WorldWideScience

Sample records for changement global reponses

  1. Biodiversity and global change. Adaptative responses to global change: results and prospective. IFB-GICC restitution colloquium; Biodiversite et changement global. Reponses adaptatives au changement global: resultats et prospective. Colloque de restitution IFB-GICC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despres, L.; Hossaert-Mckey, M.; Martin, J.F.; Pont, D.; Valero, M.; Chave, J.; Benizri, E.; Amiaud, B.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Fritz, H.; Lavelle, P.; Martin, F.; Poulet, S.; Blanchard, F.; Cheddadi, R.; Dupouey, J.L.; Hulle, M.; Michaux, J.; Souissi, S.; Bridault, A.; Dambrine, E.; Gomez, B.; Thevenard, F.; Legendre, S.; Suc, J.P.; Zeitoun, V.; Bezancon, G.; Frascaria-Lacoste, N.; Ponsard, S.; Bourguet, D.; Vigne, J.D.; Doyen, L.; Joly, P.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Garnier, E.; Lebaron, Ph.; Boulinier, Th.; Chuine, I.; Jiguet, F.; Couvet, D.; Soussana, J.F.; Weimerskirsch, H.; Grosbois, V.; Bretagnolle, V

    2006-07-01

    Global change is the consequence of the worldwide human print on ecology. The uncontrolled use of fossil fuels, the urbanization, the intensifying of agriculture, the homogenization of life styles and cultures, the homogenization of fauna and vegetation, the commercial trades, the bio-invasions, the over-exploitation of resources and the emergence of new economic powers (China, India, Brazil..) represent an adaptative dynamics of interactions which affects the overall biosphere and the adaptative capacities and the future of all species. Biodiversity is an ecological and societal insurance against the risks and uncertainties linked with global change. The French institute of biodiversity (IFB) has created a working group in charge of a study on global change and biodiversity, in particular in terms of: speed and acceleration of processes, interaction between the different organization levels of the world of living, scale changes, and adaptative capacities. 38 projects with an interdisciplinary approach have been retained by the IFB and the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development. The conclusion of these projects were presented at this restitution colloquium and are summarized in this document. The presentations are organized in 7 sessions dealing with: global changes and adaptation mechanisms; functional responses to global changes; spatial responses to global changes; temporal responses to global changes; selective answers to global changes; available tools and ecological services; scenarios and projections. (J.S.)

  2. Joint sciences academies statement: global response to climate change; Declaration commune des Academies des sciences sur la reponse globale au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    Taking into account that there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring, the Joint Science Academies, urge, by this statement, all nations in the line with the UNFCCC principles, to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change, adapt to its impacts and ensure that the issue is included in all relevant national and international strategies. Some recommendations are also given. (A.L.B.)

  3. Mutualism and impacts of global change: response of an important and neglected component of the biodiversity; Mutualisme et impacts des changements globaux: reponse d'une composante importante et negligee de la biodiversite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossaert-Mckey, M. [Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE), UMR CNRS 5175, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2007-07-01

    We are studying the impact of global change on two obligate species-specific insect-plant mutualisms. Our approach combines correlative methods (examining spatial patterns of genetic diversity in populations of pairs of mutualists, to examine their responses to past climate change) and experiments (studying responses of plant partners to CO{sub 2} fertilization). Mutualisms function because the partners have contrasting and complementary biological traits, so that a service implying only a low cost to one partner may confer a great benefit to the other. Because they can lead mutualist partners to respond differently to rapid ecological change, the biological differences that are fundamental to mutualisms may also make them vulnerable. Imbalances thereby introduced can disrupt the functioning of the mutualism. By comparing two strongly contrasting systems-fig/wasp pollination mutualisms and ant-plant protection mutualisms-we aim to characterize the diversity of responses of mutualisms to global change. By identifying points in common, we also aim to propose robust generalizations about the response to global change of obligate, specific mutualisms, an important and neglected component of tropical biodiversity. Our results show that the two mutualisms studied differ greatly in their response to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic fluctuations. Fig/wasp systems show little spatial genetic differentiation, indicating that the great dispersal capacities of both figs and their pollinating wasps resulted in maintenance of high effective population sizes throughout cycles of climatic and vegetation change. In contrast, limited dispersal capacity of both ant and plant partners has resulted in greater impact of climatic fluctuations on ant/plant protection mutualisms: species-distribution patterns suggest restriction of the system to refugia, and strong spatial genetic structure indicates widespread bottlenecks during fragmentation and expansion. Alternate contraction and

  4. Le changement climatique : perception locale d'un phénomène global ?

    OpenAIRE

    Deldrève, V.; Hannecart, C.

    2009-01-01

    / Présentation d'une étude sur la sociologie et la question du "global change", étude réalisée dans le cadre du projet changement climatique du GIP Seine Aval. Un premier volet passe en revue la littérature. Un deuxième volet est consacré à la perception du changement climatique par les usagers de l'estuaire de la Seine.

  5. Climate change at the coast: from global to local; Impact du changement climatique sur la cote: de global a local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkinson, A.R. [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom); East Anglia Univ., School of East Science, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The IPCC has recently documented substantial changes in the global heat content of the oceans, salinity, sea level, thermal expansion and biogeochemistry. Over the 21. century anticipated climate related changes include: a rise in sea level of up to 0.6 m or more; increases in sea surface temperatures up to 3 deg. C; an intensification of tropical and extra tropical cyclones; larger extreme waves and storm surges; altered precipitation/ run-off; and ocean acidification. The Tyndall Centre has been exploring how to down-scale the global analysis to the local level within the framework of a coastal simulator. The simulator provides information on possible future states of the coast through the 21. Century under a range of climate and socio-economic futures and shoreline management options. It links models within a nested framework, recognizing three scales: (1) global, (2) regional, and (3) local. The linked models describe a range of processes, including marine climate (waves, surges and mean sea level), sand bank morpho-dynamics, wave transformation, shoreline morpho-dynamics, built environment scenarios, ecosystem change, and erosion and flood risk. Analyses from the simulator reinforce conclusions from IPCC WG2: coasts will be exposed to increasing risks over coming decades due to many compounding climate-change factors; the impact of climate change on coasts will be exacerbated by increasing human induced pressures; the unavoidability of sea-level rise even in the longer-term frequently conflicts with present day human development patterns and trends. (author)

  6. Changement climatique et limicoles en hiver.

    OpenAIRE

    Godet, Laurent; Luczack, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Au cours du XXe siècle, le changement climatique s'est traduit par une élévation globale des températures de l'air (+0,4 à 0,8°C) et des océans, une élévation du niveau marin (+10 à 20 centimètres) et un changement des régimes de précipitations (augmentation des épisodes de sécheresse sur certains points du globe, augmentation des pluies sur d'autres) (IPCC, 2001). Ce changement climatique est une conséquence de l'augmentation de la présence de gaz à effet de serre dans l'atmosphère (+35% de ...

  7. Modélisation de l’habitat des ressources halieutiques dans le golfe de Gabès et projections selon un scénario de changement global

    OpenAIRE

    T. HATTAB; F. BEN RAIS LASRAM; Sammari, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Le golfe de Gabès situé au sud-est de la Tunisie, est la région où l’activité de pêche est la plus développée du pays. L’intensité de cette activité a eu des conséquences négatives sur l’écosystème (diminution de la productivité, changements dans la composition spécifique des assemblages, recul du couvert végétal etc…) qui, par ailleurs, est le siège d’une pollution importante et où le changement global se fait de plus en plus ressentir. Il est maintenant démontré que le changemen...

  8. Changement climatique : impacts et adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Ardoin-Bardin, Sandra; Arnaud, N.; Boutin, S.; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Jarne, P.; Kosuth, P.; Lebaron, P.; Servat, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Ce dossier présente les acteurs de la recherche basés dans la région Languedoc-Roussillon, qui se mobilisent pour répondre aux enjeux liés à l'étude des impacts et des adaptations au changement climatique : 46 unités ; 2 "laboratoires d'excellence" et 1 institut ; 5 infrastructures de recherche, d'envergure nationale ou européenne ; 5 partenaires étrangers ou internationaux. L'étendue des travaux scientifiques menés par les acteurs régionaux sur l'impact ou l'adaptation au changement climatiq...

  9. Changement de lune, changement de temps : vrai ou faux ?

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Daniel; Gresset-Bourgeois, Claude; Vermot-Desroches, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    National audience La plupart de nos contemporains accordent à la lune une influence sur le déclenchement des naissances, la croissance des plantes ou encore les changements du temps. Qu'en est-il vraiment ? Toutes les lunaisons qui ont eu lieu de janvier 1900 à décembre 2006 sont passées au crible afin de vérifier cette hypothèse.

  10. Natural gas: clearly part of the solution to global climate change; Gaz naturel: un element de la solution au changement de climat de la planete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soper, W. [Westcoast Energy Inc. (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    While scientific data may be incomplete, there remains little doubt that much of the negative impact on the global climate arises from our use of fossil fuels. Equally there seems little reason to believe that our reliance on fossil fuels will diminish over the short term. World demand for energy continues to grow and alternatives to fossil fuels, such as solar, have yet to assume their full rote. For example, OECD studies released late in 1999 note that renewable account for only two percent of electricity generation in developed countries, while fossil fuels continue to account for some 60 percent. Conservation holds promise but all too often gains are offset by shifting consumer preferences: the widespread popularity of sports utility vehicles and light trucks in North America is playing havoc with the automotive industry's fuel efficiency gains of recent years. For corporations, for governments and for the public at large, the challenge remains to find solutions that are both possible and practical for a problem that has no single cure, nor a certain outcome. But during the transition period to new energy sources, natural gas is destined to play a leading role, as the least carbon intensive of the fossil fuels. (author)

  11. Climate warming: answering some basic questions; Le rechauffement climatique (le changement climatique): reponse a quelques questions elementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jancovici, J.M

    2009-07-01

    Illustrated by many graphs, drawings, figures and tables, this long publication offers a detailed overview of the physical aspects of climatic change (definition of the greenhouse effect, explanation and assessment of warming, relationship and differences between greenhouse effect and ozone depletion, between climate change and greenhouse effect induced by human activity, and between meteorology and climate) and states some generalities on greenhouse effect gases. The author then discusses prospective issues on climatic change (notion of average temperature, role and liability of climate models, evolutions of temperatures and precipitations in different places, influence of greenhouse gas reduction), the various risks associated with climatic change (changes of sea currents, impact on ecosystems, diseases, ozone depletion, geographical differences, threat from methane hydrate). After a presentation of the carbon cycle, the next chapters are discussing the scientific discourses, the assessment of greenhouse effect in our everyday life, the impact of possible collective and individual actions, the relationship between greenhouse effect and economy, and strategic choices in France on airports and on nuclear energy.

  12. L'adaptation au changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Institut National de Recherche Agronomique UAR 0233 Collège de Direction

    2007-01-01

    Il est maintenant admis que l’adaptation demeure tout aussi importante que l’atténuation pour gérer le risque climatique. Mais qu'est-ce que l’adaptation au changement climatique? À travers cet ouvrage de synthèse, Van Gameren V., R. Weikmans et E. Zaccai, chercheurs issus du Centre d’études et du développement durable (CEDD) de l’Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), y répondent en abordant les enjeux de l’adaptation dans le domaine du changement climatique ainsi que les futures avenues possi...

  13. L'Europe face au changement climatique : pour une régulation commerciale climat-compatible

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    L'article pose l'enjeu d'une régulation de l'échange international climat-compatible. Une mesure d'ajustement aux frontières ne constituerait qu'un instrument au sein d'un dispositif global visant à articuler le régime commercial de l'OMC au régime de lutte contre le changement climatique tel que défini par la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques (CCNUCC) et le protocole de Kyoto. L'instauration d'une politique environnementale de protection, à laquelle renvoie l...

  14. Gestion du problème de changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzi Bouzidi, Aida

    2009-01-01

    De la science du changement climatique aux estimations de ses impacts, le problème du changement climatique se caractérise surtout par la présence de grandes incertitudes. C'est pourquoi nous formulerons la question principale de notre article: comment tenir compte des incertitudes dans la décision de prévenir le changement climatique ? L'économie de l'environnement et des ressources naturelles nous aiderait à dessiner la portée du problème de gestion du problème du changement climatique et n...

  15. Multi-scales analysis of the global change impact on the diversity of the aphid communities; Analyse multi-echelle de l'impact du changement global sur la diversite des communautes aphidiennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulle, M

    2007-07-01

    The primary objective of this project is to investigate the effects of global change on the biodiversity of aphid communities in Western Europe. Biodiversity has been examined at 3 levels: total number of species, phenology and reproductive strategy. Data were provided by EXAMINE, the European suction traps network which has been now operating for 35 years. 392 different species have been identified. At each location, total number of species has been regularly increasing, one additional species being caught every 1 or 2 years depending on location. This is due to introduced species but also to warming which favours rare species. No general trend of increasing density has been detected, but phenological earliness of almost all species (annual date of first appearance in suction traps) is strongly correlated with temperature and especially with mean daily temperature (during more or less long periods of time lying principally in February and March) or number of days below 0 C. Strong relationships between aphid phenology and environmental variables have been found and there is strong discrimination between species with different life cycle strategies, and between species feeding on herbs and trees, suggesting the possible value of trait-based groupings in predicting responses to environmental changes. These preliminary results suggest that 1) biodiversity has increased during the last decades; 2) there is a pool of species among which some of them reach a detectable density only during years where temperatures are high enough; 3) a set of newly introduced species succeed in settling being favoured by warming and 4) phenology of aphids is expected to advance and their abundance to increase with temperature, and the possible role of natural enemies to regulate abundant species is discussed. (author)

  16. Impacts du changement climatique sur les prairies permanentes

    OpenAIRE

    Cochard, Catherine; Bloor, Juliette; Zwicke, Marine; Duru, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Le changement climatique se caractérise par une augmentation dans l’atmosphère des gaz à effet de serre qui sont les acteurs principaux du réchauffement de l’air. De plus, ce changement climatique moyen s’accompagne d’une augmentation de la variabilité du climat avec l’apparition plus fréquente d’évènements dits extrêmes. Des travaux expérimentaux de manipulation des principales variables du changement climatique ont mis en évidence des effets bénéfiques pour la production de prairies permane...

  17. Le changement: inquiétude ou motivation des enseignants ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gremaud, Céline; Roth, Tiphaine; Stierli-Cavat, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ce mémoire traite du changement. Dans le cadre de cette recherche, nous nous sommes intéressées à la manière dont les enseignants de CIN et de CYP1 appréhendent le changement. Nous souhaitions découvrir et comprendre la manière dont le changement investit notre vie d’enseignant. Le choix de ce thème a été décidé dans le but de nous armer pour notre vie professionnelle future. D’un point de vue théorique, le changement est complexe. Selon Perrenoud (1999), il peut être de deux types : so...

  18. Le climax du “changement climatique” : quelques réflexions et interrogations philosophiques

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonnier, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    On veut ici aborder les dimensions philosophiques soulevées par la question du changement climatique – étant entendu qu’il s’agit d’un singulier pluriel, qui désigne une généralité englobant la pluralité de ces changements – au travers de trois interrogations 1/ De quoi le « changement climatique » est-il le nom ? ou De quoi parle t-on quand on parle de changement climatique » ? 2/ Quel est, au fond, le problème du changement climatique ? 3/ De la responsabilité et de l’obligation...

  19. Changements de pratique en viticulture bourguignonne et interactions sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Compagnone, Claude

    2003-01-01

    En Bourgogne, les viticulteurs sont aujourd'hui fortement incités à adopter des pratiques d'agriculture raisonnée. Un travail de recherche, appuyé sur des enquêtes, a été engagé dans une commune de Saône-et-Loire pour saisir en quoi des viticulteurs peuvent opérer des changements de pratique et comment ces changements peuvent être expliqués par leur position sociale. L'analyse du réseau complet des dialogues professionnels sur le thème des pratiques viticoles distingue des viticulteurs appart...

  20. Reponsive and Open Learning Environments (ROLE: Requirements, Evaluation and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Lai-Chong Law

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coordinating requirements engineering (RE and evaluation studies across heterogeneous technology-enhanced learning (TEL environments is deemed challenging, because each of them is situated in a specific organizational, technical and socio-cultural context. We have dealt with such challenges in the project of ROLE (http://www.role-project.eu/ in which five test-beds are involved in deploying and evaluating Personal Learning Environments (PLEs. They include Higher Education Institutions (HEIs and global enterprises in and beyond Europe, representing a range of values and assumptions. While the diversity provides fertile grounds for validating our research ideas, it poses many challenges for conducting comparison studies. In the paper, we first provide an overview of the ROLE project, focusing on its missions and aims. Next we present a Web2.0-inspired RE approach called Social Requirements Engineering (SRE. Then we depict our initial attempts to evaluate the ROLE framework and report some preliminary findings. One major outcome is that the technology adoption process must work on the basis of existing LMS, extending them with the ROLE functionality rather than embracing LMS functionality in ROLE.

  1. Agriculture et changement climatique: enjeux et solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and Climate Change: Challenges and Solutions. According to the latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, climate change is already having a significant impact on agriculture. Several models highlight the increasingly negative effects of increased temperatures on crop yields and livestock farming in developing countries. These impacts can be caused by negative physiological effects for plants and animals, which result from higher temperatures or the proliferation of pests and diseases caused by the latter. The increased number of extreme weather events, especially floods, and changing precipitation patterns are linked to climate changes. These factors dramatically affect the crop production potential of agricultural land. Populations in the developing world, which are already vulnerable and exposed to food insecurity, are the most seriously affected. In many countries in the southern hemisphere, agriculture actually represents the main source of income for a major proportion of the active population. Combined with increased demographic pressure, climate changes therefore help to exacerbate the pressure on global food systems. In addition, it should be noted that agriculture also plays a key role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore at the heart of a variety of complex issues. In light of these facts, it is essential that we make every effort to identify solutions, aimed at adapting to climate changes and alleviating the contribution of certain agricultural practices to the latter, in order to respond to all the challenges that they create. This involves reinforcing research initiatives aimed at understanding and quantifying the problems, while identifying steps that need to be taken in order to limit these problems. It also involves lobbying for appropriate policies to be put into place, based on the results of this research. Last but not least, it involves developing field

  2. « L’Amazonie – victime des changements climatiques ? »

    OpenAIRE

    Weissenberger, Sebastian; Silva, Delaine Sampaio da

    2010-01-01

    La forêt d’Amazonie est un des biomes les plus riches et les plus importants de la Terre. Cependant, son avenir est gravement menacé par les changements climatiques. L’effet de ces changements est indissociable de celui des activités humaines. Ainsi, la déforestation est responsable de plus de la moitié des émissions de gaz à effet de serre du Brésil. La lutte contre les changements climatique au Brésil passe donc en premier lieu par la lutte contre la déforestation. Cette lutte fait face aux...

  3. Globalisation et changement d’échelle dans le gouvernement urbain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V. Savitch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse les relations entre la mondialisation et le changement d’échelle urbaine. Il considère que les dynamiques à l’œuvre dans le processus de mondialisation (politiques néo-libérales, compétition territoriale, suburbanisation conduisent à de nouvelles contraintes pesant sur les villes. Une des réponses les plus pertinentes que les villes peuvent générer repose sur le changement d’échelle de leurs institutions en bâtissant de nouvelles structures ou en les restructurant pour renforcer leur capacité d’action. Ce processus conduit à reconfigurer les modes de gouvernance et donc le pouvoir urbain sur de nouvelles bases géographiques. Ce type de manipulation territoriale est un instrument qui agit sur l’allocation des ressources entre acteurs, en inclus certains, en exclue d’autres, établit de nouvelles priorités sur l’agenda politique. Cinq types de dynamiques institutionnelles sont présentées et analysées à partir de cas concrets: 1 les villes fusionnées 2 le gouvernement à plusieurs niveaux 3 la coopération partagée 4 les communautés urbaines et 5 les villes non contiguës. Une première évaluation est menée en tentant de mettre jour l’efficacité, le contrôle démocratique et la capacité à générer du développement économique respectifs de ces cinq modèles qui présentent tous des avantages et des inconvénients. Le recours à l’un ou l’autre de ces modèles s’explique essentiellement par les valeurs auxquels il renvoie et par des contingences politiques et économiques. Ils ne garantissent pas non plus un type particulier d’effet même si un changement d’échelle bien maîtrisé peut renforcer la position d’une ville face à la mondialisation.This article explores the relationship between globalization and urban rescaling. It suggests that forces emanating from globalization (neo liberal politics, increased competition, economic restructuring and suburbanization have

  4. Les Caisses d’épargne face à l’avènement d’un groupe bancaire universel : le changement organisationnel entre ingénierie managériale de la mémoire et attachement au passé The Caisses d'Epargne, a mutual savings bank in transition to a global banking Group: Organisational change between managing institutional memory and attachment to the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tassel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il est d’usage d’aborder le changement organisationnel sous l’angle de sa gestion, de son accompagnement ou de sa conduite. Si l’on ne peut nier le caractère opératoire de ces approches, elles passent sous silence la dimension essentielle pour la compréhension du changement que constitue le rapport à la mémoire et au passé.A partir d’une enquête ethnographique de terrain menée de 2003 à 2007 au sein d’une grande institution bancaire (le Groupe Caisse d’Epargne, cet article entend montrer quelques uns des enjeux proprement mémoriels que le changement engage : difficultés à reconnaître l’entreprise dans ce qu’il advient d’elle, production managériales visant à renouer le lien entre présent et passé que le changement est venu altérer, mise en place, par les collaborateurs de pratiques qui permettent de maintenir l’engagement originel de l’organisation.Organisational change is usually considered from a management or an implementation point of view. This approach, as operational as it may be, ignores the relationship to memory and the past generally, which is fundamental in order to understand changes.Based on ethnographic field studies carried out from 2003 and 2007 at a major financial institution (Caisse d'Epargne Group, this article purports to shed light on certain memory-based challenges induced by change: difficulties to recognise the company as it evolves, managerial efforts to link the current situation with the past, which has been altered by the changes, conducts of staff members influenced by a willingness to uphold the original mission of the organisation. 

  5. Changement climatique et prairie :l'essentiel des impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Jean Louis; Bernard, Françoise; Graux, Anne-Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Quels impacts le changement climatique est-il susceptible d’avoir au cours du XXIe siècle sur l’agriculture française et tout particulièrement sur nos systèmes cultivés ? Pour répondre à cette question, 17 équipes de 8 organismes de recherche et de développement agricole, coordonnées par l’Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), ont collaboré quatre années durant au projet de recherche CLIMATOR (2007 – 2010) financé par l’Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) dans le cadre du ...

  6. Réponses culturelles aux changements rapides de la nature

    OpenAIRE

    Heyd, Thomas; Dupuis, Irène

    2012-01-01

    Au vu du changement climatique auquel nos sociétés devront faire face dans un futur proche, les questions relatives à la vulnérabilité et à la résilience sont devenues d’une importance capitale. Jusqu’à présent, les efforts pour fortifier la résilience ont été centrés au niveau des réformes des infrastructures matérielles et sociales. Des idées sur l’amélioration des structures physiques, comme des protections contre les inondations par les fleuves à grande crue et contre la mer en cas de for...

  7. Changement climatique et atrophie des masses glaciaires : quelles mutations pour les paysages islandais ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chenet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Le Changement climatique global observé depuis la fin du Petit Age glaciaire en Islande entraîne un retrait généralisé des fronts glaciaires. Ce retrait engendre de nouvelles dynamiques sur les surfaces déglacées, liées à la libération d’eau de fonte et à la détente postglaciaire. La datation par la lichénométrie des arcs morainiques et des terrasses fluviatiles permettent de reconstruire l’évolution des marges proglaciaires du Morsárjökull et du Skaftafellsjökull (sud-est de l’Islande depuis la fin du Petit Âge glaciaire. Les versants sont le théâtre d’importants processus d’éboulisation et de chutes de blocs, tandis que l’on observe des phénomènes d’incision et de diminution du tressage au niveau des cours d’eau.The Global Warming which occurs since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland leads to the retreat of the glacier fronts. This retreat has induced new dynamics in the glacier foreland, especially related to glacial meltwater and post-glacial release. Lichenometrics measures on moraines ridges and paleosandurs provide us the opportunity to reconstruct the evolution of the proglacial areas of the Morsárjökull and the Skaftafellsjökull (South-east Iceland since the end of the Little Ice Age. Important processes of rockslides and rockfalls occur on slopes, whereas proglacial rivers undergo phenomena of incision and abandon of minor channels.

  8. L’EAU: changement climatique et risques hydrauliques (inondations,érosion, sécheresse …)

    OpenAIRE

    Duc, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    L’EAU: changement climatique et risques hydrauliques (inondations,érosion, sécheresse …). Y a til réellement changement climatique ? Quelles sont les causes ? Comment se traduit-il ? Quelles sont ses conséquences ? Peut-on y remedier? Quelles solutions ?

  9. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  10. Dynamique du changement légal et construction territoriale dans les Tuxtlas (Mexique)

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Eric

    2014-01-01

    L’ouvrage s’intéresse aux rapports entre le changement institutionnel et les transformations territoriales dans une région indienne du Mexique. Il examine la façon dont les réformes légales proposées par l’Etat mexicain, dans ses configurations successives (colonial, libéral, puis corporatif), ont été appropriées et reformulées depuis les champs sociaux de leur mise en œuvre et les incidences de ces changements sur les formes de territorialisation. Quatre moments sont considérés dans cette pe...

  11. Aurélie Vieillefosse : Le changement climatique. Quelles solutions?

    OpenAIRE

    Norrant-Romand, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Alors que plusieurs événements contribuent à la prise de conscience du problème que représente le changement climatique au plus haut niveau politique dans la majorité des pays, comment expliquer le peu d'empressement, ou ce qui paraît comme tel, des gouvernements et dessiner une gouvernance mondiale à même de répondre à l'urgence de la lutte contre le changement climatique? Cet ouvrage propose d'apporter des réponses à cette question. Dans la première partie, l'auteur expose les différentes d...

  12. Anticiper pour s’adapter : Le nouvel enjeu du changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Larivière, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    C’est en prenant position dans le contexte de la lutte au changement climatique que Laurence Tubiana, François Gemenne et Alexandre Magnan abordent la question de l’adaptation. Issus de l’Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI), les trois co-auteurs du livre Anticiper pour s’adapter, Le nouvel enjeu du changement climatique, prônent une mobilisation sociétale et politique en vue de planifier l’adaptation. Sans bouder les stratégies d’atténuation des gaz à ef...

  13. François Gemenne : Géopolitique du changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Norrant-Romand, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    La question du changement climatique est souvent réduite à sa dimension environnementale, et aux efforts qui doivent être entrepris par chacun pour réduire sa consommation d’énergies fossiles. Mais le changement climatique est aussi un problème politique, depuis que le sujet est apparu à l’agenda des négociations internationales à la fin des années 1980. Derrière les mesures prises en faveur d’un développement plus durable, les engagements des différents pays à réduire leurs émissions, se cac...

  14. LE CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE ET LA FORÊT MÉTROPOLITAINE FRANÇAISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÉRARD BELTRANDO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Les signes du changement climatique semblent de plus en plus nombreux et les écosystèmes en place, ainsi que les activités humaines qui en dépendent, s’y adaptent au mieux de leur possibilité. La forêt - dont le fonctionnement et la productivité sont étroitement dépendants du climat - est particulièrement concernée et, mis à part les effets des événements de fréquence rare (tempêtes de décembre 1999, canicule et sécheresse de l’été 2003…, son taux de croissance s’est accrut depuis près d’un demi-siècle et en particulier depuis les années 1980. Mais cette augmentation a des limites qui pourront être atteintes rapidement et pas uniquement sous l’effet du changement climatique. Comment le changement climatique va-t-il se répercuter sur la forêt métropolitaine française ? Quel scénario de changement climatique faudrait-il prendre en compte ? Quels conseils peuvent être connus aux forestiers qui doivent gérer et planter des arbres qui seront exploités par les générations futures ?

  15. The climatic change and the coastal areas. The sea level rise: risks and answers; Le changement climatique et les espaces cotiers. L'elevation du niveau de la mer: risques et reponses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskoff, R

    2000-07-01

    This colloquium aimed to analyze the ecological, economic and human effects of the earth warming on coastal regions and more particularly the deltas. It also aimed aware the experts, the socio-economic and political actors of these regions on the consequences of the unavoidable sea level rise and on the measures that people can implemented to limit its effects. (A.L.B.)

  16. Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玮丽

    2008-01-01

    This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.

  17. Perspectives psychologiques sur le changement d' attidudes et de comportement du conducteur. (Psychological perspectives on changing driver attitude and behaviour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenbeld, C. Levelt, P.B.M. & Heidstra, J.

    2000-01-01

    D' un point de vue psychologique, plusieurs techniques de changement du comportement peuvent etre utilisees pour modifier les comportements a risque du conducteur, telles que l' information, la recompense, la punition. La motivation qui sous-tend les comportements de conduite determine dans une large mesure la reussite des strategies de changement du comportement. L' article distingue trois grandes classes de comportements du conducteur : le comportement raisonne ou planifie, le comportement ...

  18. A new prospect on global environmental problems in the case of climate change: the impacts of strategic complementarity between countries; Une nouvelle mise en perspective des problemes environnementaux globaux dans le cas du changement climatique: les impacts de la complementarite strategique entre pays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heugues, M.

    2009-06-15

    Among global environmental problems, climate change is one of the most serious. According to nearly all scientists, the roots of the problem is related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and linked with human activities. The global character of this problem turns it into a big challenge. Within a framework of international trade liberalization, the analysis emphasizes the consequences of the inter-dependencies between economic agents, i.e. States, and of their strategic behaviours - when implementing national environmental policy - on natural environment. Starting with a deliberately conventional model and considering that countries' strategy can be complementary when emitting GHG, we bring new results in many respects and with regard to the existing ones. The thesis includes four chapters. The study highlights the impacts of the nature of the inter-dependencies between countries i) on the existence and the properties of equilibrium solutions - first, when no country cooperates and then from a globally optimal point of view -, ii) on the sequence of decisions, i.e. the circumstances under which a leader endogenously emerges when initiating its national environmental policy, iii) on profitability and stability of an international environmental agreement (IEA), iv) on the level of participation to an IEA and on the environmental impact of such a cooperation. A distinct feature of this research is to rely on the theorems of super-modular game theory. (author)

  19. Forêts et changement climatique, quelques éléments issus de la recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Dupouey, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    On présente une synthèse des relations entre les forêts gérées tempérées et le changement climatique. Le changement climatique a de multiples impacts sur la forêt. On les classe en 4 catégories : l’accommodation par des modifications de fonctionnement physiologique, de phénologie ou de croissance des arbres, l’adaptation génétique, la migration et enfin la mortalité des arbres. Les marges de manœuvre sylvicoles sont réduites, devant les risques de perte de productivité et d’augmentation de...

  20. Climats et risques : changements d'approches, Denis LAMARRE, sous la direction de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peyrusaubes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Les risques climatiques… enjeux pluridisciplinairesVoici un ouvrage de grande qualité émanant du GDR RICLIM (Groupement de recherche sur les risques liés au climat intégré depuis 2005 au Département "Environnement, développement durable" du CNRS. Ce recueil de dix contributions s'organise en trois parties : la première axée sur les représentations du changement climatique, la deuxième sur des exemples de recherche appliquée, la troisième sur les perspectives des risques liés au changement cl...

  1. Migration et changement climatique en Amérique Latine : Quels enjeux

    OpenAIRE

    Kaenzig, Raoul; Piguet, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Cette synthèse de la littérature existante fait le point sur les rapports entre changement climatique et migrations en accordant un intérêt particulier au continent latino-américain. Après un bref historique du débat que soulève la relation entre environnement et migration, nous identifions une série de conséquences du changement climatique. Les aspects liés aux ouragans, aux inondations, aux sécheresses, à l’élévation du niveau des mers et à la fonte des glaciers sont en particulier abordés....

  2. Avant-propos : études sur l’adaptation au changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Sfez, Lucien

    2012-01-01

    Si l’État semble faire depuis les deux « Grenelle » des efforts plus sérieux que par le passé en matière d’environnement, sa politique en matière d’adaptation au changement climatique, semble marquer le pas en 2009. L’administration publique a opéré une distinction entre réduction préventive de la production de CO2 et adaptation après coup au changement climatique. Mais cette distinction reste inconnue dans le grand public, tandis que la politique de réduction l’emporte largement dans les esp...

  3. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways of...... reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  4. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  5. Du changement climatique aux quartiers informels durables : une nouvelle vision stratégique pour les villes du Sud ?

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Alors que, jusqu'à présent, les enjeux de la ville durable et du changement climatique avaient peu fait évoluer les interventions sur les quartiers informels dans les villes du Sud, ils introduisent aujourd'hui une nouvelle vision de ces quartiers et de leur traitement. À Damas et au Caire, des études abordent ces espaces comme déjà partiellement durables et adaptés et/ou adaptables au changement climatique: densité, lien social, mixité, espaces publics piétons, morphologie urbaine adaptée au...

  6. Du changement climatique aux quartiers informels durables : une nouvelle vision stratégique pour les villes du Sud ?

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Alors que, jusqu’à présent, les enjeux de la ville durable et du changement climatique avaient peu fait évoluer les interventions sur les quartiers informels dans les villes du Sud, ils introduisent aujourd’hui une nouvelle vision de ces quartiers et de leur traitement. À Damas et au Caire, des études abordent ces espaces comme déjà partiellement durables et adaptés et/ou adaptables au changement climatique : densité, lien social, mixité, espaces publics piétons, morphologie urbaine adaptée a...

  7. TIC et changement organisationnel Cas pratique: CHIALI TUBE – Sidi -Bel –Abbés.

    OpenAIRE

    Lekhal, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Le travail développé dans cette thèse concerne la problématique de la technologie de l’information et de la communication, son utilisation au sein de l’entreprise et aussi son impact et rôle dans le changement organisationnel. Nous avons mené une enquête et une étude empirique destinées à une entreprise algérienne pour mieux illustré l’importance des TIC et le besoin de changer organisationnellement et fonctionnellement à l’ombre du développement et de diffusion des TIC. ...

  8. Libre-échange et changements climatiques : " soutien mutuel " ou divergence ?

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Cet article aborde les dimensions théoriques et institutionnelles des relations entre l'agenda de la lutte contre les changements climatiques et la globalisation économique. Il développe une analyse critique de la thèse du soutien mutuel entre libéralisation des échanges et réduction des gaz à effet de serre. Cette analyse se prolonge par une réfutation de la thèse du soutien mutuel entre le régime OMC et le régime climatique international.

  9. Penser le changement climatique au siècle des Lumières

    OpenAIRE

    Favier, René

    2008-01-01

    Si pour les hommes de science du siècle des Lumières, le climat était une physique réglée dont il convenait de décoder les mécanismes, on ne saurait pourtant dire qu'ils ignorèrent entièrement l'idée même d'un changement climatique, et singulièrement la possibilité d'une action anthropique en la matière.

  10. Tuteurs et changement : la professionnalisation des infirmières en question : continuité, transformation ou mutation d'une profession

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Marine,

    2015-01-01

    Dans un monde de changement continu, les dispositifs de formation doivent trouver des logiques impulsant une dynamique d’adaptation au changement. Cette recherche porte sur le changement opéré en formation professionnelle infirmière suite à la réforme de 2009. Elle vise la compréhension des phénomènes liés au processus de transformation de cette profession et tente d’expliquer notamment les modalités de passage d’une logique de professionnalisation à une autre. Elle rend compte des pratiques ...

  11. L'impact du changement institutionnel sur le comportement des entreprises Algériennes

    OpenAIRE

    Merad-boudia, Hind-malika

    2014-01-01

    l’objet de la présente étude est d’évaluer l’impact du changement institutionnel dans un cadre de transition sur les pratiques des entreprises Algériennes. Cette étude suppose un cadre théorique spécifique et une méthodologie de recherche appropriée. De nombreux économistes ont tenté d’expliquer le retard économique des pays en développement. En effet, d’abord, nous avons tenté d’expliquer la diversité des trajectoires des pays en transition en s’appuyant sur le courant institutionnaliste. Pu...

  12. Comprendre les effets du changement climatique sur les écosystèmes

    OpenAIRE

    ROBINET, Christelle; Roques, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Résumé du rapport: A la lumière des derniers développements scientifiques, le présent rapport éclaire les différents aspects des impacts du changement climatique pour l’arbre et la forêt, en s’attachant à identifier des pistes d’action éprouvées. A la fin de cette étude et grâce à des scientifiques, « une balade en forêt en 2050 » propose de se projeter dans la forêt de Tronçais, (chênaie domaniale de 10 600 hectares, située dans l’Allier), un exercice de prospective qui pourrait illustre...

  13. L’adaptation au changement climatique en région wallonne

    OpenAIRE

    EcoRes-TEC Conseil; Amelung, Bas; Biernaux, Martin; Cauchy, Adeline; Céron, Jean-Paul; Cornélis, Philippe; Dubois, Ghislain; Frisson, Gwenn; Henrard, Séverine; Joveneau, Amélie; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud; Mouazan, Erwan; Pouria, Xavier; Speybroeck, Niko

    2011-01-01

    Les changements climatiques sont à présent une certitude au niveau mondial. Le 4 ème rapport du GIEC, publié en 2007, met en évidence l’origine et les responsabilités humaines liées à ce phénomène. Toutes les parties du globe sont susceptibles d’être affectées. Il n’y a pas un domaine ni un secteur d’activité qui n’en ressentira pas les effets d’où le besoin d’une nécessaire adaptation. Dès 2006, la Commission Européenne s’est engagée vers la probléma...

  14. La réélection de Lula, changement de base

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Théry; André Nagy

    2007-01-01

    La réélection de Luiz Inácio da Silva, le 29 octobre 2006, malgré les scandales politico-financiers qui ont marqué les trois dernières années de son premier mandat est due en grande partie à un changement social et géographique  de sa base électorale principale : appuyé jusque là par les régions industrielles du Sud, il a été cette fois porté par le Nord et le Nordeste, les régions pauvres du pays, comme le montre une série de cartes fondées sur l’analyse des résultats électoraux.The re-elect...

  15. Modélisation Intégrée du Changement Climatique - Contribution de l'optimisation par Oracle

    OpenAIRE

    Drouet, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    La modélisation intégrée du changement climatique a été introduite il y a une vingtaine d’années pour faire le lien entre les sciences humaines, les sciences de la vie et celles du climat afin de répondre aux questions des décideurs sur le problème du changement climatique. Cette thèse présente la méthode de couplage des dynamiques du climat et de l’économie et reformule de cette façon les problèmes d’optimisation de politiques climatiques. À partir de la méthode d’optimisation par oracle et l...

  16. Alexandre Magnan, Changement climatique : Tous vulnérables ? Repenser les inégalités

    OpenAIRE

    Scarwell, Helga-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Ce petit ouvrage (66 pages) cherche à répondre à la question suivante : Toutes les sociétés sont-elles également exposées aux conséquences néfastes du changement climatique ? On serait tenté de répondre que « les communautés les plus pauvres seraient les plus vulnérables au changement climatique eu égard à leurs faibles capacités d’adaptation ». Alexandre Magnan révise cette idée reçue qui repose sur un schéma trop général selon lui et qui ne prendrait pas en compte un certain nombre de facte...

  17. Changement climatique et domaines skiables: simulation en Savoie et Haute-Savoie à l’horizon 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Loubier

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Les domaines skiables et le changement climatique posent des questions importantes et nouvelles pour les espaces montagnards. Dans les hautes vallées où ces domaines sont souvent le moteur principal du développement local, on peut s'interroger sur la pérennité du modèle économique de l'or blanc à moyen terme quand les modèles de simulation du climat tablent sur une élévation de la température moyenne comprise entre 1,5° et 5° en 2100. Nous avons tenté de simuler les effets du changement climatique à l'horizon 2015, sur les domaines skiables de Savoie et Haute Savoie.

  18. Les ecarts de financement en matiere d'adaptation aux changements climatiques - avec la perspective des CPDN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Bee, Skylar; Puig, Daniel

    rapport sur les écarts financiers et les options permettant de les combler. Le rapport sera publié au printemps 2016. Cette mise à jour doit contribuer aux débats lors de la 21ème session de la Conférence des Parties (COP 21) à la Convention-Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC......). Elle comprend les principales conclusions concernant les coûts et les financements de l’adaptation aux changements climatiques du rapport AGR 2014 du PNUE ainsi que les conclusions préliminaires de l’évaluation de 2016. De plus, elle s’appuie sur les réflexions concernant les coûts de l’adaptation et...... les besoins de financement présentes dans les composantes adaptation des Contributions Prévues Déterminées au niveau National (CPDN) (INDC) – soit les engagements post 2020 que les pays se proposent mettre en oeuvre dans le cadre d’un nouvel accord mondial sur les changements climatiques....

  19. Impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouedraogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue l’impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles des agriculteurs au Burkina Faso, en utilisant l’approche ricardienne. Cette méthode permet de modéliser les revenus agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques, hydrologiques et socio-économiques. Plusieurs modèles économétriques ont été testés sur la base des données primaires de la campagne agricole 2002-2003. Ces modèles ont permis d’établir d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu agricole et les variables climatiques (température et précipitation et d’autre part, d’analyser la sensibilité des revenus agricoles par rapport à ces variables climatiques. Des simulations ont été faites sur la base des prévisions du groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC. Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que la relation entre le revenu et le climat est non linéaire. L’impact marginal de la température sur le revenu agricole est de -19,9 dollars US par hectare tandis que celui de la précipitation est de +2,7 dollars US par hectare. L’analyse des élasticités montre que l’agriculture est très sensible à la précipitation au Burkina. L’augmentation des précipitations de 1% entraine une hausse des revenus agricoles de 14,7%. Cependant, une augmentation des températures de 1% entraine une baisse des revenus agricoles de 3,6%. Les analyses de sensibilité ont montré que les paysans perdront 93% de leurs revenus suite à une augmentation de la température de 5°C. Ils perdront tout leur revenu suite à une diminution des précipitations de 14% (ceteris paribus. Du fait des conditions climatiques déjà difficiles, les scenarii de diminution des précipitations ou/et d’augmentation des températures sont très dommageables à l’agriculture au Burkina. Par ailleurs, l’étude a montré que la pratique de l’irrigation et l’accès à la vulgarisation ont un effet

  20. Développement et changement. Le développement professionnel collectif des enseignants face aux réformes dans les lycées agricoles publics

    OpenAIRE

    Germier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    La dimension collective du travail enseignant constitue aujourd’hui un enjeu prégnant des réformes éducatives. Cette recherche ethnographique étudie les liens entre développement et changement. Nous envisageons le travail collectif des enseignants sous l’angle des interactions entre développement professionnel et changement institutionnel. Reprenant à notre compte l’hypothèse de l’émergence du collectif d’enseignants comme un nouvel acteur des systèmes éducatifs, nous lui attribuons la capaci...

  1. L'entrepreneuriat institutionnel : le rôle des individus dans les processus de changement institutionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Battilana, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Comment les individus peuvent ils agir en entrepreneurs institutionnels malgré les pressions institutionnelles qui s'exercent sur eux ? Dans cette étude, je montre que la position des individus dans le champ a un impact sur leur susceptibilité d'agir en entrepreneurs institutionnels. Pour tester le modèle que je développe, j'utilise des données concernant 93 projets de changements qui ont été mis en oeuvre par 93 managers au sein du National Health Service entre 2002 et 2004. Les résultats de...

  2. Les discours de François Hollande (2009-2012: la force axiologico-affective du changement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Spagna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Within the field of argumentative analysis, our purpose is to underline the function and the effectiveness of the axiological-emotional content of the change proposed by François Hollande in his speeches (2009-2012.On the basis of the emotional orientation, given in a dysphoric register towards the previous government and in a euphoric one towards the auspicious future, the argumentation of the change claimed by the “normal” president is based on values. To not change would mean to accept the current situation and therefore all its negative values.Putting the reader in a condition of emotional tension with the aim of energizing him to find a remedy, Hollande’s proposition becomes, thus, a call to action, an implicit request for social, politic and moral engagement, to change the course of history and to realize a better future. Keywords: Argumentation, political discourse, emotion, axiological, change.  Résumé – Dans le cadre de l’analyse argumentative, cet article vise à souligner la fonction et l’efficacité de la charge axiologico-affective du changement proposé par François Hollande dans ses discours (2009-2012.Sur la base de l’orientation émotionnelle, donnée dans un registre dysphorique à l’égard du gouvernement passé et euphorique vers l’avenir prometteur, l’argumentation du changement invoqué par le président “normal” se fonde sur les valeurs. Ne pas changer signifierait accepter la situation actuelle et, par là, toutes ces valeurs négatives.Mettant le lecteur dans une condition de tension émotive pour le motiver à trouver un remède, la proposition de Hollande devient ainsi un appel à agir, une requête implicite d’engagement social, politique et moral pour changer le cours de l’histoire et réaliser un futur meilleur. Mots clés: argumentation, discours politique, émotion, axiologique, changement

  3. Evaluation intégrée et modélisation du Changement Climatique : Comment le Changement Climatique a transformé la conception que nous nous faisons des problèmes de décision

    OpenAIRE

    Matarasso, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Pour l'essentiel, l'idée de la « modélisation intégrée du Changement Climatique » consiste à réaliser des modèles qui couplent la description des activités humaines déterminant les émissions de gaz à effet de serre avec des modèles climatiques dont l'évolution est dépendante de ces émissions. On rend compte, en retour, des impacts du climat modifié sur l'économie sous forme de dommages ou bénéfices et de son influence sur les grands ensembles bio-écologiques qui participent au cycle du carbon...

  4. La transition vers une économie de l'hydrogène : infrastructures et changement technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    La double contrainte changement climatique et raréfaction du pétrole oblige à considérer des alternatives énergétiques pour le moyen terme. Ce travail de recherche porte sur le développement d'une économie hydrogène, laquelle n'est pas possible en l'absence d'une infrastructure de distribution et sans la mise au point de la technologie pile à combustible. L'idée forte de la thèse est que l'Etat joue un rôle central aussi bien dans la mise en place de cette infrastructure que dans la viabilité...

  5. Les mangroves face aux changements climatiques : Le cas à la fois typique et particulier du Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Yann; Cu, Pham Van

    2016-01-01

    Dans le contexte des changements climatiques dont l’une des conséquences est la montée du niveau de la mer, les régions côtières de certains pays se trouvent particulièrement exposées. C’est notamment le cas du Vietnam, dont les 3200 km de littoral sont pour la plupart des zones très sensibles du fait de leur très faible altitude. Auparavant, le pays disposait d’une importante mangrove qui constituait une protection naturelle idéale contre beaucoup d’aléas naturels. Victimes ces dernières déc...

  6. Les hêtraies du Châtillonnais (Côte-d’Or face au changement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltraud Wimmer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude traite des hêtraies du Châtillonnais (Côte-d'Or, Bourgogne face au changement climatique observé. Les données regroupent les séries bourguignonnes de température et de précipitation des stations de Météo France (1989-2009, la carte des hêtraies de l'Institut forestier national (IFN, un modèle numérique de terrain (MNT, SRTM et quatre indices de vulnérabilité du hêtre identifiés dans la littérature. La méthode repose sur une interpolation fine (mailles de 100 m de ces indices par régression-krigeage. Les résultats permettent de cartographier les risques actuels.

  7. Les hêtraies du Châtillonnais (Côte-d’Or) face au changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Waltraud Wimmer; Yves Richard

    2013-01-01

    L'étude traite des hêtraies du Châtillonnais (Côte-d'Or, Bourgogne) face au changement climatique observé. Les données regroupent les séries bourguignonnes de température et de précipitation des stations de Météo France (1989-2009), la carte des hêtraies de l'Institut forestier national (IFN), un modèle numérique de terrain (MNT, SRTM) et quatre indices de vulnérabilité du hêtre identifiés dans la littérature. La méthode repose sur une interpolation fine (mailles de 100 m) de ces indices par ...

  8. Le souffle du changement ou le retour aux habitudes ? Le cas de la tempête de 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Deuffic, P.

    2015-01-01

    / Face aux risques subis ou redoutés comme les tempêtes et incendies, une étude montre que les forestiers landais ont finalement peu modifier peu leurs comportements. Après les phases de stupéfaction, de gestion de l’urgence, d’abattement, est venue une période de réflexions et de propositions mais qui n'a guère fait évoluer les pratiques à court terme. Cette étude montre que le changement a besoin d’être accompagné, anticipé, conforté par différents canaux d’informati...

  9. Emigration, mutations sociales et changements culinaires en pays mixtèque (Oaxaca, Mexique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Comme dans d’autres régions du Mexique, les paysans du haut pays mixtèque (Etat d’Oaxaca ne vivent pratiquement plus de l’agriculture, sinon des revenus de leurs parents émigrés aux États-Unis. Dans la région, le phénomène de la migration a énormément augmenté au cours des dix dernières années. Comme la majorité des jeunes adultes émigrent, de nombreux foyers ne sont plus composés que de la mère et des enfants ou des grands-parents et des petits-enfants. Avec des ressources monétaires plus importantes, l’équipement des cuisines se modernise, impliquant des bouleversements techniques dans les préparations culinaires ; la consommation de viande et d’aliments industriels augmente tandis que celle de légumes spontanés diminue. Simultanément, divers programmes de développement, impulsés par le gouvernement, provoquent des changements profonds au niveau de l’économie familiale, de l’organisation sociale et du rôle des femmes. Actuellement le statut économique des familles ne dépend plus de l’étendue de leurs terres, mais du nombre de leurs membres qui travaillent « au Nord ». Néanmoins, le riche patrimoine culinaire de cette population est préservé, en particulier à l’occasion des repas festifs.Emigration, Social Mutations And Food Changes In The Mixtec Highlands (Oaxaca, MexicoLike in many regions of Mexico, farmers of the Mixtec Highlands, for the most part, no longer make a living from agriculture, but rather rely on money sent home by migrant family members. People from this region have been migrating for several decades, but this phenomenon, now mainly to the United States, has tremendously increased in the past ten years. Since most young adults have migrated, many households are composed of mothers and children or grandparents and grandchildren. As more monetary resources are available, the kitchen equipment is more modern, resulting in technical changes in culinary preparations. Meat and

  10. Vertebrates population response to the climatic change - pertinence of the environmental indicators and influence of the demographic strategies and consequences for the biodiversity dynamic; Reponses demographiques des vertebres aux changements climatiques - pertinence d'indicateurs environnementaux et influence des strategies demographiques et consequences pour la dynamique de la biodiversite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimerskirch, H

    2007-07-01

    There is a growing interest and major challenge to understand the way environmental variability and climatic change have affected and will affect ecosystems and populations. Long-term records of population parameters of vertebrates are rare, but invaluable to address this challenge. The network CLIMPOP brings together French researchers working with long term data collected on individually marked animals to study the effects of climate change on a range of vertebrate populations (reptiles, birds and mammals) and standardised methods to link climatic factors and demographic parameters. The funding from GICC-IFB has allowed the CLIMPOP group to hire a post doc bridging methodologists and ecologists, organize a workshop and support field studies. Several analyses on a series of vertebrates have been carried out on the link between large-scale and small-scale climatic factors and population dynamics. In addition the CLIMPOP group has carried out a major methodological paper reviewing statistical models and procedures to study the influence of climate on vital rates based on the analysis of individual monitoring data, to identify potential pitfalls in the utilization of these models and procedures, to review published papers in which the influence of climatic variation on survival probability in vertebrate populations has been addressed, to evaluate whether the results from these studies are relevant and to draw practical recommendations to efficiently address effects of climate effects on vital rates in natural vertebrate populations. This evaluation raised six potential methodological issues and indicates that so far most of the studies found in the ecological literature can be considered as being useful for the purpose of generating hypothesis rather than for that of obtaining solid evidence for the impact of climatic factors on vital rates. (author)

  11. Le positionnement de l'Inde sur le changement climatique : Des négociations internationales aux politiques nationales : des relations ambivalentes

    OpenAIRE

    Mathy, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Ce texte vise à décrire le positionnement de l'Inde vis-à-vis du changement climatique dans le but de cerner les marges de manœuvres existantes dans la contribution de l'Inde à l'atteinte d'un accord international lors de la COP 21 à Paris en 2015. Les première et seconde parties montrent respectivement les défis d'une Inde à la fois fortement exposée aux impacts du changement climatique et dont le développement économique est rendu dépendant du développement résilient d'un secteur énergétiqu...

  12. Changement climatique : d’atermoiements en piétinements, allons-nous vers les désastres annoncés ? [Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Cet éditorial du numéro spécial de Terminal intitulé « Le développement durable à l'épreuve des nouvelles technologies de l'information » analyse les résultats de la XVIe conférence des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques, tenue à Cancùn en décembre 2010, et dessine les perspectives de la prochaine conférence de Durban.

  13. Le changement climatique et le syndicalisme, quels engagements possibles ? Entretien avec Marcel Grignard, secrétaire général adjoint de la CFDT

    OpenAIRE

    Bompard, Jean-Pierre; Desbois, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Marcel Grignard a conduit la délégation de la CFDT au sommet de Copenhague sur le changement climatique. A ce titre, il a été interviewé sur les rapports entre technologies de l’information et développement durable, thématique du numéro 106-107 de la revue Terminal.

  14. Conservation de la biodiversité et changement climatique : un nécessaire changement de paradigme - Le cas des poissons migrateurs amphihalins Change in the climate and in the biodiversity-conservation paradigm The case of diadromous fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Rochard et Géraldine Lassalle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Les espèces les plus menacées font l’objet de plans de restauration visant à retrouver une situation antérieure jugée plus satisfaisante. Mais le changement climatique qui s'est opéré dans certaines régions nécessite de se poser la question de l'utilité de retrouver une situation antérieure devenue impossible à reproduire.The conservation of biodiversity is a recent concept which is mainly based on European directives and international conventions which do not consider the dynamic nature of ecological systems. Up to now, the aim was to restore a historical situation judged more satisfactory for a species, a habitat or an ecosystem. The ongoing climate change imposes a change of strategy because in some cases it will not be possible to restore the previous situation (temperature, precipitations. It is necessary to revise the geographical location of planned conservation measures and to amplify the measures facilitating the repositioning of species (improvement of connectivity. Beyond the questions on the climate scenarios used as input, these results overturn current rationales and raise serious questions concerning certain specific measures when projection models do not guarantee survival conditions for a particular species.

  15. Differentiation, international equity and efficiency in the fight against the global climatic change; Differenciation, equite internationale et efficacite dans la lutte contre le changement climatique global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O.; Criqui, P.; Viguier, L. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie - IEPE-CNRS/ Universite Pierre Mendes-France, 38 - Grenoble (France); Trommetter, M. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1998-05-01

    The first difficulty to get over in the international negotiation on the climatic change, has been and still remain the distribution of the efforts and the research of the equity in the objective determination. This paper analyzes the possible consequences of the negotiable emission licenses in terms of efficiency and equity. The first part is a review of the different charts of the objectives differentiation discussed or proposed in the international negotiation process on the greenhouse effect. It aims to find a bond between the the charts and the equity. The second part deals with the programs cost and their relative efficiency, taking into account the marginal cost curves. (A.L.B.)

  16. Capteur logiciel pour la détection de changement de mode de fonctionnement

    OpenAIRE

    Ragot, José

    2016-01-01

    International audience Regime change detection is concerned with identifying abnormal system behaviours and abrupt changes from one regime to another. This paper proposes a novel detection method capable of detecting regime change points in sequential time-serie data. Our approach is based on a sensitivity study of a global model combining, with a multiplicative effect, the local models describing the different modes of functionning

  17. IMPACT DES CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES ET DISTRIBUTION SPATIALE DES OISEAUX MARINS DE L'OCÉAN AUSTRAL

    OpenAIRE

    Péron, Clara

    2011-01-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), accelerated global warming is now non-equivocal. The aim of this PhD thesis was to assess past and recent climate changes in the Austral ocean and evaluate whether impact of these changes on seabirds spatial distribution was already discernible and/or predictible. Using historical vessel-based surveys data on 12 seabirds species, we documented a decrease in abundance of three species and found distinct changes in distribution ...

  18. Changement climatique et développement des territoires de montagne : quelles connaissances pour quelles pistes d’action ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le changement climatique est aujourd’hui une réalité au niveau international comme à celui des territoires locaux. Les travaux récents mettent préférentiellement l’accent sur l’analyse des conséquences du changement climatique. Cet article se propose de questionner et de qualifier l’impact du changement climatique dans les territoires montagnards des Alpes. Un premier axe de réflexion concerne l’évolution de la dangerosité de la montagne. Une montagne plus dangereuse se profile-t-elle ? Selon quels types de risques et avec quelles intensités ? Cependant, l’approche des risques naturels et de leur dynamique face au changement climatique ne saurait occulter le type d’activités économiques et les modes d’aménagements déjà existants de ces territoires. En ce domaine, l’économie touristique est prédominante en montagne. Sa pérennité comme sa vitalité constituent à l’évidence une priorité pour les acteurs territoriaux. Ces derniers ont mis en place des stratégies d’adaptation face au changement climatique. Pour mettre en place des approches intégrées face au changement climatique, les relations croisées entre risques naturels et modes d’aménagement des territoires montagnards appellent à encourager des lectures en termes de vulnérabilité territoriale.Climate change is today a reality at both the international and more local levels. Recent studies have focussed mainly on analysing the consequences of climate change. The present article seeks to examine and qualify the impact of climate change in the mountain areas of the Alps. A first line of enquiry concerns the changing level of danger in the mountain environment. Are mountain areas becoming more dangerous and, if so, in terms of what types of risks and to what degree? However, adopting an approach based on an analysis of natural hazards and their dynamics in response to climate change cannot ignore the economic activities and types of

  19. Helga-Jane Scarwell et Isabelle Roussel (dir., 2010, Le changement climatique : Quand le climat nous pousse à changer d’ère, Presses Universitaire du Septentrion, Lille, 358 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rocher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage « Le changement climatique. Quand le climat nous pousse à changer d’ère », édité par les Presses Universitaire du Septentrion dans la collection Environnement et société, coordonné par Helga-Jane Scarwell et Isabelle Roussel, rassemble autour de la question du changement climatique plusieurs contributions de chercheurs en géographie, pour la plupart membres du laboratoire TVES de Lille. Ce livre apporte un éclairage original et intéressant, alliant des études de cas comportant un fo...

  20. The understanding of world climate change; Les connaissances sur le changement climatique mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled that the problem of global warming in relationship with human activities has been studied since the end of the nineteenth century and since then by different scientific programs, the author describes how the IPCC's or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's report is produced. He briefly comments how Earth's temperature is determined and the various natural parameters which influence the climate on Earth. He recalls how the IPCC showed the actual influence of human activities, and which changes have actually been observed

  1. Climatic changes: the previsions denied by reality; Changements climatiques: les previsions dementies par la realite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, M. [Universite Jean Moulin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1995-03-01

    The observed climatic evolution, notably temperatures and precipitations, is not conform to the greenhouse effect scenario. The north atlantic area forms a well individualized circulation unit, the dynamic of which is controlled by the Polar Mobile Anti-cyclones (PMA). Pressure field variations show that the Arctic cooling has thermal and pluviometry regional effects different in function of the PMA dynamic and of the associated meridian transfers. The same observation in the north Pacific confirms the poor signification of a climatic evolution estimation at a global scale and shows that numerical models are unfitted for a climate evolution simulation. (A.B.). 26 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Humanity faced with climatic change; L'Humanite face au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R.; Lesourne, J

    2009-07-01

    Humanity is for the first time confronted with a global change phenomenon of the eco-sphere which makes her entering a long transition era with at the same time economical, social and political impacts. Every country and every human activity will be impacted. The resulting problems may be solved by changing our way of life, limiting transports and by the large-scale implementation of existing technologies or technologies under development. The challenge is not to reject technology but to intensify the efforts to develop and adapt it according to the real needs of populations. (J.S.)

  3. Expertise and governance of climate change; Expertise et gouvernance du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinas de Munagorri, R.; Colson, R. [Nantes Univ. (France); Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ. and Free Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Leclerc, O. [Paris Ouest-Nanterre La Defense Univ. (France); Rousseau, S. [CNRS, Lab. Droit et Changement Social (France); Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, Lab. Institutions et Dynamiques Historiques de l' Economie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become in few years a prominent problem which requires the implementation of a world governance to be solved. However, the share of human activities in the global warming phenomenon and the actions susceptible to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission generate scientifical, political and legal conflicts at the same time. Assessing the taking into account of climate change by international institutions raises several questions. By what process a true fact can become established at the world scale? Are experts free or constrain by procedure rules? How to regulate the worldwide carbon trade? Is the governance requirement foreseen in international systems respected by decision making practices? How to explain experts' omnipresence in the observance mechanisms of climate change treaties? Is their influence determining, at the international and internal scale, in the elaboration of a climate law? These questions, analyzed by researchers in law and political science, are indissociable of method stakes with an inter-disciplinary horizon. This book, result of a collective work, is not limited to a description of standards and actors' practices in force. Its ambition is to apprehend law, science and politics in their interactions. Climate change is an appropriate topic to think about the links between the different scientific disciplines. The book concludes with a prospective about the contribution of laws analysis to expertise which involves the dogmatic, realistic and epistemologic aspects. (J.S.)

  4. La qualité de services dans les administrations publiques : un défi du changement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Amiel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Les démarches « Qualité » issues du secteur privé atteignent progressivement l’ensemble du secteur public. Il n’est pas simple de transposer des outils du secteur marchand, dominé par des principes économiques, à des administrations soumises à une philosophie de gestion publique. Les biais bureaucratiques des administrations et la logique politique plus qu’économique qui anime le secteur non marchand nécessite une contextualisation fine des outils et méthodes importées du privé. Les approches « Qualité » renforcent l’apparition des concepts de management moderne qui tentent de s’implanter dans la plupart des administrations publiques, elles introduisent notamment la culture de la définition d’objectifs et de la mesure qui est son corollaire. Se mettre à l’écoute de l’usager pour mieux satisfaire ses besoins et ses attentes constituent un enjeu majeur pour l’administration publique car les intérêts des différents bénéficiaires d’une saine gestion publique sont, par nature même, antagonistes. S’appuyant sur l’usager, les différentes approches méthodologiques de gestion de la qualité permettent d’en faire le levier du changement ou de la modernisation dans le secteur public. Le défi est plus d’ordre culturel que d’ordre méthodologique. Les outils de la Qualité peuvent être transposés sans difficultés au sein du secteur public, mais c’est l’usage concret qui en sera fait qui leur donnera leur réelle valeur d’amélioration.

  5. Adaptation of systems to fluid changes; Adaptation des systemes aux changements de fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clodic, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Regulation constraints and the stoppage of CFCs production and HCFCs production in the future lead to rapid evolutions in the conceiving of refrigerating installations which are linked with refrigerant changes. The refrigerant/installation pair has become the aim of detailed analyses in order to understand the relation between the thermodynamical properties of fluids and the energy efficiency of refrigerating installations. The efficiency depends entirely on the global design of the installation while the choice of the fluid is only one element that contributes to this efficiency. This paper analyzes successively: the consequences of pure refrigerant substitution on volume and centrifugal compressors, and the constraints linked with the use of mixtures close to azeotropic compounds (R408A and R404A) and mixtures with temperature shift like R407C. In this last case, the replacement is deeply different in the case of water heat exchangers and in the case of air-circulation heat exchangers. (J.S.) 3 refs.

  6. The french researches on the climatic change; Les recherches francaises sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Scientists were the first to prevent decision makers on the risk of the climatic change bond to the greenhouse gases emissions. The results of the third GIEC report confirmed that the main part of the global warming of the last 50 years is due to the human activities. This document presents the major results of the french researches during the last five years: the planet observation, the climate evolution study, the simulation of the future climate, the climatic change in France, the impacts of the climatic change on the marine and earth biosphere, the climatic risks and the public policies, the health impacts, the 2003 heat and the research infrastructures. (A.L.B.)

  7. Economics of adaptation to climate change; Economie de l'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch.; Hallegatte, St.; Lecocq, F.

    2010-02-15

    This report proposes a general economic framework for the issue of adaptation to climate change in order to help public and private actors to build up efficient adaptation strategies. It proposes a general definition of adaptation, identifies the major stakes for these strategies, and discusses the assessment of global costs of adaptation to climate change. It discusses the role and modalities of public action and gives some examples of possible adaptation measures in some important sectors (building and town planning, energy and transport infrastructures, water and agriculture, ecosystems, insurance). It examines the regional and national dimensions of adaptation and their relationship, and defines steps for implementing an adaptation strategy. It describes and discusses the use of economic tools in the elaboration of an adaptation strategy, i.e. how to take uncertainties into account, which scenarios to choose, how to use economic calculations to assess adaptation policies

  8. Ireland and climate change; L'Irlande et le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzepski, G.; Lerouge, Ch.

    2010-05-15

    As the rise of sea level, the higher frequency of tempests, and the threat of water shortages in some parts of the country are the major stakes for Ireland in the struggle against climate change, this report gives an overview of greenhouse gas emissions in this country (globally and per sector) and of their evolution. It presents the Irish policy to struggle against climate change since 2000, its public actors (ministries, agencies), its different action plans (National Climate Change Strategy, energy sector planning, promotion of renewable energies, transport sector planning), and sector-based and tax measures implemented in Ireland. It discusses the limitations of the current policy (insufficient results, limited domestic measures, socioeconomic obstacles, complex political steering), describes the new European context and the present Irish context (economic crisis). Some new orientations are discussed

  9. Climatic servitude: climate change, business and politics; La servitude climatique: Changement climatique, Business et Politique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belouve, J.M.

    2009-07-01

    This book is together a contemporary history book and a global dossier about a topic of prime importance in our civilization. It treats of the history of science, of ideas and events put in the modern civilization context, of science situation and scientific controversies, of the media aspects, of carbon economy and its related business, of Al Gore's and Maurice Strong's biographies, and finally, it makes a critical geopolitical analysis and makes proposals for a renovated ecology. In the conclusion, the author shows how climate change has become the hobbyhorse of a new thinking trend, namely the New World Order, aiming at conducting people to the acceptance of constraining policies encompassing the energy security of nations, new taxes, a worldwide economic disruption, the limitation of the World's population, and a World governance supported by the United Nations and not constrained by classical democratic rules. (J.S.)

  10. Le rôle des facteurs locaux sur les effets des changements climatiques au Quaternaire supérieur sur les environnements naturel du Néguev septentrional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Yair

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Les régions sèches sont souvent considérées sensibles aux changements climatiques. Pour ces régions, une relation positive est souvent proposée entre la pluie annuelle moyenne et les données de l'environnement, par des scientifiques appartenant à des disciplines diverses. Cependant les modèles climatiques globaux sont encore incapables de prévoir d'une façon précise l'évolution du climat à l'échelle régionale et ses effets possibles sur l'environnement. De plus, ces modèles sont impuissants à traduire l'influence que des facteurs non climatiques tels que la lithologie et les sols, ainsi que des facteurs biologiques, exercent sur la répartition de l'eau dans l'espace et le temps. En d'autres termes, le même changement climatique régional prévu aura probablement des effets différents dans les secteurs rocheux, lœssiques ou sableux. Le Néguev septentrional offre des conditions très favorables pour l'étude des effets possibles du changement climatique prévu, le long d'un gradient pluviométrique régional où les unités physiographiques varient dans l'espace. Deux cas sont considérés. Le premier traite des effets sur l'environnement du dépôt d'un couvert lœssique lors d'une phase climatique humide au Quaternaire supérieur. Le second examine l'influence de croûtes biologiques de surface sur le régime hydrique d'une zone sableuse le long d'un gradient pluviométrique actuel. Dans les deux cas, le gradient pluviométrique est accompagné par d'autres gradients (géomorphologiques, pédologiques, biologiques. Les données obtenues attirent l'attention sur les relations complexes entre le gradient pluviométrique et les autres gradients, qui peuvent entraîner des effets négatifs sur les ressources hydriques et sur la qualité de l'environnement.Dryland areas are usually regarded as highly sensitive to climate change. A positive relationship between average annual rainfall and environmental variables is often assumed

  11. Quel futur pour les services écosystémiques de la forêt alpine dans un contexte de changement climatique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Courbaud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La forêt de montagne produit de nombreux services écosystémiques qui vont être affectés par les changements climatiques. On attend une remontée des essences en altitude qui pourrait conduire à une diminution des résineux et des espèces du subalpin. Ces changements d’essences pourraient avoir un impact négatif sur la biodiversité et sur la production de bois d’œuvre. On observe cependant également une augmentation de la productivité favorable à la production de bois énergie et au moins temporairement de bois d’œuvre, ainsi qu’au stockage de carbone. Face à une augmentation possible des évènements climatiques extrêmes, les changements de végétation pourront être marqués par des épisodes de dépérissements, très négatifs pour la filière économique, la protection contre les risques naturels et la biodiversité. Le changement climatique affectera la forêt également de manière indirecte en augmentant la demande en énergie renouvelable et en stockage de carbone. Les incertitudes sur les prédictions de changements de végétation sont élevées, ce qui rend délicate la définition de stratégies d’adaptation de la gestion forestière. Une gestion de crises efficace, un accompagnement des évolutions naturelles de la forêt basé sur une interaction recherche-gestion (gestion adaptative, et la prise en compte explicite de la notion d’incertitude paraissent des éléments essentiels au maintien des services écosystémiques fournis par la forêt.Mountain forests produce a large number of ecosystem services that are going to be affected by climate change. We are expecting an increase in high altitude species that could result in the decrease in resinous and subalpine species. These changes in species could adversely affect biodiversity and timber production. However, we also observe an increase in productivity that favours the production of energy wood and, at least temporarily, timber, as well as carbon

  12. « L’Amazonie – victime des changements climatiques ? » « The Amazon forest – victim of climate change? » « A Amazônia – vítima das mudanças climáticas ? »

    OpenAIRE

    Delaine Sampaio da Silva; Sebastian Weissenberger

    2010-01-01

    La forêt d’Amazonie est un des biomes les plus riches et les plus importants de la Terre. Cependant, son avenir est gravement menacé par les changements climatiques. L’effet de ces changements est indissociable de celui des activités humaines. Ainsi, la déforestation est responsable de plus de la moitié des émissions de gaz à effet de serre du Brésil. La lutte contre les changements climatique au Brésil passe donc en premier lieu par la lutte contre la déforestation. Cette lutte fait face aux...

  13. Impacts potentiels d'un changement climatique sur le pergelisol dans le nord canadien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obretin, Calin

    climate data by using a Determined Stochastic Model, ii) the integration of soil type, iii) the integration of the soil humidity, iv) the integration of the values of thickness of the snow layer and v) the integration of remote sensing data (SSM/I). As a rule, the results obtained by the TTOP-A model reveal that the mean values of temperature at the surface of the permafrost follow closely the values of air temperature and that they are similar to those found by Smith and Riseborough (1996) and Heginbottom and coll. (1995). Also, the differences of the values of temperature on the surface of permafrost between 2010 and 2100 are similar to the values published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Concerning the second objective of this thesis, the spatio-temporal dynamics of the permafrost until 2100 demonstrates that, in the study zone, the surface perturbed by global warming will be 37 %, 60 % and 29 % according to the scenarios CGCM3 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1 respectively. The permafrost layer inside this zone will disappear by 20 %, 32 % and 18 % according to the scenarios mentioned before. These results lead us to believe that the estimations made by Smith and Riseborough were overvalued in the context of two of three current climates scenarios compared to that of the 1996. Finally, this study demonstrates that the method of downscaling of climate data using the neuronal network within a Determined Stochastic Model gives good results and it represents a reliable option which lends itself to large-scale generalizations. Keywords: permafrost, downscaling, snow, soil humidity, climate scenarios, neuronal network, Determined Stochastic Model, climate change, CGCM3, TTOP. 2The third generation Coupled Global Climate Model [CCCma, 2010].

  14. Grazalema revisitée : changement social et culturel dans un village de la sierra andalouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Campuzano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazalema revisitée : changement social et culturel dans un village de la sierra andalouse. Nous essayons, dans cet article, de préciser le contexte intellectuel et scientifique de l’étude de Grazalema par J. Pitt-Rivers ainsi que les conditions dans lesquelles cette enquête a été réalisée. La dictature franquiste qui soupçonnait toute présence étrangère, a, en particulier, compliqué singulièrement la tâche de l’ethnologue. Nous nous sommes également intéressés à l’impact de l’œuvre dans le milieu universitaire espagnol. L’originalité de la pensée de Julian Pitt-Rivers, l’absence d’études anthropologiques en Espagne, à cette période ont probablement été à l’origine de polémiques, parfois assez violente autour de ses travaux, polémiques que nous exposons dans ce texte. Toutefois l’œuvre de Julian Pitt Rivers, plus de cinquante ans après sa parution garde tout son intérêt.Grazalema Revisited: Social and Cultural Change in a Sierra Andalusia Village. In this article we set out to specify the intellectual and scientific context of J. Pitt-Rivers’ study of Grazalema, as well as the conditions under which the survey was carried out. The Francoist dictatorship was suspicious of any foreigner’s presence and made the anthropologist’s task particularly complicated. We also take a look at the work’s impact on the Spanish academic environment. The originality of Julian Pitt-Rivers’ thought and the lack of anthropological studies in Spain at the time were no doubt responsible for the controversy – quite violent, at times – surrounding his work, controversy which we shall be discussing in this article. Nevertheless, even over fifty years after it first appeared, Julian Pitt Rivers’ work is still of great interest.

  15. Un cadre conceptuel pour explorer localement les facteurs de vulnérabilité et les options d’adaptation aux changements climatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Nathalie; Santos Silva, Julia; Plante, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Cet article décrit un cadre conceptuel pour explorer les facteurs affectant la vulnérabilité aux aléas reliés au climat ainsi que des options d’adaptation aux changements climatiques. Ce cadre permet de guider des réflexions dans un langage simple et non technique, tout en étant compatible avec différentes conceptualisations de la vulnérabilité. Il a été développé à travers l’élaboration d’un plan d’action pour l’adaptation avec l’administration municipale de Rivière-au-Tonnerre sur la Côte-N...

  16. Changements climatiques au Maghreb : vers des conditions plus humides et plus chaudes sur le littoral algérien ?

    OpenAIRE

    Nouaceur, Zeineddine; Laignel, Benoit; Turki, Imen

    2013-01-01

    Des changements climatiques importants affectent une grande partie de notre planète. Les différents modèles prévoient ainsi une hausse probable des précipitations et des températures dans plusieurs régions du monde. Le présent travail analyse l'évolution des températures et des pluies enregistrées sur le littoral algérien pendant plus de quarante années. Les évolutions de ces deux paramètres témoignent des bouleversements climatiques subis ces dernières années par l'Afrique du Nord et le Gran...

  17. Impacts du changement climatique sur les calendriers agricoles : Exemples de cultures céréalières du Plateau lorrain

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Thomas; De La Torre, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Cette étude conduite pour déterminer si les cycles des céréales sont modifiés avec le changement climatique, articule pour la première fois les conduites menées par les agriculteurs du Nord-Est de la France et celles de gestionnaires de dispositifs d’expérimentation agronomique. Menée en Lorraine, elle essaie de tester l'hypothèse formulée en Finlande en 2008: les dates de semis et de récolte sont avancées. Les calendriers culturaux sont examinés avec deux méthodes : (i) des enquêtes chez 12 ...

  18. Les défis de la réconciliation des objectifs de développement dans le contexte du changement démographique 

    OpenAIRE

    John Provo; Mel Jones

    2011-01-01

    Cet article cherche à déterminer si l’initiative de développement basé sur les ressources (ABDI, Asset-Based Development Initiative) de la Commission régionale des Appalaches (ARC, Appalachian Regional Commission) aux États-Unis réconcilie les objectifs de développement économique dans les communautés qui présentent un changement démographique. À travers des études de cas reposant sur des entretiens informatifs clés menés dans les communautés de la Virginie Occidentale et un examen de projets...

  19. Global soil nitrous oxide emissions in a dynamic carbon–nitrogen model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an important greenhouse gas that also contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. With high temporal and spatial heterogeneity, a quantitative understanding of terrestrial N2O emission, its variabilities and reponses to climate change is challenging. We added a soil N2O emission module to the dynamic global land model LM3V-N, and tested its sensitivity to soil moisture regime and responses to elevated CO2 and temperature. The model was capable of reproducing the average of cross-site observed annual mean emissions, although differences remained across individual sites if stand-level measurements were representative of gridcell emissions. Modelled N2O fluxes were highly sensitive to water filled pore space (WFPS, with a global sensitivity of approximately 0.25 Tg N year−1 per 0.01 change in WFPS. We found that the global response of N2O emission to CO2 fertilization was largely determined by the response of tropical emissions, whereas the extratropical response was weaker and different, highlighting the need to expand field studies in tropical ecosystems. Warming generally enhanced N2O efflux, and the enhancement was greatly dampened when combined with elevated CO2, although CO2 alone had a small effect. Our analysis suggests caution when extrapolation from current field CO2 enrichment and warming studies to the global scale.

  20. L'évolution de l'activité de contrôle de gestion en contexte PME : une focalisation sur le suivi des marges et le pilotage du changement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie, Didier

    2002-01-01

    L'activité de contrôle de gestion menée en contexte PME est aujourd'hui devenue véritablement bicéphale, intégrant à la fois un contrôle de gestion opérationnel dominé par la volonté de maîtrise à court terme des coûts et surtout des marges qui traversent la vie quotidienne de l'entreprise au travers de toutes ses activités et un contrôle de gestion stratégique dominé par la volonté de permettre le pilotage effectif du changement dans l'entreprise, changement lui-même issu de l...

  1. Les scénarios globaux de changement climatique et leurs incertitudesGlobal scenarios of climate change and associated uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Treut, Hervé

    2003-06-01

    The changes in the atmospheric chemical composition since the beginning of the industrial era have no equivalent throughout the Quaternary. All model simulations indicate that, without a significant decrease of the greenhouse gases emissions, climate is bound to change importantly during the years and decades to come. The precise forecast of these changes is made difficult both by the characteristics of natural systems which are not entirely predictable - as well as by our present and future socio-economic choices. To cite this article: H. Le Treut, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  2. Développement intégré, gestion des risques et adaptation communautaire au changement climatique dans un système montagne-plaine au nord de la Tanzanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une analyse préliminaire d’un travail mené le long des pentes des montagnes et dans les plaines du nord de la Tanzanie. Un fort degré d’interdépendance a pu être mis en évidence parmi des groupes d’individus de langues et de cultures différentes, de statuts socio-économiques variés. Leurs interactions se situent le long de gradients environnementaux allant de l’amont à l’aval. On désignera cela « adaptation socio-géographique » au changement climatique. Cependant, l’analyse et la discussion présentées ajoutent la complexité à n’importe quelle notion simpliste « d’adaptation au changement climatique » puisque les changements sont multiples et l’adaptation, de fait, reste complexe.

  3. Global Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the technology and classification of global monitoring, shows the relationship between the global monitoring and geographic information monitoring, presents the cause-and-effect diagram of global monitoring. The paper discloses the value of the time series for global monitoring, offers a functional diagram of the global monitoring system, gives the main characteristics of global monitoring.

  4. Modèle mathématique à bilan d'énergie du changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Ogutu, Benjamin Keroboto Za'Ngoti

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to build a global reduced-complexity model of coupled climate-economy-biosphere interactions, which uses the minimum number of variables and equations needed to capture the fundamental mechanisms involved and can thus help clarify the role of the different mechanisms and parameters. The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs mere...

  5. Les géographes - climatologues français et le changement climatique aux échelles régionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Beltrando

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En France, sur le sujet du changement climatique et quel que soit son origine, les géographes - climatologues se sont majoritairement intéressés à la description et l’explication de la variabilité du climat à diverses échelles de temps et d’espace sur des périodes écoulées. Ils se sont moins investis sur les formes d’adaptations tenant compte des résultats des simulations du climat futur, tel qu’il est envisagé à partir des calculs obtenus par les modèles numériques du climat. Cette frilosité s’explique en partie par le manque de précision et de fiabilité accordé aux résultats produits par ces modèles, aux échelles des territoires occupés par les sociétés humaines, mais aussi parce que les travaux de géographes montrent depuis longtemps que les sociétés humaines - indépendamment du changement climatique sous l’effet des gaz à effet de serre additionnels - ont une part directe dans bien des catastrophes qui les affectent (construction dans des zones inondables, production agricole dans des régions où la pluviométrie peut être insuffisante certaines années…. Les géographes-climatologues, commencent à utiliser des nouvelles sorties de modèle à des échelles plus opérationnelles pour proposer des formes d’adaptations spécifiques à chaque territoire et à chaque secteur économique. Ces recherches prospectives sont réalisées en tenant compte à la fois de la part d’incertitude des résultats produits par des modèles numériques, mais aussi des particularités des groupes sociaux et des milieux physiques dans lesquels s’inscrivent ces changements. Cela est un préalable nécessaire à toutes formes de réflexion approfondies sur l'identification des facteurs d’adaptation.In France, on the topic of climate change, the geographer climatologists are focused on the description and explanation of climate variability at various temporal and spatial scales on last period. They are less

  6. Introduction d’un changement d’environnement virtuel de travail dans un cours de second cycle : contribution à l’étude des dispositifs hybrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peraya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Cette contribution s’inscrit dans la continuation de recherches sur les dispositifs de formation hybride, c’est-à-dire caractérisés par la mise à distance de certaines activités d’apprentissage. Elle étudie les effets sur les représentations des étudiants de l’introduction, à la faveur d’un changement d’environnement virtuel de travail (EVT, d’un wiki pour réaliser l’une des tâches de production. Cette étude, menée par questionnaires auprès des étudiants d’un cours de second cycle universitaire pendant trois années consécutives, se concentre sur la perception de l’impact du changement d’une des dimensions du dispositif de formation (l’environnement technopédagogique et, en particulier, le dispositif de médiation de la fonction de production sur la perception que se forgent les apprenants de certaines caractéristiques du dispositif et du processus d’enseignement/apprentissage qui s’y déroule. Les résultats montrent un net effet de l’introduction du wiki et indiquent également que, dans un dispositif de formation hybride à forte composante présentielle, l’EVT peut jouer un rôle différent selon que l’on considère le fonctionnement du groupe-classe ou celui du sous-groupe de travail. [English] This text is a contribution to previous studies of hybrid learning situations. These are characterized by the alternating of face-to-face and remote phases in the learning process. This study investigates the effects on students’ representations of the introduction of a wiki as production tool, due to a change in platform. Questionnaires were used to collect data from university-level students for three consecutive school years. The purpose was to highlight the students’ perception of the impact of the change in the technopedagogical environment (especially its production function, with a special focus on the students’ perception of the learning device and learning process. Results

  7. Reponse of climate change to Arctic Oscillation in Hebei Province%河北省气候变化对AO因子的响应探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建佳; 陈辉; 郝立生; 刘耀亮; 刘纹瑕; 邢星

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, continuous attention to global warming has been paid by researchers of all over the world. The temperature in China rose significantly, and also the rising trend had regional and seasonal differences, except that a few special areas showed cooling trend. Hebei Province locates in North China area with varied land-forms , and the terrain in the northwest is higher than the southeast. The temperature rose significantly in Hebei Province , which responded strongly to global wanning. This paper analyzed the regional and seasonal features of temperature variation trend and the time of abrupt temperature change in Hebei province in recent 50 years. On the basis of this analysis, the paper gave a discussion about the effect of CO2 emission, AO (Arctic Oscillation) and other factors on the temperature change features in Hebei, this would offer a certain reference for further study of long-term temperature change in Hebei province. The data used in this paper include monthly temperature records that collected at 72 typical meteorological stations in Hebei Province,CO2 emission in China and AO indices. Monthly temperature records in Hebei province were derived from Hebei Province Bureau, CO2 emission in China and the AO indices originated from World Meteorological Organization and Climate Prediction Center of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) , respectively. The time span of CO2 emission data is 1961-2007, the others are all from 1961 to 2010. Firstly, the paper judged the time series of temperature whether had rising trend or declining trend existed or not by using the means of Mann-Kendall trend analysis, then calculating the change value by the means of Sen' s slope estimates if the temperature changed significantly. The jump time of temperature change was detected by Mann-Kendall jump test, Pettitt-Mann-Whitney change-point statistics and moving t-test, and determined the accurate jump time of temperature change combined with

  8. Dynamique de changement de l’arganeraie entre sur-usage et mutations sociales : une opportunité d’équilibre socio-écologique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid El Wahidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Detecting and characterizing forest cover change over time is the first step towards the identification of driving forces and understanding their mechanisms. Using remote sensing data and socio-economic surveys, this work tries to understand man-environment interactions in the Haha argan forest (14.7 % of the entire Moroccan argan forest. It consists, in a first step, on detecting and characterizing forest cover changes. The second step seeks to link the estimated change to specific factors from the analysis of traditional land management and demographic, socio-economic dynamics in the study area. The obtained results contribute to clarify the ambiguous speech around the argan forest degradation, at least in the mountain and along the Atlantic band. It implies a small rate of decline in forest area, barely exceeding a rate of 0.2% between 1993 and 2006. As for the stumps density, it almost does not decrease (averaging 0.6 stump/ha between 1984 and 2006. These changes, often subtle, are observed in 96.5% in the common area (mouchaa for free use and not submitted to the traditional land management regulation (agdals set by the local community. The Haha argan forest is experiencing a long-term of ecological dynamic change corollary to a demographic, social and economic dynamics so called favorable to its preservation. Nevertheless, it suffers from a qualitative degradation and a dysfunction of natural processes limiting any restoration dynamic and making questionable the reliability and the sustainability of this agro-ecosystem. Détecter et caractériser les changements du couvert forestier au fil du temps est la première étape vers l'identification des forces motrices et la compréhension de leurs mécanismes. Ce travail consiste, en combinant données de télédétection et enquêtes socio-économiques, à construire une image de l’ensemble des interactions homme-environnement autour de l’arganeraie des Haha (sud-ouest marocain. Il s

  9. Women and Health: In the Context of Global Restructuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanzida Farhana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available
    Recently there is a debate about the impact of global restructuring on human health. this article will attempt to examine the impact of global restructuring on the health of poor women in a range of different setting. It will also give a brief account of gender inequalities in access to health care and recent campaigns designed to resist the negative changes.
    Key words: global restructuring, women’s health, gender inequality, poverty, well-being
    Résumé: Récemment, il y a un débat sur l'impact de la restructuration mondiale sur la santé humaine. cet article tentera d'examiner l'impact de la restructuration mondiale sur la santé des femmes pauvres dans une gamme de circonstances différentes. Il donnera aussi un bref compte rendu des inégalités entre les sexes dans l'accès aux soins de santé et les récentes campagnes désignées à résister aux changements négatifs.
    Mots-Clés: restructuration mondiale, santé des femmes, inégalité entre les sexes, pauvreté, bien-être

  10. Globalization Nationalized

    OpenAIRE

    Mazlish Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests that this competition is overdrawn, and that nationalist agendas in particular have found their way into global studies.

  11. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  12. Against globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders; Philipsen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts. Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  13. Periodizing Globalization: Histories of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Nederveen Pieterse Jan

    2012-01-01

    The article outlines the analytics and criteria that inform periodizing globalization. It criticizes presentist and Eurocentric views on globalization, the contemporary view, the modernity view (1800 plus) or the capitalism view (1500 plus). It discusses approaches to world history and how globalization fits in. Understandings of globalization, such as multicentric and centrist perspectives, and units of analysis affect how timelines of globalization are established. Taking into account globa...

  14. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced by...... rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  15. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Triana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global (global warming pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, dinitrooksida (N2O dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  16. Global Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreet, Wilma S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue contains an introduction ("The Promise and Perplexity of Globalism," by W. Longstreet) and seven articles dedicated to exploring the meaning of global education for today's schools. "Global Education: An Overview" (J. Becker) develops possible definitions, identifies objectives and skills, and addresses questions and issues in this…

  17. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  18. Global Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  19. Strategies of petroleum companies facing climate change issues; Strategies des compagnies petrolieres face a la problematique du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, St.

    2005-05-01

    The oil industry is particularly concerned with the issue of climate change. The implementation of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction policies can be perceived as an additional environmental constraint for the management of the production chain. It is also represents a first step towards a possible decarbonization of the economy. In the long-term, the fight against global warming calls thus into question the activity level of petroleum companies. Confronted with this, still uncertain, new environmental deal, some petroleum multinationals adopt proactive behaviors, e.g. with voluntary commitments to reduce GHG emissions, or with investments in alternative technologies. First of all, we present the potential economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on oil industry. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of the 'Kyoto risk' for the five largest multinationals of this sector according to their activities and their geographical implantations. Then, for the purpose to interpreting proactive strategies of firms such as BP and Shell, we examine various explanations including 'win-win', public image and the response to broad societal needs. This leads us to formalize the proactive behavior as an anticipatory management of carbon contestability, particularly perceptible in financial markets. Lastly, we try to justify economically investments of companies in the field of alternative energy sources and technologies through the lens of real options theory and by a management of the exhaustible fossil resources. (author)

  20. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  1. Effects of climate change on US agriculture; Les effets du changement climatique sur l'agriculture americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, L

    2007-08-15

    The USA are a major producer of food and fiber products in the world. The US agriculture represents more than 25% of the world trades of wheat, corn, soy and cotton. The cultivated surfaces and the pasture lands represent 210 million Ha (17% of the US territory) and 300 million Ha (26% of the US territory), respectively. The agricultural production represents less than 2% of the US GDP, put the agriculture products make about 5% of the US exports. The climate change may have some impacts on the overall agriculture industry, from the plant growth to the conditions of competition on international markets. In 2001, the US global change research program, published an evaluation report about the potential consequences of the climate change on the US agriculture. The conclusions of the panel of experts, based on climate, cultivation and economical models, was that the CO{sub 2} levels and climate changes of the 21. century would have no negative impact on the US agriculture. The average effects, on the contrary, would be rather positive, depending on the type of culture and on the region considered. Today, the experts have entertained lot of doubts about the 2001 forecasts: the fertilizing effect of CO{sub 2} is more and more criticized and an efficient supply of water appears as seriously compromised for many regions. Experts stress also on the lack of consideration for extreme climatic events, and for crop vermin and diseases. This document reanalyzes the conclusions of the 2001 report in the light of the works carried out more recently at the Agriculture Research Service (ARS). The proceedings of expert's interviews are attached in appendixes. (J.S.)

  2. Expected impacts of climate change on extreme climate events; Impacts du changement climatique sur les evenements climatiques extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planton, S.; Deque, M.; Chauvin, F. [Meteo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques/groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique (CNRM/GAME), 31 - Toulouse (France); Terray, L. [Centre Europeen de Recherches Avancees en Calcul Scientifique, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2008-09-15

    An overview of the expected change of climate extremes during this century due to greenhouse gases and aerosol anthropogenic emissions is presented. The most commonly used methodologies rely on the dynamical or statistical down-scaling of climate projections, performed with coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Either of dynamical or of statistical type, down-scaling methods present strengths and weaknesses, but neither their validation on present climate conditions, nor their potential ability to project the impact of climate change on extreme event statistics allows one to give a specific advantage to one of the two types. The results synthesized in the last IPCC report and more recent studies underline a convergence for a very likely increase in heat wave episodes over land surfaces, linked to the mean warming and the increase in temperature variability. In addition, the number of days of frost should decrease and the growing season length should increase. The projected increase in heavy precipitation events appears also as very likely over most areas and also seems linked to a change in the shape of the precipitation intensity distribution. The global trends for drought duration are less consistent between models and down-scaling methodologies, due to their regional variability. The change of wind-related extremes is also regionally dependent, and associated to a poleward displacement of the mid-latitude storm tracks. The specific study of extreme events over France reveals the high sensitivity of some statistics of climate extremes at the decadal time scale as a consequence of regional climate internal variability. (authors)

  3. Les défis de la réconciliation des objectifs de développement dans le contexte du changement démographique 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Provo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article cherche à déterminer si l’initiative de développement basé sur les ressources (ABDI, Asset-Based Development Initiative de la Commission régionale des Appalaches (ARC, Appalachian Regional Commission aux États-Unis réconcilie les objectifs de développement économique dans les communautés qui présentent un changement démographique. À travers des études de cas reposant sur des entretiens informatifs clés menés dans les communautés de la Virginie Occidentale et un examen de projets financés par l’ARC, les auteurs tentent de répondre à deux questions fondamentales : « Le leadership communautaire a-t-il évolué et s’est-il adapté au programme ? » et « Les nouveaux projets différaient-ils clairement, en termes d’objectifs, de contenu ou de résultats, des projets antérieurs ? ». Les similitudes économiques et démographiques entre les communautés alpines et appalachiennes, notamment en ce qui concerne le rôle des immigrants, suggèrent que les conclusions de cette étude seront pertinentes pour d’autres régions de montagnes et pourraient contribuer à un débat entre spécialistes du développement en montagne.This paper considers whether the US Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC Asset-Based Development Initiative (ABDI reconciles economic development objectives in communities experiencing demographic change. Through a case study approach utilizing key informant interviews in Southwest Virginia communities and a review of ARC-funded projects, the authors consider two main questions. Did community leadership change or adapt to the program? Were new projects demonstrably different in objectives, content, or outcomes than past projects? Economic and demographic similarities between Alpine and Appalachian communities, particularly in the role of in-migrants, suggest that this study’s findings will be relevant for other mountain regions and could contribute to a conversation among

  4. Tectonique globale. Quelques difficultés Global Tectonics. a Few Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitart M. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On constate que malgré la brillante démonstration apportée par les forages dans le fond des océans, les praticiens de la géologie observent une certaine réserve face aux concepts de la Tectonique globale. C'est que d'une part, certaines hypothèses de base sont difficiles à comprendre et que d'autre part, la théorie aide assez peu à la résolution des problèmes qui se présentent au géologue praticien. Nous prendrons comme exemple - la difficulté de l'interprétation des anomalies magnétiques des océans; - le problème des « structures reliques » en milieu océanique; - le problème du changement de plaque et de l'inversion du mouvement; - les bassins intraplaques transverses aux ouvertures. Despite the brilliant demonstration of drilling into ocean beds, geologists seems ta be maintaining a certain reserve when confronted with concepts of global tectonics. On one hand, some basic assumptions are difficult ta understand, and on the other the theory is of relatively little help in solving the problems faced by practicing geologists. A few examples of such problems are - the difficulty in interpreting magnetic anomalies in oceans; - the problem of « relic structures » in on oceanic environment; - the problem of plate changes and inversion of movements; - intraplate basins bridging openings.

  5. Global Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Thien Nguyen; Lukas Schmid; Mariano Croce

    2014-01-01

    The recent fiscal crisis in the EU and the slow-down of the BRICS countries have raised world-wide concerns about future global growth prospects. We examine the role of doubts about both local and foreign economic shocks by constructing an international endogenous growth model with technology diffusion across countries. In this setting, endogenous technology spillovers generate global growth shocks. When agents have concerns for robustness, country-specific shocks (1) alter global entropy, an...

  6. Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Stančíková, Katarína

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is to examine the Global Sourcing purchasing strategy as an instrument of reducing the acquisition costs of the company. Globalization has brought increased competition and pressure on reduction of purchase prices in all sectors of the world economy. The use of international trade market is currently an integral part of almost every business strategy. The concept of Global Sourcing consists not only in the use of international markets and the acquisition of...

  7. Global panopticon

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary panopticon infrastructure and technologies are deployed to secure citizens using video surveillance, biometrics, labelling technologies, satellites and the global fibre network. This is an expanding business sector.

  8. « L’Amazonie – victime des changements climatiques ? » « The Amazon forest – victim of climate change? » « A Amazônia – vítima das mudanças climáticas ? »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaine Sampaio da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La forêt d’Amazonie est un des biomes les plus riches et les plus importants de la Terre. Cependant, son avenir est gravement menacé par les changements climatiques. L’effet de ces changements est indissociable de celui des activités humaines. Ainsi, la déforestation est responsable de plus de la moitié des émissions de gaz à effet de serre du Brésil. La lutte contre les changements climatique au Brésil passe donc en premier lieu par la lutte contre la déforestation. Cette lutte fait face aux enjeux actuels du développement en Amazonie, en premier lieu l’élevage et l’agriculture à grande échelle. Certains éléments des politiques récentes du Brésil vont dans le sens d’un développement moins « sauvage » en Amazonie, mais se heurtent à des intérêts économiques et politiques. Les initiatives internationales comme Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD, dans le cadre d’un accord climatique, peuvent fournir des incitatifs économiques cruciaux. Il est dans tous les cas primordial qu’un tel développement soit adapté à la réalité amazonienne et se fasse en collaboration avec les populations locales dans une optique de développement social autant qu’écologique ou économique.The Amazon rainforest is one of most important ecosystems on earth and a biodiversity hotspot. Its future is however in peril due to the effects of climate change and human activities. Climate models predict a severe die-back of the Amazon forest by the end of this century, accompanied by the release of vast quantities of carbon actually stored in the vegetation. Deforestation is currently responsible for over one half of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions. Fighting deforestation is therefore Brazil’s most efficient way to reduce its emissions. This is however contrary to current development schemes in the Amazon region, and in particular large scale agricultural and cattle raising farms. However, Brazil

  9. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des

  10. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  11. Born globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2013-01-01

    Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid......Internationalisering er ofte en gradvis proces, men nogle typer af nyetablerede små og mellemstore virksomheder formår at blive globale på kort tid...

  12. Global fordeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2015-01-01

    Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst......Øgede globale økologiske distributionskonflikter i kraft af neoliberal globalisering drevet af kravet om økonomisk vækst...

  13. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  14. Global NATO or global partnerships?

    OpenAIRE

    Koschut, Simon

    2007-01-01

    "NATO needs to define its global purpose if it wishes to address global threats. What is the prospect of NATO going global and how will it affect NATO's future course? In the run-up to the NATO Summit in Riga in November 2006, a debate on both sides of the Atlantic has now evolved over NATO's global engagement that touches on the very foundations of NATO's original purpose and definition. Critically, the debate is no longer about wether NATO should go 'out of area or out of business' but whet...

  15. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  16. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the...

  17. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  18. Bien-être émotionnel au travail et changement organisationnel Emotional Well-Being at Work and Organizational Change: The Essilor Case Bienestar emocional en el trabajo y cambio organizacional : el caso de Essilor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Remoussenard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aujourd’hui, la plupart des entreprises mettent en place des projets de changements organisationnels afin de s’adapter aux modifications d’un environnement très concurrentiel. Ce faisant, elles se heurtent à des difficultés liées notamment aux situations de mal-être que ces changements peuvent induire. Notre étude vise à explorer les effets de nouvelles politiques managériales sur le bien-être émotionnel des salariés. Plus précisément, nous explorons les politiques mises en œuvre par un des sites du Groupe Essilor dans le contexte d’un changement organisationnel. Nous analysons d’un point de vue quantitatif et qualitatif les effets induits par ces politiques sur les salariés et sur la façon dont Essilor-Dijon en tient compte dans sa gestion des collaborateurs pour améliorer le bien-être au travail. À la lumière de nos résultats, il apparaît que les émotions sont au cœur de la conduite du changement, pouvant jouer le rôle de freins ou de leviers en fonction des choix managériaux.Nowadays, companies are implementing organizational change in order to be able to adapt to an increasingly competitive environment. Because of this context, firms are often confronted with problems linked to stressful situations that they themselves have brought about. We explored the policies which were applied by one of the branches of the Essilor Group in an organizational change context. First, we quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed the effects which this policy has had on stress-related issues. Second, we looked at how Essilor-Dijon took into account these effects in managing its staff so as to improve their well-being at work. Our results show that emotions appear to be at the heart of managing change and can either be obstacles or facilitators, depending on the choices made by management.Hoy en día, la mayoría de las empresas están llevando a cabo proyectos de cambio organizacional con el objetivo de adaptarse a las

  19. Modélisation du fonctionnement thermique, hydrologique et isotopique de systèmes lacustres : sensibilité aux changements climatiques et amélioration des reconstructions paléoclimatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Danis, Pierre-Alain

    2003-01-01

    Aux moyennes latitudes, les lacs sont le lieu de formation et de préservation d'archives paléoclimatiques nécessaires à la compréhension des changements du climat passé. Par ailleurs, les lacs d'eau douce ont également un rôle important dans l'économie régionale du fait des activités de pêche, des activités touristiques et de leur utilisation pour l'alimentation en eau potable.Durant cette thèse, nous avons cherché à développer un outil de modélisation des lacs conceptuellement simple et néce...

  20. Des prairies adaptées au changement climatique pour un système laitier économe en eau et en énergie : le projet OasYs

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Sandra; Emile, Jean Claude

    2015-01-01

    L’élevage laitier doit faire face à de nouveaux défis : produire du lait dans un contexte de changement climatique, en économisant les ressources en voie de raréfaction (eau et énergie fossile), tout en contribuant à une agriculture durable. Dans ce cadre, un système laitier innovant basé sur une diversification des ressources fourragères, l’allongement du pâturage, le développement des légumineuses et une stratégie d’élevage adaptée, est mis en place à Lusignan (Poitou-Charentes). Nous faiso...

  1. Enjeux politiques de l’adaptation aux changements climatiques dans les projets de gestion intégrée des zones côtières à Madagascar 

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamasinoro, Jessica Onitsoa; Sarrasin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Pour faire face aux changements climatiques, les pays économiquement pauvres comme Madagascar ont été invités par les Nations-Unies à soumettre un Programme d’actions nationales d’adaptation (PANA) qui identifie les projets jugés prioritaires en matière d’adaptation. On trouve parmi ces derniers la gestion intégrée des zones côtières (GIZC). Celle-ci résulte aussi d’une mise à jour du Livre blanc de la politique de développement durable des zones côtières et marines ayant mené à l’élaboration...

  2. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  3. Des changements attendus en Libye

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Depuis la suspension de l'embargo en avril 1999, la Libye du colonel Kadhafi cherche à retrouver sa place dans le concert des nations. Mise au ban des nations durant une décennie, en raison des accusations portées contre sa responsabilité dans l'attentat de la PanAm à Lockerbie, la Libye a fait un retour remarqué sur la scène internationale. La Libye d'après l'embargo souhaite résolument mettre un terme à la politique révolutionnaire des années 1970 et 1980. Depuis quatre ans, Kadhafi cher...

  4. Climate change; Le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Based on contributions on 120 French and foreign scientists representing different disciplines (mathematics, physics, mechanics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and so on), this report proposes an overview of the scientific knowledge and debate about climate change. It discusses the various indicators of climate evolution (temperatures, ice surfaces, sea level, biological indicators) and the various factors which may contribute to climate evolution (greenhouse gases, solar radiation). It also comments climate evolutions in the past as they can be investigated through some geological, thermal or geochemical indicators. Then, the authors describe and discuss the various climate mechanisms: solar activity, oceans, ice caps, greenhouse gases. In a third part, the authors discuss the different types of climate models which differ by the way they describe processes, and the current validation process for these models

  5. Climatic change; Le Changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch. de [Universite de Paris-Dauphine, 75 - Paris (France); Caisse des depots, Mission climat, 75 - Paris (France); Delbosc, A. [Caisse des depots, Mission climat, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Received ideas about climatic change are a mixture of right and wrong information. The authors use these ideas as starting points to shade light on what we really know and what we believe to know. The book is divided in three main chapters: should we act in front of climatic change? How can we efficiently act? How can we equitably act? For each chapter a series of received ideas is analyzed in order to find those which can usefully contribute to mitigate the environmental, economical and social impacts of climatic change. (J.S.)

  6. Globalization, Migration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training,employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportationfacilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the Souththrough remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly womenof South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy.However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as braindrain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development ofnatural resources, improved employment prospects, social development and through exposure toimmigrants' new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrantintegration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and socialproblems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact onprivate investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North andSouth face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South's labour or itsproducts and exporting capital and technology from the North.FrenchLa migration est sans doute devenue la partie la plus importante de la démographie des premières décennies du nouveau millénaire dans un monde qui change rapidement. Ce

  7. Global safety

    OpenAIRE

    DeTombe, Dorien J.

    2010-01-01

    Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy relat...

  8. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels....... The boundaries of firms and countries are increasingly porous and imprecise, because firms use alliances and outsourcing, and countries are rarely technologically self-sufficient. On the other hand, locations remain distinct and idiosyncratic, with innovation systems remaining largely nationally bound...... makers and managers on industrial policy as well as the organisation of research and development by firms....

  9. Another globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  10. Elements of response on the mapping of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France; Elements de reponse sur les representations cartographiques des retombees de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Metivier, J.M.; Pourcelot, L.; Duffa, C.; Lemaitre, N.; Linden, G.; Champion, D

    2004-03-15

    The comparison of estimations got with the help of the rain-deposit relationship with results of consolidated measurements, got on well controlled and referred samples is globally positive. These differences, in addition match with the uncertainties that have been previously estimated in the rain-deposit model. (N.C.)

  11. Global Sourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Mol; R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob); P.R. Beije (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSince the early 1990s international - or even global - outsourcing of intermediate products from suppliers has been propagated as a key means to improve the performance of firms. It is argued that becoming more lean and internationally focused is beneficial for the buyer as we

  12. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure to...

  13. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    - idet min lillebror er blandt de anholdte; og mine forældre derfor skulle være blandt de skyldige. Hvilket har fået mig til at fare i blækhuset, med en alternativ forklaringsmodel, der ikke handler om skyld. Kulturen omkring Ungdomshuset er globalt orienteret, og derfor meget sensible overfor global...... forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... også sig selv og sin omverden igennem en global optik. Ungdommen af i dag er som børn vokset op i et samfund og dannelseskultur, der ikke har været globalt orienteret, hvor demokratiske værdier som frihed, lighed, menneskerettigheder her hersket i det socialdemokratiske projekt om sammenhængskraft. Og...

  14. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2016-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries.......This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably and...

  15. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  16. Globalizing America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Thomas L.; Boyd, Gavin

    An argument that globalization is an ungoverned integration process in which US firms are agents of structural change. It describes the benefits and costs (for example, generating pressure for protection of US home markets), and reviews the expansion of interdependencies between the US and others....

  17. Global militarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallensteen, P.; Galtung, J.; Portales, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Military Formations and Social Formations: A Structural Analysis; Global Conflict Formations: Present Developments and Future Directions; War and the Power of Warmakers in Western Europe and Elsewhere, 1600-1980; and The Urban Type of Society and International War.

  18. Les impacts humains des changements organisationnels autour des TIC Human impacts of organizational changes based on ITC Impactos humanos de los cambios organizacionales en torno a los TIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Picard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La taille des systèmes mis en place dans les grandes organisations, leur caractère exogène par rapport aux pratiques de l’entreprise (progiciels de gestion intégrés, posent des défis relativement nouveaux, difficiles à relever pour les acteurs. En effet, les métiers des informaticiens comme ceux des utilisateurs en sont le plus souvent profondément affectés.Les informaticiens doivent réviser leur mode d’action, révision qui s’accompagne d’une moindre autonomie, d’exigences de coopération plus élevées, et d’une multidisciplinarité à laquelle ils n’ont pas nécessairement été préparés.Les professionnels utilisateurs peuvent perdre des repères professionnels historiques, changement accompagné d’une révision des pratiques, de la modification des structures et de l’environnement de travail. Ils doivent parfois acquérir de nouvelles qualifications, de façon coûteuse, et certains peuvent perdre leur travail.Ces problématiques seront illustrées par deux situations concrètes très récentes, observées dans un grand groupe de service, pour chacune des populations.Many organizational changes are related to (or initiated by the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT tools.The size of the systems implemented in large organizations, their external nature vis-à-vis the company’s practices (Enterprise Resource Planning are rather new challenges, which are difficult for the actors to tackle. In fact, the jobs of data processing people as well as of professional users are often the most affected.Data processing people must revise their way of doing things, a change that is accompanied by a loss of autonomy and greater demands for cooperation and multidisciplinarity that they are not necessarily prepared for.Professional users may lose some historical guidelines, a change that is accompanied by a review of their practices, organizational changes, and changes in the work environment. They

  19. Global Kamasan

    OpenAIRE

    Siobhan Campbell

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe painting tradition of Kamasan is often cited as an example of theresilience of traditional Balinese culture in the face of globalisation andthe emergence of new forms of art and material culture. This articleexplores the painting tradition of Kamasan village in East Bali and it’srelationship to the collecting of Balinese art. While Kamasan paintingretains important social and religious functions in local culture, thevillage has a history of interactions between global and local pl...

  20. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, RYUEI

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  1. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  2. Global Noise and Global Englishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Pennycook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA, alluding to Tricia Rose’s US rap-music book, Black Noise, aims to do much more than merely extend the reach of the study of rap and hip-hop beyond the USA, as its subtitle might suggest. While acknowledging the importance of the work of both Rose and Potter, this collection’s editor, Tony Mitchell, contests their respective views that rap and hip-hop are essentially expressions of African-American culture, and that all forms of rap and hip-hop derive from these origins. He argues that these forms have become ‘a vehicle for global youth affiliations and a tool for reworking local iden- tity all over the world’.

  3. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  4. Long term impact of climate change on the metropolitan coast; Impacts a long terme du changement climatique sur le littoral metropolitain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In its first part, this report describes global physical phenomena: air and sea temperature rise, modification of the tempest regime, precipitations, ocean stratification. Then, it describes some more specific physical effects of climate change: average sea level rise, sea currents (global, regional and local oceanic circulation), and wave modification on the coast. It describes the effects of various media due to sea submersion, erosion and accretion, ocean acidification, salinization increase of underground coastal waters, modification of the composition of biotic communities, biological invasions, and appearance of new toxicities for mankind

  5. Impasse dans le travail d'infirmières en Centres d'hébergement et de soins de longue durée soumis à des changements organisationnels significatifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIE ALDERSON

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article relate les résultats d'une enquête de psychodynamique du travail (PDT (subventionné par les IRSC dont le but était de relater les liens observés entre la nouvelle gouvernance publique et les changements survenus dans le système de santé québécois, en général ainsi que dans les Centres d'Hébergement et de Soins de Longue Durée CHSLD, en particulier. L'approche théorique et méthodologique retenue est la PDT dont l'objet est " l'analyse dynamique des processus psychiques mobilisés par la confrontation du sujet à la réalité du travail" (Dejours & Abdoucheli, 1990, p. 127. Vingt-six infirmières volontaires ont participé. Les résultats révèlent de profondes sources de souffrance en lien avec diverses contradictions vécues, lesquelles entravent le sens au travail. Un éventail de stratégies défensives déployées par les participantes atteste de la souffrance vécue. La discussion approfondit la question de rôle, de pouvoir ambigu, d'une dommageable impasse dans l'action et d'une identité professionnelle en péril.

  6. Global environmental policy; Globale Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varwick, J. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    For some years, the interest in global environmental problems and global environmental policy increased substantially. In order to prevent a sustainable and irreversible damage of the global ecological systems, it requires an ecological restructuring of the economy of the industrial nations and a environmental compatible development in the developing countries. Under this aspect, the book under consideration dedicates itself to this problem by means of five scientific contributions: (a) The principle sustainability (Felix Ekardt); (b) Climate change as a world problem (Andreas Rechkemmer); (c) The role of the pioneer of the European Union in the international climate policy: Successes and challenges (Sebastian Oberthuer); (d) Cause for conflict water (Tobias Lindenberg); (e) Environmental political instruments in theory and practice (Johanna Reichenbach/Till Requate). Instruction practice also is concerned with a cross section topic consisting of environmental and European politics: Competent instructions concerning to the European Union - an instruction series for the secondary school I (George Wiesseno, Valentin Eck). Two forum contributions go beyond the topic: (a) Against rigid (society-)political borders in the science (Tim Engartner); (b) Elections in Hamburg - Schwarz-Gruen as new coalition model for the federation? In the column 'the current topic' Gotthard Breit reports on the protests against China on the occasion of the Olympic Games 2008. The author focuses some strangenesses in the debate and pleads for a sober view of the topic. With a report on 'the Beutelsbacher discussions' at 18th to 20th February, 2008, Timo Web finishes this book.

  7. Global teaching of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  8. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  9. Global Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Asal, Houda

    2014-01-01

    Alors que la littérature sur le sujet demeure lacunaire en France, les ouvrages en anglais portant sur l’islamophobie se sont multipliés de manière significative ces dernières années. De qualités inégales, ces publications montrent, si ce n’est l’intérêt du public, du moins celui du monde de l’édition pour ce sujet. L’ouvrage collectif Global Islamophobia, Muslims and Moral Panic in the West, dirigé par George Morgan and Scott Poynting, paru aux éditions Ashgate en 2012, se démarque par son a...

  10. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEF was set up as a pilot programme in 1991 to provide grant and concessional funds to developing countries for projects and activities that aim to protect the global environment. In March 1994, participating governments successfully concluded negotiations to restructure the Facility. The Core Fund of the GEF was also replenished with over $2 billion to be committed over a three-year period. GEF resources are available for projects that address climate change, biological diversity, international waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Activities addressing land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation, as they relate to the four areas, are also eligible for funding. The GEF is jointly implemented by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank

  11. Going Global

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    asset-holding trust from a tool of medieval English landowners into a mainstay of contemporary international finance. Drawing on interviews with 61 wealth management professionals in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, this article uses their accounts of the diffusion and deployment of trusts to......This study links theories of relationality and institutional change to deepen understanding of professionals’ role in globalization. In previous institutional research, it has been conventional to treat professionals as agents of firms or transnational organizations, and institutional change as the...... result of planned, strategic ‘professional projects’. By bringing a relational analysis to bear on the problem of institutional change, this study reasserts the theoretical significance of individual agency and everyday interactions between professionals and their clients, peers, and organizational...

  12. Global gamesmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves. PMID:12747163

  13. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  14. To share the Knowledge and to get a dialog going. The climatic change; Partager la connaissance et ouvrir le dialogue. Le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This document aims to inform the public on the climatic change situation and consequences. It presents in a first part the today situation of the global warming and the physical consequences on the environment. The second part is devoted to the consequences on the human activities and the necessary adaptations. The last part discusses the ethical and political aspects, the way of life of the society and wonders on the possible evolutions. (A.L.B.)

  15. L'expansion internationale des entreprises des pays émergents : L'influence des changements de trajectoire et leurs antécédents

    OpenAIRE

    Kalasin, Kiattichai,

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation introduces mechanisms that explain the international expansion of emerging-market multinational enterprises (EM MNEs) into advanced economies. It aims to provide a theoretical explanation of global champions from emerging economies. We propose path-breaking change as a complementary view that is the driver of emerging-economy firms’ international expansion into advanced economies. We argue that path-breaking change is a prerequisite before emerging-economy firms build and, i...

  16. Climate change: a reality for the French overseas territories; Le changement climatique: une realite pour l'outre-mer francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, Th.; Cravatte, S. [IRD / Legos, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2009-05-15

    Warming of the climate system is now unequivocal (see GIEC, 2007). Sea surface temperature and salinity are analyzed for the last decades in the vicinity of French overseas territories, as regional indicators of the related climatic changes. We show a non-homogenous increase in temperature for all territories, as well as a freshening of the waters in the tropical Pacific and an increase of surface salinity in the Atlantic suggesting a drastic modification of the global water cycle. (authors)

  17. Effects of the global changes on the aquatic ecosystems in West Europe - role of the plankton communities; Effets des changements globaux sur les ecosystemes aquatiques d'Europe Occidentale - role des communautes planctoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souissi, S. [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Ecosystem COmplexity REsearch Group, Station Marine de Wimereux, CNRS - FRE 2816 ELICO, 62 - Wimereux (France)

    2007-07-01

    Examination of long-term records of aquatic ecosystems has provided useful information to find out their major driving forces. Understanding the impact of climate change on these ecosystems, the management of their resources and the extrapolation between sites are the main scopes of actual and emerging studies. Such goals can be achieved by inter-site and inter-ecosystem comparisons. This approach was undertaken during our project which has the originality to tackle with marine and freshwater ecosystems. It allowed us to compile and validate several multi-decadal time series of planktonic and other physical driving forces at local and regional scales. Then, the same methodology based on the analysis of the variability of climate indices and biological data across several spatial scales was used. The different ecosystems analyzed here showed clear response to the North Atlantic climate variability. Although the local differences abrupt changes in community composition occurred in all ecosystems in the middle of the years 80. During this period there was also a major shift in climatic conditions during winter and early spring, suggesting an impact of climatic factors. Phenological changes were also observed in plankton communities in all sites. The consequences of the modifications of plankton dynamics on higher trophic levels were also showed. Fluctuations in plankton have resulted in long-term changes in cod recruitment in the North Sea (bottom-up control). On the other hand, both climate change and the improvement of trophic status in Geneva Lake favored the outbreak of whitefish during the years 90. Lower larval mortality and better recruitment are supposed to be linked to faster growth associated with warmer temperatures and better food conditions induced by better temporal overlap between larvae hatching and zooplankton development. (author)

  18. Globalization Measurement: Notes on Common Globalization Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    SAMIMI, Parisa; Guan Choo LIM; Abdul Aziz BUANG

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a broad concept casually used to describe a variety of phenomena that reflect increased economic, social and political interdependence of countries. Despite the increasing awareness on globalization, it is interesting to note that there is no any universally accepted definition and there is no standard measurement for globalization. Along with the growing number of countries participating in globalized world, there have been increasing concerns related to the globalization an...

  19. Hydrogene et pile a combustible: la reponse de l'Europe au travers de l'EHA; Hydrogen fuel cells : the response from Europe regarding the European Hydrogen Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleau, T. [Association francaise de l' hydrogene, Grenoble (France); Tartaglia, G.P. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra (Italy)

    2000-05-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has been involved in the creation of a supranational European organization for the introduction of hydrogen in the energy economy. The organization was founded under the name European Hydrogen Association (EHA) and will promote the foundation of more national hydrogen associations. It will represent the field on the European level and above and advise the public, experts, and politicians. Its contacts will be supranational institutions like the European Commission, the World Bank, or the United Nations, but also national authorities and other parties. The German Hydrogen Association considers the common action of the representatives of European hydrogen technology to be a necessary step towards an energy economy which is more compatible with the environment. The problems of air pollution and greenhouse effect are global and can only be solved on a supranational basis. The European Commission supports the foundation of EHA. The office of the organization might be installed in the Joint Research Centre Ispra. EHA is a legal entity of its own. 2 tabs.

  20. cambio global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alonso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un avance significativo dentro del área de la ecología sólo se podrá lograr con la adopción generalizada de un sistema basado en el uso compartido de los datos entre científicos. Esta práctica, apoyada por el desarrollo de metadatos precisos que acompañen a los propios datos, conseguirá aumentar la escala temporal y espacial de los objetos de estudio, ventajas evidentes en un área en la que cuestiones de carácter global como el estudio de los efectos del cambio climático van adquiriendo cada vez mayor importancia. En la actualidad existen numerosos grupos de científicos que trabajan voluntariamente en el desarrollo de herramientas que faciliten a los científicos la documentación y el almacenaje de sus datos. Asimismo, Internet está demostrando ser un potente instrumento para compartirlos. Aprovechar estos recursos es decisión nuestra.

  1. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO2 and NOx which cause acid rain, and CO2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  2. Dire le temps, dire le changement Talk about time, talk about change. A socio-discursive analysis on how temporality is put into words in an organization on the move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Carcassonne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comment parle-t-on aujourd’hui de son temps de travail dans les organisations en mouvement ? La mise en mots de ce temps permet-elle de donner du sens à son activité, comme l’entend Schütz, en envisageant la rétrospection et la prospection du point de vue d’une temporalité chronologique ? À la lumière des apports des théories narratives ayant insisté sur cette temporalité chronologique, mais aussi des apports des théories phénoménologiques ayant insisté sur la temporalité affective, nous analysons des extraits d’entretiens où des acteurs de l’entreprise contemporaine évoquent leur temps de travail sur un mode très affectif, avec une difficulté à se projeter dans l’avenir ou à relire le passé. Si les unités discursives renvoyant à une temporalité narrative affective ne sont pas répertoriables a priori, nous proposons cependant en conclusion une synthèse des différents aspects repérés dans les extraits. La façon de dire le thème des changements permanents qui touchent aujourd’hui l’entreprise nous interpelle finalement en ce qu’elle n’apparaît pas propre à une catégorie spécifique de personnel mais se repère à de multiples niveaux de responsabilités dans l’organisation. Le contexte de changement permanent de l’univers productif français influencerait ainsi les mises en récit, lesquelles sont de moins en moins marquées par des scansions clairement repérables mais soumises à une temporalité plus cyclique, vécue et dite sur un mode affectif, au sens phénoménologique du terme.How does one speak today about one’s time of/at work in organizations on the move? Following Schütz, who considers retrospection and projection from the point of view of a chronological temporality, does putting this time into words make it easier to give one’s activity meaning? We will take into account the contributions of narrative theories that emphasize this “chronological temporality” but

  3. Différenciations dans les parcours de formation post-obligatoire en Suisse. Constantes et changements Pathways’ differentiations in post-compulsory education in Switzerland. Stable and changing features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Pagnossin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les décisions concernant la formation post-obligatoire des jeunes suisses sont toujours très influencées par le genre. La répartition des filles et des garçons dans les filières de formation post-obligatoire n’a pas beaucoup évolué durant la dernière décennie bien que le niveau d’éducation des filles ait augmenté de manière importante. Le modèle traditionnel de division du travail et des rôles sociaux défini par le genre est encore très présent dans le pays. Il se reflète naturellement sur les choix éducatifs et professionnels, surtout des jeunes de 15 ans. Non seulement le choix de la filière, mais surtout celui du domaine d’étude, reste très genré. Des changements sont pourtant décelables, surtout dans l’orientation des filles, qui sont plus nombreuses à s’investir dans des formations atypiques. Cette tendance devrait se poursuivre.Decisions on post-compulsory education for the young Swiss are always highly gendered. The distribution of girls and boys in post-compulsory pathways has not much evolved for a decade even if the level of education reached by girls has increased a lot. The traditional model of the gendered division of labour and of social roles is still very present in the country. It is obviously reflected in educational choices especially for the 15 year-olds. Choices of pathways and more particularly choices of educational fields remain very gendered. Nonetheless, some changes can be detected particularly regarding the orientation of girls as they are keener on investing themselves in atypical training courses. This trend should continue.

  4. Une année d’immersion dans un dispositif de formation aux technologies : prise de conscience du potentiel éducatif des TICE, intentions d’action et changement de pratique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Cette contribution traite des effets d’un dispositif de formation hybride destiné à des étudiants de première année de psychologie et des sciences de l’éducation. La recherche se base sur une analyse qualitative de 66 rapports réflexifs d’étudiants rédigés dans le cadre d’un dispositif dont l’approche pédagogique se veut immersive et située. Cette approche favorise une meilleure compréhension du potentiel des TICE (médiation épistémique ainsi que, dans certains cas, un changement d’attitude par rapport à celles-ci (médiation posturale et, dans d’autres cas, un transfert d’usage à diverses sphères d’activité : académique, professionnelle ou personnelle (médiation praxéologique. [English] This article examines the effects of a specific hybrid learning program, supported by a technology-mediated environment, on first year students enrolled in the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences at the University of Geneva. The study, a qualitative analysis based on 66 students’ selfreflexive reports, suggests that this program, with its situated and immersive pedagogy, promotes a better understanding of the educational potential of ICT (epistemic mediation, a change in attitude towards these technologies (postural mediation and, in some cases, the transfer of use to various spheres of activity : academic, professional and private spheres (praxeological mediation.

  5. Global sea level linked to global temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, M.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperat...

  6. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change; 4. communication nationale a la convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  7. GLOBALIZATION IN WORLD ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Garifullina, A.; Ilyasova, I.

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is objective process of formation, development and action of new world, global system. Undoubtedly, consequences of globalization can carry both positive, and negative character, however to it isn’t present alternative

  8. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has disintegrat

  9. Global Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    insight from the literature about business models, international product policy, international entry modes and globalization into a conceptual model of relevant design elements of global business models, enabling global business model innovation to deal with differences in a downstream perspective...

  10. The Evidence on Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is blamed for many socio-economic shortcomings. I discuss the consequences of globalization by surveying the empirical globalization literature. My focus is on the KOF indices of globalization (Dreher 2006a and Dreher et al. 2008a), that have been used in more than 100 studies. Early studies using the KOF index reported correlations between globalization and several outcome variables. Studies published more recently identify causal effects. The evidence shows that globalization ...

  11. Security Components of Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Iftode

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contrib...

  12. What place for shale gas in fighting climate change?; Quelle place pour le gaz de schiste dans la lutte aux changements climatiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Along with petroleum and coal, natural gas is the primary cause of global warming. Equiterre believes that the energy sector must be completely decarbonised by 2050 if catastrophic consequences caused by this warming are to be avoided. The Utica shale formation in the Saint Lawrence Valley has been the object of much prospecting activity. The aim of the present study is therefore to determine if the development of shale gas can play a transitional role in the move towards a decarbonised energy system. To do this, Equiterre considers that gas should be substituted for more polluting fuels as quickly as possible and that thereafter it should be rapidly replaced by carbon-free fuels. Equiterre also considers, however, that the establishment of a shale gas industry in Quebec would only increase the overall volume of greenhouse gas emissions. Equiterre concludes that the setting up of a shale gas industry in Quebec is a purely commercial proposition which, at the best, would contribute nothing to the struggle to combat climate change.

  13. LES CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES ENTRE REALITE ET LEURRE : LEURS REPRESENTATIONS SOCIALES AUPRES DES ACTEURS TOURISTIQUES EN STATION DE SPORTS D’HIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA MARC

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A great number of authors modeled the phenomenon of anthropogenic global warming yet few of them identified society’s reaction to those models. This paper identifies the social representations of climate change among territorialized tourism actors in the Eastern Pyrenees ski resorts. Analyzing the links between climate change and the ski industry is highly relevant as natural snow is considerably sensitive to climate change. The case study concerns the region of Cerdagne-Capcir located in the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales. For two consecutive winter seasons, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, we carried out a survey among skiers, local tourism decision-makers, administratives and tourism professionals in nine ski resorts. A questionnaire was distributed to skiers while a face-to-face interview was conducted with the other tourism actors cited above. The quantitative data regarding the skiers’ social representations was analyzed thru the prototypical and categorical analysis, a method developed by P. Verges, a French social psychologist. The qualitative data resulting from the face-to-face interviews led to the identification of seven categories of attitudes towards climate change in the decision-making process: immutability, irealistic optimism, technocracy, scepticism, belief in a conspiracy theory, realism and catastrophism. Climate change social representations differ at the level of both the skiers’ nationalities (French / Spanish and the tourism actors categories (offer – local decision-makers, administratives and tourism professionals / demand – the skiers.

  14. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research; Changement climatique et santeaux Etats-Unis: impacts, adaptations et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M

    2009-11-15

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  15. Impacts du changement climatique sur l'hydrologie et la gestion des ressources en eau du bassin de la Meuse (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauwens, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of climate change on hydrological regimes and water resources management in the Meuse catchment. A review. This review examines the consequences of climate change on the hydrology of the Meuse catchment and on various water-related socio-economic sectors. It sums up the different modeling approaches in hydrological modeling, placing emphasis on current modeling assumptions and the restrictions inherent within them. It is useful to consider land use evolution and adapted management within the context of climate change, particularly with reference to agriculture. More specifically, a broader usage of physically-based hydrological models would be useful in order to represent climate change scenarios and possible adaptation tracks at the catchment scale. These physically-based hydrological models are able to represent a wide range of phenomena occurring in the water-soil-plant continuum. They thus allow a refinement of global hydrological solutions at the catchment scale, especially during low flow periods. Moreover, such models pave the way for the analysis of scenarios aimed at creating adaptation in the use and management of soils.

  16. Cosmic global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave? The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields

  17. GLOBALIZATION AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Arye L. Hillman

    2008-01-01

    Globalization enhances efficiency and economic growth and expands the domain of personal contact and communication. Nonetheless, globalization has also evoked discontent because of claimed social injustice. The relation between globalization and social justice therefore merits attention, in order to identify whether justifications for discontent are present and, if there are reasons for discontent, to establish whether globalization should be blamed.

  18. Globalization and international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlica Slobodan I.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses main characteristics of integration and globalization as economic phenomena. Basic characteristics of the contemporary wave of globalization were compared with the characteristics of the first wave of globalization (1870-1913). Two waves of globalization have important similarities. Ignoring of data from economic history became a source of myths about processes in modern world economy.

  19. GLOBALIZATION AND BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  20. China and Global Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2007-01-01

    To enhance global governance has become more urgent with rapid development of globalization in the post-Cold War years. China has benefited from the process of globalization and hence should make greater contribution to the global governance in the future.

  1. Cosmic global strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikivie, P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields.

  2. Global cities in the global corporate network

    OpenAIRE

    William K. Carroll

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s two separate literatures—one focused on global cities, the other on transnational corporate interlocking—have explored issues of hierarchy and networking within the global political economy. I present an analysis of how major cities and interlocking corporate directorates are articulated together into a global network. Findings indicate that the network is concentrated in the main world cities in a way that reinforces the northern transatlantic economic system. However, the st...

  3. GLOBAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Er.Kirtesh Jailia,; Mrs.Manisha jailia; Er.Priyanka Jailia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss about the concept of Global relationship management. This is an important concept because now a day the whole business community is moving globally, means the geographical boundaries are of no more concern for the business communities. The global thinking of the business communities leads to the global relationship hence it is important for them to effectively manage such global relationship so that they can achieve what they want. The main concern is ove...

  4. Taxation, reponsiveness and accountability in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Prichard, Wilson R S

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the argument that the need for governments to raise tax revenue, as opposed to relying on resource rents or other sources of non-tax revenue, may increase the likelihood that they will be responsive and accountable to their citizens. It employs a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, first testing the relationship between tax reliance and accountability econometrically using cross-country data and then turning to detailed case studies from Ghana...

  5. Informing or Exploiting? Public Reponses to Giuliana Rancic's Health Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bute, Jennifer J; Quinlan, Margaret M; Quandt, Lindsay K

    2016-08-01

    Popular entertainment journalist Giuliana Rancic has shared her struggles with pregnancy loss, infertility, and breast cancer in an array of public forums. In this study, we analyzed online comments responding to public discourses surrounding Rancic's revelations, including her miscarriage and fertility treatments, her breast cancer diagnosis, and her decision to undergo a double mastectomy. Our goal was to explore how the public framed Rancic's health challenges. Using a narrative lens, we argue that online comments reveal the tensions that celebrities like Rancic must manage as they contend with public scrutiny of their stories. Online commenters in this study framed Rancic's narrative as a privileged vantage point in which she exploited her health struggles for personal and financial gain. Our analysis of these comments also demonstrates how Rancic's narrative exists in concert with other discourses that challenge and disrupt her own account of events. The examination of these mediated discourses has implications for understanding the role of celebrity experiences in personal and public conversations about health. PMID:26756357

  6. The Extent of Students’ Reponses in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranu Philomena Chika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to identify the extent of students’ responses in the classroom using three classroom interaction techniques. One research question guided the study. One hypothesis was tested and analysed using chi square statistics. The population is made up of 10,983 students 496 teachers. The sample is made up of 1098 students and 12 teachers. SS1 and SS11 students in three public schools were used for the study. Six classroom were used; three in SS1 and three in SS11 respectively. Six teachers taught SS1 and six teachers taught SS11 using a technique (Flanders, IRE, and Teaching Cycles. Twelve lessons were recorded on a cassette, transcribed, coded and analysed. Flanders category was the observational instrument. Test- retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument at 0.87 co-efficient. The result showed students’ responses in the classroom are not contingent on classroom technique used. The extent of students’ responses in the classroom is very minimal therefore teacher should go extra step to encourage voluntary verbal contribution by the students’ in every classroom. This makes the students more critical in weighing life challenges.

  7. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  8. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  9. Palaeogeographic evolution of the marine Middle Triassic marine Germanic Basin changements - With emphasis on the carbonate tidal flat and shallow marine habitats of reptiles in Central Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-01-01

    began to diversify at exactly this time, and it seems likely that this was a direct reaction to these environmental changes. It can be inferred that the earliest dinosaurs must have started to evolve in the late Early Triassic, because in Europe it can be demonstrated that at least two main dinosaur groups already were present and clearly differentiated by the middle part of the Middle Triassic, and all three of the major groups of dinosaurs (theropods, sauropods and ornithischians) had diversified and spread globally throughout terrestrial habitats by the end of the Triassic Period. Six new palaeogeographic maps, representing time intervals from the Aegean to the Illyrian (Anisian) stages, show these important environmental changes in detail and explain the direction and timing of terrestrial reptile exchanges between the Central Massif, Rhenish Massif, and Bohemian Massif, and also the direction and timing of marine reptile exchanges between the Alps of Central Pangaea and the ancient northern Tethys Ocean and Germanic Basin Sea.

  10. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  11. Sustainable Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Global trading has been a way of life for hundreds, if not thousands of years, but it is only recently that the environmental and social implications of global sourcing decisions are being taken more seriously.

  12. Global Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 12 16 18 20 22 25 4 Global Health and Aging Preface The world is facing ... stages of economic development and with varying resources. Global efforts are required to understand and find cures ...

  13. Global Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues From the NIH Director: A Global Health System Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... officials the issues of world health and NIH's global outreach. He spoke with MedlinePlus ' Christopher Klose on ...

  14. The Global Earthquake History

    OpenAIRE

    Albini, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Musson, R. M. W.; BGS, Edinburgh; Rovida, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Locati, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Gomez Capera, A. A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Viganò, D.; Global Earthquake Model-GEM

    2014-01-01

    The study of earthquakes from historical sources, or historical seismology, was considered an early priority for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project, which commissioned a study of historical seismicity at a global scale. This was “The Global Earthquake History” (GEH) project, led jointly by INGV (Milano, Italy) and BGS (UK). GEH was structured around three complementary deliverables: archive, catalogue, and the web infrastructure designed to store both archive and catalogue. The Global ...

  15. Globalization and democracy

    OpenAIRE

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy ...

  16. Nurturing global talent

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Sarah; Howe-walsh, Liza

    2013-01-01

    The development of global talent is seen by many organisations to be central to their success in today’s global marketplace. Organisations realise that to remain competitive they need people that are able to operate effectively in complex global environments. Individuals need to work within multiple cultures and in different geographical and cultural settings. Global talent need to be able to manage and lead under conditions of uncertainty, be willing to embrace new challenges and be cultural...

  17. Gender and Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...

  18. Globalization and International Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Minas Pediaditakis; Kleanthis Thomaidis

    2006-01-01

    Despite its specific destabilizing effects, the real dimensions of globalization do not justify a general alarm. Although technology revolution, "knowledge society", and deregulation trend bring uncertainty and risks, there is not a real global market yet, abolishing the national policy field and exposing firms, social groups and states to the threat of the global speculative capital. Objective difficulties restrict the irrepressible development of globalization while, concerning firms, the d...

  19. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  20. Globalization of culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatova, Y. I.; Gutareva, Nadezhda Yurievna

    2015-01-01

    You can not ignore the relevance of cultural globalization, and the more globalization in general. These phenomena occur at the moment, and they are directly related to the future of the countries and nations. The purpose of this research is to consider issues relating to the impact of globalization on modern culture. Theoretical methods have been used to achieve this goal. The result of this research is to confirm the facts concerning cultural globalization. The conclusions of the article ca...

  1. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  2. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  3. Globalization and American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  4. Security Components of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  5. Mapping Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The demand to cultivate global citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "global citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common global citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…

  6. The Psychology of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…

  7. Globalization, Religion and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, Beyza

    2003-01-01

    he article firstly studies The concept of the globalization and religion and later the relationship between globalization-lacolization, globaiization-education-religious education. The article was ended, with the conclusion. The main purpose of the article is to determine how was influenced generally education, specially religious education from the globalization

  8. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are "born global". A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new techn...

  9. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...

  10. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  11. LINGUISTIC GLOBALIZATION CONSEQUENCE OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia FIRICÄ‚; Jean FIRICÄ‚

    2011-01-01

    Economic globalization has been a much debated phenomenon with consequences at all levels - social, economic, technical, scientific, cultural, every day life, in a word. Linguistic globalization, obvious more and more all over the world, manifested itself by Anglicization or Americanization of most current languages which, at least in what concerns their basic stock of words, allowed English and American loans to enter their vocabulary. The paper tackles the problem of linguistic globalizatio...

  12. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  13. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  14. Global Sourcing of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The global sourcing of services offers high returns but is also associated with high risks. The extent to which firms engage in ‘transformational’ global sourcing (i.e., global sourcing implying considerable changes in the home organization) chiefly depends on management's comfort zone which, in...... turn, is determined by managers' risk perceptions, risk tolerance, and ability to employ risk-reducing measures. Many firms move into transformational global sourcing more or less deliberately. However, as the human asset specificity of the global sourcing operation increases, managers find themselves...

  15. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  16. Etude des effets du rayonnement UV-B sur la physiologie foliaire et la maturation des baies chez la Vigne (Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo), dans le contexte du changement climatique (déficit hydrique, température et taux de CO2 élevés)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Lüscher, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail de thèse porte sur l’effet du rayonnement UV-B sur la physiologie foliaire et la maturation des baies chez la Vigne (Vitis vinifera L. cv Tempranillo), dans le contexte du changement climatique en cours. Dans ce but, des expériences ont été menées en conditions contrôlées en serre, sur des boutures fructifères. Les plantes ont été exposées à trois doses de rayonnement UV-B biologiquement actifs (0, 5,98 et 9,66 kJ.m-2.jour-1), soit à partir de la nouaison, soit à partir de la vérai...

  17. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  18. Modélisation du changement d’échelles en télédétection par une méthode neuronale : application a l’étude de l’évolution de l’occupation hivernale des sols en Bretagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Houet

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Le suivi de la couverture hivernale des sols constitue un des principaux enjeux de la réduction de la pollution de la ressource en eau en Bretagne, la présence de la végétation entravant les transferts de flux polluants vers les cours d’eau. Le suivi du ratio « sols nus / sols couverts » peut être réalisé à l’aide d’instruments satellitaires de façon quotidienne à une échelle régionale, mais à une résolution spatiale grossière par des capteurs de type SPOT VEGETATION (1 km. Il peut également être effectué à une résolution spatiale fine par des capteurs tel que SPOT HRVIR (20 m mais avec une acquisition d’images une ou deux fois par hiver seulement sur un territoire plus limité. Toute évolution de ce ratio, détectée à l’échelle régionale, peut être issue de variations de la couverture hivernale des sols, mais également de l’influence de facteurs climatiques. Les changements observés doivent alors être validés par une analyse à l’échelle locale. Le lien entre les images des deux capteurs est établi à partir du développement d’une méthode neuronale basée sur une carte de Kohonen. L’originalité de cette méthode réside dans l’utilisation de la dimension temporelle pour résoudre ce problème de changement d’échelles.

  19. Paradigm change in regional policy : towards smart specialisation ? Lessons from Flanders (Belgium Changement de paradigme dans la politique régionale : vers une spécialisation intelligente ? Les leçons de la Flandre (Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Vanthillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the changing role of “the region” in economic development, it appears that policies targeted towards regions underwent significant changes in objectives, geographical scope, governance and policy instruments. This paper challenges three main questions related to recent changes in regional policy. Firstly, what are the fundamental characteristics of the “old” regional policies ? Secondly, did the “old” paradigm evolve into a new paradigm of regional policy ? And if yes, how did these changes materialized and what characteristics where affected ? Lastly, we consider how these changes were integrated in Flemish regional policies.Il semble qu’en vertu de l’évolution du rôle de la “région” en matière de développement économique, les politiques tournées vers les régions ont subi d’importants changements en termes d’objectifs, d’envergure géographique, de gouvernance ou encore d’outils politiques. Cet article se penche sur trois questions majeures liées aux évolutions récentes caractérisant cette politique régionale. En premier lieu, quelles sont les particularités des “anciennes” politiques régionales ? Ensuite, l’“ancien” paradigme a-t-il évolué vers un nouveau paradigme dans ce domaine ? Et, dans ce cas, comment ces changements se sont-ils matérialisés et quels sont les aspects qui ont été touchés ? Enfin, nous examinons comment ces évolutions ont été intégrées dans les politiques régionales menées en Flandre.

  20. Impact des changements climatiques sur les écosystèmes alpins : comment les mettre en évidence et les prévoir ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G. Yoccoz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Les écosystèmes alpins vont être grandement influencés par les changements climatiques à venir, mais d’autres facteurs, tels que l’utilisation des terres ou les espèces invasives, pourront aussi jouer un rôle important. Le climat peut influencer les écosystèmes à différents niveaux, et nous en décrivons certains, en mettant l’accent sur les méthodes utilisées et les données disponibles. Le climat peut d’abord modifier la phénologie des espèces, comme la date de floraison des plantes ou la date d’éclosion des insectes. Il peut ensuite affecter directement la démographie des espèces (survie, reproduction, dispersion et donc à terme leur répartition. Il peut enfin agir sur les interactions entre espèces – le couvert neigeux par exemple modifie le succès de certains prédateurs. Une caractéristique des écosystèmes alpins est la présence d’un manteau neigeux important et pourtant l’influence de la neige reste relativement mal connue, en particulier pour des raisons logistiques. Même si nous avons fait des progrès importants dans le développement de modèles prédictifs, surtout pour ce qui est de la répartition des plantes alpines, il reste à mettre en place des réseaux d’observations et d’expériences permettant de mieux tenir compte de la variabilité des écosystèmes alpins et des interactions avec le climat.Alpine ecosystems will be greatly impacted by climatic change, but other factors, such as land use and invasive species, are likely to play an important role too. Climate can influence ecosystems at several levels. We describe some of them, stressing methodological approaches and available data. Climate can modify species phenology, such as flowering date of plants and hatching date in insects. It can also change directly population demography (survival, reproduction, dispersal, and therefore species distribution. Finally it can effect interactions among species –snow cover for example

  1. L’introduction des technologies de surveillance dans le travail policier. Facteur de changement ou de réassurance ? Introducing Surveillance Technologies into Police Work. Factor of Change or Reassurance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïk Purenne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La collecte et l’analyse de données ne constituent pas des phénomènes récents. Néanmoins, d’importants changements se sont produits dans ce domaine au cours des dernières décades, faisant de la surveillance un outil à part entière des institutions modernes. Cet article analyse la manière dont les technologies de surveillance comme la vidéosurveillance, les banques de données ou encore la cartographie de la criminalité entrent en interaction, au sein des institutions chargées de la lutte contre la délinquance, avec le monopole étatique de la violence légitime. L’étude empirique de deux services de police français (un service dédié à la police des transports ferroviaires et une unité d’enquête composée d’agents issus d’administrations différentes montre que ces technologies sont mises au service d’un ciblage de l’action de police sur des territoires ou des individus identifiés comme « à risque ». Elle tend à relativiser, dans le contexte français, l’hypothèse d’un mode de surveillance qui serait synonyme d’un adoucissement du contrôle social. Elle suggère que l’usage des technologies de surveillance peut aussi bien aider à la relégitimation de moyens de contrôle traditionnels à une époque où la discrétionnarité du travail policier est de plus en plus contestée.Data collection and analysis is not a recent phenomenon. However, major changes have occurred in recent decades and surveillance now appears as a general tool in modern institutions. This paper is concerned with analyzing the way surveillance technologies such as CCTV, databases, or crime mapping concretely interact with the State’s traditional monopoly of force in the institutions charged of crime control. The empirical study of two French police services (a transit police department and an inter-institutional detective squad reveals that these technologies are used by police managers to target high-risk territories and

  2. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  3. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge. PMID:27386558

  4. The climatic change; Le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    For a long time the climatic change was the prerogative of the scientists. It is today a stake of the international policy. After a short presentation of a scientific evaluation of the situation, this document presents the policies of the fight against the climatic warming (Kyoto protocol, economical instruments), debates on the Usa attitude and the nuclear and general information on the topic (chronology, bibliography, glossary and Internet addresses references). (A.L.B.)

  5. Les cyclones tropicaux et le changement climatique

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Jean-Claude; Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice

    2008-09-01

    Results from observations and modelling studies, a number of which having been used to support the conclusions of the IPCC fourth assessment report, are presented. For the past and present-day (since 1970) periods, the increase of strong cyclonic activity over the North Atlantic Ocean appears to be in good correlation with increasing temperature of the ocean surface. For regions where observational data are of lesser quality, the increasing trend is less clear. In fact, assessing long-term changes is made difficult due to both the multi-decennial natural variability and the lesser coverage of observations before satellites were made available. Indirect observational data, such as those derived from quantitative estimations of damage caused by tropical cyclones, suffer from many artefacts and do not allow the resolving of the issue either. For the future, only numerical three-dimensional climate models can be used. They nevertheless run presently with too-large grid-sizes, so that their results are still not converging. Various simulations lead indeed to different results, and it is very often difficult to find the physical reasons for these differences. One concludes by indicating some ways through which numerical simulations could be improved, leading to a decrease of uncertainties affecting the prediction of cyclonic activity over the next decades.

  6. Changement de base pour les foncteurs Tor

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Mathieu

    2003-01-01

    We give in this paper an isomorphism theorem between derived functors over categories of modules.There is a nice class of categories that gives examples in which this theorem applies for a special construction. This leads us to a new interpretation of a theorem of Pirashvili and Richter about cyclic homology and Hochschild homology.

  7. Industrie des corps gras et changement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosque Fabrice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Whether the industry wants to anticipate the new regulations concerning the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, or better control the costs of fluctuating fossil energy, the Bilan Carbone® assessment is a tool available to evaluate the company’s exposure, or even vulnerability, pertaining (related to these two strategic axes for the development of corporate activity. ITERG has carried out 15 Bilan Carbone® in oils and fats industry. This method is a solution for ranking emissions source by source and a good start to launch a dynamic process to reduce these emissions. In all the cases of the study, the emissions are strongly related to raw materials, freight, packaging, and consumption of fossil energy. The reduction of GHG emissions, is possible with an increased utilisation of the biomass, an improved valorisation of by-products by anaerobic digestion with recovery of the produced biogas for energy needs, and when rail, canals, rivers, or seas are preferably chosen to road transport for freight. In the oleochemicals industry, GHG emissions related to the raw materials can be reduced by the development of bio-lubricants, and innovative new products formulation based on vegetable resources.

  8. Globalization of the sports economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2008-01-01

    Introduction – 1. Major features of a globalized sports economy – 2. International economic flows in a global sports economy – 3. Globalization as geographical spread of the sports economy – 4. Globalization of professional sports – Conclusion – References

  9. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies show that flexibility is a key concern for firms that engage in the global sourcing of services. In this conceptual paper, we seek to explore two central aspects of global sourcing flexibility: In the first part of the paper, we provide a definition of the construct of global...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy and...... operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  10. From global cities to globalized urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Brenner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization rates across the world economy are now higher and more rapid than ever before in human history. What categories and models of urbanization are most appropriate for understanding these transformations, their origins, and their consequences, and for coming to terms with their wide-ranging implications? In this brief essay, we cannot attempt to survey the intricacies of diverse research traditions. Instead, we outline some of the methodological foundations and major lines of investigation within research on globalizing cities, while also alluding to several emergent debates and agendas that are currently animating this field, with specific reference to the conceptualization and investigation of global interurban networks.

  11. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    OpenAIRE

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per Kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing.Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K−1 decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol...

  12. Globalization, consumption, development

    OpenAIRE

    Fardon, R.; Binsbergen, van, W.M.J.; van Dijk

    1999-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume were first presented at a conference on 'Globalization, development and the making of consumers: what are collective identities for?' which was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 13-16 March 1997. The papers are concerned with the challenge to the development paradigm presented by its potential submersion within processes of economic globalization. The following chapters are on Africa: The accountability of commodities in a global marketplace: the cases...

  13. Salud y justicia global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyol, Ángel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A question that would have to worry more to the global justice is the huge inequality of health in the world. In this paper, I analyse the causes of the global inequality of health and the ethical arguments for and against the need to treat this inequality from the perspective of the global justice. After refusing the arguments against both of the libertarianism and the statism, and after showing the critics both to the approach to the language of human rights and to the poggean proposal to reduce the duties of global justice to negative moral duties, I defend the need to use a sufficiency approach to global justice based in positive moral duties to face the severity and the moral urgency of the global inequalities of health.

    Una de las cuestiones que debería preocupar más a la teoría de la justicia global es la enorme desigualdad de salud que hay en el mundo. En este artículo, se repasan las causas de la desigualdad global de salud y los argumentos éticos a favor y en contra de la necesidad de tratar dicha desigualdad desde la perspectiva de la justicia global. Tras rechazar los argumentos en contra tanto del libertarismo de derechas como del estatalismo, y tras exponer las críticas tanto al lenguaje de los derechos humanos como a la propuesta poggeana de reducir los deberes de la justicia global a deberes morales negativos, defiendo la necesidad de partir de un criterio de justicia global suficientista y basado en los deberes morales positivos para afrontar la gravedad y la urgencia moral que suponen las desigualdades globales de salud.

  14. Globalization and social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Globalization is a universal phenomenon that not only makes domestic economies restructure, but also may impact other areas of local societies. This paper studies the effect of globalization on human relations, in particular on the formation of social networks, both bonding and bridging: I postulate that globalization induces labor market and workplace dynamics that would be destructive. Data come from the European and World Values Survey (1981-2008) on about 320’000 people’s values and attit...

  15. Nowcasting the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rossiter, James

    2010-01-01

    Forecasts of global economic activity and inflation are important inputs when conducting monetary policy in small open economies such as Canada. As part of the Bank of Canada's broad agenda to augment its short-term forecasting tools, the author constructs simple mixed-frequency forecasting equations for quarterly global output, imports, and inflation using the monthly global Purchasing Managers Index (PMI). When compared against two benchmark models, the results show that the PMIs are useful...

  16. Challenges of Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, Jose G.; Noruzi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    One way to analyze the phenomenon of development in the era of globalization is through an approach involving interaction of the economic and the political system. The global economy has altered economic structures and social policies at the level of the nation-state, because the latter limits and impedes the processes of generation and capital accumulation. The purpose of this document is to analyze the emerging phenomenon of the transfer of state governance to global economic corporate gove...

  17. Vaccines and global health

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing ...

  18. What is global health?

    OpenAIRE

    Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Global health’ is coming of age, at least as measured by the increasing number of academic centres, especially in North America, which use this title to describe their interests. Most global health centres are in high-income countries although several have strong links with low- and middleincome countries. A task force is establishing a mechanism to coordinate European Academic Global Health initiatives through ASPER. Two recent papers raise important issues about the meaning and scope of glo...

  19. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-01-01

    China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will d...

  20. Overconvergent global analytic geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Paugam, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    We define a notion of global analytic space with overconvergent structure sheaf. This gives an analog on a general base Banach ring of Grosse-Kloenne's overconvergent p-adic spaces and of Bambozzi's generalized affinoid varieties over R. This also gives an affinoid version of Berkovich's and Poineau's global analytic spaces. This affinoid approach allows the introduction of a notion of strict global analytic space, that has some relations with the ideas of Arakelov geometry, since the base ex...

  1. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  2. GLOBALIZATION – ECONOMIC ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Elzbieta Harach

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has brought new challenges and changes, in terms of both new risk and new opportunities. It is one of the key drivers of economic and environmental change. The impact can be both positive and negative. This paper explains the impact of globalization and the fundamental issues and current controversies related to globalization (trade, investment, the IMF and the World Bank, technology, media, culture, education, development, migration, health, the role of women, human rights). In...

  3. Will Globalization Survive?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Wolf

    2005-01-01

    Globalization is not inevitable. It depends on politics. Today, it depends above all on US politics. Without successful US leadership, the present globalization may founder, just as the last one did. In this article Martin Wolf, associate editor and chief economics commentator at the Financial Times, starts by analysing the driving forces behind globalization. He then looks at its impact, before examining the risks that lie ahead. He concludes with a few ways to minimise those risks.

  4. Understanding Banking Sector Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles the recent evolution and consequences of banking sector globalization. After presenting trends in international banking, the article overviews macroeconomic consequences of banking sector globalization, including the role of banks in the international transmission of shocks, comovements of business cycles, financial crises, and economic growth. Other consequences of banking globalization have parallels with the effects of real-side foreign direct investment, including te...

  5. Globalization and political structure

    OpenAIRE

    Gancia, Gino; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto; Ventura, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The first wave of globalization (1830-1914) was accompanied by a decline in the number of countries from 125 to 54. The second wave of globalization (1950-present) has led instead to an increase in the number of countries to a record high of more than 190. This paper develops a theoretical framework to study the interaction between globalization and political structure. We show that political structure adapts to expanding trade opportunities in a non-monotonic way. Borders ham...

  6. LIBERALISM AND GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the close connection that exists between liberalism and globalization. In the first part wemake a presentation of the historical evolution of liberalism, starting with the classical economic liberalism continuingwith the neo-classical liberalism emphasizing neo-liberalism and within the latter one, the monetarism. In the secondpart of the paper we present the concept of globalization considered both from an economic and from a social point ofview. Among the winners of globalization we notice the transnational companies and among the losers, the underqualifiedworkers. As a main conclusion we consider that globalization has brought about an increase in the social –economic inequities

  7. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    This paper proposes a multidimensional index of regional and global orientation which can be used in confirmatory studies with econometric methodologies. Unlike extant measures, the index is objectively scaled and controls for home country orientation and market size differences. The index is shown...... previous studies in fact reflects strong home country biases.Keywords: globalization; regional integration; global strategy; regional strategy; local strategy; triad; liability of foreignness...... to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by...

  8. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  9. NASA Global Hawk Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Global Hawk Project is supporting Earth Science research customers. These customers include: US Government agencies, civilian organizations, and universities. The combination of the Global Hawks range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities separates the Global Hawk platform from all other platforms available to the science community. This presentation includes an overview of the concept of operations and an overview of the completed science campaigns. In addition, the future science plans, using the NASA Global Hawk System, will be presented.

  10. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  11. Globalization, Class and Culture in Global Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Friedman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work of Immanuel Wallerstein has been criticized by certain anthropologists for not having taken culture into proper account. He has been accused of the sin of political economy, a not uncommon accusation, a re?ex of the 80’s and post-80’s anthropological jargon that might ?nally today be exhausted. Years earlier a number of social scientists were engaged in a critical assessment of the social sciences from a distinctively global perspective. Wallerstein, Frank and others were at the forefront of this critique which had a powerful impact on anthropology. The global perspective was not a mere addition to anthropological knowledge, not a mere of extension of the use of the culture concept, i.e. before it was local and now it is global, before culture stood still, but now in the global age, it ?ows around the world. It was a more fundamental critique, or at least it implied a more fundamental critique. This critique could only be attained from a perspective in which the very concept of society was re-conceived as something very different, as a locus constructed within a historical force ?eld which was very much broader than any particular politically de?ned unit.

  12. Preparing Global Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dennis C.; Welch, Lucas; Al-Khanji, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Global citizens are those who are aware of, demonstrate respect for, and are comfortable engaging across cultural boundaries. This article explores why preparing global citizens is important and how positive psychology can inform our understanding of those who engage comfortably in today's complicated world. Soliya's Connect program is described…

  13. Globalization of Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  14. Critically Theorizing the Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudelli, William

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has unleashed profound changes in education. These include positivistic international school comparisons, a singular focus on schools as drivers of economic development, and the adoption of neoliberal market principles in school. These changes, however, generally go unexamined within the field and literature of global education.…

  15. Defining Global Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Sarina; Lattimer, Heather

    2013-01-01

    As the world is becoming increasingly flat, it has become important for educators to prepare students to understand global perspectives and engage with people from countries and cultures around the world. Although there is no question as to the importance of global education to meet with the demands of a flat world, what internationalization and…

  16. Global Foreign Exchange Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal Ossolinski; Andrew Zurawski

    2010-01-01

    The most recent six-monthly data on global foreign exchange turnover show a rebound in activity between April and October 2009 across all markets and major currency pairs. The broad-based increase in turnover is in line with the improvement in global economic and financial conditions since early 2009. Despite the rebound, turnover remains below the peak in early 2008.

  17. The 2030 Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Sound land governance is fundamental to achieving the 2030 Global Agenda as set by the Sustainable. Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by all the world’s leaders at the UN Summit in September 2015. This Global Agenda calls for a “data revolution” for sustainable development to empower people with...

  18. Globalization vs. Developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Economic reality worldwide is marked by the evolution of globalization. This process entails effects that are perceived differently at national economy levels, function of their degree of development. We will proceed by attempting a survey of aspects pertaining to the relationship between globalization and developing economies, stressing on internationalizing Transnational Corporations and its effects.

  19. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  20. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S. Y

  1. Becoming Global Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As multinationals flock to China as a favorite investment destination, an increasing number of Chinese firms are also quickening their pace of going global.This is good news for the crisis-stricken target countries and the sluggish world economy. As they expand globally,

  2. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan...

  3. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts to...

  4. Simulating Global Climate Summits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperman, Dean P.; Haste, Turtle; Alrivy, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    One of the most persistent and controversial issues facing the global community is climate change. With the creation of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), the global community established some common ground on how to address this issue. However, the last several climate summits have failed…

  5. Global surrogacy practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Darnovsky (Marcy); D. Beeson (Diane)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights; sch

  6. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  7. Globalization of the Semiosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the future perspectives for Foreign Language Studies in the era of Globalization. The intensified globalization processes are studied in the light of Yuri Lotmans concept of the semiosphere and the article advocates the development of a new philology of culture....

  8. Global Managers' Career Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellen, Tineke; Janssens, Maddy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to empirically examine the career competencies of global managers having world-wide coordination responsibility: knowing-why, knowing-how and knowing-whom career competencies. Design/methodology/approach: Based on in-depth interviews with 45 global managers, the paper analyzes career stories from a content analysis…

  9. Globalization as It Happens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization is usually understood as a structural, epochal condition altering the environment in which people, organizations, and societies operate. But such accounts offer little insight into the infrastructures, practices, and connections that facilitate the production of the global. This...... making of ‘tax structures’ involves connecting, for instance, buildings in France, a human in Switzerland, a company in Denmark, various tax laws, a trust fund in New Zealand, and large amounts of money on the move. If studied along the lines of an analytics of ‘globalizing assemblages’, such financial...... objects can help us capture how the global is produced and navigated in finance and beyond. By engaging with these questions, the article contributes conceptually, methodologically, and empirically to current attempts at rethinking globalization, and provides novel insights into the practices and...

  10. Global Operations Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , international comparative studies providing comprehensive insights from it are still rare. With the objective of bridging this gap, Global Operations Networks (GONE) project (sponsored by the Danish Research Council) brought together numerous academic and industrial partners from Denmark, Sweden and Finland...... of global operations and operations strategy. This summative volume utilises the rich and diverse empirical foundation generated during the project activities in Denmark, Sweden and Finland. Chapters of the book are based on quantitative data and multiple case studies which the project partners have been...... closely working with, and which are best suited to illuminate a particular aspect of organising and managing global operations in networks. The book addresses the following broadly defined themes: • Contexts of global operations networks, • Configurations of global operations networks, • Capabilities...

  11. Globalization and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This debut editorial of Globalization and Health introduces the journal, briefly delineating its goals and objectives and outlines its scope of subject matter. 'Open Access' publishing is expected to become an increasingly important format for peer reviewed academic journals and that Globalization and Health is 'Open Access' is appropriate. The rationale behind starting a journal dedicated to globalization and health is three fold: Firstly: Globalization is reshaping the social geography within which we might strive to create health or prevent disease. The determinants of health – be they a SARS virus or a predilection for fatty foods – have joined us in our global mobility. Driven by economic liberalization and changing technologies, the phenomenon of 'access' is likely to dominate to an increasing extent the unfolding experience of human disease and wellbeing. Secondly: Understanding globalization as a subject matter itself needs certain benchmarks and barometers of its successes and failings. Health is one such barometer. It is a marker of social infrastructure and social welfare and as such can be used to either sound an alarm or give a victory cheer as our interconnectedness hurts and heals the populations we serve. And lastly: In as much as globalization can have an effect on health, it is also true that health and disease has an effect on globalization as exemplified by the existence of quarantine laws and the devastating economic effects of the AIDS pandemic. A balanced view would propose that the effects of globalization on health (and health systems are neither universally good nor bad, but rather context specific. If the dialogue pertaining to globalization is to be directed or biased in any direction, then it must be this: that we consider the poor first.

  12. Opportunities for Global Sustainability (Global ABCD)

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Josephine; Garrett, Susan; Purcell, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In spite of our substantive knowledge about global un-sustainability, insufficient progress is being made to halt systematic socio-ecological decline. Much information is readily available on downstream impacts, with limited focus on upstream activities driving such effects. This thesis uses backcasting from socioecological principles for sustainability to identify major upstream human activities violating these principles, the underlying drivers reinforcing such activities, alternative pract...

  13. Globalization, Class and Culture in Global Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Friedman

    2015-01-01

    The work of Immanuel Wallerstein has been criticized by certain anthropologists for not having taken culture into proper account. He has been accused of the sin of political economy, a not uncommon accusation, a re?ex of the 80s and post-80s anthropological jargon that might ?nally today be exhausted. Years earlier a number of social scientists were engaged in a critical assessment of the social sciences from a distinctively global perspective. Wallerstein, Frank and others were at the forefr...

  14. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  15. How global brands compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise. PMID:15449856

  16. Les dynamiques territoriales associées au soja et les changements fonctionnels en Amazonie. Le cas de la région de Santarém, Pará, Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Valbuena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La croissance progressive de la demande internationale de produits céréaliers et légumineux pour le fourrage animal et l´alimentation humaine a entraîné une expansion continue des terres cultivées au Brésil. L´intérêt des multinationales du secteur agroalimentaire (qui ont réalisé de grands investissements dans le pays et les facilités données par le gouvernement pour inciter et développer les activités agro-exportatrices, ont également favorisé l’expansion de ces cultures agricoles. La progression a gagné les régions de cerrado et plus récemment de l´Amazonie, provoquant de profondes transformations dans l´organisation du territoire en donnant de nouvelles fonctions aux différents lieux. Santarém, une ville historique de l´Amazonie brésilienne, qui a une localisation privilégié á la confluence des fleuves Tapajós et Amazones, et à l’extrémité Nord de la route BR-163, est sur le devant de la scène de toutes ces mutations récentes. C’est un centre urbain qui dirige un processus de changement régional défini par la reconversion et la spécialisation productive dans le milieu rural.The progressive increase in the international demand for cereals and leguminous plants for human and animal consumption has motivated a continuous expansion in the cultivated land in Brazil. This expansion is encouraged by the interest of multinationals of the agro-alimental sector that have made large investments in the country, and by the aid provided by the government to promote and reassert the agro-exporters activities. This progression has gone as far as the cerrado latitudes and, most recently, in the Amazonia, where it has generated profound transformations in the organization of the area and given new roles to different places. Santarém, a historical city in the Amazon which utilizes its privileged location where the Tapajós and Amazonas Rivers confluence, as well as the northern vertex of the BR-163 highway, is the

  17. Global South: Anthropological Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna; Kalb, Don

    2015-01-01

    The global south is a complex and dynamic concept that straddles multiple social science and humanist disciplines. Emerging around 2000, it reflects the agenda of two ascending forces in those years: the antiglobalist (alterglobalist/global justice) movement and the World Social Forum, on the one...... hand, and an alliance of Southern states within the World Trade Organization on the other. Generally seen as an inheritor of the emancipatory thought behind the notion of the ‘third world,’ in the social sciences the idea of the ‘global south’ is also entangled with more classical academic themes such...

  18. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush

    We investigate antecedents and contingencies of location configurations supporting global delivery models (GDMs) in global outsourcing. GDMs are a new form of IT-enabled client-specific investment promoting services provision integration with clients by exploiting client proximity and time......-zone spread allowing for 24/7 service delivery and access to resources. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent pools and speed of service delivery, and in particular when services are highly...

  19. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush M.

    2015-01-01

    Global delivery models (GDMs) are transforming the global IT and business process outsourcing industry. GDMs are a new form of client-specific investment promoting service integration with clients by combining client proximity with time-zone spread for 24/7 service operations. We investigate...... antecedents and contingencies of setting up GDM structures. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM location configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent and speed of service delivery, in particular when services are highly commoditized...

  20. Global Account Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Wulff, Vlad Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Global account management (GAM) has become a critical issue for many multinational corporations that compete in a fast changing global market environment. In this article, we approach GAM from a benchlearning perspective, synthesize selected literature and examine case studies in order to underline...... the importance of multilevel relationships in strategic business-to-business relationships. The purpose of this study is to address various issues related to multilevel relationships in strategic partnerships (e.g. the recruitment of the global account manager and his supporting team, turf wars and...

  1. GLOBALIZATION AND EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kasım KARAMAN

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with how our society has changed. How modern technology among other things has helped to spread thoughts, practices, and systems to large parts of the world. This globalization affects national and local practices but at the same time these national and local practices affect global processes. It makes sense to talk about a global culture. Not that we are all converging toward one culture but in the sense that we are all affected by many of the same ideas, events, and system...

  2. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  3. Comment on Schularick: Real Sector Globalization Precedes Financial Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kar Dev

    2010-01-01

    Financial globalization cannot evolve in a vacuum. Dev Kar argues that real globalization in product markets is the ultimate source of financial globalization and must enter the equation when considering remedies.

  4. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, t...

  5. Technology and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübler, Arnulf

    2003-10-01

    Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

  6. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  7. Pathways to Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Mitry, Darryl J.

    2011-01-01

    . An important case study is McDonald‘s corporation, the world‘s largest fast food restaurant chain. This company has employed divergent marketing and economic strategies in both domestic and the international markets to become a leader in the global marketplace. An overview of the company‘s background......, organizational structures, mission and vision illustrate McDonald‘s strategic focus on its proactive evolution from a small drive-through operation to a global fast-food giant. The strategy is based on its ability to adapt to the cultural differences of the markets that McDonald‘s serves while preserving its......For marketing and economic researchers, an important aspect of globalization is the degree to which various consumer behavior dimensions and consumption patterns in different parts of the world are becoming similar, and how multinational companies have identified pathways to global success...

  8. Commitment to Global Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Zita M.

    1983-01-01

    The need for a global education approach is emphasized in a teacher's account of a class that included 15 acoustically handicapped students. Topics focused on historical backgrounds and commonalities, food shortages, multinational corporations, and energy problems. (CL)

  9. Global Synoptic Climatology Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global Synoptic Climatology Network is a digital data set archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This record combines the various types of data that...

  10. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication....

  11. Forging a Global Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    G8 industrialized nations look to developing countries for help in an effort to tackle global challenges changes are coming to the Group of Eight (G8). For decades, major industrialized countries have called the shots in international institutions.

  12. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  13. Weaving A Global Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zengpin

    2007-01-01

    @@ In recent years, private enterprises have Increasingly become a major economic force in China. As such businesses grow, the revenue from the international business that they conduct grows accordingly. China's private enterprises are going global.

  14. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    years. Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global......This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30...

  15. Globalization of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the notion of globalization as spreading of American culture to all countries in the world. The essential meaning of the ideology of globalization is the establishment of a new way to rule the world. The idea of American world leadership, supported by the entire elite of the American society, is underlined. The second part analyses examples of the globalization of the Serbian society. Media and education are the two areas of social life in which the processes of Americanization are the strongest. The examples from economy, culture, entertainment and sport are also pointed out. The third part discusses the possibility of protection from globalization, pointing to the possibility of critical doubt as a part of the collective and individual consciousness in denying universality of the American model, as well as to the value of autonomy, unpredictability of human nature, and to the process of auto-criticism within the American society.

  16. The global derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    William J. McDonough

    1993-01-01

    Remarks on Derivatives: Practices and Principles, a report by the Global Derivatives Study Group of the Group of Thirty, presented at the Group of Thirty Meeting, Washington, D.C., September 27, 1993.

  17. Global Climate Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Hourly Summaries are simple indicators of observational normals which include climatic data summarizations and frequency distributions. These typically...

  18. Strategies at GLOBAL '95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an overview of the following topics dealt with at GLOBAL '95: recycling in LWRs versus direct disposal, role of fast reactors, how to use military Pu, burning minor actinides, CANDU reactors. 1 fig

  19. Global Role of ASEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Nowadays, with continued globalization, it is almost essential for countries that are close to each other both geologically and culturally, to combine their interests in order to raise their competitiveness,and seek mutual gain.

  20. The Global Justice Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Pleyers, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    After providing a brief overview of the global justice movementhistory, this article analyzes the main argument raised by its activists to opposethe neoliberal ideology, as notably asserted by the shifts in the discourses ofsome G20 leaders. Activists however call attention to the gap between thespeeches of the G20 leaders and the measures actually implemented.Accordingly, global justice activists have decided to focus on seeking concreteoutcomes through the following: specialized advocacy ne...

  1. Globalization and Monetary Control

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Woodford

    2007-01-01

    It has recently become popular to argue that globalization has had or will soon have dramatic consequences for the nature of the monetary transmission mechanism, and it is sometimes suggested that this could threaten the ability of national central banks to control inflation within their borders, at least in the absence of coordination of policy with other central banks. In this paper, I consider three possible mechanisms through which it might be feared that globalization can undermine the a...

  2. Singapore in global history

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This important overview explores the connections between Singapore's past with historical developments worldwide until present day. The contributors analyse Singapore as a city-state seeking to provide an interdisciplinary perspective to the study of the global dimensions contributing to Singapore's growth. The book's global perspective demonstrates that many of the discussions of Singapore as a city-state have relevance and implications beyond Singapore to include Southeast Asia and the worl...

  3. Climate and Global Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present volume contains the lessons delivered at the course held in Arles, France, on the subject Climate and Global Change: natural variability of the geosphere and biosphere systems, biogeochemical cycles and their perturbation by human activities, monitoring and forecasting global changes (satellite observations, modelling,...). Short presentations of students' own research activities are also proposed (climatic fluctuation in the Mediterranean area, climate/vegetation relations, etc.)

  4. Reshaping the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani-Ferry, Jean; Santos, Indhira

    2009-01-01

    Jean Pisani-Ferry and Indhira Santos observe that the crisis and the national responses to it have started to reshape the global economy. But beyond the specifics of shock transmission, the crisis has also exposed that, in spite of regional integration and the emergence of new economic powers, the global economy lacks resilience. The authors explain how they believe the international community could build a stronger and more legitimate globalised governance out of the crisis.

  5. Globalization and Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.; Edward E. Leamer

    2009-01-01

    Richard Freeman contemplates the effects of world workforce doubling with the fall of the Soviet Union, China’s turn to the market and India’s liberalization. What effect has this globalization process had on wages worldwide? Though world wages were probably affected, Freeman emphasizes the fact that education and innovation are countervailing forces to wage repression. While he considers globalization as a “positive” especially in the long run, he suggests that the gains from the process can...

  6. Global Economic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The growth of the global economy slowed in 2005 after sizzling expansion the previous year. According to the forecast of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in September 2005, the growth rate of the global economy in 2005 would drop to 4.3 percent from 5.1 percent in 2004. Although the IMF said in December it would raise its prediction, sources estimated that the adjusted rate would hardly surpass 4.6 percent. Despite

  7. UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL COMMONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Daniel W.; Cochrane, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    We want to clarify the way in which we think about the global commons, particularly the problem of global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We develop a policy framework in which the policy goal is the sustainability of the earth's ability to absorb greenhouse gases. The framework considers the unequal incidence of benefits and costs of particular policies. We identify several resource management regimes and suggest that management under a common property ...

  8. Promoting Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret A. Winker, MD; Lorraine E. Ferris, PhD, LLM

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  9. Becoming Global Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2011-01-01

    As multinationals flock to China as a favorite investment destination,an increasing number of Chinese firms are also quickening their pace of going global.This is good news for the crisis-stricken target countries and the sluggish world economy.As they expand globally,Chinese companies can bring much-needed capital and deliver a boost to business cooperation between China and the rest of the world.

  10. The Global Professional

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Bousquet

    2005-01-01

    As educators in an increasingly global society, we realize that we need to train students-undergraduate and graduate-to live and work in a global environment. This idea is not a new one; scholars, administrators, and government officials have been promoting similar notions for several decades, especially since the advent of the Cold War. David Ward, president of the American Council on Education, emphasized at the 2003 annual meeting of the National Association of Stat...

  11. The global capital leviathan

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, William I.

    2011-01-01

    The money mandarins of global capitalism and their political agents are utilizing the global crisis to impose brutal austerity and attempting to dismantle what is left of welfare systems and social states in Europe, North America and elsewhere. The budgetary and fiscal crises that supposedly justify spending cuts and austerity are contrived. They are a consequence of the unwillingness or inability of states to challenge capital and their disposition to transfer the burden of the crisis to wor...

  12. Fresh water goes global

    OpenAIRE

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Bunn, S.E.; Conway, D.; Gupta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water management is a central responsibility of civil society. Major questions persist regarding practice, policy, and the underlying evidence and methods to inform both. Over the next 3 weeks, Science presents essays invited to debate key issues in freshwater research and management. This week: local versus global. When, and to what extent, should a global viewpoint replace, or work in tandem with, enduring localized perspectives?

  13. Global surrogacy practices

    OpenAIRE

    Darnovsky, Marcy; Beeson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights; scholars from a range of disciplines; social workers; and legal and policy analysts with expertise in third-party reproduction and/or adoption. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first major c...

  14. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  15. Update on global immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carol J

    2007-10-01

    The international community recognizes that investing in the health development of poor and disadvantaged countries is central to reducing poverty. Immunization is one strategy in the global effort to reduce infant mortality, improve maternal health, and combat infectious disease. In this day of global interdependence, all countries are vulnerable to uncontrolled spread of disease through epidemics. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals will not only help developing countries, but it will also contribute to improving health and security for all. PMID:17990623

  16. Europe and Global Imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Philip R. Lane; Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti

    2007-01-01

    Although Europe in the aggregate is a not a major contributor to global current account imbalances, its trade and financial linkages with the rest of the world mean that it will still be affected by a shift in the current configuration of external deficits and surpluses. We assess the macroeconomic impact on Europe of global current account adjustment under alternative scenarios, emphasizing both trade and financial channels. Finally, we consider heterogeneous exposure across individual Europ...

  17. GLOBALIZATION: SOME CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Keshav Lengare

    2015-01-01

    The concept of globalization of innovation is the zip between two fundamental phenomena of modern economies: the increased international integration of economic activities and the raising importance of knowledge in economic processes. This article focuses on selected features of the new economy, especially globalization, changes brought about as a consequence, new skills required for management, including a shift in the indicators for assessing business performance.

  18. Liberalism and globalization

    OpenAIRE

    SUCIU TITUS

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the close connection that exists between liberalism and globalization. In the first part we make a presentation of the historical evolution of liberalism, starting with the classical economic liberalism continuing with the neo-classical liberalism emphasizing neo-liberalism and within the latter one, the monetarism. In the second part of the paper we present the concept of globalization considered both from an economic and from a social point of view. Among the winners of g...

  19. Is Global Warming Accelerating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

  20. Global Inequality: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global inequality has been little analyzed by sociologists despite their claim to be the scienti?c experts most in charge of the study of human inequalities and social strati?cation. Most undergraduate courses on social inequalities study race, class and gender without ever acknowledging that the greatest inequalities are between those individuals and households that live in developed versus less developed societies. The amount of international inequality has vastly outweighed within country inequalities since at least the 1870s when a wave of economic globalization under the Pax Britannica increased average wages in the core while leaving most of the periphery and the semiperiphery at subsistence levels. Increasing inequality was one of the most important consequences of nineteenth century globalization, and this fact is pregnant with importance for those who seek to understand what the consequences of twentieth century globalization may be. Resistance to global capitalism and attacks on symbols of power are likely to increase, just as they did in the decades following the great expansion of trade and investment in the last decades of the nineteenth century. Research into the causes of increasing inequalities is thus extremely important for social scientists, policy makers and global citizens who need to understand how the world-system works in order to change it.

  1. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  2. Globally Collaborative Experiential Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi UTSUMI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Global University System (GUS [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st Century education via broadband Internet technologies. The aim is to achieve “education and healthcare for all,” anywhere, anytime and at any pace. The GUS works in the major regions of the globe with partnerships of higher education and healthcare institutions. Learners in these regions will be able to take their courses from member institutions around the world to receive a GUS degree. These learners and their professors from partner institutions will also form a global forum for exchange of ideas and information and for conducting collaborative research and development with emerging global GRID computer network technology. Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG project [Utsumi, 2003] with a globally distributed computer simulation system, focusing on the issue of environment and sustainable development in developing countries, is to train would-be decision-makers in crisis management, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques basing on “facts and figures.” The GUS will supply game players from around the world.

  3. Teaching and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Sahlberg

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is typically understood as an economic, political and cultural process that is reshaping the role of many nation-states in relation to global markets, agreements, and traditions. Recently it has become frequently analyzed in the context of education. However, there is surprisingly little work done on the pedagogical implications of globalization on teaching and learning other than shifting the emphasis from traditional subjects to information and communication technology and English as a foreign language. This article argues that globalization is having an e.ect on teaching and learning in three ways: educational development is often based on a global unified agenda, standardized teaching and learning are being used as vehicles to improvement of quality, and emphasis on competition is increasingly evident among individuals and schools. The article concludes that recent development of standardization and competition-based education will become increasingly counter-productive to preparing students for meaningful lives for and beyond knowledge economy. Furthermore, as a response to globalization, educators need to rethink the ways teaching and learning are organized in schools, promote appropriate flexibility at school level, creativity in classrooms and risk-taking among students and teachers as part of their daily work in school.

  4. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors. PMID:23215931

  5. Cut to the Chase: Editing Time and Space through Closed-Circuit Television Surveillance La fin des courses poursuites pour les policiers britanniques ? Le rôle de la vidéosurveillance dans le changement des représentations spatio-temporelles dans les courses poursuites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Neyland

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The UK is said to have the largest number of CCTV cameras of any European nation. These cameras have been involved in a variety of changes in UK police practices. Such changes range from new evidential practices in court cases, through access to new materials, to new questions posed regarding invasions of privacy. One unexplored area of police practices, which this paper will argue have undergone significant changes since the introduction of CCTV cameras, is police accountability. This paper will draw on recent controversies in the UK regarding police car chases to investigate the ways in which CCTV cameras have led to new and complex questions of police accountability.Le Royaume-Uni est souvent présenté comme le pays ayant le plus grand nombre de caméras en Europe. Ces caméras ont joué un rôle dans bien des changements intervenus au sein des pratiques de la police britannique, depuis la production de nouveaux types de preuves devant les tribunaux, en passant par l’accès à de nouveaux matériaux et à de nouvelles informations, jusqu’à la mise en lumière de nouvelles questions touchant aux violations de la vie privée. Un des aspects peu explorés parmi ces nouvelles pratiques policières concerne la question de la responsabilité et le fait, pour la police, de rendre des comptes. Cet article porte précisément sur les changements significatifs provoqués par l’introduction de caméras de vidéosurveillance dans la façon d’accomplir les activités policières. À partir du cas de controverses récentes au Royaume-Uni autour de courses poursuites dans lesquelles sont engagés des véhicules de police, il s’intéressera aux façons dont la présence et l’usage de caméras de vidéosurveillance ont amené des questions à la fois nouvelles et complexes, concernant la justification des actions de police.

  6. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10-3 range

  7. Kernels for Global Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspers, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Bessiere et al. (AAAI'08) showed that several intractable global constraints can be efficiently propagated when certain natural problem parameters are small. In particular, the complete propagation of a global constraint is fixed-parameter tractable in k - the number of holes in domains - whenever bound consistency can be enforced in polynomial time; this applies to the global constraints AtMost-NValue and Extended Global Cardinality (EGC). In this paper we extend this line of research and introduce the concept of reduction to a problem kernel, a key concept of parameterized complexity, to the field of global constraints. In particular, we show that the consistency problem for AtMost-NValue constraints admits a linear time reduction to an equivalent instance on O(k^2) variables and domain values. This small kernel can be used to speed up the complete propagation of NValue constraints. We contrast this result by showing that the consistency problem for EGC constraints does not admit a reduction to a polynomial...

  8. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples. PMID:22272595

  9. Global computing for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Laurence

    2002-12-01

    Global computing, the collaboration of idle PCs via the Internet in a SETI@home style, emerges as a new way of massive parallel multiprocessing with potentially enormous CPU power. Its relations to the broader, fast-moving field of Grid computing are discussed without attempting a review of the latter. This review (i) includes a short table of milestones in global computing history, (ii) lists opportunities global computing offers for bioinformatics, (iii) describes the structure of problems well suited for such an approach, (iv) analyses the anatomy of successful projects and (v) points to existing software frameworks. Finally, an evaluation of the various costs shows that global computing indeed has merit, if the problem to be solved is already coded appropriately and a suitable global computing framework can be found. Then, either significant amounts of computing power can be recruited from the general public, or--if employed in an enterprise-wide Intranet for security reasons--idle desktop PCs can substitute for an expensive dedicated cluster. PMID:12511066

  10. Global product as a result of globalization process

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    The paper elaborates on the process of global product creation. The author tries to define a global product. Basic product strategies on global market are described, among them: standardization, adaptation and diversification. Premises and conditions for product standardization as well as determiners of standardization and adaptation are quoted. Many examples of global product and its strategies are described.

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, there is evidence that suggest that economic globalization has resumed the upward trend that characterized it before the crisis. Despite the fact the global crisis has shaken the process of globalization, we cannot talk of an end of globalization, as some predictions have indicated.

  12. Sleep locally, act globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  13. Design for Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztepe, Suzan

    2009-01-01

    In a global economy, no company can safely assume that their products will be accepted in foreign markets. One key issue is to understand and meet the latent needs of culturally diverse target markets. This book examines from a user perspective the issue of developing new products for global...... markets. Given that main goal of any design is to create value for users, Boztepe argues that the concept of user value could be a driving force in design decision-making regarding product development for global markets. Through interviews with women about their kitchen practices and observations of their...... framework to assists marketers, product designers and managers to deal with the complex issue of designing and tailoring products for local needs....

  14. When Globalization Hits Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    Lead firms are increasingly reorganizing their innovation activities into global innovation networks. Such reorganization has potentially major impact on their existing home-based innovation networks. Based on 31 interviews in four case studies of lead firms in the Danish food industry, the paper...... analyzes the dynamics of five key features of home-based innovation networks: 1) size of the national networks, 2) type of organization, 3) content of collaboration within the network, 4) concurrent globalization of organizations in the network, and 5) degree of formalization of network interactions. The...... lead firms’ innovation has a mobilization effect on preexisting national innovation networks. The hypothesis says that lead firms’ engagement in global innovation networks can mobilize the organizations that are part of the lead firms’ innovation networks at home. This mobilization effect differs...

  15. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  16. GMOs and Global Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of using genetically modified (GM) crops and food in the developing world often claim that it is unjust not to use GMOs (genetically modified organisms) to alleviate hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. In reply, the critics of GMOs claim that while GMOs may be useful as a...... claims to justice. This article investigates how GMOs might generate claims to global justice and what type of justice is involved. The paper argues that the debate on GMOs and global justice can be categorized into three views, i.e., the cosmopolitan, the pluralist, and the sceptic. The cosmopolitan...... holds that GMOs can and should be used for alleviating global hunger, whereas the sceptic rejects this course of action. I will argue here for a moderately cosmopolitan approach, relying on the pluralist view of institutions and the need to exploit the benefits of GMOs. This argument rests on the...

  17. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  18. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together. PMID:22073817

  19. The Global Imaginary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2012-01-01

    Ngugi wa Thiongo work can be read as a proponent of an interesting theory ofAfrican agency, cultural empowerment and linguistic re-inscription. This crucial aspect of his work deserves to be more rigorously studied because of its singularity in contemporary times and in the field of African studies...... and also to the subtle reformulations it has undergone in the face of often dramatic global ideological events and reversals.It is interesting to observe how Ngugi wa Thiongo's ideological postures are infuenced by global discursive practices and events and how in turn he acts upon them.It is also...... remarkable to oberve how some of the formulations of postcolonial theory resonate in his pardagim of decolonisation.Finally we suggest that the transformation of the global ideological structure after the political collapse of the former UUSR coorelates with a political de-radicalisation i wa Thiongo...

  20. How global are global brands? An empirical brand equity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cleff, Thomas; Fischer, Lena; Sepúlveda, César; Walter, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    The term 'global brand' has become widely used by the media and by consumers. Business week publishes annually its widely known ranking of the 'Best Global Brands' (with Coca-Cola as number 1 in the past years) and consumers on summer vacations purchase brands such as Heineken or Marlboro they are familiar with from their home country. Although media and consumers call these brands 'global' and centralized marketing departments manage these brands globally - are these 'global brands' really g...

  1. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    Selecting key performance indicators in conventional product development is a challenging task for project management and is compound by global product development. Informed from the findings of two in depth case studies conducted with large Danish manufacturing companies, in this paper we develop...... and test a framework that supports the selection of Leading and Lagging key performance indicators in global product development. The framework provides an alternative approach to design, select and document key performance indicators by incorporating a challenge-oriented approach to selection....

  2. Global Transport Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Howard

    The aim of the NATO Science Committee's Global Transport Mechanisms in the Geosciences program is to stimulate and facilitate international collaboration among scientists of the member countries in the study of selected global transport mechanisms. The program organizers intend to sponsor advanced research workshops, advanced study institutes, conferences, collaborative research, research study, and lecture visits. NATO grants are available, but they are intended to cover only part of the expenses involved in the international aspects of the sponsored activities. Citizens or permanent residents of one of the member countries of NATO who possess qualifications appropriate to the proposed activity are eligible to apply.

  3. Global Operations Coevolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Gubi, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    systemic approach to control and coordination, which emphasizes not only short-term operational efficiency, but also increasingly long-term strategic effectiveness. The findings advance coevolutionary perspectives on the integration of globally dispersed business systems spanning multiple levels of...... analysis and involving temporal adaptations. In terms of managerial implications, the study provides managers with lessons for designing a robust system of globally dispersed operations.......Companies are actively seeking competitive advantage through their choice of location and ownership of operations. The purpose of this chapter is to uncover hidden effects of this development and propose how companies can respond to them. The chapter draws on a case study of a Danish industrial...

  4. Global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As stated in the Nuclear Safety Review 1996, three components characterize the global nuclear safety culture infrastructure: (i) legally binding international agreements; (ii) non-binding common safety standards; and (iii) the application of safety standards. The IAEA has continued to foster the global nuclear safety culture by supporting intergovernmental collaborative efforts; it has facilitated extensive information exchange, promoted the drafting of international legal agreements and the development of common safety standards, and provided for the application of safety standards by organizing a wide variety of expert services

  5. Global Carbon Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Jean-Luc; Faure, Hugues; Veizer, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The European Union of Geosciences held its 9th biannual meeting in Strasbourg, March 23–27, 1997. During this meeting, Symposium N8 18, Global carbon Cycle, was held under the sponsorship of the IGCP 1 n8404 on the «Terrestrial Carbon in the past 125 Ka», the INQUA 2 Carbon Commission and the ESCOBA-Biosphere 3 project of the EC Environment and Climate Programme. The «Global Carbon Cycle» Symposium attracted 28 oral and poster presentations and about one hundred par...

  6. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...... that service providers who differentiate based on speed of service delivery are likely to set up GDM structures, and that these structures positively affect deal renewal rates if speed is important for clients in selecting vendors. Findings imply that, as co-location becomes less necessary for providing...... digitalized services, time zones increasingly affect....

  7. Global SMEs’ Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Valerij Dermol; Mitja I. Tavčar

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries the number of SMEs vastly exceeds the number of MNCs. An important share of SMEs are somehow linked to MNCs – but the impression prevails, that SMEs are in a subordinate position and certainly do not have a global strategy. We argue, however, that there should be partnership relations between MNCs and SMEs. The share of importance is conditioned by the degree, how well SMEs understand the MNCs global policy and how they support it with their activity. Through that MNCs ...

  8. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    SOFTWARE, LIKE ALL industry products, is the result of complex multinational supply chains with many partners from concept to development to production and maintenance. Global software engineering (GSE), IT outsourcing, and business process outsourcing during the past decade have showed growth...... rates of 10 to 20 percent per year. This instalment of Practitioner’s Digest summarizes experiences and guidance from industry to facilitate knowledge and technology transfer for GSE. It’s based on industry feedback from the annual IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, which had...

  9. The global grid

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Ernst, Damien; Andersson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward the vision that a natural future stage of the electricity network could be a grid spanning the whole planet and connecting most of the large power plants in the world: this is the "Global Grid". The main driving force behind the Global Grid will be the harvesting of remote renewable sources, and its key infrastructure element will be the high capacity long transmission lines. Wind farms and solar power plants will supply load centers with green power over long distance...

  10. Global Biogeochemistry: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III

    1984-01-01

    The dynamic biogeochemical equilibria among the major pools of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus represented by terrestrial biomes, the world's oceans, and the troposphere are disturbed. Since even the most rapid processes of adjustments among the reservoirs take decades, new equilibria are far from established. These human-induced perturbations and the system's subsequent responses constitute an on-going biogeochemical experiment at the global level. Current and new information must be combined in a way that allows testing of various hypotheses about the workings of global biogeochemical systems. This enables assessment of current knowledge and evaluation of the gaps.

  11. Building global learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  12. Global environmental report card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Worldwatch Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank, issued a gloomy yet hopeful annual “State of the World” report on global environmental trends on 10 January.The report notes some recent successful efforts to protect the environment, including the phasing out of the production of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and the 2001 signing of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Nonetheless, the report calls for a global war on environmental degradation “that is as aggressive and well-funded as the war on terrorism” following the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States.

  13. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper......High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...

  14. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote......High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...

  15. TRENDS IN GLOBAL RETAILING

    OpenAIRE

    NICOLETA BUZILĂ; SIMONA CRISTINA COSTEA; GIANINA VIOLETA DRAGOTĂ; R.S. GORDEAN

    2009-01-01

    Global economic growth in 2008 is likely to be slow, largely as a result of a credit-crunch-inspired slowdown in the US. A deceleration in consumer spending in the US will be the principal reason. Growth in Europe is likely to slow modestly due to a decline in export growth, itself the result of a strong euro, as well as from the effects of the credit crunch. Few trends in global retail is: social responsibility, products are becoming merchandise, retailers as world-class marketers, retail in...

  16. Deterministic Global Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This monograph deals with a general class of solution approaches in deterministic global optimization, namely the geometric branch-and-bound methods which are popular algorithms, for instance, in Lipschitzian optimization, d.c. programming, and interval analysis.It also introduces a new concept for the rate of convergence and analyzes several bounding operations reported in the literature, from the theoretical as well as from the empirical point of view. Furthermore, extensions of the prototype algorithm for multicriteria global optimization problems as well as mixed combinatorial optimization

  17. Globalization and Higher Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Paige; Vidovich, Lesley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses political and cultural forms of globalization, suggesting that the economic dimension of globalization has dominated the policy agenda of western governments as they have attempted to position themselves favorably in competitive global markets. This analysis seeks to determine how globalization might produce dynamic new opportunities…

  18. L’environnement naturel et le changement climatique pendant les années Bush : la pertinence d’une différenciation des échelles territoriales Climate Change and the Natural Environment in the Bush Years: The Relevance of Territorial Scale Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ghorra-Gobin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available L’attitude de l’administration fédérale au cours des huit années de l’administration Bush contraste avec celle du contexte des années 1960-1970 pour ce qui concerne la prise en compte de l’environnement naturel dans les décisions économiques. Toutefois, cet engagement limité du président Bush sur la question du changement climatique dans les débats internationaux n’a pas pour autant réduit les capacités de mobilisation des États et des villes sur ce thème.On the issue of whether climate change should be taken into account in economic decisions, the federal administration’s attitude during the Bush Presidency sharply contrasted with the attitudes of earlier administrations, particularly in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The limited concern for climate change which the federal government exhibited in the international arena did not reduce, however, the mobilization of states and local communities on this issue.

  19. Éléments pour une sociologie du changement pénal en Occident. Eclairage des concepts de rationalité pénale moderne et d’innovation pénale Theoretical Problematization of Penal Innovation: The Case of Community Service in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Cauchie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Les changements qui se produisent dans le système de droit pénal occidental et la manière de les analyser sont au cœur de cette contribution. Notre article se veut en effet une réflexion sur l’innovation en tant qu’outil sociologique pour observer le changement pénal. Après avoir souligné les obstacles sociologiques que la sociologie critique rencontre pour identifier des changements (innovants au sein du système de droit pénal (1, nous explorerons la problématisation théorique de l’innovation pénale ainsi que son point de départ, la rationalité pénale moderne (2. Plus concrètement, et à titre de mise à l’épreuve de notre opérationnalisation théorique, nous réfléchirons ensuite aux fenêtres d’opportunités qui se présentent pour une lecture innovante du changement pénal. À ce titre, nous nous focaliserons essentiellement sur l’une d’entre elles : les travaux communautaires. Derrière leur ambivalence, ceux-ci présentent en effet certaines « prédispositions» à l’innovation, surtout dans le casbelge (3. Deux éléments cruciaux en termes de potentiel innovateur seront ainsi décrits : la mutation statutaire d’une mesure en peine d’une part ; l’émergence d’un modèle pénal de l’aide qualifiable d’inattendu d’autre part(3.1.. Après avoir décrits et situés historiquement ces deux éléments, nous proposerons un examen plus pointu de la dimension innovatrice de la mutation statutaire (3.2. et du modèle d’aide émergent (3.3., l’objectif ici étant moins de prétendre à l’exhaustivité empirique que de susciter un intérêt pour les enjeux théoriques et conceptuels de nos propos.This paper is essentially concerned with current changes in the criminal justice system and the analysis thereof. To put it simply, we are not totally satisfied with the theoretical interpretations of these changes. We then show how unsatisfactory these interpretations are, from both an ethical and

  20. Translation into French of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne – what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII e Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne – qu’est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Les changements au Code International de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIIIe CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s’est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1er janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en ‘Portable Document Format’ (PDF) avec un ‘International Standard Serial Number’ (ISSN) ou un ‘International Standard Book Number’ (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1er janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d’un identifiant (‘identifier’) fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés. Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et

  1. Translation into French of: "Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?". Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne - qu'est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    RésuméLes changements au CodeInternational de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIII(e) CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s'est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1(er) janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en 'Portable Document Format' (PDF) avec un 'International Standard Serial Number' (ISSN) ou un 'International Standard Book Number' (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l'exigence d'une description ou d'une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l'exigence d'une description ou d'une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1(er) janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d'un identifiant ('identifier') fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés.Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et Taxon. PMID:22287925

  2. OLD AND NEW ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Elena MĂRGULESCU

    2015-01-01

    The retrospective of the theoretical approaches of the phenomenon of economic globalization in the last three decades emphasizes the movement of attention from the globalization of markets, from the'80s, to the globalization of production and services in the current decade. This trend is essentially the result of implementing new strategies by multinational and transnational companies. We try in this context to draw a line between the "globalization of markets" and the "globalization of produ...

  3. The Globalization Debate: The Globalists

    OpenAIRE

    Tadija Tadić

    2006-01-01

    One of the main questions most of the globalization theorists have been dealing with is how to provide an adequate classification and systematization of vast and different theories of globalization. In this work we give a closer look to an infamous and highly influential Helds division of globalization theorists on globalists and skeptics. According to globalists, globalization represents a real and significant historical process without a precedent, which generates new forms of global econom...

  4. Globalization and the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Žídek

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the phenomenon of globalization. The author finds globalization highly questionable concept because there is deep disunity about its definition among the authors. In the first part of the paper different concepts of globalization are summed up. According to author´s view there are two main approaches towards globalization - the first considers it as (more or less lasting) integration and the second as a completely new contemporary process. The author regards globalization...

  5. The New Global Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-13

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ Perspective, The New Global Health.  Created: 8/13/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  6. Global Disease Detectives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-21

    This podcast documents U.S. efforts to prevent, detect, and control emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS and pandemic influenza.  Created: 9/21/2010 by CDC Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/21/2010.

  7. Managing the Global Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Grubler, A.

    2000-01-01

    Global environmental problems pose entirely new challenges for science, technology, and policy making. Persistent scientific uncertainties, extremely long time horizons, the potential need for radical and systemic technological changes, and huge distances in both time and space between those that are supposed to act and those that will benefit, are in stark contrast to historical experiences of dealing with environmental issues.

  8. Globalization, consumption, development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Fardon, R.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume were first presented at a conference on 'Globalization, development and the making of consumers: what are collective identities for?' which was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 13-16 March 1997. The papers are concerned with the challenge to the development

  9. Global Mobile Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Global Mobile Communications System is a satellite-based, wireless personal communications network designed to permit any type of telephone transmission -- voice, data, fax, paging -- to reach its destination anywhere on earth, at any time. It is bringing a new dimension of capability to the commercial, rural and mobile sectors by providing universal, portable service.

  10. Organizing for Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    Research on Purchasing Organization is dominated by studies on centralization versus decentralization. While global sourcing relates to the integrated activities of purchasing and other functions in line with the company’s strategic objectives and while it has been put forward that hybrid...

  11. Biodiversity and global learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rieckmann, Marco; Timm, Jana-M.

    2010-01-01

    "The United Nations declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity. This emphasis on the significance of biodiversity for human existence and well-being reveals just how important expanding biodiversity conservation really is. Against this background the question arises as to how much global learning can contribute to maintaining biodiversity." (author's abstract)

  12. Global Timber Model (GTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GTM is an economic model capable of examining global forestry land-use, management, and trade responses to policies. In responding to a policy, the model captures afforestation, forest management, and avoided deforestation behavior. The model estimates harvests in industrial fore...

  13. The Globalization of Esotericism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Hanegraaff

    2015-01-01

    In recent discussions about the study of esotericism, the adjective "Western" has come under critical scrutiny. Shouldn’t "esotericism" be understood as a global rather than just a Western field of research? Doesn’t the very concept of a "Western esotericism" logically imply that there must be an "E

  14. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  15. Global And Local

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Robert Walters Delivers Professional Service and Ideas to Chinese Market Robert Walters,a global leading specialist recruitment consultancy,held an Annual Client Event in Beijing on November 16,at which a lot of colleagues and industry peers had a talk face to face about China’s recruitment market.

  16. New Road to Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jia

    2009-01-01

    @@ Guangdong Province,with its total foreign trade exceeding US$ 600 billion in 2008,although retains ts position as the China's biggest export province,its export was severely damaged during the global financial crisis.Now,Guangdong starts changing its dependence on single export-oriented economy by developing an more independent and comprehensive economy backed by both outward and inward economic forces.

  17. Unpacking the Global Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper hopes to contribute to a reading of the political economy of the current global crisis with a focus on four interrelated themes. First, we discuss the constitutive role and functional character of crises in the evolution of neo-liberalism in particular and in capitalist reproduction in...

  18. Amazonia and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  19. Regionalizing global climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, A.J.; Arneth, A.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Global climate models simulate the Earth's climate impressively at scales of continents and greater. At these scales, large-scale dynamics and physics largely define the climate. At spatial scales relevant to policy makers, and to impacts and adaptation, many other processes may affect regional and

  20. Making a global impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-12

    How can vets, individually and collectively, make an impact on the global stage? Addressing this question at the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show, René Carlson, president of the World Veterinary Association, encouraged the profession to play its part locally, nationally and internationally, in tackling current challenges. Kristy Ebanks reports. PMID:26667429

  1. Going global with personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Storgaard Nielsen, Kira; Stage, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    The persona method is widely used and commonly described both in scientific literature and in case-based blogs. Most often the descriptions point to a local context with local user groups and it is difficult to find writings on use of the method in an international context and in globally...

  2. Global isochronous potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Gorni, Gianluca; Zampieri, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    We present a geometric characterization of the nonlinear smooth functions $V: R\\to R$ for which the origin is a global isochronous center for the scalar equation $\\ddot x=-V'(x)$. We revisit Stillinger and Dorignac isochronous potentials $V$ and show a new simple explicit family. Implicit examples are easily produced.

  3. The Globalization of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Donaldo; Gounari, Panayota

    2005-01-01

    Addressing ethnic cleansing, culture wars, human sufferings, terrorism, immigration, and intensified xenophobia, "Globalization of Racism" explains why it is vital that we gain a nuanced understanding of how ideology underlies all social, cultural, and political discourse and racist actions. The book looks at recent developments in France,…

  4. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which take...

  5. The global fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2014-01-01

    with regards to the fur sector, and the price of fur is volatile in the short and long run. A new world trade pattern and international specialization have emerged in recent years. The comparative advantages of the fur sector change along the fur value chain, while China’s position on the global fur...

  6. Reality of Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Global warming is today heard in the international arena as frequently and with the same brooding concern as terrorism, nuclear weapons and the Iraq war. Zou Ji, Vice Dean of the School of Environment, Renmin University of China in Beijing, has been a me

  7. On Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brad Franklin

    2010-01-01

    @@ There is a huge argument going on in the world these days and it is centered on the notion that our planet is warming up. It's celled global warming and it postulates1 that our use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil and our destruction of large areas of forest across the world have combined to create so-celled greenhouse gases.

  8. Globale andelsselskaber og medlemsdemokratiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Mette Marie Lundsbjerg; Hansen, Henning Otte

    2013-01-01

    stadig mere globale aktiviteter. Samtidig undersøges, om andelsselskaber og globalisering kan være en konfliktfyldt kombination, og om der kan være interessemodsætninger. I artiklen undersøges endvidere en række barrierer, som kan forhindre andelshavernes effektive styring, og der vises mekanismer, som...

  9. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  10. Globalized Food Conundrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Countries need to work together to deal with food safety challenges in the era of globalization Chinese people like to say,"Eating comes first."That being said,they are also keenly aware that"illness finds its way in by the mouth."Food safety

  11. Globalization of HVDC Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Chen

    2011-01-01

    China has made outstanding achievements in the fields of Ultra-High Voltage Direct Current (UHV DC) power transmission and security of large-scale power grid till now,and the smart grid construction has been under way,all of which put forward much higher strategic requirements of standards globalization.

  12. Holy Nations. Global Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Along with the processes of globalisation and the end of the cold war we have seen an upsurge in religious nationalism and an increasing focus on the role of religion as a legitimising force in democratic secular states. Holy Nations & Global Identities draws on the combined theoretical and...

  13. Encouraging Global Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Forest Woody, Jr.; Keiser, Barbie E.

    2008-01-01

    While much has been done to address the digital divide, awareness concerning the importance of information literacy (IL) has taken a back seat to a world that focuses on technology. This article traces the genesis of a global effort to address information literacy education and training beyond discussions taking place within the library and…

  14. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  15. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  16. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together t

  17. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat. PMID:22390054

  18. Global carbon footprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designated culprit of global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), is primarily given off by the burning of fossil fuels. Whether by a specific technology, a sector, an economy or from one country to another, the quantities emitted are not the same. But the necessity of lowering these emissions is nonetheless urgent for all

  19. Global Differential Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian; Schwarz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of well-written surveys provided by experts in Global Differential Geometry to give an overview over recent developments in Riemannian Geometry, Geometric Analysis and Symplectic Geometry. The papers are written for graduate students and researchers with a general interest in geometry, who want to get acquainted with the current trends in these central fields of modern mathematics.

  20. Health promotion in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  1. Serbia and geoeconomic globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrustić Hasiba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia takes part in the process of the economic globalization through the process of economic convergence towards Europe. Currently this economic convergence with the EU nations represents the most important aspect of the economic globalization for Serbia. Otherwise, the national states, regardless of their size, can influence the economic globalization, if they have the national strategy for the regionalization, harmonization, and governance of the global processes. Serbia has opportunities to be an important world oil and gas crossroads. For Serbia it is interesting not only what will happen with oil and gas sector in the future, but also what kind of (geopolitics will follow it. Moreover, as a modern transport 'backbone', Corridor 10 might at the same time stimulate the development and connection of the remaining Serbian road and railway infrastructure with the neighborhood, as well as the entire economy as a whole. The reform agenda is comprehensive and neglecting important challenges such as creating institutions will result in deeper crises in the future. Growth will only take place if the society creates the institutions and policies that encourage innovation, investment, and education. The rise in competitiveness of the Serbian economy is becoming increasingly important for at least two reasons - one being the expected EU accession, and the other being the persistent high current account deficits and increased foreign debt jeopardizing macroeconomic stability. Serbia does not have the luxury of postponing this work on longer-term issues.

  2. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  3. Biodiversity and globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reduction of the earth’s biodiversity as a result of human activities is a matter of great concern to prominent scientists. What are the economic aspects of this loss? In economic terms, what is biodiversity and why might it matter? And is the loss of biodiversity in any way connected with globalization of the economy?

  4. Global scenarios and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 21st century brings with it a number of disturbing challenges. They may even threaten to disrupt world order. Many agree the most critical and urgent challenge of all confronting human kind today is climate change. Global warming has reached a level which can trigger drastic shifts in world weather. There is convincing evidence to show that global warming is significantly attributed to mans own activities. If man is responsible for the warming of the planet, then only man can help stop global warming. Only man can reverse climate change. Climate change has the power to literally destruct the world. The adverse effects of global climate change are increasingly evident from the frequency and ferocity of natural disasters like the recent severe drought and flood in Queensland, Australia; the prolonged drought in East Africa; the destructive typhoon Nargis in Myanmar; the terrifying hurricane Katrina which brought New Orleans to its knees; the disastrous Mississippi flood and killer cyclones in USA and the out of season drought and flood in the Yangtze river basin. The list does not end there. Dr. R. K. Pachauri, Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in his lecture on 28 April 2011 at UNITEN, entitled Fukushima, Energy and Climate Change reaffirmed that the warming of the earths climate system is unequivocal. That climate change is mans common enemy is no longer in doubt. This is the reason why many see climate change as the single most important driver of the expanding global interest in green technology and a low carbon economy. (author)

  5. Volcanoes and global catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Tom

    1988-01-01

    The search for a single explanation for global mass extinctions has let to polarization and the controversies that are often fueled by widespread media attention. The historic record shows a roughly linear log-log relation between the frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions and the volume of their products. Eruptions such as Mt. St. Helens 1980 produce on the order of 1 cu km of tephra, destroying life over areas in the 10 to 100 sq km range, and take place, on the average, once or twice a decade. Eruptions producing 10 cu km take place several times a century and, like Krakatau 1883, destroy life over 100 to 1000 sq km areas while producing clear global atmospheric effects. Eruptions producting 10,000 cu km are known from the Quaternary record, and extrapolation from the historic record suggests that they occur perhaps once in 20,000 years, but none has occurred in historic time and little is known of their biologic effects. Even larger eruptions must also exist in the geologic record, but documentation of their volume becomes increasingly difficult as their age increases. The conclusion is inescapable that prehistoric eruptions have produced catastrophes on a global scale: only the magnitude of the associated mortality is in question. Differentiation of large magma chambers is on a time scale of thousands to millions of years, and explosive volcanoes are clearly concentrated in narrow belts near converging plate margins. Volcanism cannot be dismissed as a producer of global catastrophes. Its role in major extinctions is likely to be at least contributory and may well be large. More attention should be paid to global effects of the many huge eruptions in the geologic record that dwarf those known in historic time.

  6. Global veterinary leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C

    2002-11-01

    The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and

  7. Climate change: what perspectives for the development of renewable energies in France and in Europe?; Changement climatique: quelles perspectives pour le developpement des energies renouvelables en France et en Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousel, M. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, MIES, 75 - Paris (France); Kandel, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Connor, H. [HELIO International (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The greatest challenge facing the world at the beginning of the century, according to hundreds of business and government leaders is climate change. Different propositions can help fighting against a global warming. The development of renewable energy sources, ( wind power, geothermal power) the market of carbon dioxide, the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, path by path, the building and the heat network are so possibilities that are studied. (N.C.)

  8. Proposition d'interface Science-Société pour la gestion intégrée de la ressource en eau dans un contexte de changements climatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Water is a vital need for Human and each society have to manage it at best to meet this basic need today and in the future.Current climatic changes and especially global warming strongly impact hydrosystems and economical activities of mountainous areas, forcing these territories to adapt to these new conditions. Socio-economic development choices have also a great importance in water shortages occurrence. In this thesis a model coupling representations of water resources and and socio-econom...

  9. Potential global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global economic integration and growth contribute much to the construction of energy plants, vehicles and other industrial products that produces carbon emission and in effect cause the destruction of the environment. A coordinated policy and response worldwide to curb emissions and to effect global climate change must be introduced. Improvement in scientific understanding is required to monitor how much emission reduction is necessary. In the near term, especially in the next seven years, sustained research and development for low carbon or carbon-free energy is necessary. Other measures must also be introduced, such as limiting the use of vehicles, closing down inefficient power plants, etc. In the long term, the use of the electric car, use solar energy, etc. is required. Reforestation must also be considered to absorb large amounts of carbon in the atmosphere

  10. Globalization and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian-Alexandru Miu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, very complex phenomenon, involves overcoming the barriers between different states, which allowed the rapid transfer of capital, technology, information, and the "toxins" from one country to another. First, the technology formed the basis of rapid expansion of great ideas promoted by globalization. Undeniable progress in the field of technology and science, has conferred to the man extraordinary powers that have been used most often to the detriment of his spiritual progress. We must not deny that science and technology have brought many benefits to human, and he could expand the knowledge horizon upon the world in which he lives, exploiting information acquired and share them with others. Science and technology must become for postmodern man ways of talk and communion between human and divinity, all to the praise of God and the perfection of the creature.

  11. Thinking About Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

  12. Global Bifurcations With Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, J B

    2001-01-01

    Symmetry is a ubiquitous feature of physical systems with profound implications for their dynamics. This thesis investigates the role of symmetry in global bifurcations. In particular, the structure imposed by symmetry can encourage the formation of complex solutions such as heteroclinic cycles and chaotic invariant sets. The first study focuses on the dynamics of 1:n steady-state mode interactions in the presence of O(2) symmetry. The normal form equations considered are relevant to a variety of physical problems including Rayleigh-Bénard convection with periodic boundary conditions. In open regions of parameter space these equations contain structurally stable heteroclinic cycles composed of connections between standing wave, pure mode, and trivial solutions. These structurally stable cycles exist between two global bifurcations, the second of which involves an additional mixed mode state and creates as many as four distinct kinds of structurally unstable heteroclinic cycles. The various cycles c...

  13. Global Geospace Science Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George; Shawhan, Stanley; Calabrese, Michael; Alexander, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Global Geospace Science (GGS) Program, an element of the international Solar Terrestrial Physics Program dedicated to the study of the global plasma dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment, is discussed. Past research on the injection of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere and on the detection of ions in the terrestrial ring current of both solar wind and ionospheric origins is reviewed, showing its relevance for the GGS program. Research on the interplanetary magnetic field, the auroral electrojet, the outer magnetosphere, the geomagnetic tail, the ionospheric electric field and the related electron precipitation is also addressed. The results demonstrate that the solar wind and the ionsophere both contribute to the magnetospheric particle population. Unanswered questions regarding hot plasma sources, transport processes, energy storage in the magnetic field, and energization of plasmas are discussed. The relevant mission strategy, instrumentation, theory and modeling, and data collection are addressed.

  14. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global product development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the product development process, and the product. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...

  15. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Austria the CO2 emissions increased by 5.9 % from 1990 to 1999, the other greenhouse gases by 2.6 %. The Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Environment and Water Management, in cooperation with other ministries and the countries, has worked out an action plan for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to meet the targets of the Kyoto protocol. This study analyzes the greenhouse gas emissions in Austria, in the European Union and globally. The measured emission values throughout Austria and in the other European countries are given in tables, the environmental impact for Austria and globally is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental emission control in Austria, the European Union and worldwide are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the greenhouse gas emissions is analysed. (a.n.)

  16. Profitability stabilizing global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainties about climate change are irrelevant to policy as the actions needed to abate CO2 emissions should be taken anyway to save money. Thus taking out a 'climatic insurance policy' is a good buy. Using modern energy-efficient techniques to achieve the Toronto target of a 20% cut in CO2 emissions would save the US about 200 billion dollars a year. Market failures have left cheap efficiency seriously under-bought at present prices. The fuel-saving technologies, that can stabilize global climate also provide unchanged services. Modern abatements can be largely achieved by existing institutions, with the present framework of free choice and free enterprise. Advanced resource efficiency can simultaneously reduce other hazards too, such as nuclear proliferation. A modest degree of adaptation to same climate change may be inevitable. The abatement options are essential to sustainable global development and increased equity. What is needed is better and faster technology transfer to the policymakers. 14 refs

  17. The Global Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Bousquet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As educators in an increasingly global society, we realize that we need to train students-undergraduate and graduate-to live and work in a global environment. This idea is not a new one; scholars, administrators, and government officials have been promoting similar notions for several decades, especially since the advent of the Cold War. David Ward, president of the American Council on Education, emphasized at the 2003 annual meeting of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges that international education can no longer be considered "business as usual." The concept that graduates must have cross-cultural knowledge and expertise -long recognized in the languages and humanities-has steadily gained support to become an important goal and a marker of achievement for many professional schools in the United States today.

  18. Act local, think global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive

  19. Global astrometry with OSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Sacha; Malbet, Fabien; Yu, Jeffrey W.

    1995-06-01

    We present a method for performing global astrometry with the proposed Orbiting Stellar Interferometer. Because it is dedicated to wide-angle astrometry, OSI has the intrinsic capabilities to achieve global astrometry, even though it doesn't measure directly relative angles between pairs of stars, such as HIPPARCOS. In this paper, a time-independent model is shown, leading to a coherent solution for the positions of reference stars on the whole sky. With an initial measurement accuracy of 10 micro-arcseconds, corresponding to an accuracy of 340 picometers in the knowledge of the delay-line position of the observing interferometer, the consistent least-squares solution gives an accuracy by which the astrometric parameters can be obtained around 2 - 3 micro-arcseconds.

  20. Computer Networks and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Magliaro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication and information computer networks connect the world in ways that make globalization more natural and inequity more subtle. As educators, we look at these phenomena holistically analyzing them from the realist’s view, thus exploring tensions, (in equity and (injustice, and from the idealist’s view, thus embracing connectivity, convergence and development of a collective consciousness. In an increasingly market- driven world we find examples of openness and human generosity that are based on networks, specifically the Internet. After addressing open movements in publishing, software industry and education, we describe the possibility of a dialectic equilibrium between globalization and indigenousness in view of ecologically designed future smart networks

  1. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  2. The People Question: Creating Global Advantage through Global Talent Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, T.P.; Connolly, Aidan J.

    2012-01-01

    As agribusiness has evolved from a local, generalized activity into a global, specialized industry, fewer of the stakeholders, from producers to consumers, really understand the food production system. Education is the key to navigating the challenges of global agribusiness.

  3. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  4. The Global Library

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The Agenda 21 is the United Nations' action plan for the 21st century in favour of sustainable development. Launched at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, its 40 chapters include social, economic and ecological actions to be implemented by local authorities, governments, but also by corporate companies and services. Twenty years after the Earth Summit, our proposal is to apply the Agenda 21 to library management and development and to move on to the global or sustainable library. Based on the conc...

  5. Managing global privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Stanley

    2002-01-01

    On May 7, 2002, Dr. Benjamin Robinson, chief privacy officer for MasterCard International, led a workshop on managing global privacy for the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. Robinson described how changing business practices, industry consolidation, electronic commerce, and economic trends have positioned consumer privacy as a key issue in the financial services sector that must be managed. He discussed various privacy initiatives in other countries and compar...

  6. Culture and Global Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Kukharskyy, Bohdan; Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Roland, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a model of global sourcing with culturally dissimilar countries. Production of final goods requires the coordination of decisions between the headquarter of a multinational firm and managers of their component suppliers. Managers of both units are assumed to have strong beliefs about the right course of action and are reluctant to adjust their decisions. We characterize the optimal allocation of decision rights across firms when contracts are incomplete. Our theoretical mo...

  7. Globalization and cities

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Mina

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic concepts on cities within contemporary globalisation. First, it briefly reviews the city perspective within the world system theory (concepts of over-urbanisation, under-urbanisation, and dependent urbanisation), new international division of labour, theory of the second circuit of capital and informational society. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the concepts of global and world cities and their implications for the cities in developed and develop...

  8. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, R Rhys; Larner, A J

    2012-01-01

    Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA), a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The st...

  9. Globalization and Corporate Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR, Manmohan S.; Dennis P. Quinn

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the degree of international economic integration, both financial and trade, affects corporate tax rates. It explores this issue in the context of strategic behavior by countries, taking into account other global and domestic political economy factors. Tax rates are analyzed using a unique tax dataset for advanced and developing economies extending over five decades. We report a number of novel results: there is no general negative relationship between f...

  10. Global Inequality: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Bata; Albert J. Bergesen

    2015-01-01

    Global inequality has been little analyzed by sociologists despite their claim to be the scienti?c experts most in charge of the study of human inequalities and social strati?cation. Most undergraduate courses on social inequalities study race, class and gender without ever acknowledging that the greatest inequalities are between those individuals and households that live in developed versus less developed societies. The amount of international inequality has vastly outweighed within country ...

  11. Developing Global Communication Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bollinger, D.J; ボリンジャー, デボラ

    2015-01-01

    Due to shifts in demographics, corporate structure and hiring prac-tices in Japan that have evolved over the past two decades, the current generation of Japanese youth is the first for whom lifelong learning has become a necessity to continued viability in the workplace. A practical approach to English language instruction must ensure that the communication skills that learners acquire in the classroom will be relevant in an increasingly globalized workplace. In order to develop communicative...

  12. Managing global accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M

    2007-09-01

    Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle. PMID:17886487

  13. Global analytic geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Paugam, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    We define a new type of valuation of a ring that combines the notion of Krull valuation with that of multiplicative seminorm. This definition partially restores the broken symmetry between archimedean and non-archimedean valuations. This also allows us to define a notion of global analytic space that reconciles Berkovich's notion of analytic space of a (Banach) ring with Huber's notion of non-archimedean analytic space. After defining natural generalized valuation spectra and computing the sp...

  14. Global Hail Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, A.; Sanderson, M.; Hand, W.; Blyth, A.; Groenemeijer, P.; Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Saville, G.; Michel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Hail risk models are rare for the insurance industry. This is opposed to the fact that average annual hail losses can be large and hail dominates losses for many motor portfolios worldwide. Insufficient observational data, high spatio-temporal variability and data inhomogenity have hindered creation of credible models so far. In January 2012, a selected group of hail experts met at Willis in London in order to discuss ways to model hail risk at various scales. Discussions aimed at improving our understanding of hail occurrence and severity, and covered recent progress in the understanding of microphysical processes and climatological behaviour and hail vulnerability. The final outcome of the meeting was the formation of a global hail risk model initiative and the launch of a realistic global hail model in order to assess hail loss occurrence and severities for the globe. The following projects will be tackled: Microphysics of Hail and hail severity measures: Understand the physical drivers of hail and hailstone size development in different regions on the globe. Proposed factors include updraft and supercooled liquid water content in the troposphere. What are the thresholds drivers of hail formation around the globe? Hail Climatology: Consider ways to build a realistic global climatological set of hail events based on physical parameters including spatial variations in total availability of moisture, aerosols, among others, and using neural networks. Vulnerability, Exposure, and financial model: Use historical losses and event footprints available in the insurance market to approximate fragility distributions and damage potential for various hail sizes for property, motor, and agricultural business. Propagate uncertainty distributions and consider effects of policy conditions along with aggregating and disaggregating exposure and losses. This presentation provides an overview of ideas and tasks that lead towards a comprehensive global understanding of hail risk for

  15. From tribalism to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Victor Pereira da; Lamy, Paul

    1999-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the profound changes in the permeability of cultural boundaries that are occurring due to the explosive increase in the pace, scope and variety of cultural exchange and the global diffusion of technologies which can be at once culturally homogenizing or hybridizing. The changing links between culture and territory and the continued capacity of ethno-cultural groups and national states to provide a sense of place and belonging are discussed. Neste artigo, dis...

  16. Towards global political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Patomäki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While the transnational public sphere has existed in the Arendtian sense at least since the mid-19th century, a new kind of reflexively political global civil society emerged in the late 20th century. However, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, advocacy groups, and networks have limited agendas and legitimacy and, without the support of at least one state, limited means to realise changes. Since 2001, the World Social Forum (WSF has formed a key attempt in forging links and ties of solidarity among diverse actors. Although the WSF may seem a party of opinion when defined negatively against neoliberal globalisation, imperialism, and violence, in more positive ideological terms it remains a rather incoherent collection of diverse actors; while itself defined as a mere open space. There is a quest for new forms of agency such as a world political party. Various historical predecessors of global political parties, real and imagined, provide conceptual resources, useful experiences for envisaging the structure, and function of a possible planetary party-formation. H.G. Wells's ‘open conspiracy’ is a particularly important future-oriented left-democratic vision. Wells believed that only a mass movement of truly committed individuals and groups could have the power to transform the world political organisation, by creating a democratic world commonwealth. Recently, for instance, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri have formulated similar ideas. I argue that transformative political agency presupposes a shared programme, based on common elements of a wider and deeper world-view, and willingness to engage in processes of collective will-formation in terms of democratic procedures. From this perspective, I outline a possible organisation and some substantial directions for a global political party.. The point is also to respond to the criticism of existing parties and cultivate the critical-pluralist ethos of global civil society, but in terms of

  17. MRST global fit update.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Robert S.; Martin, A. D.; Stirling, W. James; R. G. Roberts

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the impact of the most recent data on the MRST global analysis - in particular the new high-E_T jet data and their implications for the gluon and the new small x structure function data. In the light of these new data we also consider the uncertainty in predictions for physical quantities depending on parton distributions, concentrating on the W cross-section at hadron colliders.

  18. Globalization of Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. Fueled by rapid urbanization, nutrition transition, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, the epidemic has grown in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Asia's large population and rapid economic development have made it an epicenter of the epidemic. Asian populations tend to develop diabetes at younger ages and lower BMI levels than Caucasians. Several fac...

  19. When globalization hits home

    OpenAIRE

    Borrás, Susana; Haakonsson, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Lead firms are increasingly reorganizing their innovation activities into global innovation networks. Such reorganization has potentially major impact on their existing home-based innovation networks. Based on 31 interviews in four case studies of lead firms in the Danish food industry, the paper analyzes the dynamics of five key features of home-based innovation networks: 1) size of the national networks, 2) type of organization, 3) content of collaboration within the network, 4)...

  20. Inclusive Global Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana Paula; Safadi, Raed; Taglioni, Daria

    2016-01-01

    This report's focus is making global value chains (GVCs) more inclusive. To achieve inclusiveness is by overcoming participation constraints for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and facilitation access for Low Income Developing Countries (LIDCs). The underlying assumption is that most firms in LIDCs are SMEs. Even larger firms in LIDCs are likely to face similar challenges to SMEs, including a less supportive domestic operating environment and weaker institutions that lead to higher fixed ...

  1. Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Krishna, S.; Bjørn, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    accounts of close collaboration processes in two large and complex projects, where off-shoring of software development is moved to a strategic level, we found that the vendor was able to establish a strategic partnership through long-term engagement with the field of banking and insurance as well....... The article draws attention to the important collaborative work done by people who are able to span boundaries in the complex organizational set-up of global IT development projects....

  2. Globalization and domestic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle R. Garfinkel; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2005-01-01

    We examine how globalization affects trade patterns and welfare when conflict prevails domestically. We do so in a simple model of trade, in which a natural resource like oil is contested by competing groups using real resources (”guns”). Thus, conflict is viewed as ultimately stemming from imperfect property-rights enforcement. When comparing autarky with free trade in such a setting, the gains from trade have to be weighed against the possibly higher resource costs of conflict. We find that...

  3. Global and Local Hollywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goldsmith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘Global Hollywood’ describes the international reach of the major Hollywood studios, and the internationalisation of financing, production, distribution and exhibition of films made by the majors, or by their subsidiaries and partners. In this article we describe how one place, the Gold Coast in the Australian state of Queensland, became a ‘Local Hollywood’ or a regular location for such international film and television production.

  4. Forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  5. Discourse of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balažić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the fall of the Berlin wall, the process of globalization has been understood as a necessary fate. The myth of the almightiness of the market economy, liberalization and deregulation is revitalized. Before us, there is a phenomenon Lacan’s discourse of University, which in 20 century was firstly given as a Stalinist discourse and today is given as a neo-liberal discourse of globalization. From underneath og a seeming objectivity, a Master insists-either the Party and the Capital. Just as the utopia of the world proletarian revolution has fallen apart, the utopia of globalize capitalism and liberal democracy is also falling apart. The 9/11 event is opening opportunities for a construction of the field of social and political, out of the contour of the status quo. The coordinates of the possibility has changed and if we take the non-existence of the grand Autre on ourselves, then the contingence interference in the existent socio-symbolic order is possible.

  6. Global climate feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  8. Global burden sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G X

    1994-06-01

    The Prime Minister of Norway discusses issues of population growth and sustainable development. Months before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, she establishes the basis upon which a global compact on population and development can be built. Individuals and groups in developed countries increasingly implore people in developing countries to reduce their levels of fertility in the interest of environmental protection and sustainable development. People in developing countries, however, point out that the industrialized developed countries have a disproportionately large role in polluting the environment. Fertility declines, lower consumption levels in the North, and less waste are all needed to safeguard the long-term health and survivability of the planet. The world simply cannot sustain a Western level of consumption for all. Accordingly, a commitment by the South to reduce population growth should be coupled with an equal commitment from the North to reduce the strain of consumption and production patterns on the global environment. Individual attitudes and habits must change while internationally coordinated political decisions are also made about the course and content of the world economy. Norway hosted a meeting January 1994 to address changing consumption patterns in hopes of launching a qualitatively new debate on sustainable consumption in the North and to demonstrate to the South that we are serious about our responsibility. As we move ahead, the author stresses the need to recognize the importance of providing education to both men and women, and paying the bill for necessary global reforms. PMID:12345672

  9. Cosmology and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. K.

    2006-08-01

    Microbes swarming on a sand grain planet or integral complex organisms evolving consciousness at the forefront of cosmic evolution? How is our new cosmology contributing to redefining who we see ourselves to be at the edge of the 21^st century, as globalization and capitalism speed forward? How is the evolution of stardust and the universe offering new paradigms of process and identity regarding the role, function and emergence of life in space-time? What are the cultural and philosophical questions that are arising and how might astronomy be contributing to the creation of new visions for cooperation and community at a global scale? What is the significance of including astronomy in K-12 education and what can it offer youth regarding values in light of the present world situation? Exploring our new cosmological concepts and the emergence of life at astronomical scales may offer much of valuable orientation toward reframing the human role in global evolution. Considering new insight from astrobiology each diverse species has a definitive role to play in the facilitation and functioning of the biosphere. Thus the question may arise: Is there any sort of ethic implied by natural science and offered by our rapidly expanding cosmic frontier?

  10. Sectional global sensitivity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the approach of sectional sensitivity measures is introduced. Opposite to well-known global sensitivity measures not only a singleton value is provided to appraise the functional input–output interrelation but rather a more detailed description of these interrelation is enabled. Therefore, the domain of definition (input space) and/or the codomain (result space) are subdivided in a finite number of subdomains/subranges. The evaluation of global sensitivity measures in these subdomains/subranges allows for a proper appraisal of the functional interrelation in local regions. The theoretic background of sectional sensitivity measures is elaborated in detail and exemplified by means of analytical functions. The advantages of sectional sensitivity measures are discussed by means of a medical intervention planning of a radio frequency ablation. - Highlights: • Global sensitivity measures provide just a singleton value per input dimension. • Sectional sensitivity measures enable evaluation of functional interrelation. • Subdivision of input and output in intervals (subdomains). • Usage of absolute partial derivatives as sensitivity measure. • Regional sensitivity statements in input as well as in output space possible

  11. Legitimacy and Global Governance in Managing Global Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with health governance on the global level, where over the past fifteen years a number of new organisations have emerged that address major global public health issues. Three examples are the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, (GFATM), the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance), and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), each of which are examined in depth in the dissertation. These organisations differ ...

  12. Cultural globalization and global flow of popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAPCIOĞLU, İhsan

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a term referring to doing business on global scale beyond the national borders, to the processes of unifying and combining the communities and organizations within new time-place combinations, and making the world objectively and in a more connected way with the experiences of men. The dynamics concerning globalization give rise both to the conflicts due to binary oppositions on global scale and to the mutual transactions among each pole of these conflicts. Cultural globaliz...

  13. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  14. Developing Global Awareness and Responsible World Citizenship with Global Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kay L.; Rimmington, Glyn M.; Landwehr-Brown, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    Global learning is a student-centered activity in which learners of different cultures use technology to improve their global perspectives while remaining in their home countries. This article examines the use of global learning with gifted students to develop the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary for world citizenship. We describe a…

  15. Globally Happy: Individual Globalization, Expanded Capacities, and Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Heng-Hao; Chen, Wan-chi

    2012-01-01

    Deep integration of Asia into the global society necessarily affects wellbeing of local populations. This study proposes a notion of "extend capacities" to explain the relationships between individual globalization and subjective wellbeing among Asian populations in a context of increasing global integration. Using Amartya Sen's theory of human…

  16. Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is the system used by the Global Forecast System (GFS) model to place observations into a gridded model space for the...

  17. Credit storm sinking global trade

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Alexeenko; Sandra Kollen

    2009-01-01

    International trade flourished in the booming global economy. But just as the rising tide of global trade lifted all ships, the worldwide recession has forced some governments to finance the trade that private enterprise had funded in more prosperous times.

  18. Global Ecological Land Units (ELUs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In response to the need and an intergovernmental commission for a high resolution and data-derived global ecosystem map, land surface elements of global ecological...

  19. Globalization and protection of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV; Somogyi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation ...

  20. Globalization – challenges and debates

    OpenAIRE

    Himayatullah Khan; Laura Giurca Vasilescu

    2008-01-01

    Globalization refers to the emergence of a global society in which economic, political, environmental, and cultural events in one part of the world quickly come to have significance for people in other parts of the world. Therefore, globalization is a process leading to increasing integration of the national economies and diminishing importance of political boundaries so far as economic, political and social activities are concerned. This paper explains the meaning of globalization in five br...

  1. Global Dimension in Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Global Dimension in Engineering Education

    2014-01-01

    Obra formada per: Block A "The global engineer" (Vol. 1. Making the case for a critical global engineer. Vol. 2. Key elements for addressing the global dimension of engineering. Vol. 3. The global engineer in sustainable human development), Block B "Supervising BS/MS thesis with fieldwork" (Vol. 4. Supervising engineering students. Vol. 5. Knowing the context and partners. Vol. 6. Knowing international cooperation) i Block C "Integrating GDE into teaching and research" (Vol. 7. Integrating...

  2. Globalization and Culture: Placing Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Honor

    2002-01-01

    Instead of asking how globalization can help us under- stand Ireland today, this article starts from the premise that Ireland may be useful for an understanding of globalization. Always at a crossroads culturally and through its huge migration overseas, con-temporary Ireland is seen as the epitome of a globalization success story. The article examines the constant (relcreation of Irish identity and its complex (re)constitution in the era of globalization. It con-cludes that if an Irelan...

  3. Globalization in Space and Time

    OpenAIRE

    Juul-Larsen, Astrid; Samuel Adewole, Babatunde; Holdt Rude, Cecilie; Johanna Hvid Petersen, Sif; Aigro, Signe; Akello Omollo, Martha

    2008-01-01

    We are investigating how the globalization process affects the mix of cultures and how this mix influences the Western perception of the East. Is this perception changing? We will describe what globalization is, according to Ulrich Beck, Anthony Giddens and Arjun Appadurai and we will show how the dimensions of globalization affect everyday life. We will use these scholars in order to analyse how globalization affects culture as well as the Western perception of the East. We are going to ...

  4. Which role for methane emissions reduction in climate change mitigation policies; Quel role pour les reductions d'emission de methane dans la lutte contre le changement climatique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, O. [Met Office-Hadley Centre (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Various arguments have been put forward to justify a rapid action to mitigate climate change through reductions in methane emissions. As part of a multi-gas emission reduction approach this requires defining an equivalence between methane and carbon dioxide. In this article, we discuss the physical and economical basis for a quantitative estimate of such an equivalence. Although this equivalence depends on a parameter which involves a value judgement on the most appropriate timescale for climate change, we show that it is difficult to justify a methane weight that is much different from the 100-year global warming potential that is currently used in the framework of the Kyoto protocol. (author)

  5. API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Shannon

    2010-09-01

    The API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010 Conference, held in Berlin, included topics covering new developments in the field of global sourcing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This conference report highlights selected presentations on development in Eastern API markets, specifically India and China, factors influencing changes in global API sourcing, and risk mitigation in API sourcing. PMID:20799139

  6. Teaching with a Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Percy

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of teaching from a global perspective far outweigh the disadvantages. Teaching from a global perspective provides the employer with global workers. Such teaching produces students who possess the knowledge of languages, culture, social systems, dress, religion, and cultural norms, as well as skills for employment in the global…

  7. Financial globalization and crises: overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Beck; S. Claessens; S.L. Schmukler

    2013-01-01

    Financial globalization, the integration of countries with the global financial system, has increased substantially since the 1970s and particularly with more force since the 1990s. Financial globalization has shown to pose both benefits and risks to developed countries and developing countries alik

  8. The United Nations Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations, an ope...

  9. Global nuclear security engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Nuclear Security Summits in Washington (2010) and Seoul (2012) were convened with the goal of reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism. These meetings have engaged States with established nuclear fuel cycle activities and encouraged their commitment to nuclear security. The participating States have reaffirmed that it is a fundamental responsibility of nations to maintain effective nuclear security in order to prevent unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials. To that end, the participants have identified important areas for improvement and have committed to further progress. Yet, a broader message has emerged from the Summits: effective nuclear security requires both global and regional engagement. Universal commitment to domestic nuclear security is essential, if only because the peaceful use of nuclear energy remains a right of all States: Nations may someday adopt nuclear energy, even if they are not currently developing nuclear technology. However, the need for nuclear security extends beyond domestic power production. To harvest natural resources and to develop part of a nuclear fuel cycle, a State should embrace a nuclear security culture. Nuclear materials may be used to produce isotopes for medicine and industry. These materials are transported worldwide, potentially crossing a nation's borders or passing by its shores. Regrettably, measures to prevent the loss of control may not be sufficient against an adversary committed to using nuclear or other radioactive materials for malicious acts. Nuclear security extends beyond prevention measures, encompassing efforts to detect illicit activities and respond to nuclear emergencies. The Seoul Communique introduces the concept of a Global Nuclear Security Architecture, which includes multilateral instruments, national legislation, best practices, and review mechanisms to promote adoption of these components. Key multilateral instruments include the Convention on Physical Protection of

  10. Global Warming And Meltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of

  11. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  12. Global health knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza Jaberi Aghdam

    2013-01-01

    The potentiall to be healthy: physically, mentally and emotionally. The potential to be happy. The potential to live life with purpose. And we believe this journey all begins with good nutrition. Because what you feed your body and your mind, changes the way you feel The purpose of the Global Health is to give us an opportunity to become familiar with the major problems and policy issues in that area. Participating in this issue will be able to understand and discuss the determinants of globa...

  13. Global food security

    OpenAIRE

    Teichmann, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    According to the current report on the Millennium Development Goals (UN 2015), the share of undernourished people living in the developing world has fallen from 23.3% in 1990-1992 to 12.9% in 2014-2016 (projection). Despite this progress towards global food security, about 795 million people worldwide (or 780 million people in developing regions) will remain undernourished in 2014-2016 (UN 2015). Put differently, more than 10% of the world population still suffers from chronic hunger (FAO et ...

  14. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  15. Global carbon budget 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  16. Dynamic Global Currency Hedging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Varneskov, Rasmus T.

    2016-01-01

    realized currency betas exhibit important time variation, leading to substantial economic, as well as statistically significant, volatility reductions from the proposed hedging strategies, compared to existing benchmarks, without sacrificing returns. As a result, a risk-averse investor is shown to be...... willing to pay several hundred basis points to switch from existing hedging methods to the proposed realized currency beta approach. Interestingly, the empirical analysis strongly suggests that the superior performance of the latter during the most recent global financial crisis of 2008 is, at least...

  17. Global Alumni Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2015-01-01

    technical assistance and capacity development programmes have provided experts from developing countries access to epistemic communities since the early 1960s. This exploration of an alternative way of understanding capacity development programmes shows how alumni have made the networks global by using the......One significant and often overlooked outcome of technical assistance and overseas capacity development programmes is the inclusion of experts from developing countries in epistemic communities. The main argument of this article is that the formal network structure offered to alumni of Japanese...

  18. Intimitetens globale bazar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the extent of Western women who intimately engage in relations with men from poor economic conditions in developing countries is increasing. The purpose of the following article is to investigate the phenomenon of sex tourism, prostitution and transactional......”, “prostitution”, “sex work” or sexual oppression while highlighting the fluid social organizations of intimacy in diverse transnational contexts. The article challenges the distinction between the global and the local, and makes methodological use of a more inclusive cosmopolitan perspective. Keywords: Sex...

  19. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    analysis, in addition to the country-level and the global level. Regional strategy analysis requires a fundamental rethink of mainstream theories in the international strategy sphere. This rethink involves, inter alia, internalization theory, with its resource-based view and transaction cost economics......This paper provides an overview of the main insights arising from the ‘regional strategy’ literature. It also develops the contours of a new, rich research agenda for future international strategy scholarship, whereby the region should be introduced as an explicit, third geographic level of...

  20. What is global supervenience?

    OpenAIRE

    Leuenberger, S.

    2009-01-01

    The relation of global supervenience is widely appealed to in philosophy. In slogan form, it is explained as follows: a class of properties A supervenes on a class of properties B if no two worlds differ in the distribution of A-properties without differing in the distribution of B-properties. It turns out, though, that there are several ways to cash out that slogan. Three different proposals have been discussed in the literature. In this paper, I argue that none of them is adequate. Furtherm...