WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing attitudes beliefs

  1. Adoption of Mobile Devices in Teaching: Changes in Teacher Beliefs, Attitudes and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Beliefs, attitudes and anxiety levels of schoolteachers are important factors influencing the acceptance, adoption and integration of mobile devices in teaching. To understand how to sustain device use, we need to understand what influences teachers and how such factors can change. We adopted a quasi-experimental design using pre- and…

  2. The Pluto debate: Influence of emotions on belief, attitude, and knowledge change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Suzanne H.

    In line with the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005), this study examined the influence of emotions during controversial conceptual change. Issues in science may trigger highly emotional responses (e.g., evolutionary theory). However, it is unclear whether these emotions facilitate or inhibit change. I investigated the nature of emotions engendered when learning about a controversial science topic, Pluto's reclassification, including the valence (positive/negative) and activation (activating/deactivating) of emotions (Pekrun et al., 2002). I also investigated whether belief, attitude, and/or conceptual change could be facilitated through rereading a refutation text and/or rereading during small group discussions. Refutation texts directly state a common misconception, refute it, and provide the scientific explanation as a plausible alternative (Hynd, 2001). Participants were randomly assigned to a group (reread text; reread text plus small group discussions). Participants in both groups read the same refutational text regarding the recent change in the definition of planet and Pluto's reclassification. The findings show that students' experienced a range of emotions towards Pluto's reclassification. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions. Both positive and negative emotions were shown to be predictive of student's attitudes and attitude change. Emotions were also predictive of students' knowledge of planets and conceptual change. This suggests that emotions may have promoted deep engagement and critical thinking. Negative emotions may also be linked with resistance to attitude and conceptual change. The refutation text was effective in promoting belief change, attitude change, and conceptual change across both conditions. Students in both conditions reported more constructivist nature of science beliefs after rereading the text. Students also reported a greater level of acceptance about Pluto's reclassification. Conceptual change was

  3. Changes in Participants’ Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs During an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p self-efficacy (negative change, p self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.

  4. The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students' beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered…

  5. Attitudes and Beliefs in Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Pohořelá, Denisa

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis of name „Attitudes and Belief in Advertising“ considers determination of general attitude towards advertising and testing of factors which effect advertising message´s consignee. Belief in advertising has character of general attitude or attitude towards brand. My bachelor abstract recognizes particulary these general attitudes. Working factors in advertising are: relation, politics, sex, symbolism, family. For this purpose questionnaire research was chosen. A part ...

  6. The changing academic environment and diversity in students study philosophy, beliefs and attitudes in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alauddin; Adrian Ashman

    2014-01-01

    Student populations in higher education in Australia and elsewhere in the developed world have experienced significant diversity over the past two decades. The existing literature has provided limited clarity about the effects of this diversity on the dimensions underpinning students’ study philosophy domain. Based on a large data set from a leading Australian university, this paper analyses students’ study philosophy, beliefs and attitudes towards teaching and learning. Factor analysis e...

  7. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  8. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  9. I Want to be the Inquiry Guy! How Research Experiences for Teachers Change Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values About Teaching Science as Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Bancroft, Senetta F.; Edwards, Molly M.; Schairer, Caroline J.

    2016-03-01

    This qualitative study examined how and why research experiences for teachers (RETs) influenced middle and high school science teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and values about teaching science as inquiry. Changes teachers reported after participating in the RET ranged from modifying a few lessons (belief change) to a comprehensive revision of what and how they taught to better reflect inquiry (attitude change). Some teachers who described comprehensively changing their instruction also described implementing actions meant to change science education within their respective schools, not just their own classrooms (value change). We present how and why teachers went about changes in their practices in relation to the researcher-created teacher inquiry beliefs system spectrum (TIBSS). The TIBSS conceptualizes the range of changes observed in participating teachers. We also describe the features of the RET and external factors, such as personal experiences and school contexts, that teachers cited as influential to these changes.

  10. When truth is personally inconvenient, attitudes change: the impact of extreme weather on implicit support for green politicians and explicit climate-change beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; McLean, Meghan C; Bunzl, Martin

    2013-11-01

    A naturalistic investigation of New Jersey residents, both before and after they experienced Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, examined support for politicians committed or opposed to policies designed to combat climate change. At Time 1, before both hurricanes, participants showed negative implicit attitudes toward a green politician, but at Time 2, after the hurricanes, participants drawn from the same cohort showed a reversed automatic preference. Moreover, those who were significantly affected by Hurricane Sandy were especially likely to implicitly prefer the green politician, and implicit attitudes were the best predictor of voting after the storms, whereas explicit climate-change beliefs was the best predictor before the storms. In concert, the results suggest that direct experience with extreme weather can increase pro-environmentalism, and further support conceptualizing affective experiences as a source of implicit attitudes. PMID:24058064

  11. Change in Student Beliefs about Attitudes toward Science in Grades 6-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert E.; Iskander, Srini M.; Turgut, Halil

    2010-01-01

    The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either…

  12. Exploring beliefs about climate change and attitudes towards adaptation among Czech citizens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorencová, Eliška; Vačkář, David

    Brno: Global Change Research Centre, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., 2015 - (Urban, O.; Šprtová, M.; Klem, K.), s. 182-185 ISBN 978-80-87902-10-3. [Global Change: A Complex Challenge /4th/. Brno (CZ), 23.03.2015-24.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13032; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * global environmental problems * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. The Impact of ICT Training Through Wikis on In-Service EFL Teachers: Changes in Beliefs, Attitudes, and Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamith José Fandiño Parra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communication technology (ICT invites teachers to abandon traditional roles and act more as mentors, exploring the new media themselves as learners and thus acting as role models for their students (Fitzpatrick & Davies, 2003. For turning students into producers of online content and creating a collaborative learning environment, wikis appear to help foreign language teachers to infuse ICT in their classrooms (Kovacic, Bubas & Zlatovic, 2007. Within this context, results from an action research project carried out in four public schools suggest that beliefs, attitudes, and competencies can be impacted positively when working on the use of new technologies with in-service English teachers.

  14. Impact of patient attitudes and beliefs to insulin therapy upon initiation, and their attitudinal changes after initiation: the DAWN Japan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odawara, Masato; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tajima, Naoko; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Objective As a part of the Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Japan study, a multi-center, questionnaire-based survey conducted between 2004 and 2005, this analysis aimed to (1) explore patients' attitudes and beliefs contributing to their decision to start insulin therapy, and (2) assess the changes in their attitudes and beliefs after actual initiation. Methods Insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes who were recommended to start insulin therapy (n = 149) were invited to answer a 21-item questionnaire consisting of five clusters assessing their attitudes and beliefs toward insulin therapy. The questionnaire was administered twice: first upon insulin recommendation, and then 1 month after insulin initiation for those who started and 4 months after for those who did not. Results Of 130 patients included in the analysis, 74 patients (56.9%) started insulin therapy. 'Negative image of injections' and 'Positive image toward insulin therapy' were significantly associated with patient decision to start insulin therapy (odds ratios [95% CI]: 0.49 [0.32-0.76] and 2.58 [1.51-4.42], respectively). After insulin initiation, 'Negative image of injections', 'Positive image toward insulin therapy', 'Feelings of guilt regarding diabetes self-management', and 'Negative image toward insulin therapy' decreased significantly (P impression of therapy. The key limitation is the relatively small sample size (n = 130). The results suggest that education about the benefits of insulin therapy may help patients who are not ready to initiate insulin overcome their barrier to early insulin initiation and practical support may help those who have already started therapy to maintain its use. PMID:26743676

  15. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types of...... attitudes. This is the reason why a thorough understanding of attitudes is one of the most important skills a marketer can have. That same is true in related areas such as communications research: concepts like public opinion, corporate reputation, and corporate image are nothing more than particular types...

  16. Professor Attitudes and Beliefs about Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth

    Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.

  17. Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jenzi C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that in addition to positive attitudes toward inclusion, high-level beliefs about knowledge and learning (i.e., epistemological beliefs) are essential for all teachers of students with disabilities in inclusive settings. This study examined the attitudes toward inclusion and epistemological belief status of 71…

  18. Investigation of Students' Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes towards Studying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2011-01-01

    This study consists of the analysis on the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of secondary level students and their attitudes towards studying. The sampling of the study was formed by 440 students studying at Grade 10, 11 and 12 in secondary schools. The Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Studying Scale,…

  19. Attitudes toward the physically disabled: beliefs and their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, C; Katz, S

    1980-01-01

    The composition and structure of attitudes toward the physically disabled were studied using Fishbein's theoretical framework and methodology in which an individual's attitude toward any object is assumed to be (1) a function of his beliefs about the object, and (2) the evaluative aspects of these beliefs. This is stated algebraically as: [Formula: see text]. The subjects for the study were 52 workers employed in a large public construction company in Israel. They were asked to state their beliefs about the characteristics of physically disabled persons. Using the Semantic Differential Technique, the most frequent beliefs expressed were used to construct (a) a scale which measured the evaluative aspect of the belief, and (b) a scale to measure the probability dimension of each belief. In addition, an obtained measure of attitude towards disabled persons was elicited, and in order to test the validity this scale the Attitude Towards Disabled Persons was also given. The estimated attitude score for each subject was obtained using the above formula. A correlation of r = .91 (p < .01) between the Fishbein attitude score and the obtained attitude score was found. The correlations between the Fishbein attitude score and the ATDP was r = .78 (p < .01). These correlations provide support for the main hypothesis. In addition, the study demonstrated the advisability of assessing attitudes towards the physically disabled as they relate to specific roles that the disabled person has in various life areas and not as a general attitude. PMID:6450175

  20. Attitudes and beliefs about hypnosis: A multicultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Capafons, Antonio; Mendoza, María Elena; Espejo Tort, Begoña; Green, Joseph P.; Lopes-Pires, Carlos; Selma Martín, Maria Luisa; Flores, Daniela; Morariu, Marcela; Ioana CRISTEA (DRĂGULIN); David, Daniel; Pestana, José; Carvalho, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of having personal experience and infor-mation about hypnosis over the beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis, using a sample of students from Spain, United States, Portugal and Romania. The factor structure of the Revised Valencia Scale of Attitude s and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Client Version, as well as its psychometric properties are also analyzed. An explorat ory factor analysis of the scale was conducted and an 8-factor model solution simila...

  1. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Melani, Andrea S

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  2. Making Theory Relevant: The Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory (GABI), a teaching tool designed to aid students in (a) realizing how sociological theory links to their personal beliefs and (b) exploring any combination of 11 frequently used theoretical perspectives on gender, including both conservative theories (physiological,…

  3. Attitudes and beliefs of university science professors toward the discipline of education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    Because professional development (PD) is about persuasion and influence, it makes sense to use an influence framework when trying to determine the reasons current university-level PD has been fairly ineffective in changing teacher practice to date. This research used the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to determine if university natural science professors' attitudes and beliefs toward the discipline of education (DE), a construct not recognized in the current literature, were positive or negative. The study also looked to discover some of the major influences on the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE. A method bricolage was used to analyze data from 10 participants in two separate phases in an attempt to establish a replicable Discourse Analysis methodology for analyzing attitudes and beliefs, and to investigate the major influences on the formation of these attitudes and beliefs. The findings indicate that in general the participants' had positive beliefs in and about DE with negative attitudes toward DE and that the majority of the participants' views of teaching were formed by a number of significant influences. However, the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE are complicated by several issues, the most prominent being that this cohort's ideas about DE are based upon their PD experiences, which were generally delivered by centers for teaching excellence (CTEs) or equivalent entities. This research needs to be extended to determine the generalizability of these findings, as well as to provide evidence-based research to support the re-thinking of how PD is delivered at the university level.

  4. Pornography and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  5. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram V...

  6. Attitudes towards animal use and belief in animal mind

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Sarah; Vrij, Aldert; Cherryman, Julie; Nunkoosing, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Animals are used by humans in many ways, yet science has paid little attention to the study of human-animal relationships (Melson 2002). In the present study participants (n= 96) completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards animal use and individual differences were examined to determine which characteristics might underlie these attitudes (‘belief in animal mind’, age, gender, experience of animals, vegetarianism, political stance, and living area). It emerged that participants held differ...

  7. Understanding residential energy conservation through attitudes and beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn A Brown; Susan M Macey

    1983-01-01

    The role of beliefs, attitudes, social influence, and intentions as predictors of residential energy conservation behaviour is explored in the context of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action. Empirical analysis of survey data from Decatur, Illinois provides support for the theory and insight into barriers to energy conservation.

  8. Geography Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    This study scrutinizes geography teachers' attitude and belief levels regarding classroom management. As a matter of fact, classroom management is one of the prominent areas emphasized by all educators. Descriptive correlational survey model was used in the study. Study group includes 58 geography teachers working in Sivas province during the…

  9. The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

  10. Attitudes and beliefs among patients treated with mood stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Hanne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, such attitudes and beliefs on mood stabilizers have not been analysed by socio-demographic and clinical variables. Methods The Mood Stabilizer Compliance Questionnaire (MSQC was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder representative of patients treated at their first contacts to hospital settings in Denmark. Results Of the 1005 recipients, 49.9 % responded to the letter and among these 256 indicated that they previously had been or currently were in treatment with a mood stabilizer. A large proportion of the patients (40 to 80 % had non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers. Older patients consistently had a more negative view on the doctor-patient relationship, more non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers and a more negative view on mood stabilizers. There was no difference in the attitudes and beliefs according to the type of disorder (depressive or bipolar, the number of psychiatric hospitalisations or according to the type of the current doctor (general practitioner, private psychiatrist, community psychiatry doctor, hospital doctor, other doctor. Conclusion There is a need of improving knowledge and attitudes toward diagnosis and treatment especially among elder patients as this may add to improve the prognosis of depressive and bipolar disorders.

  11. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Manu, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  12. Albinism in Malawi : A qulitative Study on Attitudes and Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Albinism is an inherited, genetic condition. People with albinism exhibit little or no pigment in eyes, skin or hair, and often have problems with vision and sensitive skin. Albinism in Malawi is a qualitative project that has set out to examine attitudes and beliefs related to people living with albinism in Malawi. The aim has been to assess what implications albinism has on the lives of those born with it, and for their closest network of family and friends. Individual, in-depth...

  13. Assessment of Rape-Supportive Attitudes and Beliefs in College Men: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Gerald H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor…

  14. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-08-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  15. Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brimble1

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

  16. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism. PMID:25309491

  17. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism. PMID:25309491

  18. Exploring Student Students’ Attitudes and Beliefs Towards E-Portfolios and Technology in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma TUR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on student teachers’ attitude towards technology in education and e-portfolio processes. Attitude is closely related to teachers’ beliefs and the later have been defined as second-order barriers. While an important effort has been made to overcome first-order barrier such as resources, training and support, it cannot be observed that technology has been successfully introduced in education. Therefore, second-order barriers such as attitudes and beliefs are being considered nowadays in order to address the lack of innovative use of technology by teachers. It has been argued that the introduction of technology has to be directed towards the empowerment of cognitive and high-level thinking skills and has to be used based on student-centred approaches. Building e-portfolios and helping students which grow and curate their own Personal Learning Environments (PLE are two approaches to go beyond technology-centered models. E-Portfolios are viewed as part of students’ PLE so social media are used to enhance both e-portfolio processes and students’ PLEs. The research is based on a survey in four groups of students at the local branch in Ibiza of the University of the Balearic Islands. The participants have previously built their e-portfolios with Web 2.0 tools during one semester. Students are asked to document their learning weekly and reflect on the change experienced in the way they think about educational issues. Students are also asked to use new tools and social media services to give evidence of their own learning. The survey is based on a Likert scale so as to be able to analyse the students’ attitude and beliefs towards their e-portfolio and technology in education. The results show that a generally positive attitude is developed by students. Conclusions highlight the slight difference in student teachers’ attitude between technology and specific e-portfolio processes.

  19. Folk Beliefs of Cultural Changes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eXu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gauge each belief’s level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1 rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2 rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3 enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism.

  20. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  1. The Effect of Candidate Teachers' Educational and Epistemological Beliefs on Professional Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2011-01-01

    While teacher's cognitive skills are described with epistemological beliefs, the attitudes towards their profession, teaching styles and disciplinary actions are mainly associated with their educational beliefs. This study aiming to determine the effect of relation between candidate teachers' educational and epistemological beliefs on their…

  2. Exploring Student Students’ Attitudes and Beliefs Towards E-Portfolios and Technology in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma TUR; Marín, Victoria I.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on student teachers’ attitude towards technology in education and e-portfolio processes. Attitude is closely related to teachers’ beliefs and the later have been defined as second-order barriers. While an important effort has been made to overcome first-order barrier such as resources, training and support, it cannot be observed that technology has been successfully introduced in education. Therefore, second-order barriers such as attitudes and beliefs are being considere...

  3. Attitudes and beliefs among Mexican Americans about type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby

    2004-11-01

    Hispanics in the United States have a disproportionately high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Little is known of the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes in this group. Using data from six focus groups of 42 Mexican Americans (14 men and 28 women), we characterized perceptions about the causes of and treatments for type 2 diabetes. Many participants believed diabetes is caused by having a family history of the disease, eating a diet high in fat or sugar, and engaging in minimal exercise. Experiencing strong emotions such as fright (susto), intense anger (coraje), or sadness and depression (tristeza) was also thought to precipitate diabetes. Nearly all participants expressed the belief that it is important to follow doctors' recommendations for diet and exercise, oral medication or insulin; many also cited herbal therapies, such as prickly pear cactus (nopal) and aloe vera (savila) as effective treatments. These findings may be useful in designing interventions to reduce the burden of diabetes in Hispanic populations. PMID:15531816

  4. Comparison of patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe between beginning and established smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kenneth D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers and café customers (established smokers in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students (total 587, 48.4% men, mean age 22 years, and waterpipe users among cafe' customers (total 268, 60% men, mean age 30 years in Aleppo, Syria. We used interviewer-administered questionnaire inquiring about pattern of waterpipe smoking (initiation, frequency, situational characteristics of use (partner, place, sharing, beliefs related to waterpipe smoking (harmful/addictive properties of waterpipe, attitudes related to waterpipe smoking (confidence in quitting, will to quit, motivation for quitting, past year quit attempt, and cigarette smoking. Results Daily and regular patterns of smoking become more prevalent with increased duration of smoking, but intermittent smoking remains the predominant pattern of waterpipe use. Women seem to be drawn later to the habit, which seem to escape the usual taboo against women's cigarette smoking. Patterns and context of waterpipe use tend to change with progress of the practice affecting frequency, setting, and sharing of waterpipe. Unlike beginners, established waterpipe smokers seem more smoking-method oriented, more hooked on the habit, less willing to quit, and less likely to foresee challenges to quitting. Conclusion Use patterns and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking evolve to accommodate the change in dependence and life circumstances of the smoker. Most of use features, beliefs, attitudes, as well as time-course seem unique to this smoking method requiring novel approach to intervention.

  5. On the Relationship of Attitudes towards Substance Abuse with Irrational Beliefs and Academic Procrastination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolghasem yaghoobi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of irrational beliefs and academic procrastination with attitudes towards drug abuse in students. Method: This was a correlational that was carried out on a sample of 254 senior high school students in Kermanshah. Students were selected via random cluster sampling and filled in Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (1968, Solomon & Rothblum's Academic Procrastination (1984 and Rahmati’s Attitude to Drug Use (2001. Results: The results showed that irrational beliefs and procrastination were positively correlated with attitudes towards drug use. In addition, regression analysis showed that irrational beliefs and academic procrastination could account for the total of 38.9 percent of variance pertaining to attitudes towards drug use. Conclusion: It can be argued that academic procrastination and irrational beliefs underlie addiction; therefore, they should be considered in the treatment and prevention of addiction.

  6. Extending the Harper Identity to Iterated Belief Change

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Jake; Booth, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The field of iterated belief change has focused mainly on revision, with the other main operator of AGM belief change theory, i.e. contraction, receiving relatively little attention. In this paper we extend the Harper Identity from single-step change to define iterated contraction in terms of iterated revision. Specifically, just as the Harper Identity provides a recipe for defining the belief set resulting from contracting A in terms of (i) the initial belief set and (ii) the belief set resu...

  7. Sociology: Drivers of climate change beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jennifer E.

    2014-12-01

    Direct experience of global warming is expected to increase the number of people who accept that it is real and human-caused. A study now shows that people's perceptions about abnormal temperatures mostly match actual measurements but do not affect climate change beliefs.

  8. Organ donation, awareness, attitudes and beliefs among post graduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat Usha; Kedlaya Prashanth; Gokulnath

    2010-01-01

    Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical c...

  9. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucero Soto; Ana Lilia Armendariz-Anguiano; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assess...

  10. On the Relationship of Attitudes towards Substance Abuse with Irrational Beliefs and Academic Procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    abolghasem yaghoobi; hossain mohagheghi; ladan amiri; keivan sfandiari

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of irrational beliefs and academic procrastination with attitudes towards drug abuse in students. Method: This was a correlational that was carried out on a sample of 254 senior high school students in Kermanshah. Students were selected via random cluster sampling and filled in Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (1968), Solomon & Rothblum's Academic Procrastination (1984) and Rahmati’s Attitude to Drug Use (2001). Results: The resul...

  11. Sustained antiretroviral treatment adherence in survivors of the pre-HAART era: attitudes and beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Fumaz, Carmina R.; Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A.; Molto, Jose; Ferrer, Maria Jose; López-Blázquez, Raquel; Negredo, Eugenia; Paredes, Roger; Gómez, Guadalupe; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to assess adherence of HIV-1?infected patients who started treatment in the pre-HAART era, and to determine variables associated with better adherence, including relevant attitudes and beliefs. This is a cross-sectional study enrolling patients who had received antiretroviral therapy for ≥10 years. Adherence was evaluated through self-reporting and plasma drug concentrations. Treatment variables, attitudes and beliefs were collected du...

  12. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs an

  13. Weight Control Beliefs, Body Shape Attitudes, and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Scott B.; Rhea, Deborah J.; Greenleaf, Christy A.; Judd, Doryce E.; Chambliss, Heather O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about how perceived weight controllability influences important psychological health factors among adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore adolescents' weight controllability beliefs and how those beliefs influence weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Methods: Adolescents (N = 369, mean…

  14. Belief in Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Attitudes Toward Women and Knowledge of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, R. Michael

    Degree of belief in rape myths as determined by participant gender, attitudes about the role of women in contemporary society, and factual knowledge of rape was investigated in a sample of 118 male and 126 female college students. The results support the general assumption that a rape ideology exists which involves components of belief in rape…

  15. Selected Demographics, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Diversity of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Hakan; Lamme, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, preservice teachers' demographic variables such as race, innercity program experiences, religious affiliation, and cross-cultural friendships are examined to see if they influence the preservice teachers' beliefs on issues of diversity. The data are from a Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and a Professional Beliefs About…

  16. Beliefs and Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers towards Teaching Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaila M.; Lim, Levan

    This study evaluated the attitudes and beliefs of 68 undergraduate preservice teachers in the fourth year of a teacher training program at the National Institute of Education (Singapore). The preservice teachers completed a survey of attitudes toward different assumptions of inclusion, perceptions of self-efficacy, and competence. Results suggest…

  17. Teachers' Readiness to Implement Nutrition Education Programs: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…

  18. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  19. Communication skills training in undergraduate medicine: attitudes and attitude change.

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Eva M; McGee, Hannah; O'Boyle, Ciaran; Shannon, William; Bury, Gerard; Williams, A.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of communication skills training in undergraduate medical education is now widely accepted. However little is known about student attitudes towards their own communication skills and whether their attitudes changes as a result of participating in communication skills courses. The aim of the present study was to identify these attitudes prior to commencing such a course and to further evaluate changes in these attitudes on completion of the course. Results demonstrated an improv...

  20. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members. PMID:26247206

  1. The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandates for renewable energy lead to siting disputes, because meeting the mandates requires the development of renewable energy production facilities. Proposals for one common form of renewable energy, commercial wind farms, are frequently met with forceful local opposition. Dissatisfied with simplistic explanations for this opposition (i.e., NIMBY), social scientists have urged a more nuanced understanding of public attitudes towards wind energy and other renewables. Based on a survey of residents of coastal Michigan, this article explores the role of general values and beliefs in shaping attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind energy projects in or near respondents’ communities. Structural equation modeling reveals that support of commercial wind energy depends largely on a belief that wind farms will provide economic benefits to the community. Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs regarding the likely economic outcomes of wind farm development. Altruistic values buoy wind energy attitudes, while values of traditionalism diminish wind energy support. The pivotal role of values in attitudes towards renewables lends support for more participatory development processes. - Highlights: ► Predictors of attitudes towards commercial wind energy development are examined. ► Support is influenced by beliefs in community economic benefit. ► Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs. ► Altruistic values buoy attitudes towards wind energy. ► Values associated with traditionalism diminish wind energy support

  2. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less

  3. Social psychology and energy attitude consumer change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field

  4. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  5. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality. PMID:24325311

  6. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  7. Attitudes and beliefs regarding spiritual care. A survey of cancer nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E J; Highfield, M; Amenta, M

    1994-12-01

    Why nurses neglect spiritual care issues remains unclear. Therefore, a questionnaire designed to assess oncology nurse clinicians' attitudes and beliefs about spiritual care was mailed to a stratified, random sample of 700 Oncology Nursing Society members within the United States. Data from the 181 respondents were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics (for quantitative items) and content analysis (for essay questions). Analysis of data revealed both a positive regard for spiritual care within nursing, and relationships between beliefs and attitudes about spiritual care and self-reported spiritually, religiosity, ethnicity, work role, and education. Recommendations are for inclusion of theoretical and practical aspects of spiritual care in nursing education and for further investigation of nurses' attitudes and beliefs regarding spiritual care. PMID:7820826

  8. Persuasion and attitude change in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    Many strategies used to induce the occurrence of desirable science-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors involve the use of persuasive messages. Science educators need to become acquainted with persuasion in the context of social influence and learning theory to be able to evaluate its usefulness in the science education milieu. Persuasion is the conscious attempt to bring about a jointly developed mental state common to both source and receiver through the use of symbolic cues, and it can be distinguished from other forms of social influence. Propaganda is a type of persuasion directed toward a mass audience. Coercion relies on reinforcement control, whereas persuasion is prompted by information. Brainwashing involves coercive techniques used to obtain cooperation and compliance. Persuasion and instruction are much alike; both require conscious cognitive activity by the recipient and involve communication which includes giving arguments and evidence for the purpose of getting someone to do something or to believe something.Persuasion research is anchored in learning theory. Early efforts were based on information processing. Studies following an information process approach focused on the effect of the variables harbored within the question Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect? on belief and attitude change. Cognitive processing and social exchange approaches to persuasion represent extensions to information process. Cognitive processing is concerned specifically with how people personally process the arguments presented in a persuasive message. Social exchange emphasizes the interchange that takes place between the message source and recipient. These approaches seem to be fruitful areas for future persuasion research in science education.Science educators' unfamiliarity with persuasion research stems from the fact that it is largely reported in the social psychology literature and has not been integrated into a framework familiar to

  9. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucherah W

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Winnie Mucherah,1 Elizabeth Owino,2 Kaleigh McCoy,1 1Department of Educational Psychology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA, 2Department of Educational Psychology, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya Abstract: While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students’ perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students’ sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%, suspension from school (61%, and expulsion from school (49%. Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed. Keywords: homosexuality, attitudes, beliefs, high school, Kenya

  10. Health professionals’, expert patients’ and dieters’ beliefs and attitudes about obesity

    OpenAIRE

    McConnon, A.; Gribble, R; Raats, MM; Stubbs, J; Shepherd, R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has suggested that patients and treatment providers hold different beliefs and models of obesity. This could impact consistency and quality of interventions for weight management. This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals, commercial weight management advisors (expert patients) and overweight and obese dieters, towards obesity. Methods: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 287 health professionals, 85 expert pati...

  11. The influence of consumers' environmental beliefs and attitudes on energy saving behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a heightened focus on the concept of sustainability in the past few decades, government, business and individuals have become increasingly aware of the need to reduce our environmental footprint. Consequently there has been much research on consumer environmental behaviour, and the beliefs, norms and attitudes that influence this behaviour. In this article we develop a conceptual framework of consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents, and test hypotheses within the framework by means of a survey of green consumers. The results show that general environmental beliefs do influence norms on environmental actions and prices, but only norms on price are correlated with environmental attitudes; both intrinsic and extrinsic environmental drivers together with social norms and community influence are associated with environmental attitudes, but cost barriers may have a negative influence. It was also found that there was a strong association between environmental attitudes and energy saving behaviours but the latter was not in any way influenced by government policies or subsidies. - Highlights: ► We model consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents. ► Environmental beliefs influence environmental norms on actions and prices. ► Environmental price norms are correlated with environmental attitudes. ► Environmental drivers, social norms and community influence are associated with attitudes. ► Strong association found between environmental attitudes and behaviour.

  12. Religion and HIV in Tanzania: influence of religious beliefs on HIV stigma, disclosure, and treatment attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostermann Jan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.

  13. [Do regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief" exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koshi

    2016-04-01

    This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck. The 500 Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences, but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores. Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context. PMID:27180517

  14. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Attendance in a Hybrid Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudko, Errol; Hirokawa, Randy; Chi, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Since online learning technology, such as streaming video, was introduced to the college distance-learning environment, there has been a need to study the attitudes of college students toward the use of this modality in hybrid courses. Understanding students' attitudes toward using online materials and the impact on class attendance is not only…

  15. Language Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs, Professional Knowledge, and Views on Professional Development: An Exploratory Study at a Preschool TEFL Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and professional knowledge about teaching EFL (TEFL) in a preschool setting in China. The investigation is structured on a two-dimensional grid based on Calderhead's (1996) categorisation of teachers' attitudes and beliefs and…

  16. Europeans' attitudes towards climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a survey on Europeans' attitudes towards climate change which was carried out in January and February 2009. The survey focuses on: Citizens' perceptions of climate change in relation to other world problems; Citizens' perceptions of the seriousness of climate change; The extent to which citizens feel informed about climate change - its causes, consequences and ways of fighting it; Citizens' attitudes towards alternative fuels and CO2 emissions; Whether citizens feel that climate change is stoppable or has been exaggerated, and what impact it has on the European economy; Whether citizens have taken personal action to fight climate change. This Eurobarometer survey was carried out by TNS Opinion and Social network between 16 January and 22 February 2009. The interviews were conducted among 26,718 citizens in the 27 Member States of the European Union, the three candidate countries for accession to the European Union (Croatia, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and in the Turkish Cypriot Community.

  17. University Students’ Beliefs, Awareness and Attitudes regarding the Target Culture Learning in an EFL Context

    OpenAIRE

    Gutsul, Müge Çiçek

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at finding out the university students’ general approach to the target culture learning in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context by investigating the three sub-categories of beliefs, awareness and attitudes. The purpose of this study is to discover what students think about the target culture learning, how much they are aware of the target culture, and what their attitudes are towards the target culture learning. For this purpose, a number of related...

  18. Recruiting the next generation: a study of attitudes, values, and beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Andrew G.

    2001-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study examines the attitudes, values, and beliefs of teenagers regarding military service. Specifically, the study looks at generational theory, the characteristics and views of the so-called 'Millennial' generation, factors that influence attitudes toward military service, and recruiting strategies used by the Navy and Marine Corps. The study identifies the uniqueness of the next generation of youth, or Millennials, because of th...

  19. Research on Chinese College English Teachers’ Classroom Code-switching: Beliefs and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This article documents the beliefs and attitudes of Chinese college English teachers towards classroom code-switching. The findings suggest that teachers’ code-switching is commonplace in class, although most of them still hold negative attitude toward it. Besides, students’ ability is regarded as the most significant factor affecting teachers’ code-switching, and the first language (L1) is mainly used to teach grammar and abstract words. The conclusion is that, in Chinese E...

  20. Knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in HIV/AIDS in India:identifying the gender and rural-urban differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Indrajit; Hazarika

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To promote the use of preventive measures and raise awareness regardingHIV/AIDS in India.Methods:Data from the population-basedNFHS-3 survey2005-06 was used. In this study, information collected on87 961women aged15-49years and44 717 men aged15-54years was used in the final analysis. The data collected was stratified by gender and place of residence. Analyses of the variables related to the outcomes i.e. knowledge, attitude, belief and practices, was conducted usingChi-square test to calculate significant differences among proportions of categorical variables.Results: We found that knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was low among women and rural residents. Most of the respondents had a non-discriminatory attitude towardsHIV positives and majority agreed that children should be educated onHIV/AIDS. The use of condoms and proportion of respondents who had undergoneHIV testing was found to be significantly low. We found a significant gap in the beliefs regarding ways to avoid HIV.Conclusions: There are significant gender and urban-rural differentials in India in terms of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices inHIV/AIDS. Information dissemination in India should be designed in a way that not only raises the level of awareness but also result in behavioral change.

  1. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero Soto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assessed with the BAOP scale, attitudes towards obese people by the ATOP scale and obesity phobias by the F-scale. Results: Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.4. Only seven per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5. Less fat phobia was associated with beliefs that obesity was not a result of the person's self-control (p = 0.0001 and had better attitudes towards obese people (p = 0.0001. Men had higher risk of fat phobia (OR = 1.5. Conclusions: High prevalence of phobias and negative attitudes towards obesity was observed. Men had higher stigma.

  2. Electronic banking in Finland : consumer beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Karjaluoto, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on developing a theoretical model with a practicaljustification within the field of electronic banking. We ground our discussion on the framework of consumer behavior and electronic banking by linking attitude research and electronic business research. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to determine those factors that influence the formation of consumer attitude toward electronic banking. Another important aspect of this study is to develop more insights into how att...

  3. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  4. Professional Socialization in Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs: Attitudes and Beliefs of Faculty Members and Recent Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Kevin Charles

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand professional socialization in nurse anesthesia educational programs through an exploration of the attitudes and beliefs of faculty members and recent graduates. Participants for this cross-sectional, quasi-experimental online study included a convenience sample of 178 nurse anesthesia faculty…

  5. Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitude about Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Music: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Song A.; Ma, Tingting; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article presents exploratory research investigating the integration of music and a mathematics lesson as an intervention to promote preservice teachers' attitude and confidence and to extend their beliefs toward teaching mathematics integrated with music. Thirty students were randomly selected from 64 preservice teachers in a southern…

  6. Preservice Preschool Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Attitudes toward Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaldi, Senel; Yerliyurt, Nazli Sila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate preservice preschool teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward the teaching profession. The population of the present study consisted of 855 (Female = 729) preservice preschool teachers studying at the Faculty of Education, Cumhuriyet University, in the fall semester of the 2015-2016 academic…

  7. Beliefs and Attitudes of Primary School Teachers in Mumbai, India towards Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachigar, Vinati; Stansfield, Jois; Goldbart, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child's environment influenced…

  8. Attitudes and beliefs affect frequency of eating out in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality through increased fat intake and larger portion sizes. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 Af...

  9. Religiosity and Spirituality among Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Irmo; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 157 persons with spinal cord injury completed the "Spirituality and Spinal Cord Injury Survey" in relation to their spiritual and/or religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices in terms of adapting to their disability. Factor analysis accounting for 69% of the variance revealed four factors related to Spiritual Help and Improvement…

  10. Examining Shifts in Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes toward Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of integrating self-reflection, focused instruction, and field practice in a semester-long language arts course in order to shift early childhood preservice teachers' (PSTs) beliefs and attitudes about writing instruction, as well as their development and planned use of tools for…

  11. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…

  12. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  13. Public Awareness, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…

  14. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Democratic Classroom Practice: Influences on Intentions for Pedagogical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Caroline R.; Pryor, Brandt W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers' intentions to integrate democratic practice into their teaching and the influence of attitudes and beliefs on intentions. Participants were 76 undergraduates from 3 social studies methods classes. A theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) guided instrument development. Intention was…

  15. Is There Concordance in Attitudes and Beliefs between Parents and Scientists about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…

  16. Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Mammography in a Multiethnic Population in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Epel, Orna

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights beliefs, attitudes, and barriers that are associated with mammography use in four distinct cultural and ethnic groups in Israel: veteran, ultra-orthodox, and immigrant Jewish and Arab women. A random telephone survey of 1,550 women was performed. Information from claims records concerning mammography use was obtained for…

  17. The Attitudes & Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory-Revised and Revisited: A Continuation of Construct Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…

  18. Teacher Education and Preparation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Perceptions of Preparedness about Teaching the Culturally Diverse Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel May, Rozanna

    2010-01-01

    The researcher of this study endeavored to determine if a treatment of a multicultural awareness presentation, multicultural coursework, and field experiences impacted teacher candidates' attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of preparedness about teaching culturally diverse students. Today, as evidenced by disaggregation of test scores, and dropout…

  19. Towards a Typology of Parental Behaviors, Attitudes, and Beliefs about School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Daniel; Collerette, Pierre; Turcotte, Gilles; Beaulieu, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The social and academic experiences of children and adolescents in school are a major concern for parents and their characteristics as protection or risk factors for their children's adaptation has been extensively studied. However, few studies have dealt with the behaviors, attitudes and beliefs of parents about the schools their children…

  20. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  1. The Effect of a Modified Moore Method on Attitudes and Beliefs in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brad; Cooper, Thomas E.; Briggs, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a study on the effects of teaching with a Modified Moore Method (MMM), a survey containing 20 items from Schoenfeld's (1989) investigation of attitudes and beliefs about mathematics was administered to students in undergraduate precalculus classes. The study included one section of precalculus taught with an MMM, a student-centered and…

  2. Professors' Influence on Students' Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Glory; Delaney, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews how psychology research has defined beliefs, values, and attitudes (BVAs); how they relate to each other; and how they may be influenced, especially in the academic setting. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe the nature of and the interrelationships between BVAs, (b) discuss their relevance to the academic…

  3. Development and Validation of a Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Science Teaching Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science teaching, in part, because the field lacks valid and reliable measures of these teacher-related factors. To address this need, the current study developed and validated a rating scale (P-TABS) using a statewide sample of Head Start teachers (N = 507). A series of…

  4. Relationship between Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Their Attitudes towards Students' Beliefs and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hadi; Taghavi, Elham; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been done in the developed countries due to the importance of job satisfaction; however, only a limited number of studies have been conducted on teachers' job satisfaction in Iran. This study is an attempt to investigate the relationship between teachers' job satisfaction and their attitudes towards students' beliefs and…

  5. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication : a comparative European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed

  6. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Graaf

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  7. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994

  8. Primary care physicians' attitudes and beliefs towards chronic low back pain: an Asian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina W S Sit

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain is a serious global health problem. There is substantial evidence that physicians' attitudes towards and beliefs about chronic low back pain can influence their subsequent management of the condition.(1 to evaluate the attitudes and beliefs towards chronic low back pain among primary care physicians in Asia; (2 to study the cultural differences and other factors that are associated with these attitudes and beliefs.A cross sectional online survey was sent to primary care physicians who are members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physician (HKCFP. The Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapist (PABS-PT was used as the questionnaire to determine the biomedical and biopsychosocial orientation of the participants.The mean Biomedical (BM score was 34.8+/-6.1; the mean biopsychosocial (BPS score was 35.6 (+/- 4.8. Both scores were higher than those of European doctors. Family medicine specialists had a lower biomedical score than General practitioners. Physicians working in the public sector tended to have low BM and low BPS scores; whereas physicians working in private practice tended to have high BM and high BPS scores.The lack of concordance in the pain explanatory models used by private and public sector may have a detrimental effect on patients who are under the care of both parties. The uncertain treatment orientation may have a negative influence on patients' attitudes and beliefs, thus contributing to the tension and, perhaps, even ailing mental state of a person with chronic LBP.

  9. Can Legal Interventions Change Beliefs? The Effect of Exposure to Sexual Harassment Policy on Men's Gender Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Justine Eatenson; Li, Yan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the relative success of equal opportunity laws on women's status in the workplace, we know little about the influence of such legal interventions on people's attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses, in particular, on how sexual harassment policy affects men's beliefs about the gender hierarchy. We employ an experimental design in…

  10. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs Through Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (2005) by looking at the teacher's (a) attitude towards implementing STL modules, (b) perceived subjective norms, and (c) behavioural control regarding the new teaching approach. After an introductory year, when teachers familiarised themselves with the new approach, a collaborative action research project was initiated in the second year of the study, helping teachers to minimise or overcome initially perceived constraints when implementing STL modules in their classroom. The processes of teacher change and the course of the project were investigated by teacher interviews, teacher informal commentaries, and meeting records. The formation of positive beliefs towards a STL approach increased continuously, although its extent and character varied depending on the teacher. The close cooperation, in the format of collaborative action research and especially through teacher group reflections and perceived collegial support, did support teacher professional development including change in their beliefs towards the new teaching approach. Additionally, positive feedback gained from other teachers through running a two-day in-service course in year three helped to strengthen all five teachers' existing beliefs towards the new approach. The current research demonstrated that perceived constraints, where identified, can be meaningfully addressed by teachers, through undertaking collaborative action research.

  11. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  12. Comparison of fertility ratios, attitudes and beliefs of Polish and Czech women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to estimate some basic data related to the fertility in the chosen groups of Polish and Czech women. We have tried to acquire and analyze the attitudes and beliefs of these women in motherhood and the desire to have children. These data enable to verify the interdisciplinary hypothesis explaining the decline of birth rate and low fertility in European countries. Materials and methods: The authors performed the survey by means of a questionnaire formulated after a comprehensive discussion of possible reasons of birth rate decline. They have tried through the questions of the survey to verify the hypothesis that the decline is the result of the cumulative mental changes occurring in contemporary societies. The questionnaire completed 90 Polish women students pursuing complementary studies of nursing in Higher School of Applied Sciences in Nysa, during the academic year 2012/2013. The questionnaire also completed 53 Czech women students pursuing part-time studies and training at the Tomas Bata University in Zlin (the Czech Republic. Results: The above surveyed 90 Polish women gave birth to 132 children, so fertility rates is 1.46. The average age at the birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.5 and of the third child 31.7 years. The surveyed 53 Czech women gave birth to 86 children, so fertility rates is 1.62. The average age at birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.2 and of the third child 27,5 years. The authors present also convictions, beliefs and attitudes of the women under study. Conclusions: The multifaceted and interdisciplinary hypothesis (theoretical model formulated at the outset of our work, can be useful for attempts to estimate the pro-family attitudes in different populations of women. The results in the light of compliance with the proposed theoretical model allow for the formulation of proposals for action, which would counteract the

  13. Outreach as seen by the Spanish professional astronomers: a survey of beliefs, attitudes, and activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.; Díaz Vilela, L. F.

    A survey of outreach related beliefs, attitudes, and activities of the Spanish professional astronomers is presented. More than one hundred scientists answered an ad-hoc drawn up questionnaire, whose results have been analysed statistically. This feedback form is an improved version of that used in a previous research carried out by the authors with a sample of members of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Díaz Vilela & Rodríguez Hidalgo 2005). Some of the studied items are the actual time and effort devoted to outreach by a researcher, the role of outreach within his work, the valuation of outreach activities in his curriculum, socially, or economically, the opinion about who should have the responsibility of organising and performing popularisation tasks, etc. Three kinds of studies have been performed: the descriptive one is based on the frequencies and means of variables; a Principal Component Analysis was applied to get a shorter number of belief-attitude dimensions; and an inferential one, derived from a Multiple Regression Analysis which provides a reliable description of the beliefs-attitudes scale grouping outreach related beliefs into 6 components, 3 of them more significant. A simple regression allows us to predict about a 50% of the variance of the outreach practices.

  14. A general approach to belief change in answer set programming

    CERN Document Server

    Delgrande, James; Tompits, Hans; Woltran, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of belief change in (nonmonotonic) logic programming under answer set semantics. Unlike previous approaches to belief change in logic programming, our formal techniques are analogous to those of distance-based belief revision in propositional logic. In developing our results, we build upon the model theory of logic programs furnished by SE models. Since SE models provide a formal, monotonic characterisation of logic programs, we can adapt techniques from the area of belief revision to belief change in logic programs. We introduce methods for revising and merging logic programs, respectively. For the former, we study both subset-based revision as well as cardinality-based revision, and we show that they satisfy the majority of the AGM postulates for revision. For merging, we consider operators following arbitration merging and IC merging, respectively. We also present encodings for computing the revision as well as the merging of logic programs within the same logic programming framework...

  15. Effects of palliative care training program on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists: A preliminary quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants′ written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.

  16. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal manner. Results: It was observed that the reduction in the risk of developing diabetes affects the intent of developing preventive behaviors mediated by attitude toward prevention (p=0.000, which is the most important predictor of that intention (p=0.000. Subjective norms also have a significant impact on the preventive behavioral intention (p=0.000, although the preventive attitude is not affected by beliefs regarding the development (p=0.095 and severity of the disease (p=0.056. Conclusion: The application of the model allowed the identification of relevant aspects to support health promotion, oriented to influence the processes of change in social behavior, in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p43

  17. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. PMID:25754516

  18. International Tourism, Ethnic Contact, and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates a book about Egypt, designed to improve the ethnic attitudes of Israel tourists who were about to visit that country as a cognitive intervention. Reports that the intervention was successful only in moderating negative attitudinal changes, and that the intergroup contact provided by tourism does not guarantee positive attitude change.…

  19. The dynamics of CRM attitude change: Attitude stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Steven E.

    1993-01-01

    Special training seminars in cockpit resource management (CRM) are designed to enhance crew effectiveness in multicrew air-transport cockpits. In terms of CRM, crew effectiveness is defined by teamwork rather than technical proficiency. These seminars are designed to promote factual learning, alter aviator attitudes, and motivate aviators to make use of what they have learned. However, measures of attitude change resulting from CRM seminars have been the most common seminar evaluation technique. The current investigation explores a broader range of attitude change parameters with specific emphasis on the stability of change between recurrent visits to the training center. This allows for a comparison of training program strengths in terms of seminar ability to effect lasting change.

  20. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25389189

  1. Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimia nervosa: the importance of knowledge and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (ρ = -0.28), unreliability (ρ = -0.19), and advantages of BN (ρ = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment. PMID:25751709

  2. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Regarding Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Hispanic Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I.; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Must, Aviva

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy weight gain may be a risk factor for the development of obesity highlighting the importance of identifying psychosocial risk factors for pregnancy weight gain. The goal of this qualitative pilot study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding weight gain during pregnancy among predominantly Puerto Rican women, a group with higher rates of obesity as compared to non-Hispanic white women. We conducted four focus groups stratified by level of acculturation and BMI. Wom...

  4. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Akl, Elie A; Jawad, Mohammed; Lam, Wai Yim; Co, Christopher N; Obeid, Rawad; Irani, Jihad

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review method...

  5. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding organ and tissue donation and transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Matten, M R; Sliepcevich, E M; Sarvela, P D; Lacey, E P; Woehlke, P L; Richardson, C E; Wright, W R

    1991-01-01

    The acute shortage of human organs and tissues for transplantation has been attributed in part to health professionals, including nurses, for their reluctance to recognize and refer suitable candidates for donation. In 1988, nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding organ and tissue donation and transplantation were assessed using a 70-item questionnaire. Respondents included 1,683 nurses employed in 62 rural and urban hospitals in the Midwest. Only 365 respondents (21.7 percent) re...

  6. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Sanas Javadian; Paula Stigler-Granados; Clifton Curtis; Francis Thompson; Laurent Huber; Novotny, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Fr...

  7. Attitudes and beliefs about hand hygiene among paediatric residents: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Devika; Hagtvedt, Reidar; Reay, Trish; Ballermann, Mark; Forgie, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the knowledge that contaminated hands play an important role in the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens, and that hand hygiene (HH) reduces the transmission of these organisms, healthcare worker's adherence with HH is poor. Objective To understand the common beliefs and attitudes held by paediatric residents about HH. Design Qualitative study design. Setting Tertiary care paediatric hospital in Edmonton, Canada. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted a...

  8. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices of Principals with Respect to Hiring Diverse Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gursev

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the beliefs, attitudes, and practices of principals with regard to equity and inclusion specific to hiring teachers from diverse backgrounds. A qualitative design and narrative analysis guided this study. Twelve principals and vice-principals from six high schools in one school district in Ontario participated in the study by answering questions on a self-completion web questionnaire. The findings were analyzed using four categories with regard to hirin...

  9. Teachers' beliefs and attitudes about the use of cooperative learning in local primary English classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Yuet, Tsz-ying; 越芷盈

    2015-01-01

    Many researches studies indicate that cooperative learning has a lot of positive impacts on students’ learning including academic performance, social skills and cognitive skills. Cooperative learning is also found to help students’ success in their learning. This study reports the findings of 6 in-service primary English teachers’ attitudes and beliefs towards the use of cooperative learning in Hong Kong’s classrooms. Teachers with different years of teaching experiences working in the same s...

  10. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    OpenAIRE

    Barnathan Julia A; Kim Jennifer S; Gupta Ruchi S; Amsden Laura B; Tummala Lakshmi S; Holl Jane L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus gro...

  11. IMPORTANCE OF BELIEFS, ATTITUDES AND VALUES IN THE FRAME OF HUMAN RESOURCE MOTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia , MOISE

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with a complex and original field of analyse – the role that concepts such as beliefs, attitudes and values can entail in the modern human resources management techniques that are dealing with employee’s motivation. Nowadays employees have a complex approach regarding motivation. Especially when we speak about big organisations such as multinational companies, we will find complex jobs having many tasks and a complicated network of inter-relations within the organisation. In...

  12. The attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of GPs regarding exercise for chronic knee pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Nadine E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint pain, specifically chronic knee pain (CKP, is a frequent cause of chronic pain and limitation of function and mobility among older adults. Multiple evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise as a first-line treatment for all patients with CKP or knee osteoarthritis (KOA, yet healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs may limit their implementation. This systematic review aims to identify the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of General Practitioners (GPs regarding the use of exercise for CKP/KOA. Methods We searched four electronic databases between inception and January 2008, using subject headings to identify studies examining the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of GPs regarding the use of exercise for the treatment of CKP/KOA in adults aged over 45 years in primary care. Studies referring to patellofemoral pain syndrome or CKP secondary to other causes or that occurring in a prosthetic joint were excluded. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, study data were extracted and summarised. Study quality was independently reviewed using two assessment tools. Results From 2135 potentially relevant articles, 20 were suitable for inclusion. A variety of study methodologies and approaches to measuring attitudes beliefs and behaviours were used among the studies. Quality assessment revealed good reporting of study objective, type, outcome factors and, generally, the sampling frame. However, criticisms included use of small sample sizes, low response rates and under-reporting of non-responder factors. Although 99% of GPs agreed that exercise should be used for CKP/KOA and reported ever providing advice or referring to a physiotherapist, up to 29% believed that rest was the optimum management approach. The frequency of actual provision of exercise advice or physiotherapy referral was lower. Estimates of provision of exercise advice and physiotherapy referral were generally higher for vignette-based studies

  13. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Keppler; Ingeborg Dhooge; Bart Vinck

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults′ hearing status. A questionnaire and an audi...

  14. Faculty of Education Students’ Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs and their Attitudes towards Computers and Implementing Computer Supported Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Güner Berkant

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates faculty of education students’ computer self-efficacy beliefs and their attitudes towards computers and implementing computer supported education. This study is descriptive and based on a correlational survey model. The final sample consisted of 414 students studying in the faculty of education of a Turkish university. The results show that male students have higher computer self-efficacy beliefs; major and class level variables do not affect students' computer attitud...

  15. Impact of reading a scientific journal issue about hypnosis on the beliefs and attitudes towards hypnosis among psychologists

    OpenAIRE

    M. Elena Mendoza; Antonio Capafons; Begoña Espejo

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of receiving scientific information about hypnosis over Spanish psychologists" beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis. The Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist (VSABH-T) was administered to 2434 Spanish psychologists. A retest and a second retest were carried out,and between these testing administrations a monograph issue focused on hypnosis was published in a journal that all members of the Spanish Psychological ...

  16. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-04-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877

  17. Responsibility Attitudes in Obsessive-Compulsive Patients: The Contributions of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs and Worry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changiz Rahimi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive patients are distressed by intrusivethoughts, which are related to unreal threats. These patientsfeel that they are responsible for harming themselves and others.While controlling worry and meta-cognitive beliefs, thepresent study aimed at comparing the responsibility attitudesin obsessive compulsive patients with those in normal subjectsto determine whether the difference in responsibility attitudesbetween two groups was significant.Methods: A group of 15 patients were compared with normalsubjects (n=15 who matched the patient group in terms ofgender, age and education. All subjects filled the ResponsibilityAttitude Scale, the Penn, State Worry Questionnaire andthe Meta-cognition Questionnaire -30. The findings were analyzedusing descriptive statistics as well as student t and ANCOVAtests.Results: Responsibility attitudes in obsessive patients weresignificantly higher than those in normal subjects (P<0.001,when patient worries and meta-cognitive beliefs were notcontrolled. However, after controlling patient's worry andmeta-cognitive beliefs there was no significant differencebetween responsibility attitudes in normal and obsessive–compulsive group.Conclusion: The findings might suggest that responsibilityattitude is not strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It seems that it is a characteristic caused by basic metacognitivebeliefs, because the relationship between the responsibilityand the symptoms was dependent on meta-cognition.Therefore, in studying the etiology and treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorders focus on the responsibility attitudesalone cannot be very helpful.

  18. Female science teacher beliefs and attitudes: implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.

    2007-10-01

    Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.

  19. Evaluative language, cognitive effort and attitude change.

    OpenAIRE

    Pligt, van der, J.; Schie, van, E.C.M.; Martijn,, C.

    1994-01-01

    Tested the hypotheses that evaluatively biased language influences attitudes and that the magnitude and persistence of attitude change depends on the amount of cognitive effort. 132 undergraduates participated in the experiment, which used material focusing on the issue of restricting adolescent driving over the weekends to reduce the number of fatal traffic accidents. Results indicate that evaluatively biased language can affect attitudes. Using words that evaluate the pro-position positivel...

  20. Swearwords and attitude change: A sociolinguistic study

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Sverre Humberset

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis concerns change and attitudes to swearing among Englishmen. It includes two parts: The first part is about the underlying theory on swearing, such as why we swear, the history of swearing and attitudes to swearing. The second part is empirical, where I present my findings in my study. The study carried out was both qualitative and quantitative, as the methods included were questionnaires and interviews. The aim was to compare attitudes to swearing...

  1. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Preservice Teachers' Responses to the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Robin K.; Roberts, J. Kyle

    This study examined the factorial invariance of scores from the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC) (Martin and others, 1998) for 243 undergraduate preservice teachers. Although the original ABCC was developed with inservice teachers, use of the instrument to study the classroom beliefs of preservice teachers had not been…

  2. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  4. A shorter and multidimensional version of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (GABS-23).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Boutin, Claude; Gorwood, Philip; Le Bourvellec, Jean-Damien; Feuillet, Fanny; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2014-06-01

    The Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (GABS) is a questionnaire which explores gambling-related dysfunctional beliefs in an unidimensional way. The present research aims to investigate the dimensionality of the scale. 343 undergraduate student gamblers and 75 pathological gamblers seeking treatment completed the GABS and the south oaks gambling screen. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the original one-factor structure of the GABS did not fit the data effectively. We then proposed a shorter version of the GABS (GABS-23) with a new five-factor structure, which fitted with the data more efficiently. The comparisons between students (problem vs. non-problem gamblers) and pathological gamblers seeking treatment indicated that the GABS-23 can discriminate between problem and non-problem gamblers as efficiently as the original GABS. To ensure the validity and the stability of the new structure of the GABS-23, analyses were replicated in an independent sample that consisted of 628 gamblers (256 non problem gamblers, 169 problem gamblers who are not treatment-seeking and 203 problem gamblers seeking treatment). Analyses showed satisfactory results, and the multidimensional structure of the GABS-23 was then confirmed. The GABS-23 seems to be a valid and useful assessment tool for screening gambling-related beliefs, emotions and attitudes among problem and non-problem gamblers. Moreover, it presents the advantage of being shorter than the original GABS, and of screening irrational beliefs and attitudes about gambling in a multidimensional way. The five-factor model of the GABS-23 is discussed based on the theory of locus of control. PMID:23334576

  5. Classroom Management Training, Teaching Experience and Gender: Do These Variables Impact Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Classroom Management Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    This study represents a continuation of research efforts to further refine the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory. The purposes of this study were to investigate the: (1) impact of classroom management training on classroom management style; (2) differences in attitudes toward classroom management between novice and…

  6. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  7. Adjustment or Change: Attitudes Among Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Thomas Owen; Jung, Marshall

    1972-01-01

    Many in the social work profession today are calling for social change and social action. Social work educators and students say they agree with this viewpoint. But their attitudes and actions in specific areas tend to favor traditional practice. (Author)

  8. Combination of interventions can change students' epistemological beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Calvin S.; Sobhanzadeh, Mandana; Thompson, Robert; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Wang, Xihui

    2015-12-01

    This study was based on the hypothesis that students' epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i) preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii) in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ) we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing) with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students' epistemological beliefs.

  9. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  10. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    2003-01-01

    social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the...... target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action....

  11. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L; Evans, Laurel; Sibley, Chris G; Ries, Jan; Cunningham, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local. PMID:25047568

  12. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano L Milfont

    Full Text Available Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local.

  13. Female adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, motivations, and attitudes in the negotiation of science texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Camille

    This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.

  14. Attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain among nurses- biomedical or behavioral? A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Prem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire - pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS - which had 31 items (statements about pain for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl-Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. Results: The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00. The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81 than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67 which was significant at P< 0.05 level. Conclusions: Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported "very good" general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had "good" general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.

  15. Attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in saudi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)

  16. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  17. Oral Health Related Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs among Secondary School Students in Iringa Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Athanase; Chang’endo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    To determine oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among secondary school students in Iringa municipality. Cross-sectional descriptive study. All participants reported to brush their teeth at least once a day, only 24% brush twice a day. The use of plastic tooth brush was reported to be 97.1%. 72.7% of participants who reported to know about dental checkup and 84.6%, recommended the interval of dental check ups to be between one to six months. About 58.6% reported ...

  18. Organ donation, awareness, attitudes and beliefs among post graduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical college hospital in South India participated in the study. A specially de-signed questionnaire was used in assessment. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Windows version 10.0. The mean age of the postgraduate students was 28.32 ± 3.5 years, 54% were males, 62% belonged to Christian religion, 69% were single, 77% were from nuclear families, 87% had urban background, and 54% were from upper socio-economic strata. About 97% said they were aware of organ donation through media, 23 unders-tood the concept of "cadaver" as "brain-death" and 93% were able to distinguish between brain-death and persistent vegetative state. Eighty-nine percent wished to donate their organs, 77% did not believe in body disfigurement and 87% did not believe in rebirth without the donated organs, if they pledged their organs. Sixty-nine percent were willing to donate the organs of their family members. Eighty percent were willing to receive organs from family and cadaver, 40% were willing to donate a child′s organs, 95% did not believe that organ donation is against their religion, 87% disagreed with the notion that doctors would not impart adequate care if they were pledged organ donors and 79% agreed that doctors would not declare death prematurely, if they had pledged their organs during life. There was a statis-tically significant correlation between attitudes, beliefs and demographics. In conclusion, the concept of brain-death was clearly understood by only a small number

  19. The Interactive Relationship of Dogmatism and Attitude Discrepancy-Congruency to Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J. H.; Hamilton, Marshall L.

    1978-01-01

    Hypothesized that dogmatism and attitude discrepancy-congruency would be interactively related to attitude change. Results suggest that supportive information may be more effective in polarizing opinions or attitudes of nondogmatic persons than dogmatic persons. (Author)

  20. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of community health workers about hypertension in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Sengwana

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management

  1. Turkish Mathematics Teachers' Experiences with Geogebra Activities: Changes in Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Umit

    2012-01-01

    The curriculum for Turkish primary mathematics education was revised in 2005. The idea behind these reforms was to move from a subject-centred model to a student-centred model. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in teachers' mathematical beliefs following a professional development (PD) course based on the use of Geogebra. This…

  2. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

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    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  3. Attitudes and beliefs about placebo surgery among orthopedic shoulder surgeons in the United Kingdom.

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    Karolina Wartolowska

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To survey surgeons on their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of placebo in surgery. METHODS: British orthopedic shoulder surgeons, attending a national conference in the United Kingdom, were asked to complete a self-report online questionnaire about their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of placebo related to surgical intervention. The survey included questions about ethical issues, the mechanism of placebo effects, and any concerns regarding its use. RESULTS: 100 surgeons who participated in the survey believed that placebo surgery is ethically acceptable (96%, especially as a part of a clinical trial (46%. Respondents thought that a placebo effect in surgery is real i.e. has a scientific basis (92%, that placebo can be therapeutically beneficial (77%, and that it involves psychological mechanisms (96%. Over half of the respondents (58% have used a surgical procedure with a significant placebo component at least once in their professional career. Their main concern about placebo use in surgery was that it might involve an element of deception. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Surgeons generally agreed that a placebo component to surgical intervention might exist. They also supported placebo use in clinical trials and considered it ethical, providing it does not involve deception of patients. More studies are needed, particularly among other surgical specialties and with larger numbers of participants, to better understand the use of placebo in surgery.

  4. Role Playing, Issue Importance, and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarup, Gian

    1981-01-01

    Contrasted three major theories on attitude change: cognitive dissonance, incentive, and social judgment. Results from student questionnaires provided little support for cognitive dissonance. Also provided credible, though overlapping, evidence for incentive and social judgment theories. Improvised role playing produced more change than did…

  5. Revising beliefs based in evidence versus affect: Effects on knowledge acquisition and conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas D.

    Theoretical treatments on the issue of conceptual change have paid little attention to the distinction between acquiring knowledge that conflicts with prior beliefs and revising prior beliefs in light of that new knowledge. Models of conceptual change that fail to make the knowledge-belief distinction can produce faulty predictions and interpretations, and prevent us from discovering the factors that independently impact knowledge acquisition and belief revision. Beliefs vary widely in whether they are based in coherence with known evidence and conceptual representations versus their promotion of affective values and goals. Study 1 provided empirical demonstrations of the prevalence of affect-based beliefs, the high degree of both between- and within-person variability in belief basis, and the validity of self-reports in assessing that variation. Study 2 supported present arguments about why the popular educational constructs of personal epistemology are not useful for understanding the evidence-affect basis of beliefs. This variability in belief basis represents variability in the coherence and specificity of the conceptual structure underlying different beliefs. Thus, the effects of prior beliefs on knowledge acquisition and subsequent belief revision may depend upon the underlying evidence-affect basis of prior beliefs. Study 1 provided data suggesting that belief revision is a separate process and not a mere by-product of acquiring belief-conflicting knowledge, and that revision is less likely when prior beliefs are initially held for affective reasons. Study 3 supported current predictions that comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information is better when prior beliefs are evidence- rather than affect-based. In addition, the comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information was equivalent. The widespread, but previously untested, assumption that prior beliefs impede the learning of belief-conflicting information may

  6. U.S. healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions concerning Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

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    Lin Jin-Mann S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the Doc

  7. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. PMID:22583075

  8. Impact of a lecture abour empirical bases of hypnosis on beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis among Cuban health professionals.

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Marta; Capafons, Antonio; Espejo Tort, Begoña; Mendoza, Elena; Guerra, Mayda; Enriquez Santos, José Angel; Díaz-Purón, Sandra; Garcia Guirado, Ismael; Sosa Castilla, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether a lecture on hypnosis can modify attitudes and misconceptions about hypnosis. The sample consisted of 97 health professionals from institutions of Havana City. Group 1 consisted of 46 participants who received a lecture on hypnosis. Group 2 consisted of 51 participants who received a lecture about Urology. The Valencia Scale of Attitudes and Beliefs toward HypnosisTherapist was applied before and after the lecture. Results indicated that there were ...

  9. Cross-National Analysis of Beliefs and Attitude Toward Mental Illness Among Medical Professionals From Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina; He, Hongbo; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares; Rocha Neto, Helio; Makanjuola, Victor; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Leddy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in age and gender. Scores on all four factors were highest among U.S. professionals. The Chinese sample showed lowest score on socializing and normalizing while the Nigerian and Ghanaian samples were lowest on non-belief in supernatural causes of mental illness. Responses from Brazil fell between those of the U.S. and the other countries. Although based on convenience samples of health professional robust differences in attitudes among health professionals between these five countries appear to reflect underlying socio-cultural differences affecting attitudes of professionals with the greater evidence of stigmatized attitudes in developing countries. PMID:25939823

  10. Attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional study

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    Maurício O. Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To measure the attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics that are more likely to influence these attitudes and beliefs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 100 Brazilian physical therapists who routinely work with chronic low back pain patients. The attitudes and beliefs were measured by the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists (PABS.PT and the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS. Multivariate linear regression models were built to identify sociodemographic characteristics that could be associated with physical therapists' attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Mean scores on the biomedical and biopsychosocial factors of PABS.PT were 27.06 (SD 7.19 and 24.34 (SD 6.31, respectively, and the mean score on HC-PAIRS was 45.45 (SD 10.45. The score on PABS.PTbiomedical was associated with gender and years of professional experience. No variable was associated with the score on PABS.PTbiopsychosocial. The score on HC-PAIRS was significantly associated with the number of back pain patients seen by the physical therapist each month. These results indicate that male and less experienced physical therapists tend to follow a biomedical approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain patients, and that the lower the professional experience the stronger the belief in the relationship between pain and disability. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian physical therapists are uncertain of the factors involved in the development and maintenance of chronic low back pain and about the relationship between pain and disability in these patients.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs about HIV and AIDS among mentally ill patients in Soweto, Johannesburg

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    G Jonsson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS in a group of mentally ill patients attending outpatient clinics in Soweto, Johannesburg. Method. All patients attending four randomly chosen clinics in Soweto were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. The 63-item questionnaire, developed from others specifically for this study, included questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics; knowledge on how HIV is acquired and spread; attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS; and condom usage. The statements in the knowledge sections were used to calculate a composite score, which if greater than or equal to 75% was defined as ‘adequate knowledge’. Results. A total of 1 151 patients with mental illness participated in the study. The mean age was 41.9 years (standard deviation 11.6 and the majority were males (50%; single (55%, and had achieved only a secondary level of education (53.3%. Overall, most of the study population did not believe in the myths surrounding the spread and acquisition of HIV and AIDS. There were however, significant associations between a low level of education and the belief that HIV is acquired from mosquito bites (odds ratio (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.19 - 2.18; p=0.002 and through masturbation or body rubbing (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.34 - 2.33; p=0.000. Although more than 90% of the patients were aware of the facts regarding the spread of HIV, approximately 40% did not believe that one could acquire HIV through a single sexual encounter. The composite scoring for knowledge showed that less than half the patients had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This was significantly associated with gender and level of education: females were 1.6 times (p<0.0004 and patients with Grade 8 or higher education 1.5 times more knowledgeable (p=0.002. Conclusion. Among mentally ill patients there is a both a lack of

  12. Censorship as an Attitude Change Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Richard D.; And Others

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the relationship between censorship and attitude change. The author initially discusses reactance theory which holds that when a person's freedom to perform a particular behavior is threatened or eliminated, he experiences a motivational state directed toward safeguarding or…

  13. The Change in Epistemological Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching and Learning: A Study among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Teo, Timothy; Lee, Chwee Beng

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the change in Singaporean pre-service teachers' epistemological beliefs and beliefs about learning and teaching over the course of a teacher preparation program. An online survey was administered during the first week of a nine-month program and the same survey was administered after the 413 participants had completed all…

  14. Using Teachers' Prior Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs to Develop In-Service Teacher Education Courses for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Simoni; Phtiaka, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines one important dimension of inclusive education: the development of in-service teacher education courses. Using an example from Cyprus, it discusses the issue of contextualizing teacher training courses to suit teachers' prior knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about inclusion. The paper considers some of the findings of a survey…

  15. Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge Base, and Practices in Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The research centered on secondary mathematics teachers' beliefs, attitudes, knowledge base, and practices in meeting the academic and language needs of English language learners. Using socio-cultural theory and social practice theory to frame the study, the research design employed a mixed methods approach incorporating self-reported…

  16. Faculty of Education Students' Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Attitudes towards Computers and Implementing Computer Supported Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkant, Hasan Güner

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates faculty of education students' computer self-efficacy beliefs and their attitudes towards computers and implementing computer supported education. This study is descriptive and based on a correlational survey model. The final sample consisted of 414 students studying in the faculty of education of a Turkish university. The…

  17. Chronic pain: the help-seeking behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of older adults living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornally, Nicola; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2011-12-01

    Psychologic variables such as attitudes and beliefs may account for patients choosing not to seek treatment for pain; however, there is a dearth of empirical research to support this contention. The aim of this study was to explore the help-seeking behavior, individual characteristics, attitudes, and beliefs of older adults with chronic pain in an Irish community setting. A descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 72 older adults with chronic pain were recruited through two primary care practices. The research instruments used were a demographic questionnaire, the Level of Expressed Need Questionnaire, which measured help-seeking behavior, the Pain Attitudes Questionnaire, and the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire. Results revealed that individual characteristics associated with help-seeking behavior were female gender, increasing age, higher education, living alone, and severe pain. High levels of stoicism were reported, indicating that participants were more likely to believe they had superior pain control and courage in the face of pain and were not willing to disclose their pain to others. These attitudes were significantly associated with lower levels of expressed need for treatment. Participants had moderate age-related beliefs about the origin of pain, but those who believed pain had an organic cause were more likely to seek help. PMID:22117752

  18. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  19. The Relationship between Attitudes of Prospective Physical Education Teachers towards Education Technologies and Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemoglu Varol, Yaprak

    2014-01-01

    The aim of research is to investigate the relationship between attitudes of prospective physical education teacher towards education technologies and their computer self-efficacy beliefs. Relational research method has been used in the study. Study group consists of 337 prospective physical education teachers ("M"[subscript age] = 21.57…

  20. Current Kindergarten Parents' Attitudes toward and Beliefs about Children's Art Education in Majority Cities and Counties of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Current kindergarten parents' attitudes toward and beliefs about children's art education in majority cities and counties of Taiwan were investigated. A review of the literature was conducted to identify several possible influences on parents' interpretation/ assessment of children's art education. Then, the researcher developed and distributed a…

  1. Examination of the Relationships between Fifth Graders' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Motivational Beliefs, Attitudes, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…

  2. Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs of Incoming First-Year College Students: A Multi-Institutional Study of Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielkiewicz, Richard M.; Fischer, Donald V.; Stelzner, Stephen P.; Overland, Maribeth; Sinner, Alyssa M.

    2012-01-01

    Incoming first-year college students (N = 4,292) were surveyed regarding attitudes and beliefs about leadership. Students' opinions about their leadership ability were high and were related to having an outgoing personality, as well as the number of high school activities in which they had been involved. In addition, students' understanding of…

  3. Examination of Changes in Prospective Elementary Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Science and Exploration of Factors Meditating that Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Epistemological beliefs refer to an individual's thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing. The present study examined two research questions: (1) how do prospective elementary teachers' epistemological beliefs in science change as a result of instruction specifically designed to improve their epistemological beliefs and (2)…

  4. Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding. PMID:26848247

  5. Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as…

  6. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Krishna; Kunwar, Anju; Ortega, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods). General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health and non-health sectors

  7. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Regmi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology: We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion: Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods. General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion: This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health

  8. Green Consumption: A Cross Cultural Study about Environmental Beliefs, Concerns, and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Côrtes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though young college students, from different countries, have ever growing access to information about environmental practices, this does not mean that they develop an awareness that leads to good practices of green consumption. Using a new scale, applied to 2372 college students from Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain, it was verified whether the perception of the environment of those youngsters is expressed by a construct which is reasonably structured by beliefs, concerns, and environment-friendly attitudes, through the analysis of the impacts caused by those dimensions onto their consumption practices. As a strategy for data analysis, was used exploratory factor analysis, with the use of the Mann-Whitney test on factors scores and Spearman correlation between the mean values of the factors. It was possible to conclude that, although there are similarities between the youngsters from Latin America and the group from Iberia (Spain and Portugal, there are significant differences on how such a perception is structured. The Iberians have an anthropocentric motivation, linked to the idea of preserving resources for the future, while the Latin Americans have a more holistic vision, in which the environmental beliefs play a role of an important background. Between the two groups there are also differences regarding the possibility to conciliate economical development with environmental conservation. It was noted that the green consumption is an answer to the environmental concerns for both groups, which are less influenced by other dimensions, and this fact could impact the marketing strategies towards those groups.  

  9. An exploration of beliefs and attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour in an urban population in The Netherlands : Results from a focus group study in a community-based prevention project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne M.; van den Brekel, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H.; Peek, Niels; de Wit, NJ

    2015-01-01

    Background: The positive effects of lifestyle intervention programmes might be enhanced when targeted to the health-related behaviour of the users. This study explores the beliefs and attitudes regarding a healthy lifestyle, the influences on lifestyle behavioural change and the needs to support a h

  10. Effects of an Educational Workshop on Pediatric Nurses' Attitudes and Beliefs About Family-Centered Bedside Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Lara; Benzies, Karen; Barnard, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effects of an educational workshop on nurses' (N=36) attitudes and beliefs toward family-centered bedside rounds (FBR) using a single group, pretest/posttest design on two pediatric inpatient units at an academic tertiary-care center in Western Canada. The theory of planned behavior was used to develop the Nurses Attitudes and Behaviors about Rounds (NABAR) questionnaire. There were statistically significant increases between pretest and posttest scores on nurses' intentions, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control related to FBR, and on providing education to families about FBR. A brief, educational workshop can positively affect nurses' attitudes and beliefs about FBR. Future research should include additional psychometric evaluation of the NABAR. PMID:26614612

  11. Physicians' changing attitudes about striking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassertheil-Smoller, S; Croen, L; Siegel, B

    1979-01-01

    Both interns and residents and practicing physicians express substantial support for physicians' organizing for collective bargaining and striking. These findings, from 1146 respondents to a 1976 survey of the alumni of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, indicate that profound changes have occurred in physicians' views on these issues. Although the greatest support for striking came from interns and residents, with 67 per cent of them indicating they think physicians should be allowed to strike, the survey found an increasing pattern of militancy commencing with 1964 graduates. Physicians in private practice and those who spent two-thirds or more of their time in direct patient care were the most likely to support strikes by physicians (60 per cent), while the least support came from those fulltime on medical school faculties (39 per cent). No differences in support for striking were found in relation to sex, religion or size of community in which physicians practice. A longitudinal examination of the medical school Class of 1975 at matriculation, at graduation and during internship training reveals that a major growth of support for striking occurred between matriculation and graduation. PMID:759745

  12. Betting and Belief: Prediction Markets and Attribution of Climate Change

    CERN Document Server

    Nay, John J; Gilligan, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Despite much scientific evidence, a large fraction of the American public doubts that greenhouse gases are causing global warming. We present a simulation model as a computational test-bed for climate prediction markets. Traders adapt their beliefs about future temperatures based on the profits of other traders in their social network. We simulate two alternative climate futures, in which global temperatures are primarily driven either by carbon dioxide or by solar irradiance. These represent, respectively, the scientific consensus and a hypothesis advanced by prominent skeptics. We conduct sensitivity analyses to determine how a variety of factors describing both the market and the physical climate may affect traders' beliefs about the cause of global climate change. Market participation causes most traders to converge quickly toward believing the "true" climate model, suggesting that a climate market could be useful for building public consensus.

  13. Tobacco control education, attitudes and beliefs of Nigerian health profession students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatunmise Awojobi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore tobacco control-related education of health profession students and demonstrate variations according to course of study. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 154 of third year nursing, pharmacy, medical and dental students in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria. The validated Global Health Professional Students survey questionnaire was used to collect data on recall of tobacco-related training, attitudes to tobacco control and beliefs about the role of health professionals in tobacco control. This was voluntary and anonymous. Descriptive and univariate analysis were conducted. Results: Only 11.8(n=18 of all respondents recalled being trained on all possible items of formal tobacco-related training. Pharmacy students had significantly low levels of training recall (χ[sup]2[/sup][sub](3[/sub]=9.88; p=0.02. Nursing students were reported to have the most positive attitudes to tobacco control with the highest mean score of 4.27 (95= 3.88-4.66. However, there was no significant difference in attitudes to tobacco control. Compared to other students, Nursing students were significantly less likely to believe that as health professionals they had a role in tobacco-control (χ[sup]2[/sup][sub](3[/sub] = 8.06; p=0.045. Conclusions: Many respondents believed they have a role in providing cessation interventions and that specific training should be part of the education they receive. However, fewer respondents report receiving such training. The education and training of these samples of health profession students needs to place more emphasis on their role in tobacco control if they are to effectively function as health promoting health professionals in preventing tobacco-related diseases.

  14. Level of Identification as a Predictor of Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert H.; Williams, Sharon Ann

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of conditions under which simulation games promote changes in attitudes focuses on identification theory as a predictor of attitude change. Incentive theory and cognitive dissonance theory are discussed, and a study of community college students is described that tested the role of identification in changing attitudes. (LRW)

  15. Changing Attitudes of Medical Teachers Towards Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Janet; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, the experience-linked practical problem solving approach of this workshop method encourages behavior change, presuming this to cause attitude change. Testing by a Likert-type attitude scale and follow-up studies showed that attitudes were changed. (Author/LBH)

  16. The Role of the Media in the Construction of Public Belief and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Happer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The media play a central role in informing the public about what happens in the world, particularly in those areas in which audiences do not possess direct knowledge or experience. This article examines the impact the media has in the construction of public belief and attitudes and its relationship to social change. Drawing on findings from a range of empirical studies, we look at the impact of media coverage in areas such as disability, climate change and economic development. Findings across these areas show the way in which the media shape public debate in terms of setting agendas and focusing public interest on particular subjects. For example, in our work on disability we showed the relationship between negative media coverage of people on disability benefit and a hardening of attitudes towards them. Further, we found that the media also severely limit the information with which audiences understand these issues and that alternative solutions to political problems are effectively removed from public debate. We found other evidence of the way in which media coverage can operate to limit understanding of possibilities of social change. In our study of news reporting of climate change, we traced the way that the media have constructed uncertainty around the issue and how this has led to disengagement in relation to possible changes in personal behaviours. Finally, we discuss the implications for communications and policy and how both the traditional and new media might help in the development of better informed public debate.

  17. The impact of authentic science inquiry experiences studying variable stars on high school students' knowledge and attitudes about science and astronomy and beliefs regarding the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Pebble Lea

    The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study was to investigate the impact on high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding astronomy and beliefs about the nature of science after participating in an extended authentic, inquiry-oriented, research experience studying variable stars using a specifically designed curriculum guide "In the Hunt for Variable Stars." The study gathered quantitative data using a pretest posttest strategy on a modified form of an existing questionnaire called Students Attitudes Toward Astronomy and four student-supplied response content surveys. Qualitative methods included analysis of researcher's field notes, naturalistic observations, formal interviews, and students' artifacts. The methods and results of this study provided important baseline information to measure cognitive and affective changes resulting from an authentic scientific research experience for high school students. Ninety students participated in a targeted instructional sequence and their attitudes and knowledge were compared to 50 students in a comparable science course who were not provided an authentic research experience. The results obtained in this study strongly suggest that participation in research is successful at significantly increasing content knowledge. All four content surveys showed statistically significant increases for students in the intervention group as compared to the students in the non-intervention group. Qualitative results demonstrated that both groups of students initially held naive ideas about science and astronomy. After participation in the intervention, the most dramatic changes were observed in students' understanding of astronomy content. No substantial change was seen in students' attitudes toward Astronomy and science but there is evidence of some limited impacts on beliefs regarding the nature of science. In combination, the data resulting from this mixed-method study lend considerable weight to claim in contemporary

  18. Medical students’ sexuality – beliefs and attitudes [Seksualność studentów medycyny – przekonania i postawy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ability and readiness to talk with patients about sexual problems not only depend on education in sexual physiology and pathology, but also on the doctors’ beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality. Considering importance of these matters, the authors decided to collect and evaluate the data regarding attitudes and cognitive schemata of medical students. Aim. Analysis of selected convictions and attitudes towards sex life of IV-th grade students of medicine. Methods. There was self-report Questionnaire on Satisfaction with Sexual Life (KSS2 applied. Medical students filled-out the questionnaire when attending the courses of Psychopathology of neurotic disorders or Psychotherapy. Results. Analysis of the collected data revealed differentiation of the studied group in regard of beliefs and attitudes towards sex life, dialogue about sex in erotic relationships, and seeking for professional help. Regarding some aspects, significant differences between women and men occurred. The following factors, which may negatively influence medical doctor’s competencies in domain of sexual health, were identified: discomfort considering their own sexuality, avoidance of sexual drive, negative moral judgment of sexual activity. Conclusions. Assessment of influence of students’ and doctors’ own sexuality on their competencies in diagnostics and treatment requires further studies. There is a clear indication to look for the means for prophylaxis and correction of ineffective attitudes and convictions of future doctors’, as professional sexual education or interpersonal trainings.

  19. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults. PMID:23485415

  20. Changes in Convictions and Attitudes to the Teaching Profession and Classroom Management Due to Practical Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlitza, Gaby; Perels, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze changes in beliefs and attitudes to the teaching profession and to classroom management as a result of teaching experience. The structure of this study is based partly on the COACTIV-model of professional competence of teachers. The COACTIV-model is divided into motivational orientations, convictions and basic…

  1. Changes in Belief Orientations of Preservice Teachers and Their Relation to Inquiry Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilitsis, Vicky; Duncan, Ravit Golan

    2012-01-01

    Research in science education suggests that teachers' beliefs are linked to the use of inquiry-based instruction; teachers holding a constructivist belief are more likely to engage in student-centered activities in the classroom. However, there is currently little research on the ways in which teachers' beliefs change over time, and in particular,…

  2. Referents for changing a science curriculum: A case study of one teacher's change in beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth G.; Tippins, Deborah J.; Hook, Karl

    1994-07-01

    This interpretive investigation of curricular change involved Karl, a middle school science teacher. Initially, he made sense of his and student roles in terms of objectivism and the teacher having control. When Karl had opportunities to observe the teaching of a colleague he began to consider changes in his teaching. The referents used to frame alternative teacher and student roles were students having greater autonomy for their actions and constructivism. However, constraints, such as shortage of time and beliefs of colleagues and students favored the retention of traditional practices. Although Karl's commitment to change was sufficiently strong to ensure that changes would be attempted, old belief sets and associated practices, restraints, and new belief sets and associated practices co-existed in a dialectical relationship. Effecting meaningful change necessitated teacher learning and sustaining of new equilibria between a complex array of interacting sociocultural factors.

  3. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924

  4. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Hornsey, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924

  5. Avoiding food waste by Italian consumers: related beliefs, attitudes, behaviour and the importance of planning and shopping routines

    OpenAIRE

    Contò, Francesco; Mariantonietta FIORE; Conte, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Giustina

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, food waste has generated an immense amounts across the food life cycle, determining serious environmental, social and economic issues. Reducing the amount of food waste is a key element in developing a sustainable food system.The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between food waste and belief, attitudes and behaviours at the household level so exploring its possible drivers among Italian consumers: how people could reduce or avoid the amount of foo...

  6. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C.; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Design Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants 53 participants, aged 19–77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). Results 6 themes (with su...

  7. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista; Judith Cavazos Arroyo; Ana Paola Sánchez Lezama

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old) whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal...

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs about Chronic Noncancer Pain in Primary Care: a Canadian Survey of Physicians and Pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Lyne Lalonde; Vincent Leroux-Lapointe; Manon Choinière; Elisabeth Martin; David Lussier; Djamal Berbiche; Diane Lamarre; Robert Thiffault; Ghaya Jouini; Sylvie Perreault

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care providers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) are a barrier to optimal management. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and identify the determinants of the KAB of primary care physicians and pharmacists, and to document clinician preferences regarding the content and format of a continuing education program (CEP). METHOD: Physicians and pharmacists of 486 CNCP patients participated. Physicians completed the original version of the KnowP...

  9. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of caregivers and rehabilitation providers about disabled children’s sleep health: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Velez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Gorman, Sara; Barbosa, Clarita; Zafonte, Ross D.; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with disabilities are more likely to have sleep disturbances than children without disabilities. Identifying attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions of caregivers and health professionals is essential in developing effective intervention programs to improve disabled children’s sleep health. However, no such qualitative data about adults who have key roles in the life and daytime activities of children with disabilities are available. This qualitative study aimed to...

  10. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of caregivers and rehabilitation providers about disabled children’s sleep health: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Velez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Gorman, Sara; Barbosa, Clarita; Zafonte, Ross D.; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities are more likely to have sleep disturbances than children without disabilities. Identifying attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions of caregivers and health professionals is essential in developing effective intervention programs to improve disabled children’s sleep health. However, no such qualitative data about adults who have key roles in the life and daytime activities of children with disabilities are available. This qualitative study aimed to ...

  11. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    OpenAIRE

    Pongracic Jacqueline A; Springston Elizabeth E; Kim Jennifer S; Gupta Ruchi S; Wang Xiaobin; Holl Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of f...

  12. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    action and thus a target for planned social change. However, the model introduced by Sheth and Frazier has never been used to analyse how this socially desirable action can be promoted. Undertaking such an analysis is the ambition of this paper, and based on this analysis, the paper will, will conclude....... The choice of strategy depends on whether the target groups: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards what is socially desired, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in socially desired action During the last 30 years, entrepreneurship has become what most nations would call a socially desirable...

  13. Exploring Smoking Cessation Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Occupational Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ollie; Fortuna, Grace; Weinsier, Stephanie; Campbell, Kay; Cantrell, Jennifer; Furmanski, William L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore occupational health nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding the delivery of smoking cessation services to workers. The study included 707 members of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) who completed a one-time survey during the fall of 2012. Results indicated that occupational health nurses believed that evidence-based treatments are at least somewhat effective and that they should provide smoking cessation services to their workers; however, a majority of occupational health nurses reported that they did not have appropriate smoking cessation training or guidelines in their workplaces. Occupational health nurses would benefit from training in the use of smoking cessation guidelines and evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, which could be used in their clinical practice. Employers should ensure that workplace policies, such as providing coverage for cessation services, facilitate smokers' efforts to quit. Employers can benefit from many of these policies through cost savings via reduced health care costs and absenteeism. PMID:26187173

  14. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco's impact on the environment. PMID:26295244

  15. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment. PMID:26295244

  16. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanas Javadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. Although the response rate (28% was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62% have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99% considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77% indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment.

  17. Sensitivity to change of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Anholt; P. van Oppen; D.C. Cath; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; J.H. Smit; A.J.L.M van Balkom

    2010-01-01

    The Obsessive-Compulsive Beliefs Questionnaire-87 (OBQ-87) has been constructed by leading obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experts to assess dysfunctional beliefs typical for OCD patients. The OBQ-87 has recently been revised (Obsessive-Compulsive Beliefs Questionnaire-44 [OBQ-44]) to improve it

  18. Salient Beliefs of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers Underlying an Attitude "Liking or Disliking Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salient beliefs of pre-service primary school teachers (PPSTs) about why they like or dislike physics and to explore whether these beliefs predict their teaching beliefs about physics. A total of 267 PPSTs (Male = 137, Female = 130) participated in the study. Qualitative data analyses were used and the…

  19. Conservative Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Bisexuality, and Willingness to Engage in Romantic and Sexual Activities With a Bisexual Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; Bhatia, Vickie; Latack, Jessica A; Davila, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Negative attitudes toward bisexuals have been documented among heterosexuals as well as lesbians/gay men, and a common theme is that bisexuals would not be suitable romantic or sexual partners. While gender, sexual orientation, and attitudes toward bisexuality influence people's willingness to engage in romantic or sexual activities with a bisexual partner, there are other individual differences that may contribute. The current study examined the associations between four types of conservative beliefs and willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner in a sample of heterosexuals and lesbians/gay men (N = 438). Attitudes toward bisexuality were examined as a mediator of these associations. In general, results indicated that higher social dominance orientation, political conservatism, and essentialist beliefs about the discreteness of homosexuality were associated with lower willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner. Further, more negative attitudes toward bisexuality mediated these associations. There were several meaningful differences in these associations between heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbian women, and gay men, suggesting that influences on people's willingness to be romantically or sexually involved with a bisexual partner may differ for different gender and sexual orientation groups. Implications for reducing stigma and discrimination against bisexual individuals are addressed. PMID:26712126

  20. An exploration of health beliefs and attitudes of smokers with vascular disease who participate in or decline a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kim E; Aish, Arlene

    2002-09-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional aspect of this study compared a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who chose to participate in a smoking intervention with a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who declined to participate. The longitudinal aspect of this study used Ajzen and Fishbein's(1) Theory of Reasoned Action, Keeney's(2) Expected Utility Decision Theory, and Prochaska and DiClemente's(3) Transtheoretical Model of Change to describe the influence of this smoking cessation program on the beliefs and attitudes about smoking in group 1. Smokers completed a smoking beliefs questionnaire with vascular disease at baseline and after 13 weeks of smoking cessation intervention. Smokers who did not want to participate in the smoking cessation program also completed this questionnaire for comparison. Statistically significant differences were found to differentiate people who enrolled in the smoking cessation program from those who did not. Subjects in group 2 smoked less per day, were less educated, were less often diagnosed as having peripheral arterial disease, were found to be more in the precontemplation stage of change in smoking cessation, cared more about what their physician and family thought they should do, and perceived themselves to be at less risk for developing more severe circulatory problems if they did not quit smoking. After 13 weeks, participants in both groups 1 and 2 were found to smoke significantly less per day. No support was found for the expectation that the smoking intervention would influence stage of change in smoking behavior or attitudes and beliefs about the risks of smoking to the participants' health after 13 weeks. PMID:12370691

  1. Attitudes and beliefs towards early ART initiation in MSM with primary HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Parsons

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ART initiation in primary HIV infection (PHI could reduce risk of transmission to sexual partners at a time of high viraemia, although health benefit for the individual remains unknown. We examined attitudes to early ART and associated beliefs in men who have sex with men (MSM with PHI. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 MSM aged ≥16 years attending a central London HIV clinic, within 12 months of date of estimated HIV seroconversion. Audio recordings of interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Results: Median age was 33 years (range 22–47, majority were white British (n=8, educated to university level (n=11 and were not on ART (n=10. Great diversity in ART knowledge and expectations around starting were observed, with some men assuming they would be prescribed ART immediately upon diagnosis. Deferral until CD4<350 came as a surprise and counterintuitive when put into the context of treating other diseases. For many, the decision to start ART was a balance of current and future health and quality of life. Fear of side effects was prevalent, with many believing them inevitable and a reason to avoid early ART. A perceived lack of “good quality” evidence showing a health benefit of early ART caused confusion. Avoiding the decision to start or deferring to their HIV clinician was common, however reported clinicians’ views also varied. Some men voiced a desire to be proactive and start early ART to control viral replication. In these cases men also reported a belief that ART could be temporary as they expected a cure in their lifetime. Men commonly described feeling “infected” and reducing this infectiousness was seen as a major benefit of ART; not purely to reduce the risk of transmission to sexual partners but to facilitate disclosure to partners, reduce anxiety and guilt and restore sexual confidence commonly lost after HIV diagnosis

  2. Attitudes and Beliefs of Nonspecialist and Specialist Trainee Health and Physical Education Teachers toward Obese Children: Evidence for "Anti-Fat" Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynagh, Marita; Cliff, Ken; Morgan, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes of preservice health and physical education (HPE) specialist and nonspecialist schoolteachers toward obese children. Methods: A total of 177 nonspecialist and 62 HPE specialist trainee teachers completed a series of pen-and-paper validated measures of attitudes and beliefs…

  3. Social Cohesion Activities and Attitude Change in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Direnç Kanol

    2015-01-01

    Do social cohesion activities change the attitudes of the participants? This paper uses intergroup contact theory to explore attitude change resulting from contact with out-group(s) in social cohesion activities. Results from a pre-test/post-test design with fifty-five participants in two bicommunal camps in Cyprus show how attitudes change at the immediate end of these activities; an analysis of fourteen participants’ comments after one, thirteen, and twenty-five months provides a medium- to...

  4. Bilingualism changes children's beliefs about what is innate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Garcia, Bianca

    2015-03-01

    Young children engage in essentialist reasoning about natural kinds, believing that many traits are innately determined. This study investigated whether personal experience with second language acquisition could alter children's essentialist biases. In a switched-at-birth paradigm, 5- and 6-year-old monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children expected that a baby's native language, an animal's vocalizations, and an animal's physical traits would match those of a birth rather than of an adoptive parent. We predicted that sequential bilingual children, who had been exposed to a new language after age 3, would show greater understanding that languages are learned. Surprisingly, sequential bilinguals showed reduced essentialist beliefs about all traits: they were significantly more likely than other children to believe that human language, animal vocalizations, and animal physical traits would be learned through experience rather than innately endowed. These findings suggest that bilingualism in the preschool years can profoundly change children's essentialist biases. PMID:25546698

  5. Epidemiology of noise-induced tinnitus and the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Gilles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research showed an increase of noise-induced symptoms in adolescents. Permanent tinnitus as a consequence of loud music exposure is usually considered as noise-induced damage. The objective was to perform an epidemiological study in order to obtain prevalence data of permanent noise-induced tinnitus as well as temporary tinnitus following noise exposure in a young population. In addition the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection were evaluated in order to explain the use/non-use of hearing protection in a young population. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 3892 high school students (mean age: 16.64 years old, SD: 1.29 years. The prevalence of temporary and permanent tinnitus was assessed. In addition the 'Youth Attitudes to Noise Scale' and the 'Beliefs About Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss' were used in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of temporary noise-induced tinnitus and permanent tinnitus in high school students was respectively 74.9% and 18.3%. An increasing prevalence of temporary tinnitus with age was present. Most students had a 'neutral attitude' towards loud music and the use of hearing protection was minimal (4.7%. The limited use of hearing protection is explained by a logistic regression analysis showing the relations between certain parameters and the use of hearing protection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very high prevalence of tinnitus in such a young population, the rate of hearing protection use and the knowledge about the risks of loud music is extremely low. Future preventive campaigns should focus more on tinnitus as a warning signal for noise-induced damage and emphasize that also temporary symptoms can result in permanent noise-induced damage.

  6. Magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity filtering estimation for attitude changing spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Shijie

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an improved real-time sequential filter (IRTSF) for magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity estimation of spacecraft during its attitude changing (including fast and large angular attitude maneuver, rapidly spinning or uncontrolled tumble). In this new magnetometer-only attitude determination technique, both attitude dynamics equation and first time derivative of measured magnetic field vector are directly leaded into filtering equations based on the traditional single vector attitude determination method of gyroless and real-time sequential filter (RTSF) of magnetometer-only attitude estimation. The process noise model of IRTSF includes attitude kinematics and dynamics equations, and its measurement model consists of magnetic field vector and its first time derivative. The observability of IRTSF for small or large angular velocity changing spacecraft is evaluated by an improved Lie-Differentiation, and the degrees of observability of IRTSF for different initial estimation errors are analyzed by the condition number and a solved covariance matrix. Numerical simulation results indicate that: (1) the attitude and angular velocity of spacecraft can be estimated with sufficient accuracy using IRTSF from magnetometer-only data; (2) compared with that of RTSF, the estimation accuracies and observability degrees of attitude and angular velocity using IRTSF from magnetometer-only data are both improved; and (3) universality: the IRTSF of magnetometer-only attitude and angular velocity estimation is observable for any different initial state estimation error vector.

  7. Training Changes Professionals’ Attitudes Towards Dual Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinderup, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    treatment outcome. This study tested whether providing training in dual diagnosis treatment to mental health professionals will affect their attitudes positively. Twenty-one professionals completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards working with dual diagnosis (Comorbidity Problems Perceptions......Studies have shown that mental health professionals in many cases have counterproductive attitudes towards patients with mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). This is problematic because professionals’ attitudes are important for both the therapeutic alliance and...... might be a promising way to improve mental health professionals’ attitudes. Future research is needed to confirm this finding in controlled studies with more participants and a longer follow-up....

  8. How Students Epistemological Beliefs in the Domain of Physics and Their Conceptual Change are Related?

    OpenAIRE

    Ogan-Bekiroğlu, Feral; Kaymak, Ercan

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine high school students’ epistemological beliefs in the domain of physics and to explore and explain the possible relationship between their beliefs and their conceptual change in physics by taking the students’ learning strategies into account. A multi-case study design was used for the research in order to focus on the epistemological beliefs-conceptual change relationship within several examples. The research was conducted with 17 tenth-grade stude...

  9. Climate Change, Politics and Religion: Australian Churchgoers’ Beliefs about Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Pepper

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature has sought to understand the relationships between religion, politics and views about climate change and climate change policy in the United States. However, little comparative research has been conducted in other countries. This study draws on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey to examine the beliefs of Australian churchgoers from some 20 denominations about climate change—whether or not it is real and whether it is caused by humans—and political factors that explain variation in these beliefs. Pentecostals, Baptist and Churches of Christ churchgoers, and people from the smallest Protestant denominations were less likely than other churchgoers to believe in anthropogenic climate change, and voting and hierarchical and individualistic views about society predicted beliefs. There was some evidence that these views function differently in relation to climate change beliefs depending on churchgoers’ degree of opposition to gay rights. These findings are of interest not only for the sake of international comparisons, but also in a context where Australia plays a role in international climate change politics that is disproportionate to its small population.

  10. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Acheampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.

  11. Where have all the skeptics gone?: Patterns of new age beliefs and anti-scientific attitudes in preservice primary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Gregory C. R.; Chandler, Margaret

    2000-12-01

    Is belief in the paranormal alive and well within preservice teachers? In this survey 232 undergraduates (including 202 preservice primary teachers) were asked to react to a series of eight statements reflecting paranormal New Age beliefs rated earlier by a faculty panel as “totally unbelievable.” Overall, the students' modal response was expressed as “no particular opinion,” although for five of the eight items the modal respónse was “slightly believable.” It was found that only four students within the sample consistently rejected all eight statements. The frequency of ‘believers’ outnumbered the ‘skeptics’ in relation to three items (beliefs in UFOs, psychic seances, and Nostradamus). New Age factor scores were not significantly related to undergraduate faculty or year level, to holding anti-scientific beliefs or to a measure of TV-viewing, and did not correlate significantly with the personality scale Need for Cognition. Females evidenced higher New Age scores than males, but attitudes to science were unrelated to gender.

  12. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  13. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  14. Validação para a população portuguesa do Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Hélia; Sim-Sim, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Descrever o processo de validação para a língua portuguesa do Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS) e suas respectivas propriedades psicométricas. Métodos: Estudo metodológico e quantitativo. Participaram 49 estudantes de enfermagem. Após o desenvolvimento da tradução do SABS, atendendo à equivalência semântica, idiomática e conceitual do conteúdo dos seus itens, procedeu-se à determinação das qualidades psicométricas. Resultados: Ao nível da confiabilidade, o...

  15. Attitudes towards obesity in the Swedish general population: the role of one's own body size, weight satisfaction, and controllability beliefs about obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena M; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations of different socio-demographic and psychological factors with attitudes towards obesity. Individuals with different weight status (N=2436) were drawn from an annual population-based survey in Sweden, and data on attitudes towards obesity (ATOP) and predictor variables were assessed in 2008. The strongest predictor of ATOP was controllability beliefs about obesity (β=0.83). Thus, greater controllability beliefs about obesity predicted more negative attitudes. Sex and weight satisfaction were also independently associated with ATOP. However, there was no, or only a weak, association between weight satisfaction and ATOP among individuals with normal weight or overweight. And the higher the weight satisfactions of individuals with obesity, the more positive were their attitudes. It seems that stigma-reduction strategies in the general public should address the uncontrollable factors in the aetiology of obesity. However, more research is needed to understand the underlying causes of people's attitudes towards obesity. PMID:24268600

  16. Changing medical students' attitudes toward older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants met for four 2-hour sessions at local art museums to create and discuss art. Three hundred and twenty-eight individuals (112 treatment group, 96 comparison, 120 older adults) in eight cities participated in the program and evaluation. Participants completed pre-and postsurveys that captured their attitude toward older adults, perception of commonality with older adults, and career plans. Findings suggest that medical students' attitudes toward old adults were positive at pretest. However, Vital Visionary students became more positive in their attitudes toward older adults at posttest (p career plans (p = .35). Findings from this demonstration project suggest that socializing medical students with healthy older adults through art programs can foster positive attitudes and enhance their sense of commonality with older adults. PMID:20730650

  17. Prudence and prejudice on changing attitudes in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Moldrheim

    2014-03-01

    negativity towards people with a different skin color decreases from around the age of 10 compared to when the child was younger.An individual's attitudes are formed on the basis of that person's overall experience. Although formed individually, experience often take place in social interaction with other individuals. In social settings, people find their significant other, that is, an individual or individuals they may mirror and adjust to. Such individuals may include parents, siblings, friends and teachers. The school is therefore a very important arena for promoting positive attitudes.Albert Einstein allegedly claimed that "It is harder to crack a prejudice than an atom." But even if we take hold of prejudices and actively seek to fight them, it will require time and energy. The process of changing a person’s attitude is significantly longer than the process of developing a person’s academic knowledge and skill.It is often said that "prejudice must be fought with knowledge." Prejudice consists of both beliefs and attitudes. It is important that educators have access to constructive meeting arenas, read books, play games and watch movies that can make room for empathy. It is essential to find learning resources, initiatives and approaches that promote values such as empathy and community, and then creating positive experiences for the pupils.

  18. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kazempour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  19. The interactions between an orthodox Christian worldview and environmental attitudes and beliefs; for the purpose of developing better instructional practice in support of environmental/ecological attitudes and knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Robert S.

    Students bring with them to the classroom a wide variety of beliefs and attitudes about the environment and its associated issues. One worldview belief structure prominently discussed in ecological discussions is the worldview of orthodox Christianity. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative measures to analyze the degree to which the orthodox Christian worldview of students influences their environmental attitudes and beliefs. Surveys were conducted with 281 undergraduate pre-service elementary teaching students enrolled in a science methods course to determine the degree to which orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews interact with one another. From this pool of students, 16 students representing both positive and neutral-negative orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews were interviewed to determine how orthodox Christian students may differ from non-orthodox Christian students in their attitudes and beliefs about the environment. Analysis revealed that students with orthodox Christian worldview beliefs do not as a general rule use their orthodox Christian worldview beliefs in the discussion of their environmental beliefs and attitudes. Exceptions to this may occur when environmental issues touch on orthodox Christian worldview beliefs which have a bearing on matters of origin, life purpose, or destiny. These interactions between ecological and orthodox Christian worldviews have implications for the teaching of environmental issues to students in that the orthodox Christian worldview of students is not likely to hinder the appropriation of concepts associated with environmental issues. However, moving students with an orthodox Christian worldview to a view where they become actively involved in environmental issue resolution may require educators to situate curriculum in such a way as to invoke the students' orthodox Christian worldview beliefs.

  20. Changing Epistemological Beliefs: The Unexpected Impact of a Short-Term Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienhues, Dorothe; Bromme, Rainer; Stahl, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that sophisticated epistemological beliefs exert a positive influence on students' learning strategies and learning outcomes. This gives a clear educational relevance to studies on the development of methods for promoting a change in epistemological beliefs and making them more sophisticated. Aims: To…

  1. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste. PMID:25445261

  2. Beliefs and Attitudes of Medical Students from Public and Private Universities in Malaysia towards Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kwee Choy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA, in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student’s t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory.

  3. Change in School and Community Attitudes in an Athapaskan Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovando, Carlos J.

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the attitudes of students, parents, and teachers toward school and community issues in Nulato, a remote Athapaskan village, noting changes in attitude between 1983 and 1992. Results suggested the community valued the maintenance of cultural heritage, and cultural and language restoration were becoming high priorities…

  4. Lecture versus DVD and Attitude Change toward Female Masturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Megan; Lee, Zoey; Knox, David; Wilson, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Four-hundred and ninety eight female undergraduate students at a large southeastern university participated in a study to assess how lecture versus DVD format affected attitude change towards female masturbation. All groups were given a pre and post test to assess masturbatory attitudes. Group 1 experienced a masturbation lecture. Group 2…

  5. Date and Acquaintance Rape: Perceptions and Attitude Change Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patrick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the dimensions of university students' (n=96) attitudes toward date and acquaintance rape. Examined the effects of a program designed to change those attitudes. Found college men had substantially greater tendencies to blame the victim for date and acquaintance rape than did women. (Author/ABL)

  6. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E. Roos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or IAT revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or ALPS and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  7. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

    2014-08-01

    A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

  8. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste

  9. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  10. Pharmacological interventions for ADHD: how do adolescent and adult patient beliefs and attitudes impact treatment adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne McCarthy School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence. Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, medication, stimulant, attitude, belief, adherence 

  11. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia

    2012-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time. PMID:23215988

  12. The Relationships between University Students' Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, N. Izzet; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety…

  13. Rehabilitation Counseling Master's Students: Beliefs and Attitudes about Domestic Violence toward Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dytisha Monicke

    2013-01-01

    Domestic violence is a national concern that affects women of all ages and ethnicities, as well as women with disabilities. Although there is literature focusing on attitudes about domestic violence toward women, the literature review provided no studies that investigated attitudes about domestic violence toward women in relation to domestic…

  14. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  15. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  16. An Evaluation of Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Levels on Classroom Control in Terms of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy (The Sample of Biology Teachers in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate biology teachers' attitudes and belief levels on classroom control in terms of teachers' sense of efficacy. The screening model was used in the study. The study group was comprised of 135 biology teachers. In this study, Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and The Attitudes and Beliefs on…

  17. Menstruation in rural Igbo women of south east Nigeria: attitudes, beliefs and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeora, O U J; Egwuatu, V E

    2008-04-01

    Many cultures hold on to different beliefs and retain community-defined restrictions for menstruating women. The Igbo society of southeast Nigeria is rich in culture, myths and superstitions but, surprisingly no documentation exists on menstrual beliefs and practices among the population. This questionnaire-based cross sectional study supplemented with in-depth interviews evaluated the beliefs, myths and traditional practices associated with menstruation within rural Igbo communities. It revealed that the menstrual egress is of great significance in Igbo culture and must be disposed of carefully to avoid exposure to witchcraft and rituals. Some respondents observed self-imposed restrictions on exercises, food items, visits and sex in order to maintain physical and spiritual cleanliness, lessen discomfort and avoid embarrassment. Gynaecologists working in this region should utilize the opportunities of clinical consultations to discuss menstrual health issues with their female patients and educate them on the physiology and significance of menstruation. PMID:20695163

  18. Combination of Interventions Can Change Students' Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Calvin S.; Sobhanzadeh, Mandana; Thompson, Robert; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Wang, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    This study was based on the hypothesis that students' epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i) preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii) in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study…

  19. Changing attitudes to irradiation throughout the food chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C.

    2000-03-01

    Recent studies of consumer attitudes in the United States indicate an increased willingness to purchase irradiated food in order to have a safer product. The reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. Basic consumer buying habits are considered and how these fit in with marketing irradiated food. Food retailers, restaurants and producers have attitudes of their own, and these can sometimes be the most difficult to change. The key to this puzzle can be found in their basic motivations, including the fear of activists. Recommendations are made as to how this information can be used to promote the development of food irradiation.

  20. Changing attitudes to irradiation throughout the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies of consumer attitudes in the United States indicate an increased willingness to purchase irradiated food in order to have a safer product. The reasons for the change in attitude are discussed. Basic consumer buying habits are considered and how these fit in with marketing irradiated food. Food retailers, restaurants and producers have attitudes of their own, and these can sometimes be the most difficult to change. The key to this puzzle can be found in their basic motivations, including the fear of activists. Recommendations are made as to how this information can be used to promote the development of food irradiation. (author)

  1. The dynamics of belief in climate change and its risks in business organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a simulation model of the formation of the belief in climate change of a business organisation using a systems dynamics approach. Understanding how businesses form their belief on the issue of climate change is of paramount importance given the key role of beliefs and cognitive characteristics in the triggering and shaping of organisational adaptation processes. The main assumption of the model is that the dynamics of belief is driven by the perceived actual and potential changes in competitiveness as a consequence of climate impacts rather than by the growth of an ecological 'business conscience'. The model has been built using the STELLA software program, and it is based upon theoretical hypotheses drawn from behavioural studies of organisations and evolutionary theories of economic change. (author)

  2. Environmental Attitudes: 20 Years of Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.

    1992-01-01

    A trend analysis compares attitudes of randomly selected Cornell University students (n=1500) toward 35 specific items utilizing the New Environmental Paradigm growth and technology scale to test the hypothesis that people who see benefits of economic growth or have faith in technological solutions are less willing to make personal sacrifices. (33…

  3. Climate Change Beliefs Count: Relationships With Voting Outcomes at the 2010 Australian Federal Election

    OpenAIRE

    Rod McCrea; Zoe Leviston; Iain Walker; Tung-Kai Shyy

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a political as well as an environmental issue. Climate change beliefs are commonly associated with voting behaviour, but are they associated with swings in voting behaviour? The latter are arguably more important for election outcomes. This paper investigates the predictive power of these beliefs on voting swings at the 2010 Australian federal election after controlling for a range of other related factors (demographic characteristics of voters, different worldviews about na...

  4. The Contribution of Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognition on Pre-Service Primary School Teachers’ Technological Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus KARAKUYU; KARAKUYU, Akın

    2015-01-01

    Using technology increases day by day very fast and teachers will transfer it to training environment. In order to use technology in education and training, first teachers must develop a positive attitude towards the technology themselves. There are many factors which can be affect pre-service teachers' attitudes towards technology. One of them is meta-cognition that is higher than the normal cognitive strategies and provide to be aware of events in the process of the information and the othe...

  5. PSYCHIATRISTS’ EMPATHY, BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS VETERANS SUFFERING FROM COMBAT-RELATED POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Braš, Marijana; Brajković, Lovorka; Milunović, Vibor; Bičanić, Ivana; Haller, Franko; Đorđević, Veljko; Miličić, Davor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Empathy is a powerful and necessary skill for understanding another person’s subjective experience. In this study we wanted to explore psychiatrists’ attitudes towards PTSD, general empathy, possible differences related to age, sex and regional location in Croatia. Subjects and methods: 205 psychiatrists from different Croatian regions participated in this study. To define psychiatrists’ attitudes towards PTSD patients a questionnaire was devised. It contained 14 items...

  6. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  7. The Ethics of Belief, Cognition, and Climate Change Pseudoskepticism: Implications for Public Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcello, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between knowledge, belief, and ethics is an inaugural theme in philosophy; more recently, under the title "ethics of belief" philosophers have worked to develop the appropriate methodology for studying the nexus of epistemology, ethics, and psychology. The title "ethics of belief" comes from a 19th-century paper written by British philosopher and mathematician W.K. Clifford. Clifford argues that we are morally responsible for our beliefs because (a) each belief that we form creates the cognitive circumstances for related beliefs to follow, and (b) we inevitably influence each other through those beliefs. This study argues that recent cognitive research supports Cliffordian insights regarding patterns of belief formation and social influence. From the confirmation offered by such research, it follows that informational accuracy holds serious ethical significance in public discourse. Although scientific and epistemological matters are not always thought to be linked to normative morality, this study builds on Clifford's initial insights to show their linkage is fundamental to inquiry itself. In turn, Clifford's ethical and epistemic outline can inform a framework grounded in "public reason" under which seemingly opposed science communication strategies (e.g., "information deficit" and "cultural cognition" models) are philosophically united. With public discourse on climate change as the key example, empirically informed and grounded strategies for science communication in the public sphere are considered. PMID:26799170

  8. Gender differences in attitudes and beliefs associated with bystander behavior and sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431

  9. Biology Students' and Teachers' Religious Beliefs and Attitudes towards Theory of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay Kose, Esra

    2010-01-01

    Evolution has not being well addressed in schools partly because it is a controversial topic in religious views. In the present study, it is explored to what extent Turkish secondary school biology teachers and students accommodate the theory of biological evolution with their religious beliefs. Two-hundred fifty secondary school students and…

  10. Hip-Hop High School: A Study of the Attitudes, Beliefs and Perceptions of Suburban High School Faculty towards Representation of the Hip-Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    Research historically has demonstrated that a generational disconnect between the popular cultures from which students and teachers define normative behavior can impact classroom management and student learning. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of high school faculty toward the hip-hop culture and its…

  11. Preschool Teachers' Sensitivity to Mathematics in Children's Play: The Influence of Math-Related School Experiences, Emotional Attitudes, and Pedagogical Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2015-01-01

    Without a doubt, math-related pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), pedagogical beliefs, and emotional attitudes are considered important dimensions of preschool teachers' professional competence. This research, however, documents that they are still understudied. This study focuses on certain aspects of the described dimensions: the sensitivity…

  12. An investigation of the attitudes, anxieties and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school, and students’ grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izzet Kurbanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to explore relationships between high school students’ attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. In this study, the data were gathered by “Attitudes Towards Mathematics Scale” (Aşkar, 1986 and by “Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale” which was adapted to Turkish by Akın, Kurbanoğlu and Takunyacı (2009. Besides, in order to determine students’ self-efficacy beliefs were determined by self-efficacy, sub-scale of “Motivation Scale” which was adapted to Turkish by Büyüköztürk, Akgün, Özkahveci, & Demirel (2004. The sample of this study consisted of 418 students who attended from three different high schools. The study was conducted during the fall semester of academic year 2009-2010. ANOVA and t-Test were employed to analyze the hypotheses of research. It was observed in the findings of the study that there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs.    

  13. Readability and Test-Retest Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Beliefs, Behaviours and Sources of HIV Prevention Information of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…

  14. Teachers' Attitudes toward Web-Based Professional Development, with Relation to Internet Self-Efficacy and Beliefs about Web-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Pin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationships between teachers' Internet self-efficacy, beliefs about web-based learning and attitudes toward web-based professional development. The sample of this study included 421 teachers, coming from 20 elementary schools in Taiwan. The three instruments used to assess teachers' Internet self-efficacy…

  15. The Development of Reading Skills in Kindergarten Influence of Parental Beliefs about School Readiness, Family Activities, and Children's Attitudes to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunjoo

    2016-01-01

    Children's early home learning experiences are important influences on children's adjustment and achievement in the early years of school. This study explores the relationships between parental beliefs about school readiness, family engagement in home learning activities, on children's attitudes to school as reported by parents, and children's…

  16. Investigate the Relationship between Belief in a Just World, Multicultural Knowledge, Multicultural Awareness, and Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes of Practicing School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shenika Juanita

    2013-01-01

    The school counseling profession is governed by national standards to promote the academic, personal, social, and career development of all students. There is an emphasis on outlining professional dispositions for school counselors. Yet, the personal values, beliefs, and attitudes that influence their interactions with students and the carrying…

  17. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  18. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  19. Climate Change Beliefs Count: Relationships With Voting Outcomes at the 2010 Australian Federal Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod McCrea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a political as well as an environmental issue. Climate change beliefs are commonly associated with voting behaviour, but are they associated with swings in voting behaviour? The latter are arguably more important for election outcomes. This paper investigates the predictive power of these beliefs on voting swings at the 2010 Australian federal election after controlling for a range of other related factors (demographic characteristics of voters, different worldviews about nature and the role of government, and the perceived opportunity cost of addressing climate change. Drawing on data from two nationally representative surveys of voters and data from the Australian Electoral Commission, this paper investigates relationships between climate change beliefs and voting swings at both the individual and electorate levels. At an individual level, a hypothetical 10% change in climate change beliefs was associated with a 2.6% swing from a conservative Coalition and a 2.0% swing toward Labor and 1.7% toward the Greens party, both left on the political spectrum. At the electorate level, this equates to a shift of 21 seats between the two main political parties (the Coalition and Labor in Australia’s 150 seat parliament, after allocating Green preferences. Given many seats are marginal, even modest shifts in climate change beliefs can be associated with changes in electoral outcomes. Thus, climate change is expected to remain a politically contested issue in countries like Australia where political parties seek to distinguish themselves, in part, by their responses to climate change.

  20. The Impact of Gender Differences in Attitudes and Beliefs Concerning HBV Vaccination and Screening in the Lao Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosionu, Odichinma; Virnig, Beth; Call, Kathleen T; Yuan, Jian-Min; Chanthanouvong, Sunny; Nguyen, Ruby H N

    2016-02-01

    Liver cancer incidence is increasing among Asian Americans. Laotians in the US have greater risk of liver cancer death compared to other Asian American groups. However, ethnicity is not the only disparity; Laotian men are at increased risk of liver cancer compared to Laotian women. Use of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination and screening is low among Laotians. The impact of gender differences in attitudes and beliefs concerning HBV vaccination and screening is unknown. This secondary analysis of a cross-sectional community-based participatory research study. Although men were more likely to believe that infection with HBV is preventable, and treatable, causes liver cancer, and that healthy persons should be vaccinated, of those who thought people should get vaccinated, women were four times more likely to receive vaccine than men (adj. OR 4.0, CI 1.2-19). Understanding and addressing gender differences may increase HBV screening and vaccination uptake, thus reducing disparities within the Laotian community. PMID:25612922

  1. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  2. School climate and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol

    2008-12-01

    Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support. PMID:18780182

  3. Belief change in branching time: AGM-consistency and iterated revision

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    We study belief change branching-time structures. First, we identify a property of branching-time frames that is equivalent to AGM-consistency, which is defined as follows. A frame is AGM-consistent if the partial belief revision function associated with an arbitrary state-instant pair and an arbitrary model based on that frame can be extended to a full belief revision function that satisfies the AGM postulates. Second, we provide a set of modal axioms that characterize the class of AGM-consi...

  4. Commuting and communication: An investigation of taxi drivers’ experiences, attitudes and beliefs about passengers with communication disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianne Green

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most popular means of public transport within South Africa is mini-bus taxis.Objectives: As South Africa is made up of diverse cultures, religions and beliefs, the aim of this study was to explore Johannesburg based taxi drivers’ experiences of beliefs about, and attitudes towards passengers who have a communication disability.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 mini-bus taxi drivers.Results: Interviews revealed that almost all the taxi drivers had encountered passengers with a communication disability, and had an awareness of passengers with a hearing disability as opposed to a speech disability. Furthermore mini-bus taxi drivers generally held a positive view of their passengers with a communication disability.Conclusion: Study findings contribute to existing literature within the fields of speech pathology and audiology, advocacy groups and policy makers, particularly research studies on participation experiences of persons with communication disabilities related to transportation access. The results of the study should also provide a foundation for disability policy development initiatives with the aim of increasing levels of public awareness.[Full article text to follow.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding crab asthma in four communities of Newfoundlad and Labrator

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Michael; Neis, Barbara; Cartier, André; Horth-Susin, Lise; Howse, Dana

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to learn from snow crab plants workers and others involved in the industry their knowledge and beliefs of health issues and potential solutions. Study design. This is a survey in four communities with different crab plant designs in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Methods. At the start of a meeting to discuss crab asthma participants were requested to complete the questionnaire. Results. 65% of 196 participants believed there were health problems associ...

  6. Separating Political Attitude Change from Attitude Uncertainty: (In)Consistency Experiments of the ESS Panel Component

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turper, Sedef; Aarts, Kees; Gerven, van Minna

    2013-01-01

    As far as its vital role for explaining causal mechanisms is concerned, change has always been a great interest to scholars. Scholarly attention paid tracing and explaining changes in attitudes and behavioral patterns of diverse populations, paved the way to many wide scale crosssectional time-serie

  7. A New Change-of-Contents False Belief Test: Children and Chimpanzees Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Canada Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the handful of existing comparative false belief studies, chimpanzees have consistently failed tests that 5- to 6-year-old children have passed. However, those tests were either explicitly cooperative communicativeor competitive, both of which are problematic for different reasons. We therefore devised a new change-of-contents false belief test for children and chimpanzees that did not include these problematic elements. Nevertheless, chimpanzees showed no evidence of understanding false b...

  8. Attitudes towards and Beliefs about HIV Testing among Latino Immigrant MSM: A Comparison of Testers and Nontesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorio, Rosa; Forehand, Mark; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and delayed diagnosis. An exploratory study using qualitative interviews that assess the beliefs and attitudes of 54 Latino immigrant MSM in Seattle, Washington, is presented. The goal of this research is to determine whether attitudinal differences exist between participants who had and had not been tested and to use any insight into the development of a media campaign to promote testing. Over one-third of the men have never been tested for HIV. Nontesters are more likely to be men who have sex with men and women, have less knowledge about HIV risks, perceive their sexual behaviors as less risky, and deflect HIV-related stigma. Testers are more likely to be self-identified as being gays. Both groups believe that fear of a positive result is the main barrier to testing. Both groups believe that family members have negative attitudes towards HIV testing and that having Latino staff at HIV testing sites hinders confidentiality. Financial concerns with regard to the cost of testing were also expressed by both groups. Based on these insights, recommended strategies for the development of HIV prevention and testing campaigns are made. PMID:24455221

  9. From Student to Teacher: Changes in Preservice Teacher Educational Beliefs throughout the Learning-to-Teach Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Carrie R. Giboney

    2016-01-01

    Preservice teachers enter programs with beliefs about teaching and learning, constructed from prior schooling experiences. This longitudinal study examines preservice teachers' K-12 memories, their initial educational beliefs, and the changes in those beliefs over their teacher education program. Analysis of questionnaires, interviews, work…

  10. Prayer Beliefs and Change in Life Satisfaction over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2013-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have focused on the relationship between prayer, health, and well-being. But the influence of some types of prayer (e.g., petitionary prayer) has received more attention than others. The purpose of this study is to examine an overlooked aspect of prayer: trust-based prayer beliefs. People with this orientation believe that God knows that best way to answer a prayer and He selects the best time to provide an answer. Three main findings emerge from data that wer...

  11. Heterosexual Adolescents' and Young Adults' Beliefs and Attitudes about Homosexuality and Gay and Lesbian Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Stacey S.

    2006-01-01

    Reports on the school climate for gay and lesbian students in the United States suggest that negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals are quite common in adolescence. Very little research, however, has investigated adolescents' sexual prejudice from a developmental perspective. In this study, 10th- (N = 119) and 12th- (N = 145) grade…

  12. Unpacking the Complex Relationship Between Beliefs, Practice, and Change Related to Inquiry-Based Instruction of One Science Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2015-12-01

    This case study examines the complex relationship between beliefs, practice, and change related to inquiry-based instruction of one science teacher teaching in a high-poverty urban school. This study explores how video-supported collaboration with peers can provide the catalyst for change. Transcribed collaborative dialogue sessions, written self-reflections, and videotapes of lessons were used to identify and isolate the belief systems that were critical to the teacher's decision making. The Interconnected Model of Professional Growth was then used to trace the trajectories of change of the individual belief systems. Analysis of the data revealed the relationship between beliefs and practices was complex in which initially espoused beliefs were often inconsistent with enacted practice and some beliefs emerged as more salient than others for influencing practice. Furthermore, this research indicates change in both beliefs and practice was an interactive process mediated by collaborative and self-reflection through participation in the video-supported process.

  13. THE PREDICTOR OF AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT TO CHANGE:ATTITUDE VS INDIVIDUAL READINESS FOR CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Wustari H. MANGUNDJAYA

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to identify the correlation and contribution between Attitude toward Change, Individual Readiness for Change and Commitment to Change, also to identify which variables that have contributed more to Commitment to Change. This paper based on the empirical research (N =54), that was conducted in a financial company in Jakarta, Indonesia that was conducted some changes in their organization. Data was collected using 3 scales namely Attitude Toward Change (ATC), Indiv...

  14. Teaching Teachers to Teach the Disadvantaged; Study of Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Frederick D.

    Attitude Change Title I (ACT I) was an effectiveness evaluation to determine what changes in semantic differential meaning accompanied Title I inservice teacher training, what differences in semantic differential meaning existed between teachers who did and did not have Title I training, and what relationships existed between personality…

  15. Belief in nuclear energy: Attitudes and opinions of Dutch nuclear experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public opinion in the Netherlands about nuclear energy has been rather stable during recent years. Since the Chernobyl accident roughly 60% of the Dutch population is opposed to extension of the use of nuclear energy. Nuclear experts play an important role in the formation of public opinion about nuclear energy. In this paper the social and cultural background of 87 Dutch nuclear energy experts is analyzed with respect to religious belief, age, life style, membership of a political party, birth order and career pattern. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs

  16. Meta-analyses of the determinants and outcomes of belief in climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, Matthew J.; Harris, Emily A.; Bain, Paul G.; Fielding, Kelly S.

    2016-06-01

    Recent growth in the number of studies examining belief in climate change is a positive development, but presents an ironic challenge in that it can be difficult for academics, practitioners and policy makers to keep pace. As a response to this challenge, we report on a meta-analysis of the correlates of belief in climate change. Twenty-seven variables were examined by synthesizing 25 polls and 171 academic studies across 56 nations. Two broad conclusions emerged. First, many intuitively appealing variables (such as education, sex, subjective knowledge, and experience of extreme weather events) were overshadowed in predictive power by values, ideologies, worldviews and political orientation. Second, climate change beliefs have only a small to moderate effect on the extent to which people are willing to act in climate-friendly ways. Implications for converting sceptics to the climate change cause--and for converting believers’ intentions into action--are discussed.

  17. Sociodemographic and subjective belief reasons for inter-EU differences of attitudes towards genetically modified food

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Antje; Papastefanou, Georgios; Tsioumanis, Asterios; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2005-01-01

    'Modern biotechnology is a central issue in the public debate as there are still concerns about possible adverse effects deriving from the use of genetically modified organisms. The public, by influencing decisions on new biotechnology, politically through democratic channels or interest groups, but also as consumers via the market, will constitute the ultimate judge of agricultural biotechnology. The present research paper deals with attitudes towards genetically modified food (GM foods) in ...

  18. The environmental history in pediatric practice: a study of pediatricians' attitudes, beliefs, and practices.

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpatrick, Nikki; Frumkin, Howard; Trowbridge, Jane; Escoffery, Cam; Geller, Robert; Rubin, Leslie; Teague, Gerald; Nodvin, Janice

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a mail survey of practicing pediatricians in Georgia to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding recording patients' environmental histories. Of 477 eligible pediatricians, 266 (55.8%) responded. Fewer than one in five reported having received training in environmental history-taking. Pediatricians reported that they strongly believe in the importance of environmental exposures in children's health, and 53.5% of respondents reported experience with a patient who...

  19. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  20. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald;

    2013-01-01

    -aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest......We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even...... variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation...

  1. Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding Drug Treatment: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in African American Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Cheney, Ann M.; Borders, Tyrone F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) can provide insights into perceived need for cocaine treatment among African American cocaine users. Methods A cross-sectional community sample of 400 (50% rural) not-in-treatment African American cocaine users was identified through respondent-driven sampling in one urban and two rural counties in Arkansas. Measures included self-reports of attitudes and beliefs about cocaine treatment, perceived need and perceived effectiveness of treatment, and positive and negative cocaine expectancies. Normative beliefs were measured by perceived stigma and consequences of stigma regarding drug use and drug treatment. Perceived control was measured by readiness for treatment, prior drug treatment, and perceived ability to cut down on cocaine use without treatment. Findings Multiple regression analysis found that older age (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.15, P < 0.001), rural residence (β = −0.09, P = 0.025), effectiveness of treatment (β = 0.39, P < 0.001), negative cocaine expectancies (β = 0.138, P = 0.003), experiences of rejection (β = 0.18, P < 0.001), need for secrecy (β = 0.12, P = 0.002), and readiness for treatment (β = 0.15, P < 0.001), were independently associated with perceived need for cocaine treatment. Conclusions TPB is a relevant model for understanding perceived need for treatment among African American cocaine users. Research has shown perceived need to be a major correlate of treatment participation. Study results should be applicable for designing interventions to encourage treatment participation. PMID:24930051

  2. Public Health Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Polivka, Barbara J.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Mac Crawford, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Climate change affects human health, and health departments are urged to act to reduce the severity of these impacts. Yet little is known about the perspective of public health nurses—the largest component of the public health workforce—regarding their roles in addressing health impacts of climate change. Objectives: We determined the knowledge and attitudes of public health nurses concerning climate change and the role of public health nursing in divisions of health departments i...

  3. How Climate Change Beliefs among U.S. Teachers Do and Do Not Translate to Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kathryn T; Peterson, M Nils; Bradshaw, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests climate change beliefs among science teachers mirror those of the general public, raising questions of whether teachers may be perpetuating polarization of public opinion through their classrooms. We began answering these questions with a survey of middle school science teachers (n = 24) and their students (n = 369) in North Carolina, USA. Similar to previous studies, we found that though nearly all (92.1%) of students had teachers who believe that global warming is happening, few (12%) are in classrooms with teachers who recognize that global warming is anthropogenic. We found that teacher beliefs that global warming is happening and student climate change knowledge were the strongest predictors of student belief that global warming is happening and human caused. Conversely, teacher beliefs about human causes of global warming had no relationship with student beliefs, suggesting that science teachers' low recognition of the causes of global warming is not necessarily problematic in terms of student outcomes. These findings may be explained by previous research suggesting adolescents interpret scientific information relatively independently of ideological constraints. Though teacher polarization may be problematic in its own right, it appears that as long as climate change information is presented in classrooms, students deduce anthropogenic causes. PMID:27603667

  4. The attitudes and beliefs of a female science teacher: Implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Mara

    In this case study of a female science teacher named Laura, numerous observations, field notes, researcher interpretations, and assertions were developed. As meanings were negotiated, intent of actions was defined using significant statements, clustered to produce invariant meaning units. Both the participant's intents and how she interpreted her experiences were central to the understandings sought in this study. Whenever Laura planned for teaching science, taught, or otherwise interacted with students, the following four themes seemed to frame her actions: (1) Responsibility to Nurture/Mother/Mentor (2) Connecting to and Relating (3) Meeting Gender-Specific Expectations (4) Promoting the Fighter/Survivor Within. Each theme is examined in relation to attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning science, and conclusions and assertions are expressed. The findings of this study point to the tensions between Laura's attitudes and beliefs and her pedagogical practices, disconfirming these as they pertain to gender in relation to teaching and learning science. It was not evident as part of her daily practice that student experiences were used in an attempt to create connections between their lives and science, although Laura always emphasized that science is a way of life. The findings support questioning the role of intentionality and a teacher's perceived ability to adhere to intentions while practicing within the norms established by the social institution of schools operating within the larger structures of society. The major findings and implications are relevant to the manner teachers are prepared and encouraged to enact their practice by departments and boards of education, prepared by institutions of higher education and subsequent participation in professional development. Specifically, calling attention to how these educational frameworks emphasize or de-emphasize the role of teachers and promote cognizance in terms of the culture of schools, reflective

  5. Cognitive Dissonance as a Means of Effecting Changes in School Related Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert L.

    In this study, the cognitive dissonance theory (Aronson, 1972) was applied in an attempt to produce an attitude change by dissonance reduction; that is, to induce a student to behave in a manner contrary to his/her held attitude, thus becoming aware of the inconsistency in his/her behavior and attitude. The attitude would then change to be in line…

  6. A study of psychiatric nurses' beliefs and attitudes about work safety and assaults in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Hülya; Buzlu, Sevim

    2006-01-01

    In Turkey, the cultural structure effects the gender roles in the society, and women are subject to violence in an intense manner both inside the family and in their workplaces. In nursing, which is still defined as a woman's job in our country, it is possible to encounter many aggressive and threatening behaviours. Knowing no geographical borders, aggression leads to dissatisfaction and alienation with the profession for the nurses working at the psychiatric institutions in Turkey, thus aggression is a significant health risk in physical, psychological and social dimensions. The research was carried out with 162 randomly selected nurses working in the psychiatric institutions in Istanbul using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. It has been determined that nurses' rate of exposure to verbal/physical assault by the patients and their relatives is high and that they experience an intense uncertainty and conflict, especially in legal issues, and that the duration of working in the psychiatry clinics effects attitudes toward the assaults. It is concluded that the nurses working at the psychiatry clinics in Turkey are under risk in regards to safety and they need protection and support, both in emotional and in legal terms. PMID:16352517

  7. Mothers' beliefs and attitudes towards child weight, child feeding and related practices in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Tin-Maung; Kyi, Hla; Thwin, Aye

    2003-01-01

    The aim is to identify mother's attitude and concern regarding child weight and feeding practices and also to explore the importance of growth monitoring activity in preventing Protein, Energy. Malnutrition (PEM). Trained interviewers from the respective State/Division nutrition team interviewed ninety mothers from different areas and Divisions. Mothers were categorized into three groups of thirty: those with a well-nourished child, a malnourished child or a child who had died of infectious disease. 90% of well-nourished children were weighed at birth and 100% of them had received regular weighing. 89% of their mothers could identify their child birth weight as normal and all of them know the negative health consequences of Low Birth Weight. Regarding attitude towards feeding during illness, most mothers of a well-nourished child believe that feeding during illness is better for recovery. That proportion is high as twice as of the remaining groups. Data regarding child feeding practices show mothers of a well nourished child have timely and appropriate starting of these practices. It is inferred from the recent finding that mothers who had received growth monitoring program since delivery have better preventive behavior for PEM and the role of basic health staff in these activity is also acknowledged. PMID:14703156

  8. Beliefs and attitudes among Italian high school students toward people with severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Marianna; Lai, Alessandra; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria; Preti, Antonio; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita

    2013-04-01

    The negative attitudes surrounding mental disorders and their treatment are a major obstacle to the correct identification and treatment of emerging psychopathologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate mental health literacy in a large and representative sample of high school students in Italy, via a booklet containing several questionnaires delivered to 1032 teenagers. The items in the questionnaires probed knowledge about mental health and illness, stigmatization, stereotypes, behaviors, opinions, and attitudes. In general, the students had a reasonable knowledge of mental disorders and were able to distinguish these from somatic disorders. However, a large portion of the students nourished some misconceptions about mental disorders and was also rather skeptical about the effectiveness of treatment or the chance of recovery for people with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, roughly half of the students reported being willing to provide help to someone with a mental disorder when in need. Poor mental health literacy is a major barrier to seeking help and receiving effective treatment. Young people are the ideal target of raising awareness and antistigma campaigns because they are at a higher risk for developing a psychopathology. PMID:23538976

  9. Beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research: psychometric scale properties, construct associations, demographic correlates, and cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Furnham, Adrian

    2007-12-01

    Using two new scales, this study examined beliefs in genetic determinism and attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research in student samples from Austria, Malaysia, Romania, and the United Kingdom. For both constructs, effects of culture were detectable, whereas those related to key demographics were either small and inconsistent across samples (political orientation and religiosity) or zero (sex and age). Judged from factorial dimensionality and internal consistency, the psychometric properties of both scales were satisfactory. Belief in genetic determinism had lower prevalence and corresponded only modestly to positive attitudes towards psychiatric genetic research which had higher prevalence. The correlations of both constructs with a preference of inequality among social groups (social dominance orientation) were modest and inconsistent across samples. Both scales appear appropriate for cross-cultural applications, in particular for research into lay theories and public perceptions regarding genetic vs environmental effects on human behavior, mental disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric genetic research related to these. PMID:18232457

  10. Effects of California community college students' gender, self-efficacy, and attitudes and beliefs toward physics on conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Asma

    Despite the advances made in various fields, women are still considered as minorities in the fields of science and mathematics. There is a gender gap regarding women's participation and achievement in physics. Self-efficacy and attitudes and beliefs toward physics have been identified as predictors of students' performance on conceptual surveys in physics courses. The present study, which used two-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analyses at a community college in California, revealed there is no gender gap in achievement between male and female students in physics courses. Furthermore, there is an achievement gap between students who are enrolled in algebra-based and calculus-based physics courses. The findings indicate that attitudes and beliefs scores can be used as predictors of students' performance on conceptual surveys in physics courses. However, scores of self-efficacy cannot be used as predictors of students' performance on conceptual surveys in physics courses.

  11. Implementing a Moral Education Program through Attitude Change Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard L.; Casper, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    Major theories of attitude change are explained: stimulus-response and reinforcement theory, functional theory, social judgment theory, and consistency theory. These theories are applied to the problems of influencing staff toward implementing a program of moral education. (Author/SJL)

  12. Comparative study on the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and foreign medical students in Soochow University

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-zhu ZUO; Sun, Liang; Qian-lan XI; Wang, Li-Yan; Cen-tao LIU; Ya-na MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on the survey of the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and foreign medical students in Soochow University, the authors intended to explore the current situation, differences and influencing factors of Chinese and foreign medical students, in order to provide a reference for tobacco control policies and measures set by the Medical College of Soochow University. Methods: By stratified sampling, we selected 200 Chinese medical students and...

  13. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among church-based lay health workers: experience from a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission trial in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Iheanacho, Theddeus; Kapadia, Daniel; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O.; Osuji, Alice A.; Ogidi, Amaka G.; Ike, Anulika; Patel, Dina; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Echezona E Ezeanolue

    2015-01-01

    Common mental disorders are prevalent in Nigeria. Due to stigma and a limited number of trained specialists, only 10% of adults with mental illness in Nigeria receive any care. The Healthy Beginning Initiative is a community-based maternal/child health program that includes screening for perinatal depression and was implemented by lay, volunteer, church-based health advisors (CHAs). The aim of the study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes about mental illness among the CHAs. The study use...

  14. Attitude change toward food irradiation among conventional and alternative consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A US survey assessed the extent of attitude change toward food irradiation when consumers were given the opportunity to read about and discuss food irradiation. Consumers showed a higher level of concern for preservatives and chemical sprays than for the use of food irradiation for ensuring food safety. The study further revealed that consumer attitudes toward food irradiation can be positively influenced by an educational effort, and that this influence is most effective when the consumer can interact with someone knowledgeable about food irradiation. Willingness to buy irradiated foods was based on the safety of the process rather than on the advantages of any specific food product

  15. Considering students’ epistemic beliefs to facilitate their argumentative discourse and attitudinal change with a digital dialogue game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, Omid

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether and how higher education students with various epistemic beliefs engage in argumentative discourse and shift their attitude within a digital dialogue game. Students were assigned to groups of four or five and asked to argue and explore various perspectives of four cont

  16. Risk perceptions, general environmental beliefs, and willingness to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research reported here examines the relationship between risk perceptions and willingness to address climate change. The data are a national sample of 1,225 mail surveys that include measures of risk perceptions and knowledge tied to climate change, support for voluntary and government actions to address the problem, general environmental beliefs, and demographic variables. Risk perceptions matter in predicting behavior intentions. Risk perceptions are not a surrogate for general environmental beliefs, but have their own power to account for behavioral intentions. There are four secondary conclusions. First, behavioral intentions regarding climate change are complex and intriguing. People are neither nonbelievers who will take no initiatives themselves and oppose all government efforts, nor are they believers who promise both to make personal efforts and to vote for every government proposal that promises to address climate change. Second, there are separate demographic sources for voluntary actions compared with voting intentions. Third, recognizing the causes of global warming is a powerful predictor of behavioral intentions independent from believing that climate change will happen and have bad consequences. Finally, the success of the risk perception variables to account for behavioral intentions should encourage greater attention to risk perceptions as independent variables. Risk perceptions and knowledge, however, share the stage with general environmental beliefs and demographic characteristics. Although related, risk perceptions, knowledge, and general environmental beliefs are somewhat independent predictors of behavioral intentions

  17. Development and Validation of an Instrument for Measuring Attitudes and Beliefs about Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Use among Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun J. Mao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite cancer patients' extensive use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, validated instruments to measure attitudes, and beliefs predictive of CAM use are lacking. We aimed at developing and validating an instrument, attitudes and beliefs about CAM (ABCAM. The 15-item instrument was developed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB as a framework. The literature review, qualitative interviews, expert content review, and cognitive interviews were used to develop the instrument, which was then administered to 317 outpatient oncology patients. The ABCAM was best represented as a 3-factor structure: expected benefits, perceived barriers, and subjective norms related to CAM use by cancer patients. These domains had Eigenvalues of 4.79, 2.37, and 1.43, and together explained over 57.2% of the variance. The 4-item expected benefits, 7-item perceived barriers, and 4-item subjective norms domain scores, each had an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.91, 0.76, and 0.75, respectively. As expected, CAM users had higher expected benefits, lower perceived barriers, and more positive subjective norms (all <0.001 than those who did not use CAM. Our study provides the initial evidence that the ABCAM instrument produced reliable and valid scores that measured attitudes and beliefs related to CAM use among cancer patients.

  18. An Investigation of Somali Women’s Beliefs, Practices, and Attitudes about Health, Health Promoting Behaviours and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Francis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examined Somali women's perception of health/access to care, examined their knowledge and attitudes about cancer prevention, and discussed strategies to improve service provision and education. Using a multidisciplinary approach, twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with Somali women ages 18 and older, residing in a mid-western city. Open coding was used to categorize and reflect the interview statements and to identify reoccurring themes. Somali women are concerned about a variety of health issues and cited the role of culture and religion in developing prevention strategies.   Participants emphasized the use of religious leaders, health care advocates, oral traditions, and translators in providing culturally appropriate health care services. Religion and culture play a prominent role in the Somali community and impact beliefs about health and wellness.  Health practitioners need to work closely with individuals and community leaders to tailor services that are culturally appropriate and accessible.       

  19. The Attitude, Belief, Support and Knowledge Level of the Youth and their Acceptance towards Agriculture Contract Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegak Uli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture sector in Malaysia has been intensified through the Eight and Ninth Malaysian Plan. In order to further develop this sector, contract farming activities such as leech rearing, worm rearing, herbs and mushroom have been introduced to the community. But do the communities especially the youth have a positive acceptance towards this activity? Approach: This was a quantitative study. The respondents were among two agriculture learning institutions in Malaysia. From a simple random sampling, a total of 194 respondents were selected. The data collection took two months to be completed. Results: From the multiple linear regression employed, it can be concluded that attitude, belief and knowledge are the significant contributor for acceptance towards contract farming. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is recommended that more studies can be conducted to inspect the complexities related with youths participation in contract farming and special attention should be highlighted to identify what universities can do in strategizing specific agricultural courses that would motivate youth to possess a better acceptance towards contract farming.

  20. The role of beliefs and attitudes about sleep in seasonal and nonseasonal mood disorder, and nondepressed controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Carney, Colleen E.; Wong, Patricia M.; Steiner, Jessica L.; Hasler, Brant P.; Franzen, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unhelpful sleep-related cognitions play an important role in insomnia and major depressive disorder, but their role in seasonal affective disorder has not yet been explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have sleep-related cognitions similar to those with primary insomnia, and those with insomnia related to comorbid nonseasonal depression. Methods Participants (n=147) completed the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep 16-item scale (DBAS-16) and the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD), which assesses self reported sleep problems including early, middle, or late insomnia, and hypersomnia in the previous week. All participants were assessed in winter, and during an episode for those with a depressive disorder. Results Individuals with SAD were more likely to report hypersomnia on the SIGH-SAD, as well as a combined presentation of hypersomnia and insomnia on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The SAD group reported DBAS-16 scores in the range associated with clinical sleep disturbance, and DBAS-16 scores were most strongly associated with reports of early insomnia, suggesting circadian misalignment. Limitations Limitations include the self-report nature of the SIGH-SAD instrument on which insomnia and hypersomnia reports were based. Conclusions Future work could employ sleep- or chronobiological-focused interventions to improve clinical response in SAD. PMID:23706838

  1. Changes in Attitude towards Gender Inequality in the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakil Ahmadi

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the demographic transition index is supposed to be an objective structure, leading to changes in gender inequality. These changes can be studied at two levels. At family level, family structure basically changes in the process of demographic transition. And these changes affect, in one way or another, child and gender sociability. At society level, demographic transition provides an opportunity for women to make themselves powerful and to try to earn different capitals, whereby decreasing the gender inequality gap. In conclusion, it can be said that the role of demographic variables should be considered in explaining changes of attitudes towards gender inequality.

  2. ¿Is it necessary to analyze the relationship between mathematics teacher and the shaping of attitudes and the beliefs toward this discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Gamboa-Araya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with teaching and learning mathematics have been a recurrent concern in several countries. The affective domain of students, in this context, has emerged as a relevant element that allows explaining some aspects of those problems.  The need to explore in more detail the influence of teachers in the affective domain of students arises from this perspective, since what he/she does in the classroom could help strengthen or modify the attitudes and beliefs of students.  This article aims to point out issues related to the affective domain in mathematics that have influenced teaching and learning the discipline, as well as the need to address them from the teaching staff perception.  The purpose is to modify their work and encourage an image change of the discipline through their daily work.  For this matter, conclusions of different investigations are presented showing the role of the affective domain, the influence of teaching staff and the need to carry out further research on the role of teachers.

  3. Investigating Change in Epistemic Beliefs: An Evaluation of the Impact of Student Teachers' Beliefs on Instructional Preference and Teaching Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosu, Edward M.; Gray, Donald S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the claim that effective teacher behaviour is rooted in teacher beliefs about the nature of knowledge, learning and ability. A longitudinal design was used to obtain data on student teachers' epistemic beliefs, instructional preference and teaching competence. Results from statistical analyses show that there were…

  4. Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children: Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Early Childhood Caries Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P < 0.001). Additional caregiver behaviors included providing their child with a bottle containing cariogenic liquids in a crib (P < 0.001). As a result of this research, it is pertinent that culturally sensitive oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations. PMID:26370378

  5. Perceptions of risk in the management of nuclear wastes: Mapping elite and mass beliefs and attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a set of five surveys designed to assess the perceived risks of nuclear waste management policy in Colorado and New Mexico. Within these states, mail surveys of randomly selected samples were taken of members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, members of the Sierra Club, members of business associations, and state legislators. In addition, a telephone sample of randomly selected households was conducted in Colorado and New Mexico. Using these data, the perceptions of the risk of nuclear waste management -- from production of nuclear energy through permanent storage of nuclear wastes -- are compared for each of the five samples. The degree of trust in, and the perceived political influence of, the more prominent policy actors are assessed. Certain cognitive attributes, including degree of subjective certainty regarding beliefs about risks of nuclear wastes, and likelihood of altering perceived risks when confronted with new information, are compared across samples. In addition, the sample scores from rudimentary knowledge tests about the characteristics of radiation are compared. The relationships among the knowledge scores, cognitive attributes and risk perceptions are evaluated. Perceptions of the balance of media coverage are measured, as are the possible direct and indirect roles of media exposure in risk perception. Aggregate models, testing an array of hypotheses about the bases of nuclear waste risk perceptions, are conducted. These tests indicate that risk perceptions are related to a complex set of factors, and that these factors may differ significantly across the different sub-populations. Finally, the relationships between risk perception and political participation -- including registering to vote, political party affiliation, and level of political activism -- are analyzed. 5 figs., 33 tabs

  6. Are Parental Gender Role Beliefs a Predictor of Change in Sexual Communication in a Prevention Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Miller, Kim S.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Long, Nicholas; Armistead, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This study examined if pre-intervention maternal gender role beliefs predict change in sexual communication in a sexual risk behavior prevention program designed to increase parent--pre-adolescent communication about sex. A sample of 281 African American fourth and fifth graders and their mothers participated in the five-session program and…

  7. "Seeing Things in a New Light,": Conditions for Changes in the Epistemological Beliefs of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Aino-Maija; Pehkonen, Leila

    2013-01-01

    The study describes the advancement of the epistemological beliefs of university students. After obtaining interesting research results on changes in students' (N = 170) conceptions of learning from Jan Meyer's Reflections on Learning Inventory, we carried out a qualitative study using a focus group interview of seven students. The…

  8. The Roles of Competence Beliefs and Goal Orientations for Change in Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinath, Birgit; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated 3 theoretically plausible explanations for changes in school-related intrinsic motivation. A sample of 348 German 11th-grade students was followed for 1 year. At 2 measurement occasions, students completed self-reports regarding their school-related intrinsic motivation, goal orientations, and competence beliefs. In…

  9. Teachers' Technology Use and the Change of Their Pedagogical Beliefs in Korean Educational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Won Sug; Han, Insook; Kim, Insuk

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have attempted to identify the factors that lead teachers to use technology in the classroom. However, few studies have examined whether and how teachers' technology use change their pedagogical beliefs. Therefore, this study investigates how teacher-related factors influence teachers' use of technology, and how changes…

  10. Science and Mathematics Faculty Responses to a Policy-Based Initiative: Change Processes, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Department Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Chad D.; Demir, Kadir; Monsaas, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine change processes, self-efficacy beliefs, and department culture and the roles these elements play in faculty engagement in working in K-12 schools. The development of three new web-based measures of faculty perceptions of change processes, self-efficacy beliefs, and department culture are described. The…

  11. Connecting Stakeholders and Climate Science: A Summary of Farmer, Rancher, and Forester Climate Data Needs and Climate Change Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Crimmins, M.; Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Weiss, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub is to provide farmers, ranchers and forest land owners and managers with information and resources to cope with the impacts of climate change. As such, a clear understanding of landowner needs for weather and climate data and their attitudes about climate change is required. Here we present a summary of results from 17 peer-reviewed articles on studies pertaining to landowner needs and attitudes towards climate change adaptation and mitigation that span much of the continental U.S. and ideally represent a cross-section of different geographies. In general, approximately 75% of landowners and farm advisors believe climate change is occurring, but disagree on the human contribution. Studies found that most farmers were supportive of adaptation responses, but fewer endorsed farm-based greenhouse gas reduction mitigation strategies. Adaptation is often driven by local concerns and requires locally specific strategies. Perceiving weather variability increased belief in human-caused climate change. Presently farmers and ranchers rely on past experience and short-range forecasts (weeks to seasons) whereas some foresters are requesting long-term predictions on the order of years to decades. Foresters indicated that most of them (74%) are presently unable to find needed long-term information. We augment peer-reviewed literature with observations from landowner workshops conducted in Nevada and Arizona during 2014, the first year of Climate Hub operation. To better collect information about climate change needs and attitudes of farmers, ranchers and foresters across the globe, we created a Climate Change Attitudes collection in JournalMap (https://journalmap.org/usda-southwest-regional-climate-hub/climate-change-attitudes). Users anywhere can add articles to this collection, ultimately generating a comprehensive spatial resource in support of adaptation and mitigation efforts on working lands.

  12. Common Belief. Australia's Faith Communities on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen Australian faith communities representing the world's great religious traditions have united to speak out on climate change: Aboriginal people, the Australian Christian lobby, Baha'i believers, Baptists, Buddhists, Catholics, Evangelical Christians, Greek Orthodox, Hindus, Jewish people, Lutherans, Muslims, The Salvation Army, Sikhs, The United Church

  13. The power of change: interpersonal attraction as a function of attitude similarity and attitude alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Davis, Jody L; Green, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Does attitude alignment predict attraction? Would you like a stranger more who shifts her/his attitudes to more closely align with yours? In pairs, participants (N = 77) discussed social issues about which they disagreed and received false feedback on whether the partner engaged in attitude alignment (shifted her/his attitudes toward the participant's attitude) following discussion. Participants also received false feedback about the proportion of similarity to the partner on a set of issues (i.e., 25%, 50%, or 75%). Participants reported greater attraction to partners who engaged in attitude alignment and who were more similar. Moreover, similarity and attitude alignment interacted. Similarity predicted attraction when attitude alignment did not occur, but did not predict attraction when attitude alignment did occur. Finally, partner attitude alignment led to participant attitude alignment, and perceived reasoning ability mediated the attitude alignment-attraction relationship. PMID:24236381

  14. A change of attitude: From rescue to prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualitative and quantitative leap recorded by economical companies after the Romanian Revolution occurred in 1989, has positively influenced the functioning of the workplaces and working environment by increasing the employees' occupational safety, well being, health and results of their activities. In fact it has determined a new approach of safety culture. This has resulted in a change of attitude: from rescue to prevention. (author)

  15. The country of distribution effect on the brand attitude change

    OpenAIRE

    José Mauro da Costa Hernandez; Patrícia da Costa Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the country of distribution effect on the change of attitudes towards a brand. Country of distribution is defined as the results (positive or negative) obtained by a brand when it communicates to be distributed in a foreigner locale. The results of three experiments demonstrate that the country of distribution effect is higher when the country is a traditional manufacturer (vs. non-traditional manufacturer) of the brand’s product category. Further, the country of di...

  16. Community attitudes to waterfront change in Canadian port cities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyle, Brian

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary, working report on research designed to apply an established method of enquiry in an innovative way to a range of community groups in a series of contrasted Canadian port cities. Community groups are a critical element in Canadian society in general, and in the process of urban waterfront change. Building on earlier work on other 'actors' such as port authorities, urban planners and real-estate developers, this report explores the attitudes and influence of such gr...

  17. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Diversity Courses on Students' Values, Attitudes and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Globalization and changing demographics in the United States have resulted in the need for higher education to prepare students for a global society. To this end, college and universities have responded in a number of ways including in the curriculum with required diversity courses. However the impact of this intervention on students is an area in…

  19. Evaluation of a national programme to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: effects on consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Sonia E; Artist, Margaret A; Kehoe, Linda A; Fletcher, Miriam; Mackson, Judith M; Weekes, Lynn M

    2007-03-01

    The over-use of antibiotics, in particular, inappropriate use to treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), is a global public health concern. In an attempt to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs, and, in particular, to modify patient misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs, Australia's National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) has undertaken a comprehensive, multistrategic programme for health professionals and the community. Targeted strategies for the community, via the NPS common colds community campaign, commenced in 2000 and have been repeated annually during the winter months. Community strategies were closely integrated, using the same tagline, key messages and visual images, and were delivered in numerous settings including general practice, community pharmacy, child-care centres and community groups. Strategies included written information via newsletters and brochures, mass media activity using billboards, television, radio and magazines and small grants to promote local community education. The evaluation used multiple methods and data sources to measure process, impact and outcomes. Consistent with intervention messages, the integrated nationwide prescriber and consumer programme is associated with modest but consistent positive changes in consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to the appropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs. These positive changes among the community are corroborated by a national decline in total antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in the community (from 23.08 million prescriptions in 1998-99 to 21.44 million in 2001-02) and, specifically, by a decline among the nine antibiotics commonly used for URTI such that by 2003 nationally 216,000 fewer prescriptions for URTI are written each year by general practitioners. PMID:17046966

  20. How Students' Epistemological Beliefs in the Domain of Physics and Their Conceptual Change Are Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Ercan; Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine high school students' epistemological beliefs in the domain of physics and to explore and explain the possible relationship between their beliefs and their conceptual change in physics by taking the students' learning strategies into account. A multi-case study design was used for the research…

  1. A Change in Teaching Philosophy: The Effects of Short-Term Teaching Immersion on English Teaching Beliefs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ruth Ming Har

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that the underlying teaching beliefs or theories of any particular teacher have generally been considered relatively stable and static throughout his or her career. However, this study investigates how one teacher's beliefs regarding both teaching and learning were changed during a short-term study and immersion program abroad.…

  2. Food and nutrition: attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttriss, J L

    1997-06-01

    In a study of 1700 members of the UK general public in 1992 in which face-to-face interviews were conducted, factors thought important in a healthy diet were (in descending order) more fiber, less sugar, less fat, less salt, and more starchy foods. Of common nutritional terms there was most confidence in explaining the meaning of fiber and least in the meaning of monounsaturated fatty acids. Most nutritional information came from the media but the credibility of this information was low. Fifty-three percent said that a conversation with their general practitioner (GP) was a source of advice they trusted. In a survey of 150 GPs and 50 practice nurses in 1992, lack of confidence was found to be common concerning the meaning of several nutritional terms, especially extrinsic sugars, NSP (nonstarch polysaccharide), and trans fatty acids. GPs were confident they could explain the link between diet and heart disease but were not sure about the value of starch in the diet. Both GPs and practice nurses were dissatisfied with their training in nutrition, both before and after registration. General practice staff thought that personal ill health was the most important motivator for dietary change among their patients. They thought that apathy and dietary conservatism were the most common barriers to people changing their diet. However, the public positioned lack of knowledge as the biggest obstacle. Surveys reported here showed that people's knowledge of sources of fat, calcium, and iron is often unreliable. PMID:9174508

  3. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in relation to knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, and practices among university students in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Adisa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of communities in control of cervical cancer cannot be overemphasized, but this must take cognizance of their current knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, and practices (KABP of the people if it will be sustainable. This study assessed the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among university students and their level of KABP concerning cervical screening in Maiduguri North-Eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-two subjects (age range: 18-69 years were screened using pap smear screening method and acetowhite method. A structured questionnaire was administered on each subject to elicit information on KABP that could predispose them to the disease. Results: CIN was recorded in 12.8% of subjects with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 10.8% and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 2.0% of the women, respectively. The average general level of knowledge of various aspect of was 43.3% average positive attitudes/beliefs about the disease was recorded in 17.1% of subject, while positive practices that could lead to prevention of the disease was obtained in 30.0%. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the disease and screening is very low and together with high levels of negative attitudes and practices, will adversely affect control measures and therefore have to be addressed.

  4. 09351 Executive Summary -- Information processing, rational belief change and social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanno, Giacomo; Delgrande, James; Rott, Hans

    2009-01-01

    From August 23, 2009 to August 27, 2009, the Dagstuhl Seminar 09351 "Information processing, rational belief change and social interaction" was held at the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put togethe...

  5. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  6. Interacting in the Smog Factors that Shape Faculty Attitudes and Beliefs about Race and Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodari, Apriel K.

    2006-03-01

    Many faculty members realize that we must interact productively with diverse colleagues and students, and we must find ways to benefit from the talents of all members of our intellectual community. Put simply, we must aim for the ceiling rather than the floor. This means that we approach our work informed that engaging diversity in our classrooms will increase our success and the success of all our students. But in physics, it is often difficult to measure and address diversity issues because doing so is not perceived as central to our discipline. To address this apparent disconnection, we present some ideas on race [1] and inclusion [2] within the context of the physics instruction. Specifically, we speak to how university faculty might use inclusive pedagogy in physics education research and curriculum. Our goal here is to open a frank dialogue and present concrete avenues to explore as you create activities that serve your classroom best. *Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (2004). Changing demographics and challenges of the future. Draft Proceedings of the National Science Board Workshop on Broadening the Participation in Science and Engineering Research and Education. Arlington, VA: National Science Board; Tatum, Beverly Daniel. (1997). Why are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations about Race. New York: Basic Books. *Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. (2003). Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield; Thiederman, Sondra. (2003). Making Diversity Work: 7 Steps for Defeating Bias in the Workplace. Chicago: Dearborn Trade Publishing.

  7. What motivates a conspiracy theory? Birther beliefs, partisanship, liberal-conservative ideology, and anti-Black attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasek, Josh; Stark, Tobias H.; Krosnick, Jon A.; Tompson, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Despite the release of his birth certificate, some Americans express continued skepticism over whether Barack Obama was born in the United States. This study examined two possible causes of birther beliefs: that Republicans and conservatives, whose ideological beliefs and policy preferences led to d

  8. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Kabashima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects’ self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

  9. Persuasive Embodied Agents: Using Embodied Agents to Change People's Behavior, Beliefs, and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (i.e., avatars; ECAs) are appearing in increasingly many everyday contexts, such as e-commerce, occupational training, and airport security. Also common to a typical person's daily life is persuasion. Whether being persuaded or persuading, the ability to change another person's attitude or behavior is a…

  10. Effect of public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on willingness to undergo colorectal cancer screening using the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid A Almadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7. Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04-2.29 was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38-0.91. Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national

  11. The country of distribution effect on the brand attitude change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro da Costa Hernandez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the country of distribution effect on the change of attitudes towards a brand. Country of distribution is defined as the results (positive or negative obtained by a brand when it communicates to be distributed in a foreigner locale. The results of three experiments demonstrate that the country of distribution effect is higher when the country is a traditional manufacturer (vs. non-traditional manufacturer of the brand’s product category. Further, the country of distribution effect is higher for high quality (vs. low quality brands and is moderated by the perceived success of the brand in the distribution country.

  12. Change in attitudes about employed mothers: exposure, interests, and gender ideology discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Elman, Cheryl

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of continuously-married individuals (793 women and 847 men) and their spouses drawn from the first two waves of the NSFH, we examine change in individuals' attitudes about mothers' employment. We investigate hypotheses derived from three models of attitude change: the exposure model, the interest-based model, and the control model. We find support for hypotheses derived from all three. Consistent with exposure hypotheses, the adoption of fundamentalist beliefs reduces egalitarianism, while spouses' egalitarianism and spouses' education are positively related to individuals' own egalitarianism. As predicted in both exposure and interest hypotheses, women's entry into employment is positively related to women's egalitarianism, while wives' occupational prestige is positively related to men's egalitarianism. Congruent with the interest model, the presence of a young child is positively associated with women's egalitarianism. Consistent with the exposure model, the number of children in the home reduces men's egalitarianism, and a traditional division of housework decreases women's egalitarianism. Finally, consistent with the gender ideology discrepancy hypothesis, derived from the control model, individuals whose background, work, and family life are inconsistent with their gender ideology at wave 1 shift their gender ideology at wave 2 in a direction that is more compatible with their background, work, and family life: egalitarians with traditional life patterns at wave 1 are more traditional in their gender ideology at wave 2, and traditionals with egalitarian life patterns at wave 1 are more egalitarian at wave 2. We discuss the implications of these patterns for larger scale change in gender ideology. PMID:19827180

  13. Climate Change Conceptual Change: Scientific Information Can Transform Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav

    2016-01-01

    Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"-which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive-a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org-a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition." PMID:26804198

  14. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was designed around core elements of successful environmental professional development programs and aligned with practices advocated in benchmarked science standards. Data were collected from multiple sources including observations of professional development events, participants' reflections on their learning, and collection of instructional units designed during the Academy. Data were also collected from a focal case study teacher in a middle school setting. Case study data included classroom observations, teacher interviews, and student beliefs toward climate change. Results indicated that the Climate Academy fostered increased learning among participants of both climate science content and pedagogical strategies for teaching about climate change. Additionally, results indicated that participants applied their new learning in the design of climate change instructional units. Finally, results from the case study indicated positive impacts on student beliefs and greater awareness about climate change. Results have implications for the design of professional development programs on climate change, a topic included for the first time in national standards.

  15. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was designed around core elements of successful environmental professional development programs and aligned with practices advocated in benchmarked science standards. Data were collected from multiple sources including observations of professional development events, participants' reflections on their learning, and collection of instructional units designed during the Academy. Data were also collected from a focal case study teacher in a middle school setting. Case study data included classroom observations, teacher interviews, and student beliefs toward climate change. Results indicated that the Climate Academy fostered increased learning among participants of both climate science content and pedagogical strategies for teaching about climate change. Additionally, results indicated that participants applied their new learning in the design of climate change instructional units. Finally, results from the case study indicated positive impacts on student beliefs and greater awareness about climate change. Results have implications for the design of professional development programs on climate change, a topic included for the first time in national standards.

  16. The Relationship between Religious Persuasion and Climate Change Attitudes in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin; Sherley, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that religious persuasion can have an impact on environmental attitudes, however less research of this kind has focused on the relationship between religious persuasion and climate change attitudes. Using a survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of five religious groupings and climate change attitudes, as well as membership of climate change household segments that differ in their acceptance of human induced climate change and the n...

  17. Attitudinal change in elderly citizens towards social robots: the role of personality traits and beliefs about robot functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Flensborg Damholdt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards robots influence the tendency to accept or reject robotic devices. Thus it is important to investigate whether and how attitudes towards robots can change. In this pilot study we investigate attitudinal changes in elderly citizens toward a tele-operated robot in relation to three parameters: (i the information provided about robot functionality, (ii the number of encounters, (iii personality type. Fourteen elderly residents at a rehabilitation centre participated. Pre-encounter attitudes towards robots, anthropomorphic thinking, and personality were assessed. Thereafter the participants interacted with a tele-operated robot (Telenoid during their lunch (c. 30 min. for up to three days. Half of the participants were informed that the robot was tele-operated (IC whilst the other half were naïve to its functioning (UC. Post-encounter assessments of attitudes towards robots and anthropomorphic thinking were undertaken to assess change. Attitudes towards robots were assessed with a new generic 35-item questionnaire (Attitudes towards social robots scale: ASOR-5, offering a differentiated conceptualization of the conditions for social interaction.There was no significant difference between the IC and UC groups in attitude change towards robots though trends were observed. Personality was correlated with some tendencies for attitude changes; Extraversion correlated with positive attitude changes to intimate-personal relatedness with the robot (r=.619 and to psychological relatedness (r=.581 whilst Neuroticism correlated negatively (r=-.582 with mental relatedness with the robot. The results tentatively suggest that neither information about functionality nor direct repeated encounters are pivotal in changing attitudes towards robots in elderly citizens. This may reflect a cognitive congruence bias where the robot is experienced in congruence with initial attitudes, or it may support action-based explanations of cognitive dissonance

  18. Attitudinal Change in Elderly Citizens Toward Social Robots: The Role of Personality Traits and Beliefs About Robot Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damholdt, Malene F; Nørskov, Marco; Yamazaki, Ryuji; Hakli, Raul; Hansen, Catharina Vesterager; Vestergaard, Christina; Seibt, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes toward robots influence the tendency to accept or reject robotic devices. Thus it is important to investigate whether and how attitudes toward robots can change. In this pilot study we investigate attitudinal changes in elderly citizens toward a tele-operated robot in relation to three parameters: (i) the information provided about robot functionality, (ii) the number of encounters, (iii) personality type. Fourteen elderly residents at a rehabilitation center participated. Pre-encounter attitudes toward robots, anthropomorphic thinking, and personality were assessed. Thereafter the participants interacted with a tele-operated robot (Telenoid) during their lunch (c. 30 min.) for up to 3 days. Half of the participants were informed that the robot was tele-operated (IC) whilst the other half were naïve to its functioning (UC). Post-encounter assessments of attitudes toward robots and anthropomorphic thinking were undertaken to assess change. Attitudes toward robots were assessed with a new generic 35-items questionnaire (attitudes toward social robots scale: ASOR-5), offering a differentiated conceptualization of the conditions for social interaction. There was no significant difference between the IC and UC groups in attitude change toward robots though trends were observed. Personality was correlated with some tendencies for attitude changes; Extraversion correlated with positive attitude changes to intimate-personal relatedness with the robot (r = 0.619) and to psychological relatedness (r = 0.581) whilst Neuroticism correlated negatively (r = -0.582) with mental relatedness with the robot. The results tentatively suggest that neither information about functionality nor direct repeated encounters are pivotal in changing attitudes toward robots in elderly citizens. This may reflect a cognitive congruence bias where the robot is experienced in congruence with initial attitudes, or it may support action-based explanations of cognitive dissonance reductions

  19. Does a social action experience around energy conservation promote changes in attitude and understanding of climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E.; Walsh, E.; Metzger, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Responding effectively to the potential impacts of a changing climate requires individual behavior changes and a scientifically informed populace prepared to address climate-related issues on a community and policy level. This level of behavior change is a non-trivial educational and societal problem; however, behavior change is constrained or supported through a constellation of variables including scientific content knowledge, sociocultural beliefs and values, self-identifications, available infrastructure, economic barriers and opportunities. The goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of student and family participation in energy conservation behaviors, and to analyze how a designed social change experience can support interest and motivation around taking action on climate change. In this work, we implemented a Green Ninja Energy Design Challenge in middle school and university classrooms during Fall 2014. The Green Ninja is a superhero designed to inspire youth to take action on climate change. The Green Ninja Project provides tools such as humorous films and associated media products that help students take steps towards a more sustainable world. The project we are studying here focuses on engineering design principles and scientific content related to energy and provides an opportunity for students and families to measure and reduce household energy use while learning energy and climate science concepts. Students use an online energy-tracking tool that leverages PG&E Smart Meter technology to record their daily household energy over a period of time. Students are then challenged to use the data and what they've learned in class to holistically re-imagine and re-design their living space to reduce energy use, and continue to track their energy usage after implementing their new designs in their living spaces. We will report on attitudes toward, perceptions of and reported behavioral changes of both control and intervention student groups

  20. Change in obsessive beliefs as predictor and mediator of symptom change during treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder – a process-outcome study

    OpenAIRE

    Diedrich, Alice; Sckopke, Philipp; Schwartz, Caroline; Schlegl, Sandra; Osen, Bernhard; Stierle, Christian; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder suggest that changes in obsessive beliefs are a key mechanism of treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Thus, in the present process-outcome study, we tested whether changes in obsessive beliefs during a primarily cognitive behavioral inpatient treatment predicted treatment outcome and whether these changes mediated symptom changes over the course of treatment. Methods Seventy-one consecutively admitted inpatients with obsess...

  1. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  2. Receptive Audiences for Climate Change Education: Understanding Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.

    2012-12-01

    Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to

  3. Uneven transitions: Period- and cohort-related changes in gender attitudes in China, 1995-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaoling; Zhu, Yifei

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyzes temporal variations in two gender attitudes in China: beliefs about gender equality and perspectives on women's combined work and family roles. It uses the most currently available population series from the 1995, 2001 and 2007 World Value Surveys of 4500 respondents and a series of multilevel cross-classified models to properly estimate period and cohort effects. Attitudes toward women's dual roles manifest neither period nor cohort effects; the population displays a universal high level of acceptance of women's paid employment. Orientations toward gender equality manifest both cohort and period effects: members of the youngest cohort of both sexes hold the most liberal attitudes; the positive effect of college education has increased over time. Attitude toward gender equality in China displays neither a shift toward conservatism nor an over-time trend toward egalitarianism in 1995-2007, a time of rapid economic growth. PMID:23017920

  4. 'All Changed, Changed Utterly'? Gender role attitudes and the feminisation of the Irish labour force

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Sara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most dramatic changes in Irish society over the past two decades has been the substantial increase in the number of women participating in the paid workforce, and the concomitant change in gender roles. This gives rise to the question of whether this change in behaviour is also associated with changes in gender role attitudes. This paper uses data from the 1988, 1994 and 2002 International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) ‘Family and Changing Gender Roles’ module to examine changes i...

  5. Indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices among VhaVenda: A challenge to the promotion of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Mulaudzi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the syndromic management of HIV/AIDS is based on a biomedical model that focuses on the ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise model. The ABC model overlooks the issue of indigenous cultural practices, sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of the society. A grounded theory study was used for the research. The population for the research on which this article is reporting, was selected from the Vhavenda ethnic group using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were held at the participants’ own homes. The outcome of the study on which this article is reporting, may assist in identifying indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices that will assist in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed that cultural practices, such as premarital counselling, polygamy and widow inheritance, are believed to be influential in making women more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The practice of abstinence, as emphasised at initiation schools, should be incorporated into current policies and preventative practices. The findings further demonstrate that policy-makers who formulated the HIV/AIDS strategy have limited knowledge of the health beliefs, attitudes and practices of the people they serve. They thus find it difficult to draw up promotion and prevention strategies that meet the needs of the community. It is therefore imperative that our health-care training curriculum be reviewed to make provision for the incorporation of sound and effective indigenous practices to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to eliminate or refine practices that are harmful and detrimental to people’s health. The cultural practices that were proved reliable and effective will be recommended for integration into health education.

  6. ‘Sex education should be taught, fine…but we make sure they control themselves’: teachers' beliefs and attitudes towards young people's sexual and reproductive health in a Ugandan secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Although schools have been identified as important settings in which young people's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) can be promoted, there has been limited research into the role of teachers in delivering sex education programmes. This paper describes findings from a qualitative study of teachers' beliefs and attitudes towards young people's SRH in a Ugandan secondary school, and discusses the ways in which conservative attitudes to young people's sexual activity and an adherence to gend...

  7. Changing teacher's beliefs about school self-evaluation and the impact on teacher behaviour and student achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Hauptman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine if different ways of promoting school self-evaluation had an effect on changing teachers' beliefs about school self-evaluation, on their behaviour in the classroom and on student achievement. Although school self-evaluation in Slovenian primary schools is legally required; there are no uniform instructions about using it or even systematic research on its effectiveness. Our sample included 111 fourth grade teachers from 59 Slovenian primary schools and their 2153 students. The study was designed as an experimental study with three groups of schools and two separate measurements. Durability of changes in beliefs and behaviour of teachers was also included. Groups of schools differed on activities of school self-evaluation; the first group of schools was the control group, the other two were separated according to intensity of promoting school self-evaluation. The data were gathered from teachers and students. Teachers were asked about their beliefs of school self-evaluation and behaviour in the classroom. From students we gathered data about their achievement in mathematics and science at the beginning and end of school year and data about their teachers' behaviour in the classroom. Differences between the groups of schools were expected mainly at the teachers' beliefs about school selfevaluation and as well on teacher behaviour and student achievement. The results showed that teachers' beliefs are fairly stable, and a lot of time is needed to achieve changes. In our research we failed to prove the impact of promoting school selfevaluation on changing teachers' beliefs, which is very likely the result of research limitations. Change in beliefs is the basis for changing behaviour and achievement, but this happens over a longer timeframe.

  8. The Role of Belief, Trust and Values in Climate Change Science Education Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. W.; Hatheway, B.

    2011-12-01

    At a recent Tri-Agency PI meeting of NSF-, NASA- and NOAA-funded climate change education projects, we asked nearly 20 of our colleagues the following question, "If you had to choose just one of the following, which would it be: you would like the general public to believe that climate change is occurring, or you would like the general public to know that climate change is occurring?" We were a bit surprised when every person canvassed chose that they wanted the public to believe that climate change is occurring. When we inquired why, they all answered something along the lines that "beliefs lead to actions". However, when we looked at the funded efforts of the NASA, NOAA and NSF climate education community we came to the troubling conclusion that the vast majority were designed primarily with knowledge in mind, and that as a community we were perhaps not tackling some important non-scientific issues related to belief, trust and values. It is not surprising, nor unreasonable, that we have taken an approach to climate change education that largely focuses on increasing the knowledge base of the public. First of all, our fundamental task as science researchers is to create new knowledge, so we are typically comfortable discussing it. Secondly, knowledge may serve as a foundation for belief and ultimately lead to changes in behavior. However, this second line of reasoning clearly has limits, and we believe we are seeing these limits manifested in some of the poll numbers related to the general public's position on this topic. When the value of science is pitted against other things that people value, such as family, religion, and jobs, we are faced with the likelihood that it is not going to be as highly regarded by the general public as it is by scientists. Climate change science opponents understand the importance of value and belief, and directly capitalize on it by using two main strategies. First, they effectively minimize the value of climate science by casting

  9. Attitudes, social representations and social attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This paper plays the role of the devil's advocate in relation to Colin Fraser's paper "attitudes, social representations and widespread beliefs". It argues for the alternative perspective which Colin identifies that social representations and social attitudes are epistemologically incompatible theories.

  10. Unpacking Teachers' Language Ideologies: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practiced Language Policies in Schools in Alsace, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea S.

    2014-01-01

    In France, most teachers still receive scant training in how to support plurilingual children in their learning of and through the language of instruction. In the absence of relevant, in-depth knowledge about language, we believe that many teachers are practising language policies based on beliefs rooted in ideologies unsupported by research…

  11. An Examination of the Influence of Attitudes and Beliefs on Achievement in a College Developmental Mathematics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarear, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on a study which investigated the relationship between four groups of affective variables (i.e., achievement motivation variables, anxiety, attributions for success and failure, and beliefs about intelligence, learning goals, memorization, and the nature of mathematics) and students' exam scores in a college developmental mathematics…

  12. How does reviewing the evidence change veterinary surgeons' beliefs regarding the treatment of ovine footrot? A quantitative and qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Higgins

    Full Text Available Footrot is a widespread, infectious cause of lameness in sheep, with major economic and welfare costs. The aims of this research were: (i to quantify how veterinary surgeons' beliefs regarding the efficacy of two treatments for footrot changed following a review of the evidence (ii to obtain a consensus opinion following group discussions (iii to capture complementary qualitative data to place their beliefs within a broader clinical context. Grounded in a Bayesian statistical framework, probabilistic elicitation (roulette method was used to quantify the beliefs of eleven veterinary surgeons during two one-day workshops. There was considerable heterogeneity in veterinary surgeons' beliefs before they listened to a review of the evidence. After hearing the evidence, seven participants quantifiably changed their beliefs. In particular, two participants who initially believed that foot trimming with topical oxytetracycline was the better treatment, changed to entirely favour systemic and topical oxytetracycline instead. The results suggest that a substantial amount of the variation in beliefs related to differences in veterinary surgeons' knowledge of the evidence. Although considerable differences in opinion still remained after the evidence review, with several participants having non-overlapping 95% credible intervals, both groups did achieve a consensus opinion. Two key findings from the qualitative data were: (i veterinary surgeons believed that farmers are unlikely to actively seek advice on lameness, suggesting a proactive veterinary approach is required (ii more attention could be given to improving the way in which veterinary advice is delivered to farmers. In summary this study has: (i demonstrated a practical method for probabilistically quantifying how veterinary surgeons' beliefs change (ii revealed that the evidence that currently exists is capable of changing veterinary opinion (iii suggested that improved transfer of research

  13. Examining a Teacher's Negotiation through Change: Understanding the Influence of Beliefs on Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Jennelyn; Campbell, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Previous research asserts the connection between teacher beliefs and behaviors in the classroom. However, using broad, general constructs collected in teacher self-reported surveys has provided neither clear connections between beliefs and behaviors, nor explanatory power between connected or disparate beliefs. This research examines teacher…

  14. Attitudes of cynicism, fear and acceptance with the organizational change in a group of executives in Lima (Peru).

    OpenAIRE

    Saravia Vergara, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes, exploratory level, validation of questionnaire to measure attitudes toward organizational change proposed by the Rabelo, Ros and Torres. The study led to 23 executives in Lima, obtained high levels of reliability and validity for each of the three-dimensional model of attitudes toward organizational change proposed by the authors: "attitudes of cynicism", "attitudes of fear" and "attitudes acceptance" to organizational change. However, factor analysis of each of the three ...

  15. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  16. "Sex Education Should be Taught, Fine... But We Make Sure They Control Themselves:" Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes towards Young People's Sexual and Reproductive Health in a Ugandan Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although schools have been identified as important settings in which young people's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) can be promoted, there has been limited research into the role of teachers in delivering sex education programmes. This paper describes findings from a qualitative study of teachers' beliefs and attitudes towards young…

  17. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's “Flavor Monsters”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many “games for health” target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth® (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's “Flavor Monsters” gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13–24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  18. Using Theatre to Change Attitudes toward Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Seher, Christin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of educational interventions and attitude change strategies, the prevalence of homophobia and widespread discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people on college campuses persists. This study investigates the impact of theatre on changes in college students' attitudes. Using a pre- and…

  19. Induced Cognitive Dissonance as a Means of Effecting Changes in School-Related Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a study designed to effect a change in school-related attitudes (towards science and school lunch) using cognitive dissonance theory. Results support the idea that inducing students to engage in behavior considered desirable by others but not necessarily by the students themselves might change the attitude in question. (CS)

  20. Effects of health belief model-based video training about risk factors on knowledge and attitude of myocardial infarction patients after discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Asadi, Neda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart diseases are the most common cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the effects of video training about risk factors based on health belief model on knowledge and attitude of myocardial infarction patients after discharge. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2010. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. Data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. RESULTS: Study results showed that the mean score of knowledge about disease, diet, physical activity and perceived benefit, severity, and susceptibility after video training was increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Using videos for educating myocardial infarction patients is a useful method for preventing recurrence of the disease. PMID:22091231

  1. Attitudes and Beliefs of African Immigrant Mothers Living in the US Towards Providing Comprehensive Sex Education to Daughters Aged 12-17 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Terry, Martha Ann; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Doswell, Willa

    2016-10-01

    The literature currently contains no comprehensive sex education (CSE) interventions targeting the African immigrant population. African immigrant mothers have been inhibited by several factors from providing their daughters with CSE. The primary aim of this study was to identify attitudes and beliefs of Sub-Saharan immigrant mothers living in the United States towards providing comprehensive sex education to their daughters aged 12-17 years. The study utilized a one-time anonymous nine-question survey. Fifteen women who met the inclusion criteria completed the study survey online or via paper format. African immigrant mothers are willing to allow comprehensive sex to be taught in schools and at home. Accepted education appears to range from religious and moral teaching to some factual information. This research will potentially assist in the designing of more culturally appropriate comprehensive sex education programs for African immigrant mothers and their daughters. PMID:26438661

  2. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies. PMID:23073211

  3. Help-seeking interval in erectile dysfunction: analysis of attitudes, beliefs, and factors affecting treatment-seeking interval in Turkish men with previously untreated erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülpinar, Omer; Haliloğlu, Ahmet H; Abdulmajed, Mohamed Ismat; Bogga, Mehmet Salih; Yaman, Onder

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report data on attitudes, beliefs, and factors affecting the help-seeking interval among Turkish men with erectile dysfunction to determine whether they are different from those previously published in the literature. Out of 279 Turkish men complaining of erectile dysfunction attending our clinic between December 2006 and March 2008 without the need for referral, 202 were interviewed from a standardized questionnaire covering demographic details, relationships, help-seeking intervals, and attitudes and beliefs. Eleven patients interrupted the questionnaire and only 191 individuals who had never sought medical help for their erectile dysfunction completed the study. The mean age of the study population was 50.1 (20-80) years. Overall, 93.7% of participants had engaged in sexual intercourse during the year preceding the interview. The mean help-seeking interval and the mean estimated time elapsed since last satisfactory sexual intercourse were 24.5 (1-360) and 10.5 (1-180) months, respectively. Patients with low household income and education level had a relatively longer help-seeking interval than the remaining sample. No statistical correlation was seen between treatment-seeking interval and patient age, duration of marriage or continued relationship, and presence of premature ejaculation. Main reasons for delayed consultation included embarrassment (n = 63, 33%) and thinking of erectile dysfunction as a natural process of aging (n = 51, 26.7%). To enable earlier diagnosis and management of erectile dysfunction, emphasis should be put into the provision of affordable health care and wide public education about erectile dysfunction as an entity requiring prompt medical consultation. PMID:22016350

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in Alberta, Canada: implications for public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wright, Mary-Frances; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2004-06-01

    Climate change has received recent extensive media attention (e.g., Kyoto Protocol) and is currently on the international public health agenda. The purpose of this study was to survey knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in the province of Alberta, Canada. A random sample of 600 Alberta households, using proportional quotas based on the Canada Census of the Alberta population, was surveyed on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. Albertans are highly concerned, particularly about health problems related to the environment and air pollution; yet are only moderately informed about a variety of environmental issues. While the great majority of Albertans appear to be engaged in environmental behaviours at home, fewer consider energy efficiency when purchasing consumer goods. An even smaller percentage makes environmentally conscious transportation decisions. To encourage the population to make recommended environmental behaviours, mass media approaches may do well to target the specific beliefs that were deemed salient (e.g., promote the association between environment issues and health). The public health sector has a major role in working with inter-sectoral groups to address this significant public health issue. PMID:15203453

  5. ANALYSING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES - THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE SCALE OF CHANGE AND EMPLOYEES ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujhelyi Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century all organizations have to cope with challenges caused by trigger events in the environment. The key to organizational success is how fast and efficiently they are able to react. In 2014 we conducted a research survey on this topic with the contribution of Hungarian students on Bachelor courses in Business Administration and Management. They visited organizations which had gone through a significant programme of change within the last 5 years. The owners, managers or HR managers responsible for changes were asked to fill in the questionnaires about the features of these organisational changes. Several issues regarding change management were covered, besides general information about the companies. Respondents were asked about the trigger events and the nature of changes, and about the process of change and participation in it. One group of questions asked leaders about employees’ attitude to change, another section sought information about the methods used in the process. In this paper, after a short literature review, we will analyse the adaptation methods used by organizations and the connection between the scope of change and employees’ attitude toward change.

  6. Medical Students and Abortion: Reconciling Personal Beliefs and Professional Roles at One Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dans, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…

  7. How Much More XXX is Generation X Consuming? Evidence of Changing Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Pornography Since 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph; Patterson, Rich; Regnerus, Mark; Walley, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We use data from the General Social Survey (GSS) over a 40-year period (1973-2012) to evaluate changes in attitudes about pornography and pornography consumption among American young adults. One of the major challenges in making comparisons across birth generations is separating the effect of birth cohort from age and period effects. We use an intrinsic estimator to separately identify the effects of age, birth cohort, and time period using 40 years of repeated cross-section data. We find that, relative to the general population, young people's beliefs about whether pornography should be illegal have stayed relatively constant over this 40-year period and, if anything, have slightly increased. We also find that pornography consumption has been increasing across birth generations, though this increase has been smaller than would be inferred based on differences across generations at a single point in time, due to a strong age component in consumption patterns. PMID:26169262

  8. L'Apprentissage et le Changement des Attitudes envers Soi-meme: Le Concept de Soi. (Learning and the Change of Attitudes Towards Oneself: Self Image).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Aimee

    1980-01-01

    The French language article is the second in a series and describes the principles of classic conditioning which underlie attitude formation and change. The article also notes the many functions of self-concept attitudes in order to guide the choices of intervention in attitude learning. (Author/SB)

  9. Counseling Pretreatment and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesacker, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Results of the application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to a counseling context revealed that more favorable attitudes toward counseling occurred as subjects' ego involvement increased and as intervention quality improved. Counselor credibility affected the degree to which subjects' attitudes reflected argument quality differences.…

  10. Should Marketers Try to Change Consumers Unfavourable Attitude for their Product into Favourable?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday O. E. Ewah; Patrick M. Igbaji; Christian I. Umeh

    2014-01-01

    This is an empirical study of the interplay between consumers' attitude toward marketers’ products and marketers; wish to elicit favourable buying behaviour from the consumer. According to the study the process of this transformation of consumer’s attitude is not quite easy. The marketers have to put their acts together by producing products to match consumers attitude or build a gradual change that will result to favourable buying decision from the consumer.

  11. Perceived organizational support and attitudes toward organizational change : the moderating role of perceived supervisor support

    OpenAIRE

    Nordli, Jo Andreas; Blom, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Research on organizational change has identified the crucial role of the employees in whether or not a change initiative is successful. Due to the calling for more research on antecedents to change attitudes, the purpose of this study was to investigate perceived organizational support as an antecedent to attitudes toward organizational change, and whether such a relationship would be moderated by perceived supervisor support. The results from two cross-sectional surveys among 258 employees i...

  12. Party Divides: Expertise in and Attitude towards Climate Change among Australian Members of Parliament

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Talberg; Stephen Howes

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Australian federal politicians' expertise in and attitudes towards climate change. Telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 26 Members of Parliament (MPs). Results of the survey, undertaken in late 2009, suggest that climate change expertise is low to moderate among MPs, and that there is no correlation between expertise in and concern about climate change. The survey reveals important differences in attitudes to climate change by party. About 40 per cent o...

  13. A study of attitudes, beliefs and organisational barriers related to safe emergency oxygen therapy for patients with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in clinical practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, B Ronan; Bakerly, Nawar Diar; Caress, Ann-Louise; Roberts, June; Gaston, Miriam; Newton, Mark; Yorke, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients can be harmed by receiving too little or too much oxygen. There is ongoing disagreement about the use of oxygen in medical emergencies. Methods This was a mixed methods study (survey, telephone interviews and focus groups) involving patients, the public and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Results 62 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 65 members of the public, 68 ambulance crew members, 22 doctors, 22 nurses and 10 hospital managers took part. For five factual questions about oxygen therapy, the average score for correct answers was 28% for patients with COPD, 33% for the general public and 75% for HCPs. The HCPs had an average score of 66% for five technical questions. Patients (79%) and members of the public (68%) were more likely than HCPs (36%) to believe that oxygen was beneficial in most medical emergencies and less likely to have concerns that it might harm some people (35%, 25% and 68%). All groups had complex attitudes about research into oxygen use in medical emergencies. Many participants would not wish for themselves or their loved ones to have their oxygen therapy determined by a randomised protocol, especially if informed consent was not possible in an emergency situation. Conclusions We have found low levels of factual knowledge about oxygen use among patients with COPD and the general public and many false beliefs about the potential benefits and harms of using oxygen. HCPs had a higher level of factual knowledge. All groups had complex attitudes towards research into emergency oxygen use. PMID:27252870

  14. Lifestyle changes and beliefs regarding disease severity in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, L; Constant, A; Bernard, P-H; de Ledinghen, V; Couzigou, P

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate beliefs regarding disease severity and lifestyle changes following hepatitis C diagnosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). One hundred and eighty-five consecutive CHC patients were interviewed by means of self-questionnaires exploring several aspects of their disease. Most patients (93%) identified cirrhosis and liver cancer as the two main complications of CHC. More than half of patients (59%) thought that CHC was always associated with a fatal outcome whereas 3% thought that they would stay healthy. HCV viral load was the most commonly reported factor associated with disease severity. Sex life changes were reported by 107 patients (58%) whereas dietary intake changes were reported by 88 patients (48%). In multivariate analysis, changes in sex life were associated with male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.08, P patients' lifestyle. They emphasize the need for improving CHC patient counselling in order to avoid unnecessary sex life and dietary intake changes. PMID:16792542

  15. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers. PMID:12290451

  16. Behind the stage of deliberate self-persuasion: When changes in valence of associations to an attitude object predict attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tong; Lord, Charles G; Yoke, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    Modern theory and research on evaluative processes, combined with a comprehensive review of deliberate self-persuasion (Maio & Thomas, 2007, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull., 11, 46), suggest two types of strategies people can use to construct new, more desired attitudes. Epistemic strategies change the perceived valence of associations activated by the attitude object. Teleologic strategies, in contrast, keep undesired associations from being activated in the first place, thus obviating the need to change their perceived valence. Change in perceived valence of associations therefore might predict attitude change better when people pursue epistemic than teleologic strategies for deliberate self-persuasion. This hypothesis gained convergent support from three studies in which use of epistemic versus teleologic strategies was measured as an individual difference (Study 1) and manipulated (studies 2 and 3). The results of these studies supported the theoretical distinction between the two strategies and suggested further research directions. PMID:25877227

  17. Advances in the Simulation-Based Analysis of Attitude Change

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of the most relevant research work on the simulation of attitudes which evolved in the late 90’s and mainly after the year 2000. The general framework for the modeling, simulation and computational research on attitudes integrates research approaches (both fundamental and applicative) which combine theories from sociology, social psychology, social economics, political science, conflict theories, human-computer interaction areas with complexity theory, com...

  18. A Study on Change in the Attitude of Students Towards English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, C. Vijaya; Soundiraraj, S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find out whether there is any change in the attitude of students towards English Language Learning (ELL) when they come for college education after completing the school education. The transformation in the attitude of students from school to college was examined in terms of marks, interest towards English language,…

  19. Is Adolescent Body Weight Associated With Parental Beliefs About Overweight, Attitudes Towards Food, and the Home Environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krömker, D.; Stolberg, A.; Müller, C.;

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of childhood overweight and also in controling overweight. This study investigated a broad set of parental factors, including general attitudes towards food (price, identity, cooking, ecology, mood, dieting, convenience, functionality), social...... cognitions concerning overweight (risk perception, self-efficacy for exercising and healthy eating, response efficacy for exercising and healthy eating) and characteristics of the home environment (restriction of snacks, regular family meals, parents involved in sports) and their association...... with their children’s zBMI, i.e. adolescents between 12-19 years old. In a non-clinical sample of 842 parent-adolescent dyads we found that the zBMI is most strongly and positively associated with parental dieting attitudes and negatively with parents’ self-efficacy to motivate their children to exercise. The z...

  20. Farmers and Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison of Beliefs and Risk Perceptions in High-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Linda S.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Barnes, Andrew P.; Haden, V. R.; Hogan, Anthony; Niles, Meredith T.; Tyndall, John

    2015-08-01

    Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry—both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites—Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand—this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is occurring. However, there is a wide range of beliefs regarding the anthropogenic nature of climate change; only in Australia do a majority of farmers believe that climate change is anthropogenic. In all locations, a majority of farmers believe that climate change is not a threat to local agriculture. The different policy contexts and existing impacts from climate change are discussed as possible reasons for the variation in beliefs. This study compared varying surveys from the different locations and concludes that survey research on farmers and climate change in diverse locations should strive to include common questions to facilitate comparisons.

  1. Farmers and Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison of Beliefs and Risk Perceptions in High-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Linda S; Arbuckle, J G; Barnes, Andrew P; Haden, V R; Hogan, Anthony; Niles, Meredith T; Tyndall, John

    2015-08-01

    Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry-both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers' beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites-Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand-this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is occurring. However, there is a wide range of beliefs regarding the anthropogenic nature of climate change; only in Australia do a majority of farmers believe that climate change is anthropogenic. In all locations, a majority of farmers believe that climate change is not a threat to local agriculture. The different policy contexts and existing impacts from climate change are discussed as possible reasons for the variation in beliefs. This study compared varying surveys from the different locations and concludes that survey research on farmers and climate change in diverse locations should strive to include common questions to facilitate comparisons. PMID:25896821

  2. Attitudes and perceptions regarding metabolomics research on HIV and AIDS: Towards a dynamic model relating basic beliefs, technology and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Jochemsen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS pandemic are hitting hard in Africa, not the least in South Africa. In addition to preventative measures, better ways of treatment and delaying the onset of symptoms are still urgently required. Recent developments in biomedicine in South Africa, notably genomics and metabolomics, could well contribute to more effective treatments and diets. However, these technologies are rooted in modern Western culture and may embody concepts and values that are foreign to people with a different culture and worldview in semi-urban communities in South Africa. How can those technologies be introduced into such communities in an ethically acceptable and effective way? To begin answering this question, we conducted qualitative research amongst representatives of such a community near Potchefstroom, South Africa. The results indicate that the worldview, belief system and cultural customs of these people significantly influence the interpretation of HIV and AIDS and their treatment. The results led us to expand an earlier theoretical version of a qualitative model relating cultural factors and worldview to individual behaviour into an empirically informed, dynamic model that envisages possible influences of the introduction of new technologies on the belief and behavioural system of the community.

  3. Beliefs and attitudes regarding classroom management Creencias y actitudes respecto a la gestión en el aula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Castelló

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain a description of teachers' and students' beliefs about classroom misbehaviour and evaluate to what extent these beliefs guide their decisions and judgements. 1.389 students (13 to 16 years old and 170 teachers of ESO (Compulsory Secondary Education from northeast Spain have been evaluated by means of a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Results show that behaviour considered socially undesirable is valued as more deserving of penalty than misbehaviour with a less negative social evaluation, even though having a great impact on teaching and learning activities. The students' responses also showed that almost half of them do not recognise classroom-discipline actions carried out by teachers when those actions do not match their expectations. El objetivo de este trabajo es obtener una descripción de las percepciones de los profesores y estudiantes acerca del comportamiento disruptivo y evaluar como estas creencias guían sus decisiones y juicios. 1.389 estudiantes (entre 13 y 16 años y 170 profesores de ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria del nordeste de España fueron evaluados con un cuestionario creado para este propósito. Los resultados muestran que el comportamiento considerado socialmente indeseable es evaluado como más susceptible de ser castigado que comportamientos considerados como no antisociales, aunque tengan un gran impacto en las actividades de enseñanza aprendizaje.

  4. Teacher Beliefs and the Mediation of Curriculum Innovation in Scotland: A Socio-Cultural Perspective on Professional Development and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.; Priestley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate socio-cultural factors underpinning curriculum change by examining teacher beliefs in the context of professional development. Scottish teachers in the study were participating in policy implementation based on formative assessment. Teachers were selected who were positive about the formative assessment…

  5. "It's Not a Political Issue!" The Interaction of Subject and Politics on Professors' Beliefs in Human-Induced Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Owens, Marissa C.; Cordova, Jacqueline R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the interaction of political orientation with academic discipline on beliefs in anthropogenic climate change (ACC) among higher education faculty. Over 300 faculty members at two research institutions in the United States were surveyed on topics concerning ACC and the results were analyzed with multiple regression. Even among…

  6. Predicting Change in Epistemological Beliefs, Reflective Thinking and Learning Styles: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although extensive research has examined epistemological beliefs, reflective thinking and learning approaches, very few studies have looked at these three theoretical frameworks in their totality. Aims: This research tested two separate structural models of epistemological beliefs, learning approaches, reflective thinking and academic…

  7. Changes in Teachers' Beliefs after a Professional Development Project for Teaching Writing: Two Chinese Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lin Sophie

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of research has found that teachers' beliefs directly influence their classroom practices and teaching outcomes. While numerous studies in second/foreign language writing have examined the effectiveness of different innovative approaches on students' learning to write, there is a paucity of research on writing teachers' beliefs about…

  8. Understanding Changes in Chinese Immigrant Language Learners' Beliefs in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qunyan Maggie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in language learners' beliefs in second language acquisition (SLA). Nonetheless, few studies to date have investigated the extent to which learners' beliefs develop, and the factors that contribute to this development have not been examined seriously. Employing a naturalistic inquiry,…

  9. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE CYNICISM: A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON ATTITUDE OF EMPLOYEES TOWARDS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oytun Boran SEZGİN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focus on the phenomenon of “organizational change cynicism” that can be defined as “neg- ative or pessimistic perspective towards organizational change” and how to manage this phenomenon. For the study which designed as descriptive and subjective qualitative research, data is collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Emic approach is adopted ro determine the characteristics of organizational change cynicism in Turkish work life context. In this regard, focus group discussion is performed with eight people from different industries and in-depth interviews are conducted with sev- en people to determine the cynical attitude towards organizational change. As a result of data analysis, basic dimensions of organizational change cynicism is identified as “experiential”, “administrative” and “acquiring”.

  10. Embedding Evolution: Exploring Changes in Students' Conceptual Development, Beliefs, and Motivations in a Population Ecology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore student changes in conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when evolution concepts are embedded and explicit reflective discourse is used in a unit for population ecology. The two research problems were: (1) What changes are observed in student's conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when there is explicit reflective discourse within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution?, and (2) In what ways does explicit reflection influence students' mental models within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution? This mixed-method, quasi-experimental study assessed two regular high school biology classes in a small, urban, Midwestern high school. Students in this study had not studied evolution within any formal chapters, but had been immersed in a curriculum with embedded evolution. The study was conducted over a four-week period in a population ecology unit near the beginning of second semester. Instruction emphasized basic conceptions in population ecology. Five key intervention activities included evolutionary concepts as part of an embedded curriculum. The independent variable was explicit reflective discourse with one or two intervention questions after completion of these activities. Data included pre- and posttest surveys measuring (a) evolutionary understanding of natural selection, (b) science beliefs, and (c) science motivations. Written artifacts included (a) explanations to scenarios, (b) pre- and post-argument reflections revealing student's science beliefs and science motivations resultant from two argumentations, and (c) three, pre-, post-, and 6-week final concept maps constructed from 12 concepts. All data sources provided descriptive data. Conceptual change was interpreted from an ontological, epistemological, and motivational perspective. The experimental class receiving explicit reflective discourse showed greater overall increases in conceptual development. Students

  11. Changing beliefs for changing movement and pain: Classification-based cognitive functional therapy (CB-CFT) for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziat Filho, N

    2016-02-01

    This case report presents the effect of classification-based cognitive functional therapy in a patient with chronic disabling low back pain. The patient was assessed using a multidimensional biopsychosocial classification system and was classified as having flexion pattern of movement impairment disorder. Management of this patient was to change her belief that bending over and sitting would cause damage to her disc, combined with active exercises for graded exposure to lumbar flexion to restore normal movement. Three months after the first appointment, the treatment resulted in reduced pain, the mitigation of fear avoidance beliefs and the remediation of functional disability. The patient returned to work and was walking for one hour a day on a treadmill. The cognitive intervention to change the patient's negative beliefs related to the biomedical model was important to make the graded exercises and the lifestyle changes possible. PMID:25920336

  12. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BELIEFS TOWARDS MENTAL ILLNESS IN A TRADITIONAL FAST DEVELOPING COUNTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ghuloum, Suhaila

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to examine the ethnic differences in knowledge, attitude and practice towards mental illness in a sample of Qatari and non-Qatari Arabs. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross sectional survey conducted in Primary Health Care centers, Qatar from October to June 2009. A representative sample of 3000 Qatari and non-Qatari Arabs above 20 years of age were approached and 2514 subjects (83.8%) gave consent to participate in this study. Results: Mo...

  13. Changes in Participants' Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs during an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C. Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science projects provide non-scientists with opportunities to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on how participation in citizen science projects may affect their scientific literacy. In this study, we investigated (1) how…

  14. The persuasive power of emotions: Effects of emotional expressions on attitude formation and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; van den Berg, Helma; Heerdink, Marc W

    2015-07-01

    Despite a long-standing interest in the intrapersonal role of affect in persuasion, the interpersonal effects of emotions on persuasion remain poorly understood-how do one person's emotional expressions shape others' attitudes? Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory (Van Kleef, 2009), we hypothesized that people use the emotional expressions of others to inform their own attitudes, but only when they are sufficiently motivated and able to process those expressions. Five experiments support these ideas. Participants reported more positive attitudes about various topics after seeing a source's sad (rather than happy) expressions when topics were negatively framed (e.g., abandoning bobsleighing from the Olympics). Conversely, participants reported more positive attitudes after seeing happy (rather than sad) expressions when topics were positively framed (e.g., introducing kite surfing at the Olympics). This suggests that participants used the source's emotional expressions as information when forming their own attitudes. Supporting this interpretation, effects were mitigated when participants' information processing was undermined by cognitive load or was chronically low. Moreover, a source's anger expressions engendered negative attitude change when directed at the attitude object and positive change when directed at the recipient's attitude. Effects occurred regardless of whether emotional expressions were manipulated through written words, pictures of facial expressions, film clips containing both facial and vocal emotional expressions, or emoticons. The findings support EASI theory and indicate that emotional expressions are a powerful source of social influence. PMID:25402955

  15. A survey of the attitudes and beliefs about the use of TENS for pain management by physiotherapists working in two cities in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dissanayaka TD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thusharika D Dissanayaka,1 Gourav Banerjee,2,3 Mark I Johnson2,3 1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; 2Centre for Pain Research, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, UK; 3Leeds Pallium Research Group, Leeds, UK Introduction: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a noninvasive, inexpensive, self-administered technique used throughout the world to relieve pain. In Sri Lanka, physiotherapists may use TENS for their patients as they receive a small amount of education about the principles and practice of TENS in their undergraduate training. To date, there have been no data gathered about the use of TENS by physiotherapists in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to assess attitudes and beliefs of physiotherapists working in Sri Lanka about their use of TENS for pain management. Methods: A postal survey was undertaken using a 12-item questionnaire developed by the investigators to gather information about attitudes, beliefs and use of TENS in clinical practice. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 physiotherapists working in three government hospitals and six private hospitals in the cities of Kandy and Colombo. A descriptive analysis of data was performed. Results: Sixty-seven completed questionnaires were returned (67% response rate. Over half of the respondents (58.2% reported that they used TENS to treat pain “often” or “very often”, with use for musculoskeletal/orthopedic (61.3% and neuropathic/neuralgic (79.1% pain being most common. TENS was used less for postsurgical pain and rarely for cancer pain. Most (95.5% respondents reported that their patients benefitted “considerably” from TENS. 76.1% of the respondents reported that they did not recommend and/or prescribe TENS for patients to use at home. Conclusion: Physiotherapists value TENS as a treatment option to manage musculoskeletal and

  16. Changing Criminal Attitudes Among Incarcerated Offenders: Initial Examination of a Structured Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simourd, David J; Olver, Mark E; Brandenburg, Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of a criminal attitude treatment program to changes on measured criminal attitudes and postprogram recidivism. The criminal attitude program (CAP) is a standardized therapeutic curriculum consisting of 15 modules offering 44 hr of therapeutic time. It was delivered by trained facilitators to a total of 113 male offenders incarcerated in one of five state correctional institutions. Pretreatment and posttreatment comparisons were made on standardized measures of criminal attitudes, response bias, and motivation for lifestyle changes. Results found statistically significant lower criminal attitudes at posttreatment that were unaffected by response bias. There were also increases in motivation for lifestyle changes, but these did not reach statistical significance. Fifty-seven participants were released into the community following the program and were eligible for recidivism analyses. Comparisons between participants who completed the CAP and those who did not complete the CAP revealed 7% lower rearrest among CAP completers. Although preliminary, these results indicate that the CAP had a positive effect on changes to criminal attitudes and recidivism. The findings are discussed in terms of conceptual and practical considerations in the assessment and treatment of criminal attitudes among offenders. PMID:25891270

  17. A Narrative Inquiry to Determine the Impact of Learning Communities on Attitude Change of Developmental College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, La Tonya R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry research study was to explore how learning communities impact attitude changes of developmental college students. The qualitative research design enabled the researcher to determine attitudes, and changes in attitudes, via narratives shared by the participants about their personal experiences. The participants…

  18. Changing Millennials' Attitude toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Anne Y.; Sciaraffa, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    The members of the Millennial Generation (born between 1981-1999) are now graduating from college and obtaining their first post-graduate positions. For many Millennials, this will be the first professional interaction they have with mature adults. This study surveyed the attitudes of the Millennial Generation using the Multidimensional Attitudes…

  19. Children's Changing Attitudes Regarding Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Samuel; Rooney, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Responses to drug and alcohol related questionnaire administered to intermediate grade students showed that sixth graders were significantly more advanced than fourth or fifth graders in terms of conformity to peer pressure and positive attitudes toward drug and alcohol use. Results have implications for drug and alcohol education curriculum…

  20. Assessment of Change in Conservation Attitudes through Zoo Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and…

  1. Educational Attitude Changes During Year-Long Student Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, James M.; Lacefield, Warren

    1978-01-01

    A year-long, clustered student teaching program is examined over a two-year period for influence upon pre-service teacher attitudes toward education. The Educational Preference Scale is used in a pre- and post-design, and results are interpreted with reference to the theory of cognitive dissonance. Discusses the relationship between educational…

  2. "E-Book Flood" for Changing EFL Learners' Reading Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    This paper was intended to investigate the effects of using e-books (or texts with multimedia support) in an ERP (extensive reading program) on EFL (English as a foreign language) learners' attitudes toward reading in English. In a junior high school in northern Taiwan, 109 students from 3 intact classes were recruited in the 10-week ERP of…

  3. Have public attitudes in Germany towards nuclear energy changed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Government developed its phase-out scenario in 1998, at a time in which the public debate about nuclear energy in Germany had waned and the anti-nuclear movement among the population had clearly lost much of its support. Since the beginning of the 90s, the proportion of Germans referring to themselves as 'opponents of nuclear power' has gone down from almost 19 to only just 12%. This decrease has been particularly strong among younger people. While in 1990 29 were still opposed to nuclear power, in 1999 this figure was only 17 %. Within the age group of 30-44 year-olds, 26 were against nuclear power in 1990; today, it is only 16 %. As for Germans aged 45+, the number of nuclear-power opponents decreased within this period by around 6 to a mere 8%. The issue of the 'use of nuclear power', which used to be ideologically charged and discussed with great passion in Germany for a long time, has cooled down. There exist quite different views about the further use of nuclear technology, and what the public wants especially in view of the planned phase-out is a prudent energy policy, based on a careful analysis of the consequences. One of the major points of the current opinion poll on the topic: 'Have public attitudes in Germany towards nuclear energy changed?', is being carried out by the Institut fur Demoskopie Alensbach on behalf of the Informationskreis Kernenergie. Apart from this first major point, this poll is to find out which general course an energy policy should ideally take according to public opinion, along which lines such an energy policy should orientate itself, what is the place value of the principle of having an energy mix, and how much importance is attributed to sustainability. Another focus lies on probing the knowledge of those polled in order to check to what extent the population assesses correctly the quantitative importance of nuclear power and alternative energies and how well it is informed about the potentials of different forms

  4. Attitudes of eighth-grade honors students toward the conceptual change methods of teaching science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, Clifford Lee

    1998-12-01

    The study researched the attitude of eighth grade honors science students toward the steps of the conceptual change teaching method. The attitudes of 25 students in an honors 8th grade science class in the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area were assessed using a multi-method approach. A quantitative method (student survey) and a qualitative method (focus group) were triangulated for convergence. Since conceptual change is a relatively new reform teaching modality, the study assessed students' attitudes utilizing this method. Conceptual change teaching is characterized by connections between concepts and facts which are organized around key ideas. Knowledge connected through concepts is constantly revised and edited by students as they continue to learn and add new concepts. The results of this study produced evidence that the conceptual change method of teaching science and its six process steps have qualities that foster positive student attitude. The study demonstrated that students' attitudes toward science is positively influenced through the conceptual change teaching method by enabling students to: (1) choose problems and find solutions to those problems (student directed); (2) work together in large and small groups; (3) learn through student oral presentations; (4) perform hands-on laboratory experiences; (5) learn through conceptual understanding not memorization; (6) implement higher order learning skills to make connections from the lab to the real world. Teachers can use the information in the study to become aware of the positive and negative attitudes of students taught with the conceptual change method. Even if the conceptual change teaching strategy is not the modality utilized by an educator, the factors identified by this study that affect student attitude could be used to help a teacher design lesson plans that help foster positive student attitudes.

  5. A Pedagogical Dimension to the Technocratic Problem of Water Management: Preschool Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Teaching Water Science and Sustainable Management of Water in the Context of Environmental Education

    OpenAIRE

    E. Bourotzoglou; D. Emmanouloudis; A. Georgopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Future generations are necessary to become conscious of water environmental problems, since preschool age, as they will be forced to manage them in the future. Experiential Environmental Education is a tool for sustainable management of water resources, but the key to this process is teachers and the factors that shape their readiness to fulfill their role. In this research their beliefs and attitudes are being investigated, as they influence the quality of teaching and environmen...

  6. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Okajima

    Full Text Available The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  7. Potential exposure to anti-drug advertising and drug-related attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among United States youth, 1995-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Emery, Sherry; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2011-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study on United States middle and high school students, we related exposure to anti-drug television advertising as measured by Nielsen Media Research ratings points to student self-reported drug-related outcomes from 1995 to 2006. Multivariate analyses controlling for key socio-demographics and accounting for the complex survey design included 337,918 cases. Results indicated that attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding substance use were significantly related to such advertising exposure over the six months prior to the date the youth were surveyed. However, the observed relationships varied by grade level, over time and by advertising tagline and marijuana focus. Findings differed markedly between middle and high school students across the study interval. One factor that may partially explain observed differences may be variation in the degree to which the ads focused on marijuana. Putting a concerted effort into increasing anti-drug advertising will likely increase the exposure to and recall of such ads among youth. However, the likelihood that such advertising will result in youth being less likely to use drugs seems to depend heavily on the type of advertising utilized and how it relates to different ages and characteristics of targeted youth. PMID:20961691

  8. Potential Exposure to Anti-Drug Advertising and Drug-Related Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors among United States Youth, 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Emery, Sherry; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study on United States middle and high school students, we related exposure to anti-drug television advertising as measured by Nielsen Media Research ratings points to student self-reported drug-related outcomes from 1995-2006. Multivariate analyses controlling for key socio-demographics and accounting for the complex survey design included 337,918 cases. Results indicated that attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding substance use were significantly related to such advertising exposure over the six months prior to the date youth were surveyed. However, the observed relationships varied by grade level, over time and by advertising tagline and marijuana focus. Findings differed markedly between middle and high school students across the study interval. One factor that may partially explain observed differences may be variation in the degree to which the ads focused on marijuana. Putting a concerted effort into increasing anti-drug advertising will likely increase the exposure to and recall of such ads among youth. However, the likelihood that such advertising will result in youth being less likely to use drugs seems to depend heavily on the type of advertising utilized and how it relates to different ages and characteristics of targeted youth. PMID:20961691

  9. Health professionals' factual knowledge and changing attitudes toward transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, L R; Casinelli, D L

    1986-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs), obstetrician-gynecologists, urologists, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (total N = 202) were randomly surveyed to assess their knowledge of the syndrome of transsexuality and their attitudes toward transsexual patients and sex reassignment surgery. A low return rate, though, requires that the present data be interpreted prudently. Where possible, the current findings were compared with the attitudinal data published in 1966 by Green, Stoller and MacAndrew. Over this interval an increasingly liberal and favorable trend in attitudes was noted amongst all medical specialties. 'Liberal' refers to a willingness to recommend a surgical remedy and 'favorable' refers to a less psychopathological perspective of the syndrome and greater social acceptance of these individuals. In the present sample GPs tend to hold the most conservative views, while clinical psychologists consistently endorse the most liberal positions. No differences emerged among the five groups of health care professionals on the factual knowledge assessment. PMID:3704690

  10. Changing Student Attitudes using Andes, An Intelligent Homework System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; Vanlehn, Kurt; Treacy, Don; Shelby, Bob; Wintersgill, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The size of introductory physics lectures often inhibits personal homework assistance and timely corrective feedback. Andes, an intelligent homework help system designed for two semesters of introductory physics, can fill this need by encouraging students to use sound problem solving techniques and providing immediate feedback on each step of a solution. On request, Andes provides principles-based hints based on previous student actions. A multi-year study at the U.S. Naval Academy demonstrates that students using Andes perform better than students working the same problems as graded pencil and paper homeworks. In addition, student attitude surveys show that Andes is preferred over other homework systems. These findings have implications for student attitudes toward, and mastery of, physics. See http://www.andes.pitt.edu for more information.

  11. Changing Medical Students’ Attitudes to Psychiatry through Newer Teaching Techniques*

    OpenAIRE

    Ajita Nayak

    2015-01-01

    The significance of mental health in the entire health scenario has increased. However, the representation of psychiatry in the current MBBS curriculum for undergraduate students in India still remains much less than desirable. Further, stigmatising attitudes lessen these future doctors′ ability to detect and manage patients with psychological problems despite adequate knowledge about psychiatry. Students believe that psychiatrically ill patients are unpredictable and can be dangerous to othe...

  12. Consensus on Changing Trends, Attitudes, and Concepts of Asian Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Steven; Wu, Woffles T. L.; Chan, Henry H.; Ho, Wilson W. S.; Kim, Hee-Jin; Goodman, Greg J; Peng, Peter H. L.; Rogers, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Asians increasingly seek non-surgical facial esthetic treatments, especially at younger ages. Published recommendations and clinical evidence mostly reference Western populations, but Asians differ from them in terms of attitudes to beauty, structural facial anatomy, and signs and rates of aging. A thorough knowledge of the key esthetic concerns and requirements for the Asian face is required to strategize appropriate facial esthetic treatments with botulinum toxin and hyaluronic a...

  13. Investigating the Influence of Employee Attitude toward Change and Leadership Style on Change Readiness by SEM (Case Study: Isfahan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Faghihi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Change has become a normal occurrence within organizations and especially municipalities, due to the rapid society and economic changes. In a competitive global economy, organizations are forced to stay abreast with environmental changes in order to survive. Employee readiness for change can be a determining factor of successful change. To recognize antecedents of change readiness, the present study has conducted two variables of employee's attitude toward change as individual aspect and leadership style as organizational aspect of change readiness. The hypotheses have been tested by SEM on sample case of Isfahan municipality as a powerful organization which deals with change. The results have indicated that there are positive significant relationships between employee's attitude toward change and employee readiness and also change-oriented leadership style and employee readiness.

  14. Examining Beliefs and Practices of Self and Others: Pivotal Points for Change and Growth for Mathematics Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovin, LouAnn H.; Sanchez, Wendy B.; Leatham, Keith R.; Chauvot, Jennifer B.; Kastberg, Signe E.; Norton, Anderson H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article six mathematics teacher educators describe a collaborative self-study that examined personal beliefs about mathematics teacher education. We were striving to understand more fully our beliefs and belief structures, including how these beliefs influence our instructional practices. We describe four beliefs about mathematics teacher…

  15. Safer Conception Methods and Counseling: Psychometric Evaluation of New Measures of Attitudes and Beliefs Among HIV Clients and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldetsadik, Mahlet Atakilt; Goggin, Kathy; Staggs, Vincent S; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Mindry, Deborah; Finocchario-Kessler, Sarah; Khanakwa, Sarah; Wagner, Glenn J

    2016-06-01

    With data from 400 HIV clients with fertility intentions and 57 HIV providers in Uganda, we evaluated the psychometrics of new client and provider scales measuring constructs related to safer conception methods (SCM) and safer conception counselling (SCC). Several forms of validity (i.e., content, face, and construct validity) were examined using standard methods including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was established using Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient. The final scales consisted of measures of attitudes towards use of SCM and delivery of SCC, including measures of self-efficacy and motivation to use SCM, and perceived community stigma towards childbearing. Most client and all provider measures had moderate to high internal consistency (alphas 0.60-0.94), most had convergent validity (associations with other SCM or SCC-related measures), and client measures had divergent validity (poor associations with depression). These findings establish preliminary psychometric properties of these scales and should facilitate future studies of SCM and SCC. PMID:26487299

  16. Changes in Human Immunodeficiency Virusrelated Knowledge and Stigmatizing Attitudes among Korean Adolescents from 2006 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Aeree; Park, SungBok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the prevalence and changes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and stigmatizing attitudes in 2006, 2008, and 2011. Methods Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006, 2008, and 2011. A cross-sectional sample of high school students in Seoul, South Korea was targeted. A self-administered questionnaire measuring general and transmission and discriminatory attitudes was used. Results Misconceptions about casual contact were widespread, even th...

  17. AN EXPLANATION OF THE CHANGE IN ACCOUNTANTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS FLEXIBILITY USING THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Calu Daniela Artemisa; Olimid Lavinia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look at accountants as “consumers of accounting regulations”. We explain the change in the accountants’ attitude towards flexibility in the accounting regulation process, using a theory derived from social psychology: the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). In 1999 and 2005 we tested the attitude towards flexibility of a number of Romanian accountants who aimed at becoming private practitioners. We observed that before the existence of an accounting conceptual framework (1999), ...

  18. Changing teacher's beliefs about school self-evaluation and the impact on teacher behaviour and student achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Alenka Hauptman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine if different ways of promoting school self-evaluation had an effect on changing teachers' beliefs about school self-evaluation, on their behaviour in the classroom and on student achievement. Although school self-evaluation in Slovenian primary schools is legally required; there are no uniform instructions about using it or even systematic research on its effectiveness. Our sample included 111 fourth grade teachers from 59 Slovenian primary ...

  19. Interprofessional staff development: changing attitudes and winning hearts and minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth Susan; Thorpe, Lucy Nichola; Hammick, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    As more educators are involved in interprofessional education (IPE) it is important to consider how participation affects those who are sceptical about IPE. We report a prospective study in which the attitudes of 13 educators, unfamiliar with IPE, were compared before and after facilitating their first IPE. Their views, obtained as personal stories, were analysed through cognitive dissonance theory. Prior to teaching, all novice educators had concerns about IPE. Post-facilitation all were more positive about the value and meaning of IPE. PMID:20795823

  20. Attitude changes toward nuclear power generation. Analysis of data from a longitudinal survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Attitude changes toward nuclear power generation in response to incidents/accidents at the nuclear facilities were examined, using a longitudinal survey. A replicated survey was conducted in Kansai area following the incidents in 1995 and 1997, and a panel survey was conducted in 1997, using the same subjects as those in the survey conducted by C. Hayashi in 1993 about the attitude toward nuclear power generation. The results of the panel survey showed that an anxiety about a nuclear incident/accident tended to increase and that the number of those who decreased an anxiety about a nuclear incident/accident was relatively small, compared to an anxiety about other incidents/accidents. Using the quantification theory to analyze the group that showed changes in attitude toward nuclear power generation, it was suggested that the increase or decrease in the level of anxiety about a nuclear power incident/accident had an influence on the changes in attitude. However, the influence was not the most significant one compared to other factors. With the inclusion of the group that showed no change in attitude, the general population structure that the approval for nuclear power generation because of inevitable use of nuclear energy accounted for sixty percent remained with no significant change. (author)

  1. Clean delivery practices in rural northern Ghana: a qualitative study of community and provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyer Cheryl A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of

  2. Changing attitudes toward immigration in Europe, 2002-2007: a dynamic group conflict theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleman, Bart; Davidov, Eldad; Billiet, Jaak

    2009-06-01

    Anti-immigration attitudes and its origins have been investigated quite extensively. Research that focuses on the evolution of attitudes toward immigration, however, is far more scarce. In this paper, we use data from the first three rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS) to study the trend of anti-immigration attitudes between 2002 and 2007 in 17 European countries. In the first part of the paper, we discuss the critical legitimacy for comparing latent variable means over countries and time. A Multiple-Group Multiple Indicator Structural Equation Modeling (MGSEM) approach is used to test the cross-country and cross-time equivalence of the variables under study. In a second step, we try to offer an explanation for the observed trends using a dynamic version of group conflict theory. The country-specific evolutions in attitudes toward immigration are shown to coincide with national context factors, such as immigration flows and changes in unemployment rates. PMID:19827179

  3. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors : when public education is not enough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Douglas P.; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Miciak, Maxi A.; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the

  4. Dysfunctional beliefs in the process of change of cognitive treatment in obsessive compulsive checkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Geert, Paul L. C.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is considered to be effective in the reduction of obsessive compulsive symptoms. However, questions remain as to how CBT works. Cognitive-behavioural models postulate that negative appraisals of intrusive thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs that give rise to them und

  5. Does Framing the Hot Hand Belief Change Decision-Making Behavior in Volleyball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; MacMahon, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous discussions of the hot hand belief, wherein athletes believe that they have a greater chance of scoring after 2 or 3 hits (successes) compared with 2 or 3 misses, have focused on whether this is the case within game statistics. Researchers have argued that the perception of the hot hand in random sequences is a bias of the…

  6. Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E; Stronza, Amanda L

    2011-08-01

    Negative attitudes of resident communities towards conservation are associated with resource decline in developing countries. In Botswana, Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) was adopted to address this challenge. CBNRM links rural development and conservation. However, the impact of CBNRM on changes of resident attitudes towards conservation and tourism is not adequately researched. This paper, therefore, assesses the impacts of CBNRM on resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. The study purposively sampled villages of Khwai, Mababe and Sankoyo. Household data using variables like: economic benefits from CBNRM; level of satisfaction with CBNRM; co-management of natural resources between resident communities and government agencies; and collective action was collected. This data was supplemented by secondary and ethnographic data. Using qualitative and quantitative analysis, results indicate changes in resident attitudes from being negative to positive towards tourism and conservation. These changes are triggered by economic benefits residents derived from CBNRM, co-management in resource management; and, collective action of communities in CBNRM development. Positive attitudes towards conservation and tourism are the first building blocks towards achieving conservation in nature-based tourism destinations. As a result, decision-makers should give priority to CBNRM and use it as a tool to achieve conservation and improved livelihoods in nature-based tourism destinations of developing countries. PMID:21482448

  7. Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

  8. The effect of coach and player injury knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on adherence to the FIFA 11+ programme in female youth soccer

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Carly; Steffen, Kathrin; Romiti, Maria; Finch, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background: Injury knowledge and beliefs influence uptake of prevention programmes, but the relationship between knowledge, beliefs and adherence remains unclear. Aim: To describe injury knowledge and beliefs among youth female soccer coaches and players, and to identify the relationship between these factors, different delivery strategies of the FIFA 11+ programme and adherence. Methods: A subcohort analysis from a cluster-randomised controlled trial of 31 female soccer teams (co...

  9. Determine the Effectiveness of Learning of Coping Strategies with Irrational Beliefs Based on the Theory of Rational-Emotional Alice on Attitudes to Communicate Before Married Female High School Students in Yazd- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Forat Yazdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This research was done with the objective of "Determine the effectiveness of learning coping strategies with Irrational Beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice on students’ attitude toward premarital relations in Yazd city". Materials and Methods In this semi experimental research 60 female students of Yazd-Iran, selected by using of Cochran’s formula and divided in two groups of control (30 persons and experiment (30 persons randomly. Learning of coping strategies with Irrational beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice during the 8 sessions of 90 minutes was conducted on experiment group, and the control group did not training; then post-test was conducted in two groups. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA used in order to data analysis in descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results The adjusted mean attitude scores of the relationship with the opposite sex in control group, on the pre-test and post-test was 51.27+12.16, 50.30+14.46 and in experimental group was 69.53+8.91, 43.63+10.96 respectively. The result Alice rational-emotional treatment method is effective on attitude to relationship before marriage of high school girls (P

  10. “Hour of Code”: Can It Change Students’ Attitudes toward Programming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Wimmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students’ attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two universities was selected to participate. Participants completed an Hour of Code tutorial as part of an undergraduate course. An electronic questionnaire was implemented in a pre-survey and post-survey format to gauge the change in student attitudes toward programming and their programming ability. The findings indicated the positive impact of the Hour of Code tutorial on students’ attitude toward programming. However, the students’ programming skills did not significantly change. The authors suggest that a deeper alignment of marketing, teaching, and content would help sustain the type of initiative exemplified by the Hour of Code.

  11. Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

    2007-04-01

    Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change. PMID:17430368

  12. Everyday beliefs about food and health

    OpenAIRE

    Saher, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    The series of studies addresses several everyday beliefs about food and health from the perspective of everyday thinking and paranormal beliefs. They are "you are what you eat" beliefs, attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods, and belief in alternative medicine. The survey studies included from 239 to 3261 Finnish participants. It was found that food consumption can have far-stretching consequences for the impressions of the eater in a "you are what you eat" manner. The ...

  13. Change over a service learning experience in science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about elementary school students' ability to learn science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Camille A.

    This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated

  14. A Pedagogical Dimension to the Technocratic Problem of Water Management: Preschool Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Teaching Water Science and Sustainable Management of Water in the Context of Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bourotzoglou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future generations are necessary to become conscious of water environmental problems, since preschool age, as they will be forced to manage them in the future. Experiential Environmental Education is a tool for sustainable management of water resources, but the key to this process is teachers and the factors that shape their readiness to fulfill their role. In this research their beliefs and attitudes are being investigated, as they influence the quality of teaching and environmental awareness of children. Specifically, 128 preschool teachers from North Greece were interviewed on how they perceive a their Willingness to improve their skills and knowledge on the scientific subject of water and its sustainable management, b their Comfort in teaching these subjects and c their Familiarity with the content knowledge, pedagogical teaching methods of preschool and environmental education and developmentally appropriate activities for teaching these subjects according to Psychology. In addition, it explores preschool teacher’s beliefs and attitudes d about whether water science and sustainable management of water could keep Child’s Interest and e if it contributes to Child Benefit, raising children’s awareness of environmental issues and developing his/her language, art, math, technological and social skills. Correlation Analysis showed that preschool teacher’s beliefs and attitudes towards teaching the subject of water were positive but under certain preconditions (they do not have the Willingness to spend time creating materials, they do not need more scientific knowledge, they do not consider children’s experimentation as the best way of learning, the ‘creative clutter’ caused by experimentation annoys them, they are not willing to engage in children’s experimentation with water, watching what children do, what they say or ask and they do not consider more activities with water necessary. However, these items of the Scale may

  15. Effects of Conceptual Change Text Based Instruction on Ecology, Attitudes toward Biology and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Gülcan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the conceptual change text based instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of ecological concepts, and attitudes toward biology and environment. Participants were 82 ninth grade students in a public high school in the Northwestern Turkey. A treatment was employed over a…

  16. Are They Living What They Learn?: Assessing Knowledge and Attitude Change in Introductory Politics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min

    2012-01-01

    Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…

  17. In-Service Teachers' Attitudes, Knowledge and Classroom Teaching of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian; Bhattacharya, Devarati; Varma, Keisha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores in-service teachers' attitudes and knowledge about a pressing environmental issue, "global climate change" (GCC), and how these may relate to their classroom teaching. In this work, nineteen teachers from Native American communities attended a professional development workshop that focused on enhancing their…

  18. Changing Attitudes over Time: Assessing the Effectiveness of a Workplace Diversity Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Tahira M.

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is increasing within the United States, and higher education will likely play a key role in preparing people to function in this new environment. This study assessed the effectiveness of a semester-long psychology workplace diversity course at changing student levels of ethnocentrism and attitudes regarding gender roles; the disabled;…

  19. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  20. The Systematic Design of a Persuasive Communication for Changing Attitudes of Preservice Teachers Toward Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Barbara L.; And Others

    Ninety-three preservice elementary teachers volunteered to participate in an investigation designed to study and change their attitudes toward science teaching. The purpose of the investigation was to: (1) test a persuasive communication that had been designed using Hovland's framework, (2) question the relevance of the consistency principle for…

  1. Course Delivery Platform Changes and Instructional Delivery Methods: Student Attitudes and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, William E.; Pack, Tresvil G.; Szirony, Gary M.; Beeson, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine students' perceptions and attitudes toward changes in Distance Education (DE) course management systems and to evaluate their instructional delivery preferences. Students (N = 145) enrolled in an online master's degree program on either a full- or part-time basis completed an online survey instrument…

  2. Changes in attitudes towards nuclear safety over the last 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews changes in attitude towards nuclear safety over the past 25 years. The application of probabilistic risk analysis in the nuclear industry and the public perception of nuclear risks are both discussed under the topic headings: risk; risk analysis; risk criteria, and risk perceptions. (U.K.)

  3. Learning Might Not Equal Liking: Research Methods Course Changes Knowledge But Not Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, O. J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Students completed surveys at the beginning and end of a sophomore-level course on research and statistics. We hypothesized that the course would produce advances in knowledge of research and statistics and that those changes would be accompanied by more favorable attitudes toward the subject matter. Results showed that knowledge did increase…

  4. Implementing Computer-Based Assessment--A Web-Based Mock Examination Changes Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Tobias; Herrmann, Kristin; Frese, Thomas; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the educational use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in higher education is increasing. For successful implementation, it is important to know students' attitudes and reservations and how they can be positively influenced. The objective of the present study was to examine possible attitudinal changes towards…

  5. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that child-centred, 5E learning cycle-based climate change activities would have over more traditional teacher-centred activities on Malaysian Year 5 primary students (11 years). A quasi-experimental design involving a treatment (n = 55) and a group representing typical teaching method (n = 60) was used to measure the effectiveness of these activities on (a) increasing children's knowledge about global warming; (b) changing their attitudes to be more favourable towards the environment and (c) identify the relationship between knowledge and attitude that exist in this study. Statistically significant differences in favour of the treatment group were detected for both knowledge and environmental attitudes. Non-significant relationship was identified between knowledge and attitude in this study. Interviews with randomly selected students from treatment and comparison groups further underscore these findings. Implications are discussed.

  6. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Changing Beliefs Related to Substance and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taherh Ghorbani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare of the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and methadone maintenance therapy on changing beliefs toward substance abuse among addicted people. Method: The research method was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. 30 addicted people who were referred to the addiction treatment centers selected by available sampling, and they randomly assigned to three groups namely: cognitive-behavioral therapy, methadone maintenance therapy and witness groups. Substance abuse beliefs questionnaire was administered among all participants before and after intervention. Results: Results showed that in both experimental groups, beliefs toward drug was reduced significantly in comparison with witness group. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be changed on cognitive mediator variables, like beliefs toward substance therefore, it can reduce the risk of relapse. However, the programs of treatment of substance abuse should be targeted this type of intermediate variables.

  7. Changes in Attitude towards Gender Inequality in the

    OpenAIRE

    Vakil Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequality stems from social factors in each society. In theories of gender inequality, it has been assumed that family role in reproduction of gender inequality is of crucial importance (Bourdieu 2001, Chaftez 1999, dyson 2001). Demographic transition is one of the factors in the structure of family changes in recent century. Demographic transition is applied to changes from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels (Lucas & meyer 2002). Demographic transit...

  8. Changes in attitude structure toward nuclear power in the nuclear power plant locations of Tohoku district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey was examined the changes in structure of attitude toward nuclear power and the influence of environmental value on the attitude structure before and after the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. With residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures as participants, we conducted online surveys in November 2009 and October 2011. Comparing the results before and after the accident, we found that trust in the management of nuclear power plants had a stronger influence on the perceived risk and benefit regarding nuclear power after the accident than before the accident. The value of concern about environmental destruction resulted in reduced trust in the management. (author)

  9. Autonomous Motivation Is Not Enough: The Role of Compensatory Health Beliefs for the Readiness to Change Stair and Elevator Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theda Radtke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs are beliefs that an unhealthy behavior can be compensated with a healthy behavior. In line with the CHBs model, the aim of this study was twofold. First, the study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and CHBs that physical inactivity can be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Second, the study focused on the associations between CHBs and readiness to use the stairs more often and stair and elevator use. Thus, a cross-sectional online questionnaire was designed that was filled out by 135 participants. Path analysis showed that individuals with stronger autonomous motivation to use the stairs strongly agreed that sedentary behavior could be compensated by taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Moreover, CHBs were positively related to readiness to change behavior, but not to self-reported stair and elevator use. Even though future research is necessary to replicate these findings, autonomous motivation seems to have a positive impact on CHBs which, in turn, might boost an intended behavior change. Thus, promoting possible compensation of physical inactivity might foster the readiness to change the unhealthy behavior.

  10. Taking over someone else's e-learning design: challenges trigger change in e-learning beliefs and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As universities invest in the development of e-learning resources, e-learning sustainability has come under consideration. This has largely focused on the challenges and facilitators of organisational and technological sustainability and scalability, and professional development. Little research has examined the experience of a teacher dealing with e-learning sustainability when taking over a course with an e-learning resource and associated assessment. This research focuses on a teacher who was inexperienced with e-learning technology, yet took over a blended unit of study with an e-learning resource that accounted for one-fifth of the subject assessment and was directed towards academic skills development relevant to the degree program. Taking a longitudinal approach, this research examines the challenges faced by the new teacher and the way she changed the e-learning resource and its implementation over two years. A focus of the research is the way the teacher's reflections on the challenges and changes provided an opportunity and stimulus for change in her e-learning beliefs and practices. This research has implications for the way universities support teachers taking over another teacher's e-learning resource, the need for explicit documentation of underpinning beliefs and structured handover, the benefit of teamwork in developing e-learning resources, and provision of on-going support.

  11. What are the beliefs, attitudes and practices of front-line staff in long-term care (LTC facilities related to osteoporosis awareness, management and fracture prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Jonathan D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to the general elderly population, those institutionalized in LTC facilities have the highest prevalence of osteoporosis and subsequently have higher incidences of vertebral and hip fractures. The goal of this study is to determine how well nurses at LTC facilities are educated to properly administer bisphosphonates. A secondary question assessed was the nurse's and PSW's attitudes and beliefs regarding the role and benefits of vitamin D for LTC patients. Methods Eight LTC facilities in Hamilton were surveyed, and all nurses were offered a survey. A total 57 registered nurses were surveyed. A 21 item questionnaire was developed to assess existing management practices and specific osteoporosis knowledge areas. Results The questionnaire assessed the nurse's and personal support worker's (PSWs education on how to properly administer bisphosphonates by having them select all applicable responses from a list of options. These options included administering the drug before, after or with meals, given with or separate from other medications, given with juice, given with or without water, given with the patient sitting up, or finally given with the patient supine. Only 52% of the nurses and 8.7% of PSWs administered the drug properly, where they selected the options: (given before meals, given with water, given separate from all other medications, and given in a sitting up position. If at least one incorrect option was selected, then it was scored as an inappropriate administration. Bisphosphonates were given before meals by 85% of nurses, given with water by 90%, given separately from other medication by 71%, and was administered in an upright position by 79%. Only 52% of the nurses and 8.7% of PSWs surveyed were administering the drug properly. Regarding the secondary question, of the 57 nurses surveyed, 68% strongly felt their patients should be prescribed vitamin D supplements. Of the 124 PSWs who completed the survey

  12. Τhe attitude of nurses on global climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrianopoulos Τ.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has had and will have considerable effects on human health.Νursing must become more centrally involved in mitigation, reducing the acidity and response efforts of the problem. Aim The presentation based on international literature review, of a framework for nursing action on climate change. Material and Methods Method was used is to search electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL for a review of international literature to 2009 and became selection of books, articles and studies from libraries. Results Given the climate change, developed a working framework for serious professional thinking and action on community nursing. Like many other professions, so the nursing world should now raise the question of how it could contribute, and that could perhaps be better focused individual and collective efforts. The four main components of the framework for action are: the usual tactics, to maximize the skills, the right of priority sites and public grants. Conclusions The nursing should be linked closely with other professions and sectors in order to maximize national and international efforts to mitigate and combat climate change. The profession's response to climate change should be as varied and as the sector itself, and from all countries.

  13. Changing Economy – developing key skills for a new attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca MIHALCIOIU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Go with the times or be gone in no time Our economy and society is marked by very rapid changes. We live in times of permanent changes in a breathtaking pace. This is accompanied by uncertainty, anxiety and general lethargy. We can recognize Phenomena such as these not only at individuals - undisputed right at each of us in varying degrees – but it also relates to all sectors, such as the economy, politics, society in its various areas.

  14. Internalizing knowledge and changing attitudes to female genital cutting/mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Inger-Lise; Schultz, Jon-Håkon

    2013-01-01

    The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who have changed their attitude to FGC have got information from different educational institutions, from seminars and conferences, from work as interpreters in hospitals, and from discussions among families and friends. Information can be received, listened to and subsequently discarded. In order to design FGC-abandonment campaigns, the importance of the internalization process in order for the individual to make an attitudinal change must be understood. PMID:23843795

  15. Internalizing Knowledge and Changing Attitudes to Female Genital Cutting/Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger-Lise Lien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who have changed their attitude to FGC have got information from different educational institutions, from seminars and conferences, from work as interpreters in hospitals, and from discussions among families and friends. Information can be received, listened to and subsequently discarded. In order to design FGC-abandonment campaigns, the importance of the internalization process in order for the individual to make an attitudinal change must be understood.

  16. Changing Attitudes in Underprivileged Adolescents Participating in Group Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Julia

    Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…

  17. Changing Attitudes of High School Students in Israel toward Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Uri; Rubinstein, Tanya; Hertz, Shai; Slater, Aylon

    2016-01-01

    Hoshen, the Hebrew acronym for "Education & Change", is a nonprofit, nationwide education and information center for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in Israel. The main educational method Hoshen uses is the personal story told by volunteers. The present study aimed to examine whether this activity,…

  18. Internalizing Knowledge and Changing Attitudes to Female Genital Cutting/Mutilation

    OpenAIRE

    Jon-Håkon Schultz; Inger-Lise Lien

    2013-01-01

    The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who h...

  19. Nuclear power, climate change and energy security: Exploring British public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public attitudes towards nuclear power in the UK have historically been deeply divided, but as concern about climate change and energy security has exerted an increasing influence on British energy policy, nuclear power has been reframed as a low-carbon technology. Previous research has suggested that a significant proportion of people may 'reluctantly accept' nuclear power as a means of addressing the greater threat of climate change. Drawing on the results of a national British survey (n=1822), the current study found that attitudes towards nuclear remain divided, with only a minority expressing unconditional acceptance. In general, people who expressed greater concern about climate change and energy security and possessed higher environmental values were less likely to favour nuclear power. However, when nuclear power was given an explicit 'reluctant acceptance' framing - allowing people to express their dislike for nuclear power alongside their conditional support - concerns about climate change and energy security became positive predictors of support for nuclear power. These findings suggest that concern about climate change and energy security will only increase acceptance of nuclear power under limited circumstances-specifically once other (preferred) options have been exhausted. - Highlights: → We report data from 2005 to 2010 of British attitudes towards nuclear power and climate change. → Changes in attitudes over the time period were relatively modest. → British population remained relatively divided on nuclear power in 2010. → Concern about climate change was negatively related to evaluations of nuclear power. → Different framings of the issue alter the balance of support for nuclear power.

  20. Political attitudes in adolescence and emerging adulthood: Developmental changes in mean level, polarization, rank-order stability, and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2015-06-01

    This three-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study (N = 1302) examined the development of two core political attitudes, economic egalitarianism and ethnocentrism, among Dutch youths between age 12 and 31. Longitudinal regression analyses revealed a curvilinear mean level development for both attitudes, reflecting an increased disagreement with economic redistribution and multiculturalism around late adolescence. Furthermore, attitudes became decreasingly polarized (i.e., less extreme) and increasingly stable with age. Finally, several effects of attitudes' correlates gradually changed: The effect of educational level on ethnocentrism increased with age, whereas the effect of gender diminished. Regional effects on ethnocentrism developed as youths resided in a new area. No age-related change was found in the effect of parental SES. Overall, these findings support the idea that attitudes mature during the formative phase of adolescence and that this process slows down during emerging adulthood. Furthermore, these results support developmental explanations for the association between attitudes and their correlates. PMID:25880889

  1. Climate Change Preparedness: A Knowledge and Attitudes Study in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edema Ojomo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is projected to adversely impact freshwater resources, and in many settings these impacts are already apparent. In Nigeria, these impacts can be especially severe because of limited adaptive capacity. Understanding the knowledge and attitudes of current and future Nigerian decision-makers is important to preparing Nigeria for climate change impacts. This paper examines the knowledge and attitudes of university students and government officials about the causes, effects, and priority given to climate change in Nigeria. Paper surveys were distributed to 379 study participants in Akwa Ibom and Lagos states of Nigeria. The findings reveal that approximately 90% of study participants believe that human activities are a significant cause of climate change, with no significant difference between ministry officials’ and students’ responses. Participants were less knowledgeable about the effects of climate change on Nigeria as a whole, but more aware of impacts relevant to Southern Nigeria, where study sites were located. Personal experience seemed to play a role in the knowledge and attitudes of respondents. Due to the varied climate of the country, campaigns to ensure comprehensive knowledge of climate change impacts to the entire country may be helpful.

  2. The Japanese attitude towards nuclear power generation. Changes as seen through time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is intended to determine people's attitudes toward nuclear power generation, shedding light on the changed and unchanged structures of attitudes by comparing data on nuclear power generation for 1993 and 1998. Although some nuclear facility accidents occurred during the last five years, public attitudes toward nuclear power generation remain almost the same. For the utilization of nuclear power generation, there was a slight increase in passive affirmation. The percentage of active affirmation was less than 10 percent, but if passive affirmation is included a high percentage exceeding 70 percent acknowledged the utilization of nuclear power. It was found that people's attitudes toward the utilization of nuclear power became slightly more positive in 1998 than in 1993. The difference was found in the general measure of attitudes based on many questions about nuclear power generation, and in the importance and the utility of nuclear power generation including the purpose of nuclear power generation. People are not conscious of the anxiety about nuclear power generation in ordinary life. However, when people were made to think about nuclear power generation, the degree of anxiety increases even if provided with data that prove its safety. On the other hand, it was revealed that the degree of anxiety about nuclear facility accidents remains the same in the last five years, that is, it has not increased, although a growing interest in the disposal and treatment of radioactive wastes was seen. As a result of a comparison of the structure of attitudes, based on the study by Hayashi 1994, it was found that the group that had no interest in nuclear power generation offered the most noticeable features in answering pattern in both 1993 and 1998. Moreover, it was found also that the latter group of respondents were characterized by a little opportunity to have information. A similarity in the relationship between people's attitudes toward nuclear power generation

  3. 5 years on: Have attitudes towards continuing professional development in radiography changed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: This study reports the attitudes of UK radiographers to mandatory Continuing Professional Development (CPD) following the introduction of a mandatory policy, compared to a survey undertaken prior to the mandate being introduced. Methods and method of data collection: An electronic survey was advertised within 152 hospitals, across a range of hospital types (for example: rural, urban, teaching, district general) and geographic areas to minimise any potential bias through sampling. 406 radiographers responded to the survey, which was endorsed by the College of Radiographers. Results: The study showed that the overall attitude score had not increased significantly, demonstrating an ongoing relatively ambiguous attitude towards CPD. There was an increase in the number of radiographers recording CPD, though radiographers still expressed discontent over the need to evidence CPD activity. The study showed a change in the perceived primary barrier to CPD away from funding to time: time to undertake CPD; and time to record CPD activity. While the activity score had not significantly increased, a broader view of what constitutes CPD was evidenced, away from the previous narrow focus on attendance based activities. Support for CPD also showed no significant change, suggesting that the onus for CPD still predominantly remains with the individual radiographer. Conclusion: The introduction of a mandatory CPD policy has not significantly impacted on the attitudes of radiographers towards CPD activity. The study raises a number of questions which would benefit from further study and highlights some ongoing issues which impact on CPD in practice.

  4. Changes in Urban Youths' Attitude Towards Science and Perception of a Mobile Science Lab Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jared

    This dissertation examined changes in urban youth's attitude towards science as well as their perception of the informal science education setting and third space opportunity provided by the BioBus, a mobile science lab. Science education researchers have often suggested that informal science education settings provide one possible way to positively influence student attitude towards science and engage marginalized urban youth within the traditional science classroom (Banks et al., 2007; Hofstein & Rosenfeld, 1996; National Research Council, 2009; Schwarz & Stolow, 2006; Stocklmayer, Rennie, & Gilbert, 2010). However, until now, this possibility has not been explored within the setting of a mobile science lab nor examined using a theoretical framework intent on analyzing how affective outcomes may occur. The merits of this analytical stance were evaluated via observation, attitudinal survey, open-response questionnaire, and interview data collected before and after a mobile science lab experience from a combination of 239 students in Grades 6, 8, 9, 11, and 12 from four different schools within a major Northeastern metropolitan area. Findings from this study suggested that urban youth's attitude towards science changed both positively and negatively in statistically significant ways after a BioBus visit and that the experience itself was highly enjoyable. Furthermore, implications for how to construct a third space within the urban science classroom and the merits of utilizing the theoretical framework developed to analyze cultural tensions between urban youth and school science are discussed. Key Words: Attitude towards science, third space, mobile science lab, urban science education.

  5. Changes in perceived self-efficacy and attitude toward science and teaching science in elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Betsy Ann

    This study was developed in an effort to ascertain if a proposed biological laboratory curriculum as developed and modeled by the instructor would affect the attitudes and perceived self-efficacy towards science, science teaching and ability to learn science of pre-service elementary teachers. Self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies were incorporated as the variation. Attitudinal topics investigated were the perceived ability to learn science and to teach science. Students in one biology for non-science majors. biology laboratory class at the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this case study. The group participated in the modified laboratory section which utilized SRL activities, including reflections on in-class activities. In addition to these activities, the group worked within the state.s elementary science framework to design and implement science lessons. Password protected on-line surveys were used at the beginning and the end of the course to assess the attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and self-regulated learning level of all students. Interviews with participants were conducted as follow up to ascertain long-term impact of the curriculum. Student artifacts, researcher observations and follow up interviews were analyzed to identify any changes in student attitude towards and perceived self-efficacy in science and teaching science. Analysis identified a positive change in students. attitudes and perceived self-efficacy after participation in the modified laboratory section, indicating moderate success of the proposed curriculum based on SRL.

  6. Delusional belief

    OpenAIRE

    Coltheart, Max; Langdon, Robyn; McKay, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Delusional beliefs are seen in association with a number of neuropathological conditions, including schizophrenia, dementia and traumatic brain injury, A key distinction exists between polythematic delusion (here the patient exhibits delusional beliefs about a variety of topics that are unrelated to each other) and monothematic delusion (here the patient exhibits just a single delusional belief, or else a small set of delusional beliefs that are all related to a single theme). A great deal of...

  7. AN EXPLANATION OF THE CHANGE IN ACCOUNTANTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS FLEXIBILITY USING THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calu Daniela Artemisa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we look at accountants as “consumers of accounting regulations”. We explain the change in the accountants’ attitude towards flexibility in the accounting regulation process, using a theory derived from social psychology: the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA. In 1999 and 2005 we tested the attitude towards flexibility of a number of Romanian accountants who aimed at becoming private practitioners. We observed that before the existence of an accounting conceptual framework (1999, the accountants surveyed preferred flexibility with respect to accounting choices. A few years later (2005, after the implementation of IASB’s conceptual framework (but before the regulator removed it, the preference of accountants changed to flexibility. We believe that these changes could be explained using TRA.

  8. Creencias y actitudes del alumnado de Enfermería sobre la violencia de género Beliefs and attitudes toward Gender-Based Violence (GBV in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Macías Seda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar creencias y actitudes hacia la violencia de género (VG en el alumnado de Enfermería de la Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Sevilla. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal en el que participan 265 alumnos de Enfermería de la Universidad de Sevilla. Como instrumento se utiliza una encuesta anónima autoadministrada para evaluar la autopercepción, socialización, formación académica en género y capacitación para abordar la VG a la que se incorpora la Escala de Creencias y Actitudes hacia el Género y la Violencia (C.A.G.V. de Díaz-Aguado. Resultados: Los chicos tienen más creencias sexistas y las chicas valoran mejor el acceso de la mujer a puestos de poder y responsabilidad. En el alumnado del primer curso es más frecuente considerar que la V.G.es consecuencia de la fatalidad biológica, el alumnado de cursos superiores consideran la V.G. un asunto privado. Conclusión: Los hombres están más influidos por las creencias sexistas y adoptan postura más fatalista a la hora de justificar la violencia.Objective: To identify beliefs and attitudes toward Gender-based violence (GBV in nursing students. Methodology: a descriptive study involving 265 nursing students at the University of Seville. A self-administered anonymous survey was used to assess: a perception, socialization, gender-based academic training and preparedness to address the GBV, b the scale of beliefs and attitudes towards Gender-based violence (C.A.G.V. by Diaz-Aguado applied. Results: The boys have more sexist beliefs and about the biological fate of the GBV, whereas girls value the better the access of women to positions of power and responsibility. The first course was associated with beliefs about biological fate of the GBV, whereas in higher grades GBV is considered a private matter problem. Conclusion: Men are more influenced by sexist attitudes and adopt a more fatalistic approach when justifying the violence.

  9. Changes in Attitudes toward Guns and Shootings following Implementation of the Baltimore Safe Streets Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Adam J; Buggs, Shani A; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Leaf, Philip J; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Webster, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Among youth 15 to 24 years of age, homicide and nonfatal shootings are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Urban youth's attitudes and perceptions about the use of gun violence to resolve conflict present a major barrier to efforts to reduce gun homicides and nonfatal shootings. The current investigation extends the existing literature on attitudes toward guns and shootings among high-risk youth ages 18 to 24 by measuring perceived norms and viewpoints regarding gun violence in two analogous Baltimore City neighborhoods pre-implementation and 1-year post-implementation of the Safe Streets intervention (adapted from the CeaseFire/Cure Violence intervention). The Safe Streets intervention is designed for communities with high rates of gun violence and utilizes outreach workers to identify and build trusting relationships with youth ages 15 to 24 who are at greatest risk of being involved in gun violence. The outreach workers also position themselves in the community so that they can rapidly intervene in disputes that have the potential to lead to gun violence. Chi-squared tests and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were used to examine changes in attitudes toward gun violence 1 year after the implementation of the Safe Streets intervention. There was a statistically significantly improvement in 43 % of the attitudes assessed in the intervention community post-intervention compared to 13 % of the attitudes in the control community. There was a statistically significant improvement in the violent attitudes toward personal conflict resolution scale after implementation of the intervention in both the intervention (b = -0.522, p violence in the intervention community following the implementation of the Safe Streets program. These findings offer promising insights into future community violence prevention efforts. PMID:27294969

  10. The public debate on psychotropic medication and changes in attitudes 1990-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Matschinger, Herbert; Carta, Mauro G; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Schomerus, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Over the last 25 years, the appraisal of psychotropic drugs within the scientific community and their representation in the media has changed considerably. The initial optimism in the wake of the introduction of second-generation drugs has increasingly made room for a more critical evaluation of alleged advantages of these drugs. The question arises as to what extent this is reflected in similar changes in the public's attitudes towards psychiatric medication. Three representative population surveys on attitudes towards psychotropic medication were carried out in Germany in 1990 (N = 3075), 2001 (N = 2610) and 2011 (N = 1223), using the same sampling procedure, interview mode and instrument for assessing attitudes. In order to disentangle time-related effects, an age-period-cohort analysis was performed. Over the time period of 21 years, the German public's evaluation of psychotropic medication has become markedly more favourable. This change was mostly due to a period effect, i.e. concurrent influences of the social environment people are exposed to. Changes were much more pronounced in the 1990s, while over the following decade only a small, although statistically significant, increase in the favourable appraisal of medication was found. Age and birth cohort had only a minor effect on public attitudes. Our findings suggest that changes in the evaluation of the effects of psychotropic drugs within the psychiatric community and their representation in the media also affect public opinion. Given the ongoing debate about side effects and efficacy of psychiatric medication, future changes of public opinion can be expected. PMID:26615405

  11. The challenge of changing deeply-held student beliefs about the relativity of simultaneity

    CERN Document Server

    Scherr, R E; Vokos, S; Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2002-01-01

    Previous research indicates that after standard instruction students at all academic levels often construct a conceptual framework in which the ideas of absolute simultaneity and the relativity of simultaneity co-exist. This article describes the development and assessment of instructional materials intended to improve student understanding of the concept of time in special relativity, the relativity of simultaneity, and the role of observers in inertial reference frames. Results from pretests and post-tests are presented to demonstrate the effect of the curriculum in helping students deepen their understanding of these topics. Excerpts from taped interviews and classroom interactions help illustrate the intense cognitive conflict that students encounter as they are led to confront the incompatibility of their deeply-held beliefs about simultaneity with the results of special relativity.

  12. Come rain or shine? Public expectation on local weather change and differential effects on climate change attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y; Jim, C Y

    2015-11-01

    Tailored messages are instrumental to climate change communication. Information about the global threat can be 'localised' by demonstrating its linkage with local events. This research ascertains the relationship between climate change attitude and perception of local weather, based on a survey involving 800 Hong Kong citizens. Results indicate that concerns about climate change increase with expectations about the likelihood and impacts of local weather change. Climate change believers attend to all three types of adverse weather events, namely, temperature rises, tropical cyclones and prolonged rains. Climate scepticism, however, is not associated with expectation about prolonged rains. Differential spatial orientations are a possible reason. Global climate change is an unprecedented and distant threat, whereas local rain is a more familiar and localised weather event. Global climate change should be articulated in terms that respect local concerns. Localised framing may be particularly effective for engaging individuals holding positive views about climate change science. PMID:24495900

  13. Changes in Sun Tanning Attitudes and Behaviors of U.S. College Students from 1995 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Geschke, Kaela S.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate changes in U.S. college student sun tanning attitudes and behaviors over the last decade, participants completed sun tanning attitude and behavior surveys in 1995 (n=151) and a different sample of participants completed surveys in 2005 (n=208). Consistent with predictions, results indicated that college students were more likely to…

  14. Household energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Northwest: Tracking changes between 1983 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed the changes in consumer energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Pacific Northwest between 1983 and 1985. The information was collected through stratified random telephone surveys on 2000 and 1058 households, respectively, for 1983 and 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This report covers four topic areas and tests two hypotheses. The topics are as follows: consumer perceptions and attitudes of energy use and conservation in the home; consumer perceptions of energy institutions and other entities; past and intended conservation actions and investments; and segmentation of homeowners into market prospect groups. The hypotheses tested are as follows: (1) There has been no change in the size and psychographic make-up of the original three market segments found in the 1983 survey analysis; and (2) image profiles of institutions with respect to familiarity, overall impression, and believability as sources of energy conservation information remain unchanged since 1983.

  15. Changing gender roles and attitudes and their implications for well-being around the new millennium

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeting, Helen; Bhaskar, Abita; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Given evidence that gender role attitudes (GRAs) and actual gender roles impact on well-being, we examine associations between GRAs, three roles (marital status, household chore division, couple employment) and psychological distress in working-age men and women. We investigate time-trends reflecting broader social and economic changes, by focusing on three age groups at two dates. Methods We used British Household Panel Survey data from 20- to 64-year-olds in heterosexual couple hous...

  16. Big Data in an HR context: Exploring organizational change readiness, employee attitudes and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, N.; Irani, Z; Sharif, AM

    2016-01-01

    This research highlights a contextual application for Big Data within a HR case study setting. This is achieved through the development of a normative conceptual model that seeks to envelop employee behaviours and attitudes in the context of organisational change readiness. This empirical application considers a data sample from a large public sector organization and through applying Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) identifies salary, job promotion, organizational loyalty and organizationa...

  17. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of ...

  18. Climate change and the importance of empowering citizens : Science teachers' beliefs about educational response in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Maharjan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Educational response to climate change is one of the measures to prepare people to combat climate change. This thesis explores the lived experiences of secondary Science teachers from Kathmandu Valley on the perception of climate change, the way they handled climate change issues in the classroom setting, the problems and challenges they came across in climate change communication in the classrooms and the relevance of existing secondary Science curriculum in relation to climate change. The t...

  19. Exploring employees' perceptions, job-related attitudes and characteristics during a planned organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsaros, K.K.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores employee perceptions regarding organizational readiness to change, supervisory support, trust in management and appropriateness of change during a planned organizational change in a public hospital. Survey data were collected at two time periods, before and five months after the initiation of the planned change. Research findings show a significant increase in perceptive organizational readiness to change, supervisory support, trust in management and appropriateness of change after the planned change implementation. Findings also suggest that differences in the aforementioned perceptions are moderated by certain job-related attitudes, namely, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job involvement; and job-related characteristics, namely, skill variety, task identity, task significance feedback, autonomy and goal clarity. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Identifying Persuasive Public Health Messages to Change Community Knowledge and Attitudes About Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa. PMID:26383053