hunters during the winter and rut seasons, for Venetie (Alaska hunters during midsummer and fall migration and for Arctic Village (Alaska during midsummer. Arctic Village may experience reduced availability with early snowfalls in the fall, but we expect there to be little directional shift in the spring migration patterns. For the Bathurst Herd, we expect that fewer caribou would be exposed to the mines during the winter, while more caribou would be exposed to the combined Ekati and Diavik mining zone in the early summer and to the Lupin-Jericho mining zone during the fall migration. If changes in climate cause an increased presence of caribou in the mining sites, monitoring and mitigation measures may need to be intensified.

  11. 26 CFR 1.6662-7 - Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 changes to the accuracy-related penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changes to the accuracy-related penalty. 1.6662-7 Section 1.6662-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax... changes to the accuracy-related penalty in section 6662. This section provides rules reflecting those...

  12. Relative effects of climate change and wildfires on stream temperatures: A simulation modeling approach in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Holsinger; Robert E. Keane; Daniel J. Isaak; Lisa Eby; Michael K. Young

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are warming globally from the direct effects of climate change on air temperature and hydrology and the indirect effects on near-stream vegetation. In fire-prone landscapes, vegetative change may be especially rapid and cause significant local stream temperature increases but the importance of these increases relative to broader changes associated...

  13. The Framing of Climate-Change Discourse by Shell and the Framing of Shell’s Climate Change-Related Activities by The Economist and The Financial Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Kapranov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative study of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group’s (further - Shell corporate image building in relation to climate change and how this image is represented in the British financial press. The material of the study involves the official 2014 Shell’s annual report (further - AR and online coverages of Shell’s climate change-related activities by the leading British financial newspapers, The Economist and The Financial Times (further – The FT. Shell’s image of climate change is investigated by means of identification of conceptual metaphors viewed through the lenses of the methodological apparatus of cognitive linguistics. Conceptual metaphors identified in the 2014 AR are subsequently juxtaposed with conceptual metaphors associated with Shell’s climate-change activities in The Economist and in The FT. The results reveal that Shell’s 2014 AR involves the following conceptual metaphors associated with climate change: ‘Climate Change as a Journey’, ‘Climate Change as a Battle’, ‘Shell as a Responsible Citizen’, ‘Shell as a Caring Corporation’, ‘Climate Change as Growth’, and ‘Climate Change as Money’. In contrast with these conceptual metaphors, The Economist represents Shell’s climate change activities in 2014 via ‘Shell as an Immoral Corporation’ and ‘Shell as a Sinner’. The FT frames Shell’s climate change agenda in 2014 by means of conceptual metaphors ‘Climate Change as Growth’, ‘Climate Change as a Journey’, and ‘Climate Change as Money’ respectively. The discrepancies between Shell’s self-image of climate change and its representations by The Economist and The FT are further presented and discussed in the article.

  14. Concern beliefs in medications: changes over time and medication use factors related to a change in beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Farris, Karen B; Chrischilles, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Concern belief in medication is a construct that may characterize patients' attitude toward managing medicines, and this could change with time. Understanding the factors that would impact a change in concern beliefs would be helpful in interventions that could reframe patients' perceptions about their medicines. To examine if patient concern beliefs in medications change over time, assess the characteristics of individuals whose beliefs change, and determine what factors might impact a change in patient beliefs. Secondary data analysis using 2 longitudinal studies. The first study was an Internet-based survey of Medicare enrollees pre-post Medicare Part D. The second study was a randomized controlled trial evaluating a medication management intervention among adults with physical limitations. Respondents were classified as those whose beliefs remained stable and those whose beliefs increased and decreased over 2 separate periods. Chi-square analysis examined significant differences across the groups. Multiple linear regressions examined factors that influence changes in patient beliefs. Among older adults, there were differences in perceived health status (χ(2)=26.05, P=.001), number of pharmacies used (χ(2)=17.41, P=.008), and number of medicines used after the start of Medicare Part D. There were no significant differences among adults with physical limitations. Among older adults, having an increased number of medicines over time and reporting a self-reported adverse effect to a physician were positively associated with an increase in concern beliefs in medication. Having an increase in adherence was associated with a decrease in concern beliefs over time. Concern beliefs in medications may contribute independent information about individuals' response to drug programs and policies. Outcomes of medication use may influence patient anxieties about medicines. The instability of patient concerns in medications that occurs with prescription drug coverage changes

  15. The developing human brain: age-related changes in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Dafna; Leung, Rachel C; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-04-01

    This study is the first to characterize normal development and sex differences across neuroanatomical structures in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar brain regions in a single large cohort. One hundred and ninety-two magnetic resonance images were examined from 96 typically developing females and 96 age-matched typically developing males from 4 to 18 years of age. Image segmentation of the cortex was conducted with CIVET, while that of the cerebellum, hippocampi, thalamus, and basal ganglia were conducted using the MAGeT algorithm. Cortical thickness analysis revealed that most cortical regions decrease linearly, while surface area increases linearly with age. Volume relative to total cerebrum followed a quadratic trend with age, with only the left supramarginal gyrus showing sexual dimorphism. Hippocampal relative volume increased linearly, while the thalamus, caudate, and putamen decreased linearly, and the cerebellum did not change with age. The relative volumes of several subcortical subregions followed inverted U-shaped trends that peaked at ~12 years of age. Many subcortical structures were found to be larger in females than in males, independently of age, while others showed a sex-by-age interaction. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar growth patterns during normal development, and draws attention to the role of sex on neuroanatomical maturation throughout childhood and adolescence.

  16. Functional brain and age-related changes associated with congruency in task switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, Teal S.; Parker, David; Liu, Dan; Oh, Hwamee; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Alternating between completing two simple tasks, as opposed to completing only one task, has been shown to produce costs to performance and changes to neural patterns of activity, effects which are augmented in old age. Cognitive conflict may arise from factors other than switching tasks, however. Sensorimotor congruency (whether stimulus-response mappings are the same or different for the two tasks) has been shown to behaviorally moderate switch costs in older, but not younger adults. In the current study, we used fMRI to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of response-conflict congruency effects within a task switching paradigm in older (N=75) and younger (N=62) adults. Behaviorally, incongruency moderated age-related differences in switch costs. Neurally, switch costs were associated with greater activation in the dorsal attention network for older relative to younger adults. We also found that older adults recruited an additional set of brain areas in the ventral attention network to a greater extent than did younger adults to resolve congruency-related response-conflict. These results suggest both a network and an age-based dissociation between congruency and switch costs in task switching. PMID:27520472

  17. Assessment of the relative toxicity of Cu2+ by measuring structural changes of supercoiled DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Gang; Chang Guohua; Chen Hao; Giusti, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the relative toxicity of Cu 2+ in aquatic environments is proposed. It is based on the quantitative measurement on the shape change of the supercoiled DNA after it is contacted with different levels of Cu 2+ for various time intervals. In the absence of any redox reagents, all supercoiled DNA degraded into other forms of DNA after 24 h incubation in the presence of 5.13 x 10 -3 , 5.08 x 10 -4 and 5.35 x 10 -5 mol/L Cu 2+ . At a lower Cu 2+ concentration (10 -6 mol/L), 44% of supercoiled DNA retained its original supercoiled form after 24 h, and 29% after 48 h. The concentration of RC 50 , i.e. concentration of pollutants at which 50% of the supercoiled DNA was relaxed compared to control samples, can be obtained from the does-response curves at different exposure time, which may provide a rapid and convenient approach to assess the relative toxicity of environmental pollutants. - RC 50 values (concentration at which 50% of the supercoiled DNA relaxed) can be used to reflect the relative toxicity of Cu in aquatic environment

  18. Gender difference and age-related changes in performance at the long-distance duathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Pfeifer, Susanne; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The differences in gender- and the age-related changes in triathlon (i.e., swimming, cycling, and running) performances have been previously investigated, but data are missing for duathlon (i.e., running, cycling, and running). We investigated the participation and performance trends and the gender difference and the age-related decline in performance, at the "Powerman Zofingen" long-distance duathlon (10-km run, 150-km cycle, and 30-km run) from 2002 to 2011. During this period, there were 2,236 finishers (272 women and 1,964 men, respectively). Linear regression analyses for the 3 split times, and the total event time, demonstrated that running and cycling times were fairly stable during the last decade for both male and female elite duathletes. The top 10 overall gender differences in times were 16 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 15 ± 3, and 16 ± 5%, for the 10-km run, 150-km cycle, 30-km run and the overall race time, respectively. There was a significant (p triathlons, the age-related decline in the duathlon performance was more pronounced in running than in cycling. Athletes and coaches can use these findings to plan the career in long-distance duathletes with the age of peak performance between 25 and 39 years for both women and men.

  19. Age-related changes of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of the normal cervical spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun, E-mail: medsciwangkun@126.com [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Song, Qingxin; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhi; Hou, Canglong; Tang, Yixing [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shiyue [Radiology Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Hao, Qiang, E-mail: haoqiang@189.cn [Radiology Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Shen, Hongxing, E-mail: shenhxgk@126.com [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • It is essential to determine the DTI parameters in the whole CSC. • To analyze DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the CSC. • To study the impact of age on these parameters in healthy Chinese subjects. • Provide better insights in factors that could bias the diagnosis of CSC pathologies. - Abstract: Background: The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the cervical spinal cord (CSC) changes with age. However, previous studies only examined specific CSC areas. Objectives: To analyze the DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the whole normal CSC and to study the impact of age on these parameters in a Chinese population. Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 20–77 years were recruited. DTI parameters were calculated for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) funiculi in all the CSC intervertebral spaces (C1/2-C6/7). Age-related changes of DTI parameters were analyzed for the GM and WM funiculi. Results: Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were lower in GM than in WM. MD and FA values were lower in the WM in the lower CSC compared with the upper CSC (all P < 0.05), but no difference was observed in GM. In ventral funiculi, MD increased with age, while FA decreased (all P < 0.001). In lateral and dorsal funiculi, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). In GM, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). Significant age-related changes were observed in FA and MD from GM and WM funiculi. FA was correlated with age in all funiculi (ventral: r = −0.733; lateral: r = −0.468; dorsal: r = −0.607; GM: r = −0.724; all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Important changes in MD and FA were observed with advancing age at all levels of CSC in Chinese patients. DTI parameters may be useful to assess CSC pathology, but the influence of age and segments need to be taken into account in diagnosis.

  20. Age-related changes of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of the normal cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kun; Song, Qingxin; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhi; Hou, Canglong; Tang, Yixing; Chen, Shiyue; Hao, Qiang; Shen, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • It is essential to determine the DTI parameters in the whole CSC. • To analyze DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the CSC. • To study the impact of age on these parameters in healthy Chinese subjects. • Provide better insights in factors that could bias the diagnosis of CSC pathologies. - Abstract: Background: The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the cervical spinal cord (CSC) changes with age. However, previous studies only examined specific CSC areas. Objectives: To analyze the DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the whole normal CSC and to study the impact of age on these parameters in a Chinese population. Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 20–77 years were recruited. DTI parameters were calculated for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) funiculi in all the CSC intervertebral spaces (C1/2-C6/7). Age-related changes of DTI parameters were analyzed for the GM and WM funiculi. Results: Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were lower in GM than in WM. MD and FA values were lower in the WM in the lower CSC compared with the upper CSC (all P < 0.05), but no difference was observed in GM. In ventral funiculi, MD increased with age, while FA decreased (all P < 0.001). In lateral and dorsal funiculi, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). In GM, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). Significant age-related changes were observed in FA and MD from GM and WM funiculi. FA was correlated with age in all funiculi (ventral: r = −0.733; lateral: r = −0.468; dorsal: r = −0.607; GM: r = −0.724; all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Important changes in MD and FA were observed with advancing age at all levels of CSC in Chinese patients. DTI parameters may be useful to assess CSC pathology, but the influence of age and segments need to be taken into account in diagnosis

  1. Sequential computerized tomography changes and related final outcome in severe head injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato, R.D.; Gomez, P.A.; Alday, R.

    1997-01-01

    The authors analyzed the serial computerized tomography (CT) findings in a large series of severely head injured patients in order to assess the variability in gross intracranial pathology through the acute posttraumatic period and determine the most common patterns of CT change. A second aim was to compare the prognostic significance of the different CT diagnostic categories used in the study (Traumatic Coma Data Bank CT pathological classification) when gleaned either from the initial (postadmission) or the control CT scans, and determine the extent to which having a second CT scan provides more prognostic information than only one scan. 92 patients (13.3 % of the total population) died soon after injury. Of the 587 who survived long enough to have at least one control CT scan 23.6 % developed new diffuse brain swelling, and 20.9 % new focal mass lesions most of which had to be evacuated. The relative risk for requiring a delayed operation as related to the diagnostic category established by using the initial CT scans was by decreasing order: diffuse injury IV (30.7 %), diffuse injury III (30.5 %), non evacuated mass (20 %), evacuated mass (20.2 %), diffuse injury II (12.1 %), and diffuse injury I (8.6 %). Overall, 51.2 % of the patients developed significant CT changes (for worse or better) occurring either spontaneously or following surgery, and their final outcomes were more closely related to the control than to the initial CT diagnoses. In fact, the final outcome was more accurately predicted by using the control CT scans (81.2 % of the cases) than by using the initial CT scans (71.5 % of the cases only). Since the majority of relevant CT changes developed within 48 hours after injury a pathological categorization made by using an early control CT scan seems to be most useful for prognostic purposes. Prognosis associated with the CT pathological categories used in the study was similar independently of the moment of the acute posttraumatic period at which

  2. [Intensified rehabilitation aftercare (IRENA): utilization alongside work and changes in work-related parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, J; Behrens, J; Mau, W; Schubert, M

    2011-06-01

    An aftercare programme following medical rehabilitation may be beneficial in order to reinforce and stabilize the positive effects of rehabilitation and to encourage individual health-related modifications of behaviour and lifestyle. Medical rehabilitation and the aftercare programme of the German Pension Insurance Fund primarily are intended to sustain earning capacity. As part of an evaluation of the Intensified Rehabilitation Aftercare Programme (IRENA) established by the German Pension Insurance Fund, work-related aspects in orthopaedic patients were analyzed based on various data sources. Firstly, the significance of institutional and individual conditions for utilization of IRENA alongside work was of interest. Secondly, the IRENA participants' judgements of the changes of work-related parameters due to the programme were examined, differentiating specifically by extent of earning capacity impairments as well as by particular work problems. The data set used for the analysis is composed of person-related routine data of the German Pension Insurance Fund relative to IRENA records of the year 2007 (n=30 663), interview data from orthopaedic rehabilitation centres providing IRENA (n=225), and questionnaires of IRENA participants (n=750) that were either collected during a broad evaluation of the IRENA programme or provided by the German Pension Insurance Fund. The results show that the compatibility of IRENA and work is facilitated by the institutional conditions. However, differences between inpatient and outpatient settings have to be recognized. The possibilities to participate in IRENA throughout the day frequently are more diverse in an outpatient setting. In contrast to inpatient centres, outpatient rehabilitation centres see clearly better chances for patients to return to work and to participate in IRENA alongside. With respect to the work-related parameters (work ability, periods of sick leave), clear improvements were reported by participants from

  3. Relationships between diet-related changes in the gut microbiome and cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, K R; Hauck, L; Jeffrey, B M; Elias, V; Humphrey, A; Nath, R; Perrone, A; Bermudez, L E

    2015-08-06

    Western diets are high in fat and sucrose and can influence behavior and gut microbiota. There is growing evidence that altering the microbiome can influence the brain and behavior. This study was designed to determine whether diet-induced changes in the gut microbiota could contribute to alterations in anxiety, memory or cognitive flexibility. Two-month-old, male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned high-fat (42% fat, 43% carbohydrate (CHO), high-sucrose (12% fat, 70% CHO (primarily sucrose) or normal chow (13% kcal fat, 62% CHO) diets. Fecal microbiome analysis, step-down latency, novel object and novel location tasks were performed prior to and 2weeks after diet change. Water maze testing for long- and short-term memory and cognitive flexibility was conducted during weeks 5-6 post-diet change. Some similarities in alterations in the microbiome were seen in both the high-fat and high-sucrose diets (e.g., increased Clostridiales), as compared to the normal diet, but the percentage decreases in Bacteroidales were greater in the high-sucrose diet mice. Lactobacillales was only significantly increased in the high-sucrose diet group and Erysipelotrichales was only significantly affected by the high-fat diet. The high-sucrose diet group was significantly impaired in early development of a spatial bias for long-term memory, short-term memory and reversal training, compared to mice on normal diet. An increased focus on the former platform position was seen in both high-sucrose and high-fat groups during the reversal probe trials. There was no significant effect of diet on step-down, exploration or novel recognitions. Higher percentages of Clostridiales and lower expression of Bacteroidales in high-energy diets were related to the poorer cognitive flexibility in the reversal trials. These results suggest that changes in the microbiome may contribute to cognitive changes associated with eating a Western diet. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. The age-related changes in figural perceptual abilities of pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Blagoje V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of a broader research in the field of development of different intellectual abilities in primary schools. Using a transverse - longitudinal research strategy, the pupils from nine to fifteen years of age are observed in order to find answers to the following questions: 1 Do the important developmental changes in the figural-perceptual abilities occur in this developmental period? 2 Is the pace of changes in these abilities the same at all ages, grades? 3 Do the developmental changes in these abilities depend on the type of tests, that is, mental operations which register the applied tests? Figural-perceptual abilities are defined as the ability to identify the elements in space, to imagine and transform the elements in space, the ability for spatial reasoning, perceptual shaping flexibility, the ability of eduction of relations and correlates, the ability to identify the elements that are injected into the right material, the ability to notice the difference in the forms and dimensions of the characters, speed observations of similarities and differences between elements in the field of perception. The measurement (assessment of these abilities was performed with the help of 11 tests of intellectual abilities of the figural content. The individual progresses as baseline data were used for the data analysis. The progresses of the subjects were compared with the analysis and the results are the following: 1 The pupils from third to eighth grade showed positive changes in the figurative perceptive abilities. This is shown in all the tests that were used and progresses are statistically significant in all tests 2 There is a tendency that the pupils in the sixth grade made the best progress, and the seventh-grade pupils made the least progress. 3 However, when the progresses are compared in certain tests, then significant differences in the pace of development of these abilities are determined. Namely, the pupils in the higher

  5. Global assessment of rural–urban interface in Portugal related to land cover changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tonini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The rural–urban interface (RUI, known as the area where structures and other human developments meet or intermingle with wildland and rural area, is at present a central focus of wildfire policy and its mapping is crucial for wildfire management. In the Mediterranean Basin, humans cause the vast majority of fires and fire risk is particularly high in the proximity of infrastructure and of rural/wildland areas. RUI's extension changes under the pressure of environmental and anthropogenic factors, such as urban growth, fragmentation of rural areas, deforestation and, more in general, land use/land cover change (LULCC. As with other Mediterranean countries, Portugal has experienced significant LULCC in the last decades in response to migration, rural abandonment, ageing of population and trends associated with the high socioeconomic development. In the present study, we analyzed the LULCC occurring in this country in the 1990–2012 period with the main objective of investigating how these changes affected RUI's evolution. Moreover, we performed a qualitative and quantitative characterization of burnt areas within the RUI in relation to the observed changes. Obtained results disclose important LULCC and reveal their spatial distribution, which is far from uniform within the territory. A significant increase in artificial surfaces was registered near the main metropolitan communities of the northwest, littoral-central and southern regions, whilst the abandonment of agricultural land near the inland urban areas led to an increase in uncultivated semi-natural and forest areas. Within agricultural areas, heterogeneous patches suffered the greatest changes and were the main contributors to the increase in urban areas; moreover, this land cover class, together with forests, was highly affected by wildfires in terms of burnt area. Finally, from this analysis and during the investigated period, it appears that RUI increased in Portugal by more than two

  6. A new method of evaluating posterior occlusion and its relation to posttreatment occlusal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C E; Buschang, P H; Behrents, R G; Throckmorton, G S; English, J D

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between posterior occlusion and posttreatment changes in other occlusal variables. Pretreatment (T1), posttreatment (T2), and postretention (T3) records were obtained for 49 Class I (n = 23) and Class II (n = 26) extraction cases. Overbite, overjet, mandibular incisor irregularity, right and left molar deviations, midline deviation, and mandibular arch length were measured, and occlusal registrations were made of each set of dental casts. The proximity of posterior occlusal surfaces was measured as the contact or near-contact areas at or below 300 microm thickness, based on the optical densities of scanned images of the posterior occlusal registrations. The treatment changes for overbite, overjet, right and left molar deviation, and arch length were significantly greater in the Class II group, and the reductions in incisor irregularity were greater in the Class I group. No other class differences were found. Overbite, overjet, and incisor irregularity increased after treatment, and arch length continued to decrease, with no significant class differences. Contact and near-contact areas at or below 300 microm constituted 7% of the functional occlusal table for both classes at the end of treatment, having decreased significantly in both groups (21% in Class I and 29% in Class II) during treatment. Because contact and near-contact areas increased in some patients and decreased in others, there were no significant posttreatment changes. Negative correlations were found between contact and near-contact areas at T2 and changes in overjet from T2 to T3, and between contact and near-contact areas at T3 and changes in overbite from T2 to T3. No relationships were found between posterior contact and near-contact area and incisor irregularity. We concluded that (1) the area of actual and near contacts at or below 300 microm decreased significantly with treatment, indicating that, despite excellent treatment results by

  7. Projection of temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease in beijing under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boya; Li, Guoxing; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-04-01

    Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China. To this end, 19 global circulation models (GCMs), 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs), 3 socioeconomic pathways, together with generalized linear models and distributed lag non-linear models, were used to project future temperature-related CVD mortality during periods centered around the years 2050 and 2070. The number of temperature-related CVD deaths in Beijing is projected to increase by 3.5-10.2% under different RCP scenarios compared with that during the baseline period. Using the same GCM, the future daily maximum temperatures projected using the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios showed a gradually increasing trend. When population change is considered, the annual rate of increase in temperature-related CVD deaths was up to fivefold greater than that under no-population-change scenarios. The decrease in the number of cold-related deaths did not compensate for the increase in that of heat-related deaths, leading to a general increase in the number of temperature-related deaths due to CVD in Beijing. In addition, adaptation to climate change may enhance rather than ameliorate the effect of climate change, as the increase in cold-related CVD mortality greater than the decrease in heat-related CVD mortality in the adaptation scenarios will result in an increase in the total number of temperature-related CVD mortalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in Tracheostomy- and Intubation-Related Tracheal Stenosis: Implications for Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel S; Khalpey, Zain; Hsu, Charles; Little, Alex G

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to identify the changing characteristic patterns and locations of stenosis after tracheostomy or intubation and to assess the risk factors associated with perioperative complication and restenosis after primary resection and reconstruction. A retrospective review was performed (January /2012 to March 2015) on patients treated at the University of Arizona Medical Center (Tucson, Arizona) who had symptomatic tracheal stenosis secondary to prolonged intubation or tracheostomy. Data on demographics, surgical approach, and outcome were obtained. Analysis was performed using the χ 2 test, Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival, Cox proportional hazards survival analysis, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Forty-eight patients were referred for surgical resection, and 36 patients underwent primary resection and reconstruction; 72% of patients had previous endobronchial treatments for stenosis. Fourteen patients had postintubation tracheal stenosis, and 22 had tracheostomy-related stenosis (16 percutaneous, 6 open tracheostomy). Among all patients, 52.8% had stenosis proximal to or involving the cricoid; 72.7% of patients with tracheostomy-related stenosis had stenosis at or proximal to the cricoid, whereas only 21.4% of the patients with intubation-related stenosis had a similar location. Nineteen patients underwent laryngotracheal resection, and 17 patients had tracheal resection. The mean length of resection was 3.6 cm. A body mass index greater than 35 was associated with increased perioperative complications (p = 0.012). In multivariate analysis, patients younger than 30 years of age at operation had an increased relative risk of recurrence. Recent advances in percutaneous tracheostomy have increased the numbers of patients presenting with proximal tracheal stenosis, thus necessitating more complex subglottic resection and reconstruction. The anastomotic and overall complication rate remains low despite these more complex operations

  9. Teaching a Relational Approach to Climate Change: Working with People and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, F.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, science and technology studies expert Sheila Jasanoff concluded an article in Science by observing that the scientific community "…has demonstrated that it can learn and change in its methods of representing science to scientists. That ingenuity should now be directed toward building relationships of trust and respect with the global citizens whose future climate science has undertaken to predict and reshape." This kind of statement indicates a large shift in the focus on climate-related work, in a sense concluding that the scientific conclusions are well-established, but there is a human-to-human, relationship-based element of the work that needs attention. At the same time, there is increasing emphasis on transitioning to more participatory models of research, practice, and engagement in climate work, the human relationships that underlie these approaches are rarely explicitly addressed. For example, conflict, a key relational process, is often an inevitable element of engagement in societal processes. Although conflict can lead toward more successful long-term solutions if addressed constructively, dealing with it can be highly uncomfortable on an individual level and is often avoided. Acknowledging the often pivotal role conflict plays in eventual solutions bolsters the notion of complementing current training with a focus on relationship building. Professional development to increase relational capacity is being adopted in fields such as law and medicine; these same approaches are also increasingly relevant for climate practitioners where strong emotions such as grief and anxiety are often present for both practitioners and those they interact with. A framework for teaching and learning to effectively interact in this rich, relational world will be presented.

  10. Adaptation to Climate Change: A Comparative Analysis of Modeling Methods for Heat-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Simon N; Hondula, David M; Bunker, Aditi; Ibarreta, Dolores; Liu, Junguo; Zhang, Xinxin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-16

    Multiple methods are employed for modeling adaptation when projecting the impact of climate change on heat-related mortality. The sensitivity of impacts to each is unknown because they have never been systematically compared. In addition, little is known about the relative sensitivity of impacts to "adaptation uncertainty" (i.e., the inclusion/exclusion of adaptation modeling) relative to using multiple climate models and emissions scenarios. This study had three aims: a ) Compare the range in projected impacts that arises from using different adaptation modeling methods; b ) compare the range in impacts that arises from adaptation uncertainty with ranges from using multiple climate models and emissions scenarios; c ) recommend modeling method(s) to use in future impact assessments. We estimated impacts for 2070-2099 for 14 European cities, applying six different methods for modeling adaptation; we also estimated impacts with five climate models run under two emissions scenarios to explore the relative effects of climate modeling and emissions uncertainty. The range of the difference (percent) in impacts between including and excluding adaptation, irrespective of climate modeling and emissions uncertainty, can be as low as 28% with one method and up to 103% with another (mean across 14 cities). In 13 of 14 cities, the ranges in projected impacts due to adaptation uncertainty are larger than those associated with climate modeling and emissions uncertainty. Researchers should carefully consider how to model adaptation because it is a source of uncertainty that can be greater than the uncertainty in emissions and climate modeling. We recommend absolute threshold shifts and reductions in slope. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP634.

  11. Transport-related measures to mitigate climate change in Basel, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, L.; Trüeb, S.; Cowie, H.

    2015-01-01

    for the year 2020 based on several locally relevant transport scenarios including all decided transport policies up to 2020, additional realistic and hypothesized traffic reductions, as well as ambitious diffusion levels of electric cars. The scenarios were compared to the reference condition in 2010 assumed......: Under the scenario that assumed a strict particle emissions standard in diesel cars and all planned transport measures, 3% of premature deaths could be prevented from projected PM2.5 exposure reduction. A traffic reduction scenario assuming more active trips provided only minor added health...... benefits for any of the changes in exposure considered. A hypothetical strong support to electric vehicles diffusion would have the largest health effectiveness given that the energy production in Basel comes from renewable sources. Conclusion: The planned local transport related GHG emission reduction...

  12. Segmentation of age-related white matter changes in a clinical multi-center study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim B.; Rostrup, E.; Baare, W.F.C.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes (WMC) are thought to be a marker of vascular pathology, and have been associated with motor and cognitive deficits. In the present study, an optimized artificial neural network was used as an automatic segmentation method to produce probabilistic maps of WMC...... in a clinical multi-center study. The neural network uses information from T1- and T2-weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) scans, neighboring voxels and spatial location. Generalizability of the neural network was optimized by including the Optimal Brain Damage (OBD......) pruning method in the training stage. Six optimized neural networks were produced to investigate the impact of different input information on WMC segmentation. The automatic segmentation method was applied to MR scans of 362 non-demented elderly subjects from 11 centers in the European multi-center study...

  13. Age-related changes in CD8 T cell homeostasis and immunity to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, Janko; Li, Gang; Uhrlaub, Jennifer L; Renkema, Kristin R; Smithey, Megan J

    2012-10-01

    Studies of CD8 T cell responses to vaccination or infection with various pathogens in both animal models and human subjects have revealed a markedly consistent array of age-related defects. In general, recent work shows that aged CD8 T cell responses are decreased in magnitude, and show poor differentiation into effector cells, with a reduced arsenal of effector functions. Here we review potential mechanisms underlying these defects. We specifically address phenotypic and numeric changes to the naïve CD8 T cell precursor pool, the impact of persistent viral infection(s) and inflammation, and contributions of the aging environment in which these cells are activated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-related changes in expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Olsen, M; Zhernosekov, D

    1993-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is expressed by muscle and involved in muscle-neuron and muscle-muscle cell interactions. The expression in muscle is regulated during myogenesis and by the state of innervation. In aged muscle, both neurogenic and myogenic degenerative processes occur. We here...... report quantitative and qualitative changes in NCAM protein and mRNA forms during aging in normal rat skeletal muscle. Determination of the amount of NCAM by e.l.i.s.a. showed that the level decreased from perinatal to adult age, followed by a considerable increase in 24-month-old rat muscle. Thus NCAM...... concentration in aged muscle was sixfold higher than in young adult muscle. In contrast with previous reports, NCAM polypeptides of 200, 145, 125 and 120 kDa were observed by immunoblotting throughout postnatal development and aging, the relative proportions of the individual NCAM polypeptides remaining...

  15. Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life During Rehabilitation in Patients With Operable Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Maja S.; Trier, Karen; Vibe-Petersen, Jette

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 73% of whom completed rehabilitation. Results on emotional well-being (P mental health component score (P = .0004) showed an overall statistically significant improvement during the study. CONCLUSION: This feasibility...... study demonstrated that global quality of life, mental health, and emotional well-being improved significantly during the study, from time of diagnosis until 1 year after resection, in patients with NSCLC participating in rehabilitation.......INTRODUCTION: Surgical resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be associated with significant morbidity, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to present health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes over time before and 1...

  16. Cerebral Metabolic Changes Related to Oxidative Metabolism in a Model of Bacterial Meningitis Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Michael; Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Larsen, Lykke

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction is prominent in the pathophysiology of severe bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we hypothesize that the metabolic changes seen after intracisternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in a piglet model of meningitis is compatible...... with mitochondrial dysfunction and resembles the metabolic patterns seen in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Eight pigs received LPS injection in cisterna magna, and four pigs received NaCl in cisterna magna as a control. Biochemical variables related to energy metabolism were monitored by intracerebral...... dysfunction with increasing cerebral LPR due to increased lactate and normal pyruvate, PbtO2, and ICP. The metabolic pattern resembles the one observed in patients with bacterial meningitis. Metabolic monitoring in these patients is feasible to monitor for cerebral metabolic derangements otherwise missed...

  17. Stages of change in physical activity-related behavior in adolescents from a Brazilian state capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the stages of change in physical activity-related behavior (EMCRAF and their association with gender and age. A total of 1108 high school students of both sexes, from Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, took part in this study. A questionnaire was used to assess EMCRAF. A higher proportion of boys were in the maintenance stage (48.1% and a higher proportion of girls were in contemplation (24.7% and pre-contemplation (6.4% stages. Gender factor male and age range 17-18 were protective factors, which increased the likelihood of physically active behavior. Girls aged 17-18 were twice as likely to be in the contemplation stage than boys. It is important to expand knowledge about EMCRAF in adolescents and their associations with gender and age because a considerable number of behaviors established during this period of life can last into adulthood.

  18. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated.

  19. [Age-related changes of sensory peripheral nerve system in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitenkov, V B; Ekusheva, E V; Komancev, V N; Skripchenko, N V; Grigoryev, S G; Klimkin, A V; Aksenova, A I

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to present and evaluate age-related changes of peripheral nerves of limbs on a huge population of healthy subjects of different ages. In 2009-2016 subjects aged from 1months to 90 years were studied by nerve conduction velocity studies (NCV). Data of those confirmed healthy was included in our study. In total there were 372 healthy subjects. NCV for nn. Medianus et Ulnaris was registered, with NCV and amplitude of compound sensory action potential (CSAP) being analyzed. There were significant differences on both these parameters between different age groups. Since the childhood the improvement of conduction (which was reflected in rising of CSAP amplitudes and NCV quickening) was registered; from 40-50 years steady decline of both these parameters were observed in both nerves. Conduction studies of peripheral nerves may be implemented in gerontology for early detection of neurophysiology patterns reflecting physiological aging. Also our results may be implemented for accelerated aging detection.

  20. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated

  1. Conditional ablation of the choroideremia gene causes age-related changes in mouse retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavre-Shapton, Silène T; Tolmachova, Tanya; Lopes da Silva, Mafalda; da Silva, Mafalda Lopes; Futter, Clare E; Seabra, Miguel C

    2013-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a pigmented monolayer of cells lying between the photoreceptors and a layer of fenestrated capillaries, the choriocapillaris. Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked progressive degeneration of these three layers caused by the loss of function of Rab Escort protein-1 (REP1). REP1 is involved in the prenylation of Rab proteins, key regulators of membrane trafficking. To study the pathological consequences of chronic disruption of membrane traffic in the RPE we used a cell type-specific knock-out mouse model of the disease, where the Chm/Rep1 gene is deleted only in pigmented cells (Chm(Flox), Tyr-Cre+). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to quantitate the melanosome distribution in the RPE and immunofluorescent staining of rhodopsin was used to quantitate phagocytosed rod outer segments in retinal sections. The ultrastructure of the RPE and Bruch's membrane at different ages was characterised by TEM to analyse age-related changes occurring as a result of defects in membrane traffic pathways. Chm/Rep1 gene knockout in RPE cells resulted in reduced numbers of melanosomes in the apical processes and delayed phagosome degradation. In addition, the RPE accumulated pathological changes at 5-6 months of age similar to those observed in 2-year old controls. These included the intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin-containing deposits, disorganised basal infoldings and the extracellular accumulation of basal laminar and basal linear deposits. The phenotype of the Chm(Flox), Tyr-Cre+ mice suggests that loss of the Chm/Rep1 gene causes premature accumulation of features of aging in the RPE. Furthermore, the striking similarities between the present observations and some of the phenotypes reported in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest that membrane traffic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  2. Conditional ablation of the choroideremia gene causes age-related changes in mouse retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silène T Wavre-Shapton

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is a pigmented monolayer of cells lying between the photoreceptors and a layer of fenestrated capillaries, the choriocapillaris. Choroideremia (CHM is an X-linked progressive degeneration of these three layers caused by the loss of function of Rab Escort protein-1 (REP1. REP1 is involved in the prenylation of Rab proteins, key regulators of membrane trafficking. To study the pathological consequences of chronic disruption of membrane traffic in the RPE we used a cell type-specific knock-out mouse model of the disease, where the Chm/Rep1 gene is deleted only in pigmented cells (Chm(Flox, Tyr-Cre+. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to quantitate the melanosome distribution in the RPE and immunofluorescent staining of rhodopsin was used to quantitate phagocytosed rod outer segments in retinal sections. The ultrastructure of the RPE and Bruch's membrane at different ages was characterised by TEM to analyse age-related changes occurring as a result of defects in membrane traffic pathways. Chm/Rep1 gene knockout in RPE cells resulted in reduced numbers of melanosomes in the apical processes and delayed phagosome degradation. In addition, the RPE accumulated pathological changes at 5-6 months of age similar to those observed in 2-year old controls. These included the intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin-containing deposits, disorganised basal infoldings and the extracellular accumulation of basal laminar and basal linear deposits. The phenotype of the Chm(Flox, Tyr-Cre+ mice suggests that loss of the Chm/Rep1 gene causes premature accumulation of features of aging in the RPE. Furthermore, the striking similarities between the present observations and some of the phenotypes reported in age-related macular degeneration (AMD suggest that membrane traffic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  3. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  4. Role of land use change in landslide-related sediment fluxes in tropical mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guns, M.; Vanacker, V.; Demoulin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical mountain regions are characterised by high denudation rates. Landslides are known to be recurrent phenomena in active mountain belts, but their contribution to the overall sedimentary fluxes is not yet well known. Previous studies on sedimentary cascades have mostly focused on natural environments, without considering the impact of human and/or anthropogenic disturbances on sedimentary budgets. In our work, we hypothesise that human-induced land use change might alter the sediment cascade through shifts in the landslide magnitude-frequency relationship. We have tested this assumption in the Virgen Yacu catchment (approximately 11km2), in the Ecuadorian Cordillera Occidental. Landslide inventories and land use maps were established based on a series of sequential aerial photos (1963, 1977, 1984 and 1989), a HR Landsat image (2001) and a VHR WorldView2 image (2010). Aerial photographs were ortho-rectified, and coregistred with the WorldView2 satellite image. Field campaigns were realised in 2010 and 2011 to collect field-based data on landslide type and geometry (depth, width and length). This allowed us to establish an empirical relationship between landslide area and volume, which was then applied to the landslide inventories to estimate landslide-related sediment production rates for various time periods. The contribution of landslides to the overall sediment flux of the catchment was estimated by comparing the landslide-related sediment production to the total sediment yield. The empirical landslide area-volume relationship established here for the Ecuadorian Andes is similar to that derived for the Himalayas. It suggests that landslides are the main source of sediment in this mountainous catchment. First calculations indicate that human-induced land use change alters the magnitude-frequency relationship through strong increase of small landslides.

  5. Radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in relation to changes in interphase chromosome conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelias, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique was used to study several factors that determine the yield of chromosome fragments as observed in interphase cells after irradiation. In addition to absorbed dose and the extent of chromosome condensation at the time of irradiation, changes in chromosome conformation as cells progressed through the cell cycle after irradiation affected dramatically the yield of chromosome fragments observed. As a test of the effect of chromosome decondensation, irradiated metaphase Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were allowed to divide, and the prematurely condensed chromosomes in the daughter cells were analyzed in their G1 phase. The yield of chromosome fragments increased as the daughter cells progressed toward S phase and chromosome decondensation occurred. When early G1 CHO cells were irradiated and analyzed at later times in G1 phase, an increase in chromosome fragmentation again followed the gradual increase in chromosome decondensation. As a test of the effect of chromosome condensation, G0 human lymphocytes were irradiated and analyzed at various times after fusion with mitotic CHO cells, i.e., as condensation proceeded. The yield of fragments observed was directly related to the amount of chromosome condensation allowed to take place after irradiation and inversely related to the extent of chromosome condensation at the time of irradiation. It can be concluded that changes in chromosome conformation interfered with rejoining processes. In contrast, resting chromosomes (as in G0 lymphocytes irradiated before fusion) showed efficient rejoining. These results support the hypothesis that cytogenetic lesions become observable chromosome breaks when chromosome condensation or decondensation occurs during the cell cycle

  6. Transport policies related to climate change mitigation: the case of Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vad Mathiesen, B.; Kappel, J.

    2013-03-15

    This report presents the Danish national policies on reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reducing Denmark's dependency on fossil fuels in the transport sector, as well as some of the results of the policies. Systematic focus on efficient transport and climate mitigation started in 2008 and 2009 with a change - not only in the wording and in the political visions - but also in the actual prioritisation of investments and policies to a very large extent. In March 2012 another milestone was set by the Government, to have Denmark based on 100% renewable energy in 2050. This entails large challenges for the transport sectors, which has not yet been systematically analysed from any Governmental body. In this report we list projects which have done so. The first chapter describes policies and initiatives of international relevance within climate mitigation. The following chapters explain in further debt these policies and their effects as well as a number of additional policies and initiatives related to climate mitigation and transport. The private sector and local government has proven important in connection with an efficient transport sector. Hence selected local and regional projects and their results are introduced as well. To provide an overview of current trends, related scientific projects and other analyses on climate change mitigation and transport are given in the report. The references used in this report can also serve as a source of data and inspiration for the reader. This report is prepared as one of many inputs to the analyses conducted in The Swedish Government's Commission on fossil-free road transport. The task of this Commission is to: ''review alternative developments of fuels and vehicles for fossil-free road transport, to consider measures and policy options that would enable the Swedish road transport system to become climate neutral by 2050, and to propose intermediate emission reduction targets for years such as

  7. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  8. A review of electroencephalographic changes in diabetes mellitus in relation to major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anusha Baskaran,1,2 Roumen Milev,3 Roger S McIntyre21Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston; 2Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, Toronto; 3Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Kingston, CanadaAbstract: A bidirectional relationship exists between diabetes mellitus (DM and major depressive disorder (MDD, with depression commonly reported in both type 1 DM (T1DM and type 2 DM (T2DM, and depressive symptoms associated with a higher incidence of diabetes. However, how the two conditions are pathologically connected is not completely understood. Similar neurophysiological abnormalities have been reported in both DM and MDD, including elevated electroencephalographic (EEG activity in low-frequency slow waves and increased latency and/or reduced amplitude of event-related potentials. It is possible that this association reflects some common underlying pathology, and it has been proposed that diabetes may place patients at risk for depression through a biological mechanism linking the metabolic changes of DM to changes in the central nervous system. In this review we will discuss EEG abnormalities in DM, as well as the biological mechanisms underlying various EEG parameters, in order to evaluate whether or not a common EEG biosignature exists between DM and MDD. Identifying such commonalities could significantly inform the current understanding of the mechanisms that subserve the development of the two conditions. Moreover, this new insight may provide the basis for informing new drug discovery capable of mitigating and possibly even preventing both conditions.Keywords: electroencephalography, event-related potential, diabetes mellitus, major depressive disorder

  9. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M

    2014-07-25

    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Sprecher

    Full Text Available Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel electroencephalography (EEG during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  11. Extreme climatic events in relation to global change and their impact on life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan MORENO, Anders Pape Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions occur at an increasing rate as evidenced by higher frequency of hurricanes and more extreme precipitation and temperature anomalies. Such extreme environmental conditions will have important implications for all living organisms through greater frequency of reproductive failure and reduced adult survival. We review examples of reproductive failure and reduced survival related to extreme weather conditions. Phenotypic plasticity may not be sufficient to allow adaptation to extreme weather for many animals. Theory predicts reduced reproductive effort as a response to increased stochasticity. We predict that patterns of natural selection will change towards truncation selection as environmental conditions become more extreme. Such changes in patterns of selection may facilitate adaptation to extreme events. However, effects of selection on reproductive effort are difficult to detect. We present a number of predictions for the effects of extreme weather conditions in need of empirical tests. Finally, we suggest a number of empirical reviews that could improve our ability to judge the effects of extreme environmental conditions on life history [Current Zoology 57 (3: 375–389, 2011].

  12. Changes in Ghrelin-Related Factors in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Nahata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine gastrointestinal hormone profiles and functional changes in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, blood levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were measured in rats with experimentally induced GERD. During the experiment, plasma acyl ghrelin levels in GERD rats were higher than those in sham-operated rats, although food intake was reduced in GERD rats. Although plasma levels of the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin were significantly decreased in GERD rats, no changes were observed in cholecystokinin levels. Repeated administration of rat ghrelin to GERD rats had no effect on the reduction in body weight or food intake. Therefore, these results suggest that aberrantly increased secretion of peripheral ghrelin and decreased ghrelin responsiveness may occur in GERD rats. Neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of GERD rats was significantly increased, whereas proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was significantly decreased compared to that in sham-operated rats. However, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH and prepro-orexin mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of GERD rats was similar to that in sham-operated rats. These results suggest that although GERD rats have higher plasma ghrelin levels, ghrelin signaling in GERD rats may be suppressed due to reduced MCH and/or orexin synthesis in the hypothalamus.

  13. Projected heat-related mortality under climate change in the metropolitan area of Skopje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Martinez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital and largest city of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper attempts to forecast the impact of heat on mortality in Skopje in two future periods under climate change and compare it with a historical baseline period. Methods After ascertaining the relationship between daily mean ambient air temperature and daily mortality in Skopje, we modelled the evolution of ambient temperatures in the city under a Representative Concentration Pathway scenario (RCP8.5 and the evolution of the city population in two future time periods: 2026–2045 and 2081–2100, and in a past time period (1986–2005 to serve as baseline for comparison. We then calculated the projected average annual mortality attributable to heat in the absence of adaptation or acclimatization during those time windows, and evaluated the contribution of each source of uncertainty on the final impact. Results Our estimates suggest that, compared to the baseline period (1986–2005, heat-related mortality in Skopje would more than double in 2026–2045, and more than quadruple in 2081–2100. When considering the impact in 2081–2100, sampling variability around the heat–mortality relationship and climate model explained 40.3 and 46.6 % of total variability. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of a long-term perspective in the public health prevention of heat exposure, particularly in the context of a changing climate.

  14. Age-related ultrastructural and monoamine oxidase changes in the rat optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurone, S; Ripandelli, G; Minni, A; Lattanzi, R; Miglietta, S; Pepe, N; Fumagalli, L; Micera, A; Pastore, F S; Artico, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the morphology and the distribution of the monoamine oxidase enzymatic system in the optic nerve of 4 month-old Wistar (young) and 28 month-old Wistar (old) rats. The optic nerve was harvested from 20 young and old rats. The segment of optic nerve was divided longitudinally into two pieces, each 0.1 mm in length. The first piece was used for transmission electron microscopy. The second piece was stained with histochemical reaction for monoamine oxidase. The agerelated changes in the optic nerve of rats include micro-anatomical details, ultrastructure and monoamine oxidase histochemical staining. A strong decrease of the thin nerve fibers and a swelling of the thick ones can be observed in optic nerve fibers of old rats. Increased monoamine oxidase histochemical staining of the optic nerve of aged rats is well demonstrated. The increase of meningeal shealth and the decrease of thin nerve fibers of the optic nerve in old rats are well documented. Morphological, ultrastructural and histochemical changes observed in optic nerve fibers of the old rats show a close relation with aging.

  15. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  16. Age-related changes in the functional neuroanatomy of overt speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörös, Peter; Bose, Arpita; Sokoloff, Lisa Guttman; Graham, Simon J; Stuss, Donald T

    2011-08-01

    Alterations of existing neural networks during healthy aging, resulting in behavioral deficits and changes in brain activity, have been described for cognitive, motor, and sensory functions. To investigate age-related changes in the neural circuitry underlying overt non-lexical speech production, functional MRI was performed in 14 healthy younger (21-32 years) and 14 healthy older individuals (62-84 years). The experimental task involved the acoustically cued overt production of the vowel /a/ and the polysyllabic utterance /pataka/. In younger and older individuals, overt speech production was associated with the activation of a widespread articulo-phonological network, including the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the cingulate motor areas, and the posterior superior temporal cortex, similar in the /a/ and /pataka/ condition. An analysis of variance with the factors age and condition revealed a significant main effect of age. Irrespective of the experimental condition, significantly greater activation was found in the bilateral posterior superior temporal cortex, the posterior temporal plane, and the transverse temporal gyri in younger compared to older individuals. Significantly greater activation was found in the bilateral middle temporal gyri, medial frontal gyri, middle frontal gyri, and inferior frontal gyri in older vs. younger individuals. The analysis of variance did not reveal a significant main effect of condition and no significant interaction of age and condition. These results suggest a complex reorganization of neural networks dedicated to the production of speech during healthy aging. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Subjective Sleep Quality Before a Competition and Their Relation to Competitive Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Erlacher, Daniel; Ziegler, Matthias

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of competitions on subjective sleep quality. Previous studies have been inconclusive and lack differentiated and standardized measurements of subjective sleep quality. Furthermore the temporal relation between precompetitive anxiety and sleep quality was investigated. Anxiety and nervousness associated with competitions are considered to cause sleep impairments. A convenience sample of N = 79 elite male athletes from various sports participated. In a time-to-event paradigm, sleep quality and competitive anxiety were assessed via standardized self-report measurements 4 days before a competition and on the day of the competition. Univariate analyses were used to examine differences between time points. To examine cross-lagged effects between anxiety and sleep quality a latent change score model (LCSM) was specified that tested an effect of anxiety on changes in sleep quality. Evaluations of nocturnal sleep deteriorated significantly from 4 days before competition to the day of competition, but there were no differences regarding perceptions of the restorative value of sleep. LCSM revealed that athletes who reported more intense worry symptoms 4 days before competition also reported greater deterioration in evaluations of nocturnal sleep. The findings support earlier reports of impaired subjective sleep quality before competitions. Precompetitive sleep impairments appear also to be preceded by cognitive anxiety. Whereas interventions should thus address worry-cognitions associated with competition and sleep, research should address the practical importance of these perceptions of sleep impairments.

  18. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  19. Effects of storage methods on time-related changes of titanium surface properties and cellular response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haibin; Zhou Lei; Wan Lei; Li Shaobing; Rong Mingdeng; Guo Zehong

    2012-01-01

    Titanium implants are sold in the market as storable medical devices. All the implants have a certain shelf life during which they maintain their sterility, but variations of the surface properties through this duration have not been subject to a comprehensive assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage methods on time-related changes of titanium surface properties. Acid-etched titanium discs (Sa = 0.82 µm) were placed in a sealed container (tradition method) or submerged in the ddH 2 O/NaCl solution (0.15 mol L −1 )/CaCl 2 solution (0.15 mol L −1 ), and new titanium discs were used as a control group. SEM and optical profiler showed that surface morphology and roughness did not change within different groups, but the XPS analysis confirmed that the surface chemistry altered by different storage protocols as the storage duration increased, and the contact angle also varied with storage methods. The storage method also affected the protein adsorption capacity and cellular response on the titanium surface. All titanium discs stored in the solution maintained their excellent bioactivity even after four weeks storage time, but titanium discs stored in a traditional manner decreased substantially in an age-dependent manner. Much effort is needed to improve the storage methods in order to maintain the bioactivity of a titanium dental implant. (paper)

  20. Dynamic changes in ear temperature in relation to separation distress in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Stefanie; Assis, Luciana; Pike, Thomas W; Mills, Daniel S

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography can visualize changes in body surface temperature that result from stress-induced physiological changes and alterations of blood flow patterns. Here we explored its use for remote stress monitoring (i.e. removing need for human presence) in a sample of six pet dogs. Dogs were tested in a brief separation test involving contact with their owner, a stranger, and social isolation for two one-minute-periods. Tests were filmed using a thermographic camera set up in a corner of the room, around 7m from where the subjects spent most of the time. Temperature was measured from selected regions of both ear pinnae simultaneously. Temperatures of both ear pinnae showed a pattern of decrease during separation and increase when a person (either the owner or a stranger) was present, with no lateralized temperature differences between the two ears. Long distance thermographic measurement is a promising technique for non-invasive remote stress assessment, although there are some limitations related to dogs' hair structure over the ears, making it unsuitable for some subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional modulation of age-related changes in the immune system and risk of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Munkyong; Wu, Dayong

    2017-05-01

    The immune system undergoes some adverse alterations during aging, many of which have been implicated in the increased morbidity and mortality associated with infection in the elderly. In addition to intrinsic changes to the immune system with aging, the elderly are more likely to have poor nutritional status, which further impacts the already impaired immune function. Although the elderly often have low zinc serum levels, several manifestations commonly observed during zinc deficiency are similar to the changes in immune function with aging. In the case of vitamin E, although its deficiency is rare, the intake above recommended levels is shown to enhance immune functions in the elderly and to reduce the risk of acquiring upper respiratory infections in nursing home residents. Vitamin D is a critical vitamin in bone metabolism, and its deficiency is far more common, which has been linked to increased risk of infection as demonstrated in a number of observational studies including those in the elderly. In this review, we focus on zinc, vitamin E, and vitamin D, the 3 nutrients which are relatively well documented for their roles in impacting immune function and infection in the elderly, to discuss the findings in this context reported in both the observational studies and interventional clinical trials. A perspective will be provided based on the analysis of information under review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Significance of breast boost volume changes during radiotherapy in relation to current clinical interobserver variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen; Admiraal, Marjan; Sangen, Maurice van der; Dijkmans, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nowadays, many departments introduce CT images for breast irradiation techniques, aiming to obtain a better accuracy in the definition of the relevant target volumes. However, the definition of the breast boost volume based on CT images requires further investigation, because it may not only vary between observers, but it may also change during the course of treatment. This study aims to quantify the variability of the CT based visible boost volume (VBV) during the course of treatment in relation to the variability between observers. Materials and methods: Ten patients with stage T1-2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast conservative surgery and post surgical radiotherapy were included in this study. In addition to the regular planning CT which is obtained several days prior to radiotherapy, three additional CT scans were acquired 3, 5 and 7 weeks after the planning CT scan. Four radiation oncologists delineated the VBV in all scans. Conformity of the delineations was analysed both between observers, and between scans taken at different periods of the radiotherapy treatment. Results: The VBV averaged over all patients decreased during the course of the treatment from an initial 40 cm 3 to 28 cm 3 , 27 cm 3 and 25 cm 3 after 3, 5 and 7 weeks, respectively. Assuming the VBV to be spherical, this corresponds to a reduction in diameter of 5-6 mm. More detailed analysis revealed that this reduction was more pronounced when radiotherapy started within 30 days after surgery. These boost volume changes over time were found to be significant (p = 0.02) even in the presence of interobserver variations. Moreover, the conformity index (CI) for the volume changes was of the same magnitude as the conformity index for the interobserver variation (0.25 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusions: Breast boost volume variations during a course of radiotherapy are significant in relation to current clinical interobserver variations. This is an important

  3. Age-related changes of MAO-A and -B distribution in human and mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, N; Andrés, N; Andrade, C; Saura, J

    2000-01-01

    Age-related changes of MAO-A and -B were studied in human and BL/C57 mouse brain areas (substantia nigra, putamen and cerebellum). [3H]Ro41-1049 and [3H]lazabemide were used as selective radioligands to image and quantify MAO-A and MAO-B respectively by enzyme autoradiography. MAO-A binding was higher in mouse, whereas MAO-B binding was higher in human. With aging, mouse MAO-A was significantly reduced between 4 and 8 weeks and remained unchanged until 19 months followed by a slight increase between 19 and 25 months. In contrast, no clear variation was observed in humans between the age of 17-93 years. In most of the structures studied a clear age-related increase in MAO-B was observed beginning in mouse brain at 4 weeks, whereas in human tissue this increase started at the age of 50-60 years. These results show marked differences in the levels and variations of mouse and human MAO-A and -B associated with aging and should be taken into account when extrapolating experimental data from mouse to human.

  4. Late Holocene vegetation changes in relation with climate fluctuations and human activity in Languedoc (southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, J.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.; Lebreton, V.; Mazier, F.; Müller, S. D.; Dezileau, L.

    2015-12-01

    Holocene climate fluctuations and human activity since the Neolithic have shaped present-day Mediterranean environments. Separating anthropogenic effects from climatic impacts to better understand Mediterranean paleoenvironmental changes over the last millennia remains a challenging issue. High-resolution pollen analyses were undertaken on two cores from the Palavasian lagoon system (Hérault, southern France). These records allow reconstruction of vegetation dynamics over the last 4500 years. Results are compared with climatic, historical and archeological archives. A long-term aridification trend is highlighted during the late Holocene, and three superimposed arid events are recorded at 4600-4300, 2800-2400 and 1300-1100 cal BP. These periods of high-frequency climate variability coincide in time with the rapid climatic events observed in the Atlantic Ocean (Bond et al., 2001). From the Bronze Age (4000 cal BP) to the end of the Iron Age (around 2000 cal BP), the spread of sclerophyllous taxa and loss of forest cover result from anthropogenic impact. Classical Antiquity is characterized by a major reforestation event related to the concentration of rural activity and populations in coastal plains leading to forest recovery in the mountains. A major regional deforestation occurred at the beginning of the High Middle Ages. Around 1000 cal BP, forest cover is minimal while the cover of olive, chestnut and walnut expands in relation to increasing human influence. The present-day vegetation dominated by Mediterranean shrubland and pines has been in existence since the beginning of the 20th century.

  5. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Aragoni da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2. Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903 from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9% and precontemplation stages (7.0%, respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade, with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup.

  6. Emotion identification and aging: Behavioral and neural age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana R; Fernandes, Carina; Pasion, Rita; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2018-05-01

    Aging is known to alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion (FEE), however the impact of this alteration is less clear. Additionally, there is little information about the temporal dynamics of the neural processing of facial affect. We examined behavioral and neural age-related changes in the identification of FEE using event-related potentials. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between behavioral/neural responses and neuropsychological functioning. To this purpose, 30 younger adults, 29 middle-aged adults and 26 older adults identified FEE. The behavioral results showed a similar performance between groups. The neural results showed no significant differences between groups for the P100 component and an increased N170 amplitude in the older group. Furthermore, a pattern of asymmetric activation was evident in the N170 component. Results also suggest deficits in facial feature decoding abilities, reflected by a reduced N250 amplitude in older adults. Neuropsychological functioning predicts P100 modulation, but does not seem to influence emotion identification ability. The findings suggest the existence of a compensatory function that would explain the age-equivalent performance in emotion identification. The study may help future research addressing behavioral and neural processes involved on processing of FEE in neurodegenerative conditions. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-Related Changes in the Hepatic Pharmacology and Toxicology of Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal pharmacotherapy is determined when the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug are understood. However, the age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as the increased interindividual variation mean optimal dose selection are a challenge for prescribing in older adults. Poor understanding of how hepatic clearance and toxicity are different with age results in suboptimal dose selection, poor efficacy, and/or increased toxicity. Of particular concern is the analgesic paracetamol which has been in use for more than 50 years and is consumed by a large proportion of older adults. Paracetamol is considered to be a relatively safe drug; however, caution must be taken because of its potential for toxicity. Paracetamol-induced liver injury from accidental overdose accounts for up to 55% of cases in older adults. Better understanding of how age affects the hepatic clearance and toxicity of drugs will contribute to evidence-based prescribing for older people, leading to fewer adverse drug reactions without loss of benefit.

  8. Age-Related Changes in Pharyngeal Lumen Size: A Retrospective MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Brumm, J D; Hagiwara, M; Roof, S A; Lazarus, C L

    2015-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle bulk and strength (sarcopenia) is often cited as a potential mechanism underlying age-related changes in swallowing. Our goal was to explore this phenomenon in the pharynx, specifically, by measuring pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area in a sample of young versus older women. MRI scans of the neck were retrospectively reviewed from 60 women equally stratified into three age groups (20s, 60s, 70+). Four de-identified slices were extracted per scan for randomized, blinded analysis: one mid-sagittal and three axial slices were selected at the anterior inferior border of C2 and C3, and at the pit of the vallecula. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were completed using ImageJ and then converted to metric units. Measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were compared between age groups with one-way ANOVAs using Sidak adjustments for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant main effect for age was observed across all variables whereby pharyngeal wall thickness decreased and pharyngeal lumen area increased with advancing age. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between 20s versus 70+ for all variables and 20s versus 60s for all variables except those measured at C2. Effect sizes ranged from 0.54 to 1.34. Consistent with existing sacropenia literature, the pharyngeal muscles appear to atrophy with age and consequently, the size of the pharyngeal lumen increases.

  9. Observed changes in relative humidity and dew point temperature in coastal regions of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Sabziparvar, A. A.; Tabari, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    The analysis of trends in hydroclimatic parameters and assessment of their statistical significance have recently received a great concern to clarify whether or not there is an obvious climate change. In the current study, parametric linear regression and nonparametric Mann-Kendall tests were applied for detecting annual and seasonal trends in the relative humidity (RH) and dew point temperature ( T dew) time series at ten coastal weather stations in Iran during 1966-2005. The serial structure of the data was considered, and the significant serial correlations were eliminated using the trend-free pre-whitening method. The results showed that annual RH increased by 1.03 and 0.28 %/decade at the northern and southern coastal regions of the country, respectively, while annual T dew increased by 0.29 and 0.15°C per decade at the northern and southern regions, respectively. The significant trends were frequent in the T dew series, but they were observed only at 2 out of the 50 RH series. The results showed that the difference between the results of the parametric and nonparametric tests was small, although the parametric test detected larger significant trends in the RH and T dew time series. Furthermore, the differences between the results of the trend tests were not related to the normality of the statistical distribution.

  10. [Homebound elderly in a Japanese community: related factors and change of mobility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imuta, H; Yasumura, S; Fujita, M; Arai, H; Fukao, A

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of homebound elderly (defined as people whose daily activities were limited to their home) and factors related to it among 300 community elderly residents aged 60 and over in Yamagata city. In 1995, the baseline survey was performed and the follow-up survey was conducted one year later. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the extent of their daily activities: the non-homebound group (defined as people whose daily activities extended into their community) and the homebound group. The main results were as follows; 1. The prevalence of homebound elderly was 7.7% in 1995. 2. Chi-square test or t test was performed to examine the relationship between homebound and various factors. Significant factors were age, history of hypertension, history of mental disease, incompetence of ADLs (walking, eating, toileting, bathing, dressing), interpersonal dependency, subjective health, 'ikigai' (meaningfulness of life), life style (cooking, cleaning, reading newspaper or magazine, watching TV, exercise, associate with friend) and TMIG (Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology) index of competence. The present study reveals that daily activities in community elderly residents is related to not only physical factors but also psychosocial factors. Using the significant variables in univariate analysis, multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age was performed. Significant factors for homebound were incompetence of ADLs (walking, toileting), subjective health and TMIG index of competence. 3. Three out of 214 non-homebound elderly persons in 1995 changed to homebound in 1996.

  11. Vertigo-related cerebral blood flow changes on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feiyan; Li, Zhongshi; Xie, Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Wu

    2014-11-01

    A prospective study using magnetic resonance imaging on a consecutive cohort of patients with cervical vertigo. To quantitatively investigate the cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with cervical vertigo by using 3-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling. Previous studies reported blood flow velocity reduction in posterior circulation during vertigo. However, the detailed information of CBF related to cervical vertigo has not been provided. A total of 33 patients with cervical vertigo and 14 healthy volunteers were recruited in this study. Three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling was performed on each subject to evaluate the CBF before and after the cervical hyperextension-hyperflexion movement tests, which was used to induce cervical vertigo. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the effect of subjects and tests. There were time effects of CBF in the territory of bilateral superior cerebellar artery, bilateral posterior cerebral artery, bilateral middle cerebral artery, and right anterior cerebral artery, but no group effect was observed. The analysis of CBF revealed a significant main effect of tests (P=0.024) and participants (P=0.038) in the dorsal pons. Cervical vertigo onset may be related to CBF reduction in the dorsal pons, which sequentially evokes the vestibular nuclei. 2.

  12. Increasing insect reactions in Alaska: is this related to changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Gessner, Bradford D; McLaughlin, Joseph B; Sikes, Derek S; Foote, J Timothy

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, Fairbanks, AK, reported its first cases of fatal anaphylaxis as a result of Hymenoptera stings concurrent with an increase in insect reactions observed throughout the state. This study was designed to determine whether Alaska medical visits for insect reactions have increased. We conducted a retrospective review of three independent patient databases in Alaska to identify trends of patients seeking medical care for adverse reactions after insect-related events. For each database, an insect reaction was defined as a claim for the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9), codes E9053, E906.4, and 989.5. Increases in insect reactions in each region were compared with temperature changes in the same region. Each database revealed a statistically significant trend in patients seeking care for insect reactions. Fairbanks Memorial Hospital Emergency Department reported a fourfold increase in patients in 2006 compared with previous years (1992-2005). The Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Center of Alaska reported a threefold increase in patients from 1999 to 2002 to 2003 to 2007. A retrospective review of the Alaska Medicaid database from 1999 to 2006 showed increases in medical claims for insect reactions among all regions, with the largest percentage of increases occurring in the most northern areas. Increases in insect reactions in Alaska have occurred after increases in annual and winter temperatures, and these findings may be causally related.

  13. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of age-related changes in lineup performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D

    2015-04-01

    In the basic face memory literature, support has been found for the late maturation hypothesis, which holds that face recognition ability is not fully developed until at least adolescence. Support for the late maturation hypothesis in the criminal lineup identification literature, however, has been equivocal because of the analytic approach that has been used to examine age-related changes in identification performance. Recently, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied for the first time in the adult eyewitness memory literature to examine whether memory sensitivity differs across different types of lineup tests. ROC analysis allows for the separation of memory sensitivity from response bias in the analysis of recognition data. Here, we have made the first ROC-based comparison of adults' and children's (5- and 6-year-olds and 9- and 10-year-olds) memory performance on lineups by reanalyzing data from Humphries, Holliday, and Flowe (2012). In line with the late maturation hypothesis, memory sensitivity was significantly greater for adults compared with young children. Memory sensitivity for older children was similar to that for adults. The results indicate that the late maturation hypothesis can be generalized to account for age-related performance differences on an eyewitness memory task. The implications for developmental eyewitness memory research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hippocampus activation related to 'real-time' processing of visuospatial change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudel, M; Leenders, K L; de Jong, B M

    2016-12-01

    The delay associated with cerebral processing time implies a lack of real-time representation of changes in the observed environment. To bridge this gap for motor actions in a dynamical environment, the brain uses predictions of the most plausible future reality based on previously provided information. To optimise these predictions, adjustments to actual experiences are necessary. This requires a perceptual memory buffer. In our study we gained more insight how the brain treats (real-time) information by comparing cerebral activations related to judging past-, present- and future locations of a moving ball, respectively. Eighteen healthy subjects made these estimations while fMRI data was obtained. All three conditions evoked bilateral dorsal-parietal and premotor activations, while judgment of the location of the ball at the moment of judgment showed increased bilateral posterior hippocampus activation relative to making both future and past judgments at the one-second time-sale. Since the condition of such 'real-time' judgments implied undistracted observation of the ball's actual movements, the associated hippocampal activation is consistent with the concept that the hippocampus participates in a top-down exerted sensory gating mechanism. In this way, it may play a role in novelty (saliency) detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reversing Age Related Changes of the Laryngeal Muscles by Chronic Electrostimulation of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karbiener

    Full Text Available Age related atrophy of the laryngeal muscles -mainly the thyroarytenoid muscle (TAM- leads to a glottal gap and consequently to a hoarse and dysphonic voice that significantly affects quality of life. The aim of our study was to reverse this atrophy by inducing muscular hypertrophy by unilateral functional electrical stimulation (FES of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN in a large animal model using aged sheep (n = 5. Suitable stimulation parameters were determined by fatiguing experiments of the thyroarytenoid muscle in an acute trial. For the chronic trial an electrode was placed around the right RLN and stimulation was delivered once daily for 29 days. We chose a very conservative stimulation pattern, total stimulation time was two minutes per day, or 0.14% of total time. Overall, the mean muscle fiber diameter of the stimulated right TAM was significantly larger than the non-stimulated left TAM (30μm±1.1μm vs. 28μm±1.1 μm, p<0.001. There was no significant shift in fiber type distribution as judged by immunohistochemistry. The changes of fiber diameter could not be observed in the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCAM. FES is a possible new treatment option for reversing the effects of age related laryngeal muscle atrophy.

  16. Time-related changes in neointimal tissue coverage of a novel Sirolimus eluting stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Gioel Gabrio, E-mail: gioel.gabrio.secco@gmail.com [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mattesini, Alessio [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fattori, Rossella; Parisi, Rosario [Interventional Cardiology, “San Salvatore” Hospital, Pesaro (Italy); Castriota, Fausto [GVM Care and Research, Cotignola (Italy); Vercellino, Matteo [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); Dall’Ara, Gianni [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Uguccioni, Lucia; Marinucci, Lucia [Interventional Cardiology, “San Salvatore” Hospital, Pesaro (Italy); De Luca, Giuseppe; Marino, Paolo Nicola [University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara (Italy); Pistis, Gianfranco [Interventional Cardiology, “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” Hospital, Alessandria (Italy); Di Mario, Carlo [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Background: DES has reduced rates of restenosis compared with BMS but it has been associated with delayed healing and increase of stent thrombosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the vascular time-related changes following implantation of a new SES coated with an amorphous silicon carbide that allows faster re-endothelisation (Orsiro-Biotronik). Methods: This prospective registry enrolled STEMI-patients with multi-vessel disease, thus candidates for a two-step procedure. PCI of the culprit lesion was performed with at least one Orsiro stent that was OCT-analysed during the second-step procedure (deferred to 30,90 and 180-days). Results: 16 of the 95 patients with MVD underwent an OCT evaluation of the study device implanted in the culprit lesion during the second-step staged procedure and were enrolled in the present Registry. A total of 3060-struts were analysed. The percentage of uncovered struts was 19.6% at30-days, 1.3% at90-days and 1.8% at180-days (p < 0.001). The percentage of cross section with ≥ 1 uncovered struts were 51.3% at30-days, 6.5% at90-days and 5.7% at180-days (p < 0.001). The percentage of cross sections containing thrombus was 6.2% at30-days while no thrombus was detected both at90 and 180-days. Conclusions: Our data shows that the new Orsiro stent promotes early and persistent strut coverage with low peri-strut thrombus. This pilot OCT evaluation might suggest a low incidence of late adverse events and anticipate safe outcome after early withdrawal of dual antiplatelet therapy. - Highlights: • This is the first serial study comparing coverage at 1, 3, and 6-months in consecutive patients with STEMI; • Aim of our study was to evaluate the vascular time-related changes following implantation of a new SES coated with an amorphous silicon carbide that allows faster re-endothelisation (Orsiro-Biotronik); • The main finding of this pilot study is that the study device presented a fast pattern of intimal coverage, with a thin intimal

  17. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  18. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  19. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  20. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Denovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy, the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT, the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual

  1. Approach to modelling spatial changes of plant carbon: nitrogen ratios in southern Africa in relation to anticipated global climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kunz, RP

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available animals and herbivorous insects. Equations relating the assimilation of total carbon and nitrogen rates to monthly air temperature, the ambient CO2 level and soil fertility were used together with detailed spatial climatic and soil databases to simulate...

  2. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    . Similarly, between the groups, there were no differences in pregnancy adaptation with similar trends in cardiovascular function changes from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. Whilst this is the first study to investigate preconception and early pregnancy haemodynamic and arterial function in relation to viability, the relatively modest number of miscarriages may not be sufficient to show subtle differences in haemodynamic changes if these were present. This study suggests that pre-pregnancy haemodynamic and arterial function is unlikely to be the causal link between miscarriages and future cardiovascular disease. Our findings suggests that factors other than the presence of a viable embryo drive cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy. This study raises new questions about miscarriages as an independent risk event which predisposes women to increased cardiovascular risk later in life. The investigators are funded by NIHR Imperial BRC, NIHR Cambridge BRC, Action Medical Research, Imperial College Healthcare Charity and Tommy's Charity. We acknowledge the loan of ultrasound equipment from Samsung Medison (South Korea)/MIS Ltd and provision of fertility monitors from SPD Development Company Ltd (Bedford, UK). There are no competing interests. C.C.L. is supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre based at Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust and Imperial College London. N/A. © The Author