WorldWideScience

Sample records for changed institutional environment

  1. Private Higher Educational Institutions in a changing South African environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Froneman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems experienced by potential learners is accessibility to education facilities, especially in rural areas and for people with time constraints. The objective of this research is to investigate the role for Private Higher Educational Institutions (PHEIs in South Africa, sharing the task of providing education with government supported institutions. Although distance learning is not a panacea for all educational problems, it holds great promise for driving change in education. The research is based on questionnaires, interviews and literature. Results indicated that traditional residential education couldn't reach all people. Distance learning can relieve the situation. However, both private and public providers of higher education (residential and distance can co-exist in South Africa. Private Higher Distance Learning (PHDL contributes in lowering present levels of unemployment by providing skills, as many prospective students stay in rural areas and townships. This paper emphasizes some of the changes impacting on the future of PHDL and bringing education opportunities to masses by creating an environment of shared responsibility between government institutions and private initiatives, jointly servicing a greater part of the population.

  2. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  3. Organizing corruption controls after a scandal: Regaining legitimacy in complex and changing institutional environments

    OpenAIRE

    Schembera, Stefan; Scherer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We study the corruption control strategies at three Multinational companies (MNC) before, during, and after the disclosure of corruption scandals and the initiation of legal procedures. In particular, we want to explore why some MNCs after a corruption scandal exceed regulatory expectations, choose proactive strategies, and influence their environment as institutional entrepreneurs that define best practices and new industry standards. Other companies, by contrast, act in a more incremental a...

  4. From Institutional Change to Experimentalist Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    lead firms to constant experimentation in work organization as they seek to position themselves within systems of production and innovation that are global in nature. This creates a pressure for institutional change to facilitate the process of firm-level experimentation; it also tends to create......Institutionalist theory has shown how work and employment relations are shaped by national contexts. Recent developments in these theories have been increasingly concerned with the issue of institutional change. This reflects a shift in the nature of the competitive environment of firms from...... the stable and planned and predominantly national models of economic organization supported by the Keynesian state, which dominated in the 30 years after 1945, to the uncertain and high-risk environment of the current period in which globalization has opened up the possibility of new forms of firms...

  5. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  6. Changing institutions of knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    paper is to analyze enablers and barriers for this institutional change. The vocational education system in Denmark is strongly institutionalised with unions, employerÕs associations and the schools in central roles. Drawing on institutional theory contributions on labour market -, educational - and...... professional institutions, the paper presents a study of institutional work inside and across schools and craft disciplines working in SMEs involved in new building and renovation with an energy aspect. Collaboration between four education committees for carpenters, masons, electricians and plumbers and...... interviews with seven companies come to focus on competences of interdisciplinary collaboration and sustainable innovation in SME. The anticipation of future building regulation of 2015 and 2020 creates an institutional pressure in education for change including handling differentiated demands of customers...

  7. Institutional changes of SPACs

    OpenAIRE

    Lakicevic, Milan; Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    We document the changes of corporate design of modern Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) from 2003 to 2012. We assign the impact on changes of SPACs to each of the three groups of stakeholders: founders, investors and underwriters and test whether institutional characteristics of SPACs determine the success of their merger outcomes. We document that SPACs significantly redesigned its structure in the period under observation. Additionally, the probability of the merger for SPACs ...

  8. Annual report 90 Environment Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second annual report of the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site, of the Commission of the European Communities. The report summarizes the progress accomplished in the course of 1990 in the various projects included in the multiannual (1988-91) Specific Research Programmes tackled by the Institute i.e. Environment Protection and Radioactive Waste Management, the former being focused on environmental chemicals, air pollution and pollutant transport, water pollution, chemical waste, food and drug analysis, the latter on safety assessment for waste disposal in geological formations. The scientific support given to the Commission Services for the implementation of EC directives dealing with chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and radioactive environmental monitoring (REM) is also described. Lastly the outcome of various activities related to work for third parties and to the participation of the Institute in EUREKA and COST projects is shortly outlined. The report includes data on the Institute Structure, human and budget resources and large installations operated by the Institute

  9. Annual report 1991. Environment Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Environment Institute of the Joint Research Centre - Ispra Site - of the Commission of the European Communities. The report summarizes the progress accomplished in the course of 1991 - i.e. the last of the four year (1988-91) Specific Research Programme of the Joint Research Centre - in the projects tackled by the Institute. The activities were mainly focused on the areas of environmental chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and food and drug analysis, included in the programme Environmental Protection, and of safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal in geological formation as a part of the Radioactive Waste Management programme. The scientific support provided to different Commission Services is also described, proper emphasis being given to that provided to the Directorate General Xl (Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection) in the field of chemicals, air pollution, water pollution, chemical waste and radioactive environmental monitoring (REM). The above activities are aimed at the implementation of EC directives in the related fields. The work for third parties and the contribution of the Institute to various EUREKA and COST projects are also shortly described. Lastly the report provides essential data concerning the Institute structure and the human and financial resources

  10. Organizational change and institutional diversity (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Marie CORIS (E3i, IFReDE-GRES); Frigant, Vincent; Lung, Yannick

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a review of the literature on the analysis of organizational change. Part 1 identifies three main factors of institutional change: competition, technological change and evolution in the institutional environment. Part 2 discusses industrial dynamics’ approaches of the organizational change, from a diachronic point of view (historical dimension) and from a synchronic one (diversity of firms’ organizational model within a sectorial or institutional context).

  11. The Impact of Institutional Investors on Corporate Governance: A View of Swiss Pension Funds in a Changing Financial Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Theurillat; José Corpataux; Olivier Crevoisier

    2009-01-01

    Theories on corporate governance have developed in line with the development of the financial markets and the increasing power of institutional investors. Indeed, the financial markets' power can be measured by the ability of shareholders, and of institutional investors in particular, to influence businesses and their managers. A number of reforms have been implemented in several countries, Switzerland included, in order to strengthen shareholders' powers. Making specific reference to Swiss c...

  12. An Institutional Personal Learning Environment Enabler

    OpenAIRE

    Moccozet, Laurent; Benkacem, Omar; Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Platteaux, Hervé; Gillet, Denis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the concept of Personal Learning Environment (PLE) with respect to higher- education institutions and Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). This discussion rapidly confronts us to the place of the PLE and self-directed learning and/or training inside the institution. We therefore introduce the concept of institutional PLE enabler, which is expected to stimulate students to create and use their own resources and institutional resources and share them with peers ...

  13. Institutional change on the frontlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to shed light on how actors within, on the surface, similar organizations cope and work with imposed institutional changes. Design methodology/approach – This research is based on an ethnographic field study addressing why, despite being exposed to the same...... on how actors within organizations cope and work institutional change. Originality/value – Relatively little organizational research has addressed how individual actors at the lower levels of organizations cope and work with institutional changes using ethnographic methodology....... institutional demands, organizational actors respond by developing diverging institutional orders of appropriate organizational conduct. This research examines how middle managers and frontline staff in two similar Danish social care organizations respond to demands to adopt a New Public Management (NPM...

  14. Institutional Change in a Higher Education Environment: Factors in the Adoption and Sustainability of Information Technology Project Management Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTourneau, John

    2012-01-01

    The public higher education economic and competitive environments make it crucial that organizations react to the circumstances and make better use of available resources (Duderstadt, 2000; Floyd, 2008; Shulman, 2007; State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO), 2009). Viewing higher education through the perspective of new institutionalism…

  15. Generation Favorable Institutional Configuration Regional Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Zinovievna Solodilova; Rustam Ilkamovich Malikov; Konstantin Yevgenevich Grishin

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the theoretical issues of creating an enabling business environment, which is the base platform for the successful development of entrepreneurship in the regions. Provides A definition of a favorable institutional configuration of the regional business environment, which refers to forms of implementing the basic institutions and other regional institutions, taking into account existing regional system of formal and informal interaction between economic actors. Sta...

  16. Normative instruction in30: an analysis of the institutional change influence of environment on the pet food agribusiness system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Fernandes Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the influence of Instruction 30 (IN30 which includes registration and labeling of food for pets, from the point of view of interpretation, assimilation and its possible impacts on agents that comprise the pet food Agribusiness System (SAG. Were interviewed institutions, represented by two major agencies: The Ministry of Agriculture, and Livestock (MAPA and the Brazilian Association of the Industry of Products for Pets (ABINPET; manufacturing firms; research centers based at Universities, retailers and owners of dogs and cats, totalizing five samples. It was observed that the institutions, the researchers and manufacturers consider the IN30 as an initiative of great importance by bringing self-control and self-regulation of the SAG, besides contemplating the desire of firms regarding agility in launching new technologies. However, the main concern of the researchers was related to quality assurance of food. Firms show up unssatisfied with the lack of consensus on the interpretation of some articles of IN30 by MAPA´s enforcement agents, with discrepancies between regional and the technical managers of companies, especially regarding labeling. Already retailers and owners of pets still seem unaware of the legal aspects of such normative.

  17. Entrepreneurs, institutional entrepreneurship and institutional change

    OpenAIRE

    Koene, B.A.S.; Ansari, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of entrepreneurship research and institutional theory has begun to attract increasing scholarly attention. While much recent research has studied "institutional entrepreneurs" credited with creating new or transforming existing institutions to support their projects, less attention has been paid to the institutions that constitute the menus from which choices are made, and delineate resources for entrepreneurial or other agentic activities. While models of institutionalizatio...

  18. Generation Favorable Institutional Configuration Regional Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zinovievna Solodilova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical issues of creating an enabling business environment, which is the base platform for the successful development of entrepreneurship in the regions. Provides A definition of a favorable institutional configuration of the regional business environment, which refers to forms of implementing the basic institutions and other regional institutions, taking into account existing regional system of formal and informal interaction between economic actors. States that despite the measures taken, the landscape of the Russian business community in terms of regions, remains uneven, with different indices of investment and business attractiveness, there is differentiation in business conditions in the regions with similar natural and geographical conditions and resource potential, which is primarily determined by , differences in the institutional configuration of the regional business environment and quality of interaction among the business community of the region. Hypothesis about the impossibility of creating a favorable business environment, institutional configurations at the same time in all regions of the country, as well as its limited duration. Conducted theoretical and probabilistic analysis of the parameters of creating an enabling institutional configuration of the business environment in the Russian regions. Grounded approach whereby institutional configuration of regional business environment, may be subject to management and control actions through targeted by the regional authorities can accept the specified (favorable to the business community parameters. The necessity of planning and effective management of a favorable institutional configuration of the business environment by regional authorities to increase the period of its existence.

  19. The decision of investment and its funding in a changing institutional environment: the case of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our contribution combines two approaches in order to determine the investment threshold and the optimal debt for a NPP project. While Jou (2001) highlighted how the changes in degree of capital reversibility affect a firm's choice of debt levels, our paper focuses on the effect of debt on the degree of reversibility of capital investments. As in Jou (2001), the firm runs into debt exactly at (and not before) the time of investment. But we follow Leland (1994) for estimating the present value of the optimally levered project. The company invests when its real option is equal to this present value of the optimally levered project. We also assume that, at bankruptcy, debt holders receive the value of the unlevered project net of the costs of bankruptcy, and not the salvage value as in Jou (2001). (orig.)

  20. Institutional Change, Sustainability and the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Schlüter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a substantial institutional change is under way for marine and coastal resources. Sustainability plays a major role therein. At the time of writing, roughly 2.3% of the marine and coastal territory has been declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA. The Convention of Biological Diversity set a target to protect 10% of the global marine environment by 2020. This move toward enclosure signifies a substantial shift away from mainly open access to at least de jure marine protected areas. What drives institutional change towards MPAs; and what role does sustainability play in this change in governance? In reflecting on these questions, the paper’s aim is to begin a dialogue on how the social-ecological system (SES analytical framework developed by Elinor Ostrom and her collaborators engages differentially with marine and coastal systems. How institutional change takes place depends on the characteristics of the resources considered and the drivers of change for the particular resource. In order to characterize the marine and coastal realm we use the social-ecological system (SES framework of Elinor Ostrom. Douglas North’s theory of institutional change is used to classify the change observed. The marine realm has ambiguous system boundaries and often high resource mobility. Uncertainties about system properties and change are much higher than for terrestrial systems. Interdependencies among different ecosystems are high, necessitating multi-level governance. Institutional change in this sector occurs under strong institutional path dependencies and competing ideologies. All these features make it particularly relevant to think about institutional change, sustainability and the current process of MPA expansion.

  1. Institutional Change and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

  2. Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) is dedicated to understanding the problems of global climate change and their potential solutions. The Institute...

  3. Recruitment Practices And Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna; Ulhøi, John Parm

    Up to now, there has been little research on recruitment practices from an organizational perspective, and in part it lags behind practice. This paper attempts to rectify this by studying recent changes in the recruitment practices of Danish organizations. We employ new institutional theory...... as a theoretical lens in order to understand how shared rules, norms and beliefs guide recruitment professionals in their choice of recruitment tactics and ways of performing recruitment tasks. Our findings suggest that recruitment practices have been strongly influenced by changes in the labour market, technology......, and individuals’ social cognition. Among other things, this is reflected in the use of online recruitment and employer branding. The study concludes that the recruitment field has transformed and reviewed its practices due to institutional changes in how individuals search for employment and expect to be hired....

  4. Ecological economics and institutional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Lisi; Klitgaard, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Ecological economics remains unfinished in its effort to provide a framework for transforming the economy so that it is compatible with biophysical limits. Great strides have been made in valuing natural capital and ecosystem services and recognizing the need to limit the scale of economic activity, but the question of how to effectively transform the economy to limit the scale of economic activity remains unclear. To gain clarity about the institutional changes necessary to limit the scale of economic activity, it is essential that ecological economics understands the limitations of its neoclassical roots and expands its theoretical framework to include how markets are embedded in social and institutional structures. This has long been the domain of institutional economics and heterodox political economy. PMID:21332499

  5. Digital governance and institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlæger, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Coal allocation in China is a seminal case of e-government in the political economy. The empirical phenomenon of market supporting e-government has not been systematically analysed. By developing and applying a digital governance model this article examines institutional change in a case of coal...... allocation reform in China. The case shows how the central state used e-government to get rid of planning overload. Coal allocation meetings were abolished in favour of an ecology of online market solutions. The findings suggest that further research on Chinese e-government would benefit from attention to...

  6. Information Environment of Preschool Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakova, Anna Pavlovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the elements of the information environment of preschool educational institutions by the example of the Ulyanovsk region. The article describes the interconnected system of factors that includes qualified personnel, logistics support, methodological basis, and management structures that affect the development of the information…

  7. Institute for Environment, Health and Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the key activities of the Institute for Environment, Health and Safety of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN. Through the performance of experiments, the development of models and the integration of human sciences in our R and D, propose new durable methods, computer codes and measuring instruments for radiation protection, management and disposal of radioactive waste and dismantling of nuclear installations. These developments belong to the disciplines environmental chemistry, radiobiology and radioecology and include the transfer of radio nuclides in the geosphere and biosphere, as also the behaviour of micro-organisms in space

  8. Effects of institutional changes on land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.;

    2012-01-01

    abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g.,Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing...

  9. Perspective of Mobile Educational Environment Design in Higher Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Anna V. Vinevskaya

    2013-01-01

    The article justifies the problem of designing mobile educational environment of higher educational institution, presents results of research, concerning the willingness of students of educational institution to design mobile educational environment

  10. Neo-Statecraft Theory, Historical Institutionalism and Institutional Change

    OpenAIRE

    James, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of the contribution that statecraft theory, which has been subject to recent revision and development, makes to the literature on institutional change. It articulates an emergent neo-statecraft approach that offers an agent-led form of historical institutionalism. This overcomes the common criticism that historical institutionalists underplay the creative role of actors. The article also argues that the approach brings back into focus the imperativ...

  11. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL MARKET FORMATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Revenko

    2013-01-01

    This article considers institutional aspects of the organized agricultural market formation process. Theoretical base to distinguish institute and institutes is given. In order to find out main influential institutes of the “organization” phenomenon author analyses Ukrainian institutional environment that is under construction process. Author considers main processes which are running during the organized market formation. Author researches theoretical approaches to the institutional staff. I...

  12. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT - BASIC REQUIREMENT OF ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN TĂNASE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that institutions play a key role in facilitating private investment and that institutional quality is the most important factor that explains why capital does not flow from developed countries, where it has a lower return, to developing countries where it has a higher returnThe importance of institutions is not restricted to the legal framework. Government attitudes toward markets and freedoms and the efficiency of its operations are also very important: excessive bureaucracy and red tape, overregulation, corruption, dishonesty in dealing with public contracts, lack of transparency and trustworthiness, or the political dependence of the judicial system impose significant economic costs to businesses and slow down the process of economic development.The paper approaches thus a topic of present utmost interest, rising the interest of specialists, media and, last but not least, the interest of entrepreneurs, irrespective of their domain of activity.

  13. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  14. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves

  15. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly...... affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows...

  16. Institutional Change, Strategic Orientation and Dynamic Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of systematic institutional change in many developing countries can produce enduring transformations in the strategic orientation and organization of domestic firms. Such changes may impact the formation of their dynamic capabilities and adaptive learning which can translate into...... different configurations of firm resources and dynamic capabilities for central and local Chinese SOEs. Specifically, propositions from this framework explore how such unique variations in firm-level attributes may lead to differences in outward foreign investment behavior. Combining insights from several...... research streams including the resource-based view, institutional and organizational theory frameworks, as well as the dynamic capabilities perspective, we suggest that institutional change in China serves a formative role in the development of firm strategic orientation and dynamic capabilities leading to...

  17. The local environmental regulatory regime in China: changes in pro-environment orientation, institutional capacity, and external political support in Guangzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Francesch-Huidobro; Carlos Wing-Hung Lo; Shui-Yan Tang

    2012-01-01

    In the first decade of this millennium China has demonstrated a stronger commitment to environmental protection. Yet, there remains a significant gap between environmental laws and regulations and the quality of the environment. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework for analysis that we apply to investigate the factors that account for this gap in implementation. We analyse the results of surveys conducted in 2000 and 2006 and interviews carried out in 2006 and 2007 in eleven juri...

  18. Towards an institutional environment using norms for contract performance

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Lopes Cardoso; Eugénio Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    A strong research emphasis is being given towards regulating interoperable multi-agent environments through norms and institutions. We are concerned with environments in which agents form together virtual organizations leading to cooperation agreements that can be enforced. An electronic institution provides a coordination framework facilitating automatic contract establishment and providing an enforceable normative environment. We introduce the notion of contextualized norms within our insti...

  19. E-Commerce Readiness: Institutional Environment and International Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne E Oxley; Bernard Yeung

    2001-01-01

    A systematic cross-country analysis of e-commerce activity reveals that although physical infrastructure explains much of the variation in basic Internet use, e-commerce activity also depends significantly on a supportive institutional environment. Chief among the characteristics of such an environment are national respect for the “rule of law” and, secondarily, the availability of credible payment channels such as credit cards. These results suggest that an institutional environment that fac...

  20. Business Groups, Internationalization and Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vikas; Stucchi, Tamara; Kundu, Sumit K.

    2012-01-01

    and the degree of internationalization. Our results, based on empirical analysis of Indian firm data, indicate a negative relationship between business group affiliation and the degree of internationalization during the initial period of major institutional change. In the latter period with greater institutional......Business group affiliation is an important determinant of firm economic performance in the context of emerging economies. However, relationship between business group affiliation and internationalization of firms remains unclear. In the context of internationalizing emerging economy firms, many...... of which are affiliates of larger business groups, the question of whether such an affiliation serves as a boon or bane in firm internationalization is one of critical importance. We argue that institutional changes play an important role in shaping the relationship between business group affiliation...

  1. Explaining Institutional Change in German Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Glassmann Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    This article explains why actors in the German political economy supported incremental change in institutional sectors which the advocates of the varieties of capitalism approach identify as being crucial for the efficient delivery of innovation measures. What causes these gradual shifts by which German capitalism departs from the Rhenish equilibrium? My central thesis is that incremental change has created resources of flexibility which help to sustain strong and traditional industries. In t...

  2. Organisational Path-Dependence and Institutional Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Through a case study of Chinese Family Business Groups (FBGs) in East Asia, this paper examines the relationship between the strategic behaviour exhibited by an organisational form and it's administrative heritage. To do so, we trace the origins of the strategic behaviour which scholars commonly attribute to FBGs to the environmental conditions prevailing during their emergence in the turbulent post-Colonial era of East Asia. We explain how fundamental changes brought about by shifts in the p...

  3. The Path of Chinese Corporate Social Responsibility Under the Changes of Institutional Environment%制度环境变迁与中国企业社会责任路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈定洋; 郝欣富; 唐华

    2011-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility is the product of the fact that enterprises are forced to adapt to the changes of institutional environment for survival. With the changes of institutional environment, the development of Western corporate social responsibility can be divided into three phases; unconscious, illuminative and mature stages. Since 1949, there has been the "abnormality"about the function of corporate social responsibility for Chinese enterprises both in the institutional environment of planned economy system and the process of transformation advanced from the planned economy system to the market economy system, say, "enterprise shouldering social responsibility" in the planned economy period and highlighting" nature of economic individual" in the process of transformation towards the market economy. Currently, the conflict between corporate interests and social interests is becoming more prominent. Besides, people' s expectation for better human dignity and social justice is rising. As a result, corporate social responsibility becomes more serious and receives much more attention from both leaders and masses in China. Meanwhile, Chinese Communist Party issues a call of "scientific development". Amid institutional environment of scientific development, Chinese enterprises are expected to take corporate social responsibility. The realization of Chinese enterprises ' social responsibility must be guranteed by institutional construction say, requiring clarity of enterprise property right system,legalization of CSR( corporate social responsibility) ,scientization of evaluation system of CSR, system of information disclosure of CSR, and diversity of supervisors of CSR.%摘要企业社会责任是指企业在创造利润、对股东利益负责的同时,还应承担对员工、社会和环境的责任,包括遵守商业道德、生产安全、职业健康、保护消费者合法权益、节约资源等.企业承担社会责任是企业为生存而适应制度

  4. Foreign Investor Participation in Privatizations: does the Institutional Environment Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Narjess Boubakri; Jean-Claude Cosset; Omrane Guedhami; Mohammed Omran

    2004-01-01

    Using a two-stage estimation procedure, we examine the determinants of foreign investors' participation in the privatization process of developing countries, with a particular emphasis on the role of the institutional environment. First, we estimate the probability that foreign investors target privatized firms in a given country. We show that an investor-friendly institutional environment which protects shareholders' rights favors foreign investors' participation. Foreigners also prefer larg...

  5. Rhetorical impression management in corporate narratives and institutional environment

    OpenAIRE

    YAN, Beibei; AERTS, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We study rhetorical impression management in the letter to shareholders using linguistic style properties of text and investigate whether the company’s institutional environment affects the rhetorical style of the CEO in the shareholder letter. The effect of the institutional environment is examined by comparing linguistic style of US and UK companies in a longitudinal setting. We use automated text analysis procedures to capture linguistic style characteristics and discern three distinct lin...

  6. The evaluation of the impact of institutional environment on economics

    OpenAIRE

    Šeputienė, Janina

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the impact of institutional environment on economics, considering the impact of international trade and geography factors as well. Aforementioned factors are called “deep determinants” of economic development, as they influence proximate determinants of economic growth – investments, human capital, and technology. The main object of research is the impact of institutional environment on countries’ economics. The primary aim is to reason the impact of institutiona...

  7. Effects of institutional environment and technology development on payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Callado-Muñoz, Francisco J.; Hromcová, Jana; Utrero-González, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the combination of institutional factors and technology advances as determinants of payment systems choice. The theoretical set up suggests that countries entering into a new institutional environment approach accepting group attitudes towards payment choices as a consequence of institutional pressure and technology development. We apply the results of the model to 2004 European Union enlargement process. Results confirm the relevance of both institutio...

  8. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prylutska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the interaction between institutional environment and innovative entrepreneurship in Ukraine. The factors which effect on its development are revealed. The study substantiates the most effective institutions on the development of the innovative entrepreneurship in Ukraine.

  9. Achieving and sustaining profound institutional change in healthcare: case study using neo-institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Cathy; Woodard, Fran; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2013-03-01

    Change efforts in healthcare sometimes have an ambitious, whole-system remit and seek to achieve fundamental changes in norms and organisational culture rather than (or as well as) restructuring the service. Long-term evaluation of such initiatives is rarely undertaken. We report a secondary analysis of data from an evaluation of a profound institutional change effort in London, England, using a mixed-method longitudinal case study design. The service had received £15 million modernisation funding in 2004, covering multiple organisations and sectors and overseen by a bespoke management and governance infrastructure that was dismantled in 2008. In 2010-11, we gathered data (activity statistics, documents, interviews, questionnaires, site visits) and compared these with data from 2003 to 2008. Data analysis was informed by neo-institutional theory, which considers organisational change as resulting from the material-resource environment and three 'institutional pillars' (regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive), enacted and reproduced via the identities, values and activities of human actors. Explaining the long-term fortunes of the different components of the original programme and their continuing adaptation to a changing context required attention to all three of Scott's pillars and to the interplay between macro institutional structures and embedded human agency. The paper illustrates how neo-institutional theory (which is typically used by academics to theorise macro-level changes in institutional structures over time) can also be applied at a more meso level to inform an empirical analysis of how healthcare organisations achieve change and what helps or hinders efforts to sustain those changes. PMID:23415586

  10. INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE: A FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    North, Douglass C.

    1994-01-01

    A theory of institutional change is essential for further progress in the social sciences in general and economics in particular. Essential because neo-classical theory (and other theories in the social scientist's toolbag) at present cannot satisfactorily account for the very diverse performance of societies and economies both at a moment of time and over time. The explanations derived from neo-classical theory are not satisfactory because, while the models may account for most of the differ...

  11. The Limits of Pragmatism in Institutional Change

    OpenAIRE

    Karlson, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Modern politics in Western democracies is to a large extent characterized by political pragmatism, a position where feasible, incremental, and more or less technocratic improvements of the status quo are advocated. While such a position has some advantages, i.e. safeguarding against false ideologies and bad radical reforms as well as more populist policies, this paper argues that there are limits to pragmatism in “welfare-enhancing” institutional change. Pragmatism cannot deal with situations...

  12. Climate change and rural institutions in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungana, Hari; Pain, Adam; Khatri, Dil; Gurung, Niru; Ojha, Hemant

    2013-01-01

    This working paper provides a summary of initial findings on the factors influencing how meso-level institutions in Nepal are responding to climate change and extreme climate events. Nepal is still experiencing difficult processes of transition from war to peace. Underlying these difficulties and central to a view of Nepal as a state with limited capabilities is the ongoing challenge to its legitimacy, the failure of the state to perform in terms of delivery of basic public goods and reduce p...

  13. Snapshots of a Changing Scholarly Communications Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Prosser

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost two years after the formation of SPARC Europe, the LIBER pre-conference seminar in St Petersburg gave an excellent opportunity to review progress on the road to achieving the aims of SPARC Europe. The traditional models of scholarly communication are increasingly being shown to be antiquated and insufficiently flexible to adapt to the new environment. SPARC Europe calls for far reaching changes in the way we approach scholarly communications. The talks in the seminar provide snapshots of the changing environment. They highlight the activities being taken at all levels by a wide variety of stakeholders in the scholarly communications process: Small and society publishers are developing alternatives to inflexible and restrictive 'Big Deals'; funding bodies and research organisations worldwide are becoming aware of issues surrounding scholarly communication; institutional repositories are providing new communications channels; and libraries are investigating new directions and taking on new roles. This paper will expand on some of these recent developments.

  14. On Efficiency of the Compulsive Institution in the Environment Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FanGenyao; JiangLF

    2005-01-01

    Limited by the condition of information, technology and natural elements, the compulsive institutions in the environment governance can not form a “hard constraint” to the individuals. Because of the individual's speculative behaviors, the government's deviation from its environmental governance, and the non-cooperative game between individuals and the legal organization, the implementation of the compulsive institutions is not as good as being expected. Through analyzing the mechanism of the compulsive institutions, this paper puts forward some suggestions to enhance the efficiency of such institutions' implementation.

  15. Institutional Environment and MNEs’ Strategy in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Gao

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available MNEs face a complex institutional environment when doing business in the international market. As a result, MNEs adopt strategies to deal with the institutional pressures. However, present studies seldom discuss the institutional environment of a given country, specifically China. Therefore, the strategies that MNEs can use to cope with the institutions in China are far from being discussed. This study contributes to making up this gap. In this study, the identified important institutions in China are Chinese culture, governmental system, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs. They exert coercive and normative pressures on the operations of MNEs. Four strategies can be selected by MNEs to deal with the institutional pressures: guanxi strategy, commitment strategy, competitive strategy and leverage strategy. Guanxi strategy and commitment strategy are commonly used to build good guanxi with Chinese governors and NGOs. Competitive strategy is used when MNEs have high bargaining power against Chinese governments, while leverage strategy is used MNEs in setting conflicts between different institutions or parties to resist the unfavorable pressures from institutions in China.

  16. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  17. Petroleum privatization and institutional environment: the Russian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper treats of the reform of the Russian hydrocarbons industry using an institutionalistic approach. The theoretical objective of the privatization is the installation of a growth scheme based on important productivity gains, through large scale re-structuration, investments for the reproduction of oil and gas reserves, and big infrastructures development. The choice of this sector is justified because it represents an extreme case of inadequateness of the measures preconized by the Washington consensus with respect to the institutional environment. Stress has been put on the modification of the property rights of companies. The introduction of market institutions in a transition economy has led to an opportunistic adaptation of the behaviour of private and government actors. There is a clear correlation between the insecurity of property rights in general and the abundance of exploitable and exportable natural resources. Then, the privatization and the limited performance of the hydrocarbons sector in Russia is analyzed in terms of efficiency and long-term strategy, essential for a resources industry to make reserves. The unexpected results of this privatization are explained using an analysis of the market institutions applied to the very specific institutional environment of the Russian economy. Finally, the inadequateness of these institutions with the initial informal institutions has led to adaptations fully dependent of the institutional path with the necessity of preserving a minimum inter-industrial consistency. (J.S.)

  18. EVOLUTION OF CONSEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASIS OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    T. Gaidai

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with formation and development of conceptual and methodological bases of institutional change theory. Analysis of scientific achievements of the evolutionary institutionalism representatives is undertaken within the research programs of Original and New Institutional Theory.

  19. Institutional and pedagogical criteria for productive open source learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ryberg, Thomas; Semey, Ian Peter;

    2004-01-01

    In this article we present some institutional and pedagogical criteria for making an informed decision in relation to identifying and choosing a productive open source learning environment. We argue that three concepts (implementation, maintainability and further development) are important when...... relation between the local pedagogical practice and the pedagogical design of the open source learning environment. This we illustrate through an analysis of an open source system and our own pedagogical practice at Aalborg University, Denmark (POPP)....

  20. Workshop in political institutions - institutional analysis and global climate change: Design principles for robust international regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific evidence suggests that human activities have a significant effect on the world's climate. Political pressures are growing to establish political institutions at the global level that would help manage the social and economic consequences of climate change. Disagreements remain about the magnitude of these effects, as well as the regional distribution of the detrimental consequences of climate change. In this paper we do not wish to enter into the complexities of these technical debates. Instead, we wish to challenge a seemingly widespread consensus about the nature of the political response appropriate to this global dilemma. Specifically, we question the extent to which the open-quotes answerclose quotes can be said to reside primarily in the establishment of the new global institutions likely to emerge from the first open-quotes Earth Summitclose quotes - the United Nations (UN) Conference on Environment and Development - scheduled for June of 1992 in Rio de Janeiro

  1. Institutional Environment, Blockholder Characteristics and Ownership Concentration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingqiang Du; Zongfeng Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of China’s A-share listed companies for the period 2001-2004,this paper investigates the influence of institutional environment variables,including the process of marketization,level of local government intervention,and local legal environment,on blockholder characteristics and ownership concentration,and the relation between the endogeneity of ownership structure and institutional environment.Our results indicate that the effects of these variables on ownership concentration are(1)positive for listed companies controlled by state asset management bureaus affiliated with local governments,(2)negative for listed companies controlled by state-owned enterprises affiliated with local governments and(3)unclear for listed private companies.These variables also positively affect the degree of privatization of listed companies in China.

  2. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL MARKET FORMATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers institutional aspects of the organized agricultural market formation process. Theoretical base to distinguish institute and institutes is given. In order to find out main influential institutes of the “organization” phenomenon author analyses Ukrainian institutional environment that is under construction process. Author considers main processes which are running during the organized market formation. Author researches theoretical approaches to the institutional staff. In order to structure the most common approaches and theoretical knowledge of this problem author proposes few schemes. Author’s points of view for many questions of the organized market formation process are proposed. Researcher analyzes effectiveness of the institutes and governmental regulation of the agricultural market. Readers can find strategically new approach to the agricultural market formation policy from the governmental point of view. Essence of the socioeconomic formation of agricultural market is considered. Main factors of agriculture market formation are outlined. Agricultural market structural parts consideration systematic approach is proposed. Ineffectiveness of the agriculture market relations without regulation process is proved. The most unfavorable reasons of the agricultural market formation are determined.

  3. Changes in the Alpine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schoeneich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution de l’environnement alpin au XXIe siècle sera conditionnée par le changement climatique. Celui-ci pourrait conduire à des climats inconnus à ce jour dans les Alpes, avec comme conséquence une crise environnementale majeure et durable. Face à ces défis, les financements de recherche restent insuffisants pour la recherche appliquée aux milieux de montagne. Les financements nationaux privilégient souvent la recherche polaire au détriment des hautes altitudes, alors que les financements de type Interreg prennent insuffisamment en compte les besoins de recherche fondamentale, préalable nécessaire à l’élaboration de scénarios. Une évolution se dessine depuis deux ou trois ans vers des projets en réseau à l’échelle alpine. Le présent article fait le point sur les principaux enjeux qui attendent la recherche environnementale alpine et sur la capacité des programmes de recherche à répondre aux besoins. La première partie sur les changements climatiques est fondée sur les rapports récents : rapport de synthèse IPCC 2007 (IPCC 2007, rapport IPCC sur l’Europe (Alcamo et al. 2007, rapport de synthèse du programme ClimChAlp (Prudent-Richard et al., 2008. On y trouvera des bibliographies complètes et circonstanciées. La deuxième partie se base sur une analyse des appels d’offres récents ou en cours, et des projets soumis et financés.The way the Alpine environment will evolve in the 21st century depends upon climate change. This could lead to climates never before seen in the Alps, resulting in a major and lasting environmental crisis. In the face of these challenges, funding is still insufficient for specialised research on mountain environments. State funding often prioritises polar research at the expense of high altitude areas, whereas funding schemes from bodies such as Interreg do not sufficiently address the need for fundamental research, which is nevertheless a necessary first step prior to

  4. Institutional Environments for Certified Organic Agriculture: Enabling Development, Smallholders Livelihood and Public Goods for Southern Environments?

    OpenAIRE

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the case for research on institutional environments for organically certified agriculture in developing countries. Observing that some analyses hold Southern organic agriculture as pro-poor and perhaps also more energy efficient than fossil fuel dependent industrialized agriculture, the paper explores differences and similarities in the policy rationale of promoting certified organics in North and South. Based on analysis of institutional environments for COA in Brazil and...

  5. Book Review: Institutional Repositories: Content and Culture in an Open Access Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Galina

    2007-01-01

    As repository technology matures, the cultural and organizational aspects of setting up and running an institutional repository have come to the forefront of the discussion surrounding their deployment. The book deliberately does not discuss any software in particular but focuses more on identifying key stake holders in the changing information environment and their role in the institutional repository scenario with regard to strategic and policy issues. Key aspects such as advocacy, user eng...

  6. Commodity exchange and institutional changes: Case of Iranian agricultural commodity exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanpour, Yazdan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an attempt is to figure out the institutional changes that initiate the agricultural commodity exchange (ACE). To assess the affecting factors, new institutional economics approach has been chosen. The framework consisting of four levels of social analysis introduced by Oliver E.Williamson is used to analyze the social environment, institutional rules, institutional arrangements and finally the agency level economics (Neo-classical economics). Regarding this framework, the inst...

  7. Power and change: Locating institutional change theories in a power context

    OpenAIRE

    Lindegaard, Lily Salloum

    2013-01-01

    This working paper aims to better understand the drivers of institutional change. To do this, it locates diverse institutional change theories, specifically path dependency, gradual institutional change and institutional bricolage, in a power context and reflects on the power-related aspects of each theory. It then develops a novel approach of a power analysis of institutional change, which allows for the combined use of institutional change theories despite their diverse theoretical underpin...

  8. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  9. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  10. NAFTA, CAFTA and the Environment: The Role of Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Baver, Sherrie

    2011-01-01

    After sifting through the various arguments on the trade-environment nexus, I argue that an underrated positive feature on NAFTA (1994) and other recent U.S. bi- or multilateral trade agreements with developing countries, is creation of specific mechanisms to promote democratic environmental governance and environmental protection. While these formal institutions have not shown great autonomy and capacity to date, they provide one of several levers for domestic and transnational civil society...

  11. Framing China: Transformation and Institutional Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara); H. Hendrischke (Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe paper offers a frame for investigating the extent to which decentralisation, and subsequent locally chosen institutions shape private organisational and institutional innovation. To include the numerous locally based “economic regimes” matters as the resulting business system reflect

  12. Technological Change and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Stavins, Robert; Jaffe, Adam; Newell, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Environmental policy discussions increasingly focus on issues related to technological change. This is partly because the environmental consequences of social activity are frequently affected by the rate and direction of technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions can themselves create constraints and incentives that have significant effects on the path of technological progress. This paper, prepared as a chapter draft for the forthcoming Handbook of Environmen...

  13. MNES and climate change : exploring institutional failures and embeddedness

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkse, Jonatan; Kolk, Ans

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper explores how climate change affects MNEs, focusing on the challenges they face in overcoming liabilities and filling institutional voids related to the issue. Climate change is characterized by institutional failures because there is neither an enforceable global agreement nor a market morality. Climate change is also a distinctive 'international business' issue as its institutional failures materialize differently in different countries. As governments ar...

  14. Multinational enterprises and climate change: exploring institutional failures and embeddedness

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkse, J.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how climate change affects multinational enterprises (MNEs), focusing on the challenges they face in overcoming liabilities and filling institutional voids related to the issue. Climate change is characterized by institutional failures, because there is neither an enforceable global agreement nor a market morality. Climate change is also a distinctive international business issue, as its institutional failures materialize differently in different countries. As governments ...

  15. The Changing Nature of Rural Religious Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photiadis, John; Simoni, Joseph J.

    The contributions to societal integration of the flexible and diversified religious institution of rural Appalachia in the United States were compared and contrasted with the contributions of the more or less monolithic and state-controlled rural church in Greece. It was found that the process of integration of rural society into the larger social…

  16. ENSURING EFFICIENCY CONTROL OF INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ivanovna Larionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As experience of the developed countries shows, the best solutions to the problems related to ensuring competitiveness of enterprises can be found within clusters. Drawing up mechanisms for government regulation of the cluster will facilitate formulation of strategies and plans of cluster development which is an important competitive advantage of the modern economy. The purpose of this study is to research theoretical and methodological approaches to ensuring efficiency control of the institutional environment of the cluster. The approach to solving this problem is based on institutional methodology which offers innovative solutions within the frames of local economic development policies. Furthermore, the paper thoroughly examines impacts of government regulation on business development. Particular attention is given to analyzing public private partnership institutions in order to reveal their innovative features. The authors express the opinion that implementation of the principles of economic control of cluster development, as well as monitoring efficiency of transaction costs may help to reduce the negative effect of transaction costs on economic development of Russia’s constituent entities. The paper offers the method for calculating performance efficiency of an institution for economic agents in the cluster, as well as efficiency of informal institutions including cases when their economic informality lies in the ‘grey (shadow area’ i.e., illegal by nature. Basing on studies of foreign and Russian experience of cluster formation and identification of risks in cluster development, the article formulates recommendations for implementing control principles to ensure effective cluster policy and reduce transaction costs in order to improve government regulation of clusters and development of the country’s economy.

  17. Political Entrepreneurship and Institutional Change: an Evolutionary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hederer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to the theory of institutional change. Using a process-based, evolutionary framework, a comparative analysis of economic and political entrepreneurship is provided and implications are derived for the role of political entrepreneurship, and the element of agency in general, for the evolution of formal institutions and institutional innovation.

  18. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

  19. MANAGEMENT AND CHANGES IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Jovanoviæ

    2015-01-01

    This study emphasizes the need for managers to promptly and effectively respond to changing business environment. Also, special review on limiting factors in the activities of managers and limiting their ability to anticipate and respond to the challenges of change in the business environment. This study also suggests some ways in which managers and organizations might improve own readiness and flexibility which is needed to respond promptly to business environmental changes. Different types ...

  20. Institutional Change in Advanced European Democracies: An exploratory assessment

    OpenAIRE

    BEDOCK, Camille; Mair, Peter; Wilson, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a wave of institutional changes of the core democratic rules in advanced democracies. These changes include reforms of electoral systems; decentralization of power to subnational governments; the creation or enhancement of direct-democratic institutions; a rise in public subsidies to political parties; and shifts in the balance of power between executive and legislature. Nevertheless, political science has developed a limited understanding of what explains institution...

  1. Explaining changes in food safety institutions in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Ping-yeung; 潘炳揚

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines changes in Hong Kong’s food safety institutions using an historical institutional approach. Hong Kong has faced enormous challenges in food safety over the last two decades. The avian flu crisis in 1997 and the malachite green crisis in 2005 were the two most notable examples. Both crises were recipes for institutional change. There was drastic reform in 2000 to form a unified food safety authority, the Food and Environmental Hygiene Department, to replace the old l...

  2. Identifying a framework of institutional change in the field of higher education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the features of institutional change in the field of higher education in Russia. Institutional environment of Russian higher education is very dynamic, institutions change quickly; therefore, interactions between actors occur spontaneously rather than deliberately. The article aims at identifying relevant institutions, regulatory mechanisms, informal rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods in examining actors’ behavior. Participant observation and questionnaires have been chosen as prevailing data collection methods. The results obtained through participant observation and questionnaires are intermediate, preceding the stage of semi-structured interviews.

  3. Responsibility of Educational Institutions for Strategic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolloso, Enrique; Fernandez-Ramirez, Baltasar; Canton, Pilar:

    2008-01-01

    The Spanish university is well into its nth reform process, this time for the purpose of improving its legibility for members of the European Union under the extended Bologna Process. The reform involves a structural change in plans of study, as well as a cultural change to the Europeanist discourse, which mixes mercantilist values and defence of…

  4. Changing business environment: implications for farming

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The natural, technological, economic, political and social environment in which farmers farm constantly changes. History has lessons about change in agriculture and about farmers coping with change, though the future is unknowable and thus always surprising. The implication for farm operation is to prepare, do not predict.

  5. Book Review: Institutional Repositories: Content and Culture in an Open Access Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As repository technology matures, the cultural and organizational aspects of setting up and running an institutional repository have come to the forefront of the discussion surrounding their deployment. The book deliberately does not discuss any software in particular but focuses more on identifying key stake holders in the changing information environment and their role in the institutional repository scenario with regard to strategic and policy issues. Key aspects such as advocacy, user engagement, content policy, preservation and curation are covered in a clear and practical fashion, drawing on the author’s experience of running an institutional repository. Although the book covers important and relevant issues, it is occasionally uneven in its depth and coverage, dealing with some aspects in great detail and only briefly mentioning others. A short introductory chapter creates the framework for the book by providing a definition of institutional repositories, followed by a very broad second chapter entitled The Changing Information Environment. In this chapter key stake holders are identified and described, followed by a general section describing the Open Access movement and finishing by describing certain online information tools such as Flickr and Wikipedia in quite some detail. Although it is clear that the intention is to place institutional repositories within the wider information content, it would have been interesting if the author had mentioned for example, Cyber infrastructure or eScience projects which are important frameworks for future digital networks and academic communication and publishing.

  6. Climate-change risk-management institutions in major banks – Understanding institutional diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the approaches to climate-change risks by financial institutions and their different ways of diffusing internal solutions. This study asks to which extent banks in Germany and Canada consider these types of risks and include them in their standardised risk-management institutional frameworks, as well as how to conceptualise the spread of new risk-management solutions in the banks. The main hypothesis stems from neoinstitutionalism: the banks’ institutional developments i...

  7. Economics, institutions and adaptation to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Oberlack, Christoph; Neumärker, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to the consequences of climate change has attracted increasing interest as a necessary complement to greenhouse gas mitigation. Economic approaches to climate adaptation are rarely articulated and discussed explicitly despite many benefits of such a framework-level discourse. Therefore, this article investigates how climate adaptation is framed and approached in economics and attempts to contribute to the development of economic frameworks of climate adaptation. First, the paper id...

  8. Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in Changing operational Environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Hongisto, M.; Koponen, K. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    Sustainability is a multi-faceted and challenging target, but at the same time a crucial issue to assess when setting policies and targets for the future. The main objective of the SUBICHOE project is to assist public administration and companies in strategic decision- making in the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. The project aimed to assess how the sustainability criteria, in particular those set by the EC, ensure the sustainability of biofuels from short and long term perspectives. The project is carried out jointly by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The work plan of the project is divided into four Work Packages. In this article, a summary of main findings of the project is presented. (orig.)

  9. Protecting The Environment: Green Microfinance Or Green Micro Finance Institutions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Daneri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a critical review of several papers and books written on the subjects of microfinance, poverty and environmental protection. It aims at linking the different themes and also to offer specific suggestions on how microfinance can provide solutions which are beneficial to the environment. The paper also concentrates on the disparities between rich and poor and how they influence the implementation of environmentally damaging activities. These activities are in fact implemented with a clear damage to the poor, especially at local level, where the poor has difficulties to protect itself due to the differences in power between the rich and the poor. Particular attention is also dedicated to the issue of environmental sustainability vs. Microfinance Institutions’ sustainability since the promotion of environmental activities implies costs to be born by Micro Finance Institutions. In fact, it must be highlighted that sustainability is a fundamental issue for MFis. The majority of MFIs normally struggle for their existence, since their objective is to work with poor and difficult clients and they mainly operate in very difficult business environments. The financial sustainability of MFIs is therefore a crucial prerequisite for the provision of financial services to the poor layers of the population. Additional costs concerning environmental protection can be born only if adequate financial support is provided by external donors

  10. The Effect of Organizational Learning Patterns on Leading Strategic Change among Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olla, Woyita W.

    2013-01-01

    Innovations and reforms are crucial for both public and Christian higher education institutions in order to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex and turbulent today's environment. Although there is a plethora of literature on strategic change, the effect of organizational learning on leading strategic change has been barely investigated…

  11. Prospective Membership and Institutional Change in Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Bordon, Ingo G.; Melnykovska, Inna; Schweickert, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    This paper quantifies the impact of incentives related to potential membership on institutional change as measured by the World Bank Governance Indicators (WBGI). Based on a panel of 25 transition countries for the period from 1996 to 2008 we show that pre-accession incentives provided by EU and NATO clearly matter for institutional development. In addition, path-dependency determined by cultural norms may be overcome by economic liberalization while foreign aid seems to hamper institutional ...

  12. Constitutional change, legislative performance and institutional consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Argelina Cheibub

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the effects of changes in constitutional and internal legislative regulations on the performance of the House of Representatives in law making. It presents an analysis of the flow of bills in the Lower House and the legal output in the post 1988 Constitution period, showing, on the one hand, the importance of the executive in the definition of the legislative agenda and its preponderance in legislative outcomes and, on the other hand, the role of the college of leaders, to the detriment of the standing committees, in the organization of the legislative work. The authors argue, against the conventional wisdom on Brazilian politics, that the legislature cannot be viewed as an obstacle to executive action.

  13. Nuclear power: Some economic effects of institutional and technical changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review of the technical, financial and institutional problems now confronted by nuclear energy. It shows the potential attractiveness of small, modular, factory-assembled nuclear units for solving these problems. Results of industry investigations and specific economic analyses conducted by the authors are included, providing target ''break even'' costs for small nuclear units and specific suggestions for institutional changes

  14. Institutional change and stability in postcommunist countries, 1990-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armingeon, K.; Careja, Romana

    2008-01-01

    affluent countries as well as to the more authoritarian regimes. The authors do not find evidence for theories of institutional change that see institutional development as a linear function of socio-economic factors such as affluence or of domestic political power distribution. The European Union and NATO...

  15. Government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova I.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the domestic experience in government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier.Compared the degree of economic freedom in Ukraine. The emphasis is on the need to develop a national strategy of institutional development of domestic entrepreneurship.

  16. The Diversity Scorecard: A Learning Approach to Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon, Estela Mara

    2004-01-01

    The "Diversity Scorecard" is an ongoing initiative designed to foster institutional change in higher education by helping to close the achievement gap for historically underrepresented students. The idea for the Diversity Scorecard emerged in 2001 when it became evident that equity, while valued in principle at many institutions, is not regularly…

  17. Transnational Corporations, Institutional Change, and Economic Development: An Institutional Learning Model for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Mariko Eva

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the role transnational corporations (TNCs) can play as boundary spanners supporting institutional change and policy transfer. Interactions between transnational investors and locationally bound actors increasingly give shape to the shifting geography of economic power and can lead to fundamental and persistent changes in the government, governance, and institutions that influence the character and potential of places. Historical context, path-dependency, power dynamics, and...

  18. Perspectives on Instituting Change Management in Large Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities are currently undergoing significant and deep-seated change to their funding models through their relationship to Federal government social development and research agendas. Consequently, changes are being instituted at all levels of university activity. Such changes are often accompanied by considerable disruption to…

  19. The Role Of Labour Unions In A Changing World Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    Trade unions have been important institutions of industrial society; they have helped deliver significant outcomes in terms of improved living standards, equity and justice to workers all over the world. However, at the end of the twentieth century, unions face a situation marked by the universal trend towards greater liberalization of economic and political regimes. The changing environment requires new approaches and strategies on the part of unions if they are to remain major social actors...

  20. Institutional Change in Advanced European Democracies: an exploratory assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Camille Bedock; Peter Mair and Alex Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a wave of institutional changes of the core democratic rules in advanced democracies. These changes include reforms of electoral systems, decentralization of power to sub-national governments, the creation or enhancement of direct-democratic institutions, a rise in public subsidies to political parties, and shifts in the balance of power between executive and legislature. Nevertheless, political science has developed a limited understanding of what explains institutio...

  1. Legitimacy Gaps and Everyday Institutional Change in Interwar British Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Who drives domestic institutional change in the face of international economic crisis? For rationalists the answer is powerful self-interested actors who struggle for material gains during an exogenously generated crisis. For economic constructivists it is ideational entrepreneurs who use ideas as weapons to establish paths for institutional change during crisis-driven uncertainty. Both approaches are elite-centric and conceive legitimacy as established by command or proclamation. This articl...

  2. Governing the Resource: Scarcity-Induced Institutional Change

    OpenAIRE

    James Roumasset; Nori Tarui

    2010-01-01

    We provide a dynamic model of natural resource management where the optimal institutional structure that governs resource use changes with resource depletion. Copeland and Taylor (2009) analyze how characteristics of a natural resource determine whether its steady-state management regime is open access, communal property, or private property. We extend this and other studies of endogenous institutions to analyze how and when resource governance may change in transition to the steady state, ta...

  3. Institutional environment of the retail trade in Ukraine: current state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur, Olena Yevgeniyivna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is an assessment of the current state of the retail trade institutional environment in Ukraine. The analysis of the institutional "framework" of the public management by the retail trade has been conducted. The retail trade regulative blocks in the legal and regulatory framework were identified. The author has presented a critical analysis of the State program of internal trade development in Ukraine for the period until 2016 (draft, shortcomings of its strategic orientation are identified. Systemic problems of the public management by the retail trade were revealed. The conclusions were confirmed by the Global Competitiveness Index. It is underlined that the institutional component remains the most important "potential node" for the entrepreneurs. The necessity of a real administrative reform as well as simultaneous implementing of radical changes in the regulatory system and politics concerning private business have been noted

  4. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  5. Аsymmetry of Structural Institutional and Technological Changes in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkovа Marina Andreevna

    2014-12-01

    to innovations (scepticism, nihilism, disinclination to risk, disinclination to changes, “problems evasion”, demotivation of subjects’ innovative behavior, incompetence in the system of macroeconomic policy, non- complementarity of the institutional environment of innovative activity which appeared on the joint of institutional and technological changes, and maintaining institutional inertia in the Russian economy. It is proved that the asymmetry of institutional and technological structures of economy is generated by the nature of institutional and technological dynamics.

  6. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Velasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable development (ESD intervention that is already established as pedagogically effective when it is deployed in diverse institutional environments worldwide—the Youth as Agents of Behaviour Change program of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC. This allows an opportunity to consider variations in learning transfer due to distinctive moderating institutional features, which can now be understood in terms of varying transfer climates, levels of leadership support and opportunities to practice. Additional barriers of tokenistic consultation, lack of role clarity and perverse effects of increased distance between trainees and their colleagues on return were also seen. ESD programs intending to bridge the values-action gap could benefit from not focusing only on the training content, but pre-planning organisational support for returning trainees and including in the training ways for them to assess and plan to overcome such difficulties.

  7. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  8. AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) seeks comments on proposed accounting changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titera, W R

    1995-08-01

    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants has exposed for public comment a revised version of its accounting and auditing guide--Audits of Providers of Health Care Services. The guide covers accounting, auditing, and financial reporting in healthcare organizations and is being revised primarily to address the changing healthcare environment and changes mandated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board. This article provides an overview of some of the more significant proposed changes. The comment period ends August 14, 1995. PMID:10144176

  9. University Management in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter; Lynch, James E.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of the changing economic and social environment of universities are examined. It is suggested that the next decade will be one of increasing competition between universities and between them and the non-university sector of higher education. Universities will become more market-oriented and more responsive to consumer-students. (LBH)

  10. Exploring the Approach of Institutional Economics to the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L Spash; Mauricio G. Villena

    1999-01-01

    A neglected aspect of ecological economics is the link to the social context. The socio-economic perspective extends standard economic analysis into concerns for distribution, ethics and the power of institutions which form and implement policy. We explore how an institutional perspective on ecological economics might operate and provide a distinct methodology. In order to understand the institutional approach and how it differs from the standard economic methodology a historical overview...

  11. Niche action and system harmonization for institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Friederichsen, Rupert; Neef, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon institution, power, and network concepts, this article analyzes how different actors interact with institutions in institutional change processes at niche level. The analysis builds on action research which developed and reflected upon the Farmer Research and Extension Network...... – an innovative, demand-driven approach to agricultural extension in Vietnam’s north-western uplands. The action-researcher identified commune extension workers as strategic actors in the system and, consequently, supported them in exploiting and widening their existing room for maneuver. Throughout the research....... The findings reveal the critical contribution at niche level that commune extension workers can make to on-going institutional change in a late socialist polity....

  12. Institute for Society, Culture and Environment appoints research fellow on global issues

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Fuzhi Cheng has joined Virginia Tech's Institute for Society, Culture and Environment as a research fellow of the Global Issues Initiative, according to Karen A. Roberto, the institute's interim director.

  13. Nuclear power: Some economic effects of institutional and technical changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakefield, R.A.; Casazza, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    This paper presents a review of the technical, financial and institutional problems now confronted by nuclear energy. It shows the potential attractiveness of small, modular, factory-assembled nuclear units for solving these problems. Results of industry investigations and specific economic analyses conducted by the authors are included, providing target ''break even'' costs for small nuclear units and specific suggestions for institutional changes.

  14. Institutional Inertia and Institutional Change in an Expanding Normal-Form Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Heinrich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate aspects of institutional change in an evolutionary game-theoretic framework, in principle focusing on problems of coordination in groups when new solutions to a problem become available. In an evolutionary game with an underlying dilemma structure, we let a number of new strategies become gradually available to the agents. The dilemma structure of the situation is not changed by these. Older strategies offer a lesser payoff than newly available ones. The problem that agents have to solve for realizing improved results is, therefore, to coordinate on newly available strategies. Strategies are taken to represent institutions; the coordination on a new strategy by agents, hence, represents a change in the institutional framework of a group. The simulations we run show a stable pattern regarding such institutional changes. A number of institutions are found to coexist, with the specific number depending on the relation of payoffs achievable through the coordination of different strategies. Usually, the strategies leading to the highest possible payoff are not among these. This can be taken to reflect the heterogeneity of rules in larger groups, with different subgroups showing different behavior patterns.

  15. Institutional investor influence on global climate change disclosure practices

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Cotter; Muftah M Najah

    2012-01-01

    Using a stakeholder engagement perspective, we investigate the collective influence of institutional investors on a comprehensive set of climate change disclosures for a global sample of large companies. The proposition tested in this paper is that the influence of these powerful stakeholders is positively associated with climate change disclosure via corporate communications channels. We find the extent and quality of climate change disclosures to be associated with three indicators of corpo...

  16. Accessing Scholarly Information in Networked Environment through Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar, Dhiman; Hemant, Sharma

    2008-01-01

    The archival collection of libraries is increasingly-being converted into digital format. Institutional Repositories are the result of such programmes which make available the archival collections over networks to its users. In addition, they also provide direct output of an institution or organization’s research contribution in digital format for quick access of the users.

  17. INTELLIGENT ADAPTIVE LEARNING IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Valentis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop ever more intelligent and autonomous systems, it is necessary to make them self-learning, since it is impossible to include in their program everything they may encounter during their life-cycle. In this research work, we aim at answering the following: if a system’s environment is modified, how could the system respond to it quickly and appropriately enough? We achieve it by using reinforcement learning to allow the system to rate its decisions, then by developing adaptive learning algorithms for gain and loss rewards. The algorithms include probabilities’ analysis providing to the system ability to adapt its knowledge through time and to respond to a changing environment. Simulations are made for a robot finding its exit in a labyrinth. Results show that reinforcement and adaptive learnings can have many useful applications by offering to a system a reliable possibility of evolution within complex environments in specific situations.

  18. Snapshots of a Changing Scholarly Communications Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Prosser, David C

    2004-01-01

    Almost two years after the formation of SPARC Europe, the LIBER pre-conference seminar in St Petersburg gave an excellent opportunity to review progress on the road to achieving the aims of SPARC Europe. The traditional models of scholarly communication are increasingly being shown to be antiquated and insufficiently flexible to adapt to the new environment. SPARC Europe calls for far reaching changes in the way we approach scholarly communications. The talks in the seminar provide snapshots ...

  19. A comparative assessment of endogenous water institutional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Ersten, Maurits

    2013-04-01

    This paper builds the theory of endogenous institutional change, first proposed by Greif and Laitin (2004), for water scarce regions in context of water institutions. The current emphasis on environmental change, including hydrological change, largely ignores the adaptation of human societies to change. Humans have mostly been considered as boundary conditions or parameters of the dynamics of hydrological change and are not considered as conduits of feedbacks. Nonetheless, the dynamical representation of hydrological change with feedbacks between various components of a system is assuring since it is reminiscent of processual ecological anthropology(Orlove, 1980), except that individual decision making is absent. This paper proposes to consider selected dryland basins of the world, to conceptualize proxies of water relevant socio-economic organisation, such as spatial scales of upstream-downstream cooperation in water use, synthesized over time and then proposes a comparative assessment to test regularities predicted by an extension of river game theory (Ambec and Ehlers, 2008; van der Brink et al, 2012) to endogenous institutional change. References: Orlove, B. S. (1980). Ecological Anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 9 (1980), pp. 235-273. Greif. A. and D. D. Laitin (2004). A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change. American Political Science Review, Vol. 98, No. 4 November 2004. Ambec, S. and L. Ehlers (2008). Sharing a river amongst satiable agents. Games and Economic Behavior, 64, 35-50. Van der Brink, G. van der Laan and N. Moes (2012). Fair agreements for sharing international rivers with multiple springs and externalities. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 63, 388-403.

  20. Legitimacy Gaps and Everyday Institutional Change in Interwar British Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    legitimated by non-elites and how their everyday actions alter policy paths established in crisis. This is illustrated by re-examining a case frequently associated with punctuated equilibrium theories of crisis and institutional change: interwar Britain. In contrast to conventional explanations, I argue that...

  1. Environmental Change as Security Dilemma and its Institutional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Ünaldi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a threat to the security and well-being of people in all countries. Their governments are entrusted with the task of guaranteeing this security in the face of un- usual weather phenomena, extreme climatic conditions and conflicts resulting from scarcity and climate-induced migration. Whereas traditional security threats took the form of inter-state conflicts and have often been met at the national level – for example through military means –, climate change as a global phenomenon seems to call for new types of action. Some have argued for an overhaul of political institutions to meet the climate challenge. Solutions offered range from world government to decentralized sub-state entities. Yet, as will be argued, climate change is imminent and needs to be tackled now. This leaves little room for Utopian political visions. In discussing different approaches developed in the field of International Relations as they relate to climate change and security, this article argues for an acknowledgement of climate change as a new type of security dilemma. It then proceeds to defend the suitability of current international institutions for solving problems posed by climate change. Firstly, they are the only institutions currently available. Secondly, they are both immune to overt centralization as well as big enough to develop and implement sustainable solutions. Most hope lies with clusters of countries working together and setting examples that might eventually be followed elsewhere.

  2. The American Institute of Architects Committee on The Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, H.T.

    1995-12-31

    In response to growing concerns about the impact of the building industry on the global environment, the AIA formed a committee to increase awareness of the relationship between the designer and the built environment. This paper includes the mission statement and summarizes the major accomplishments and primary issues.

  3. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2013-01-01

    factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses......BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands...

  4. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926–9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655–8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1–24). (synthesis and review)

  5. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  6. College of Natural Resources and Environment launches student Leadership Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and the Environment launched a new program to develop leadership abilities in some of its top students to help prepare them as future leaders in managing natural resources for sustainability and biodiversity.

  7. Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  8. Making Sense of Partnering: Discourses, Governance and Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2012-01-01

    perspective of institutional theory, however, the development of partnering can also be understood as a strategic intervention that has destabilized the established regulative context in which the traditional contractual mode of project governance takes place. Drawing on a historical document study and data...... from an ethnographic case study of a public partnering project, it is shown that rather than providing a well-defined alternative to the traditional form of project governance, the institutional destabilization has cultivated an organization field offering a legitimate frame for local sense making....... Thus, as a project governance mechanism, partnering emerges as a collective sense-making process directed at (re-)creating a new form of rational behaviour under changing institutional conditions....

  9. ROLE OF THE STATE IN CREATING A FAVORABLE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR LENDING STRUCTURAL MODERNIZATION OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.І. БІЛИЙ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  The article identifies the state's role in stimulating lending and an enabling institutional environment to enhance the processes of structural modernization of the national economy after the crisis. It determines the effects of financial globalization for the modification of the monetary policy priorities for the national banking systems. The article investigates the role of foreign banking capital in financing the national economy of Ukraine, considering the world financial crisis with it impact to investment activities of national banking systems. The article determines the prospects of achieving the progressive structural changes for the modernization of Ukraine national economy by improving the institutional environment of bank lending.

  10. Heterogeneous Institutional environments and Franchise networks Development in Maghreb

    OpenAIRE

    Odile CHANUT; Nadjoua GHARBI; Dominique BONET FERNANDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Franchising has become a dominant model of distribution in the Western world. Franchising is also developing in emerging markets, with the internationalization of Western franchise systems. This paper analyses the franchise expansion differences between Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Explanations are proposed, based on insights from institutional theory (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983), where franchising literature has focused on agency theory and efficiency considerations in order to explain franc...

  11. THE ENVIRONMENT OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS: THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC FREEDOM

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Kamau Njoroge; E. Anthon Eff

    2009-01-01

    Microfinance provides saving and lending services to the poor. It is not conceptually different from banking in the USA. People are able to save money at and borrow money from microfinance institutions. They are compensated for saving and charged for borrowing by an interest rate that compounds on savings or loans. It is different primarily in the magnitude of the financial transactions. Loans to the poor are much smaller on average than loans traditionally given by banks; these loans can be ...

  12. Sustainability of biomass utilisation in changing operational environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Hongisto, M.; Koponen, K.; Sokka, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi; Antikainen, R.; Manninen, K. (Finnish Environment Inst. SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Thun, R.; Sinkko, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)); Pasanen, K. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Sustaibability is a multi-faceted and challenging target, but at the same time a crucial issue to assess when setting policies and targets for the future. The main objective of the SUBICHOE project is to assist in strategic decision- making of public administration and companies, as regards the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. In the project the sustainability of biofuels and the criteria, in particular those set by the EC, for ensuring that set requirements can and will be fulfilled are being assessed from short and long term perspectives. The project is carried out jointly by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The project started in June 2009 and it is scheduled to be finalised in June 2011. The work plan of the project is divided into four Work Packages. In this article, a summary of a critical view on the requirements and challenges related to the implementation of the RES Directive is also provided based on the main findings of the WP1. (orig.)

  13. Student Personnel Administrators as Influencers of Institutional Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. B.

    This paper was based upon the thesis that there are environments which will effect positive relationships between people and will regulate their modes of thought and subsequent actions. It was further postulated that there is an ordering of values by rural residents and a corresponding urban ordering of values. In view of the foregoing, it was…

  14. Institutional Environment and Public Officials' Performance in Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    GOKCEKUS, Omer; Manning, Nick; Mukherjee, Ranjana; Nallari, Raj

    2001-01-01

    The report presents the findings of a survey of public officials in Guyana, whose views were sought in a wide range of civil service issues - from personnel management, to rewards, and disciplinary actions, and, from budget environment to corruption. Answers were used to test some prior assertions about the public sector in the country, and, it is the respondents' belief that public sector...

  15. Reform from Below: Behavioral and Institutional Change in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Haggard; Marcus Noland

    2009-01-01

    The state is often conceptualized as playing an enabling role in a country's economic development--providing public goods, such as the legal protection of property rights, while the political economy of reform is conceived in terms of bargaining over policy among elites or special interest groups. We document a case that turns this perspective on its head: efficiency-enhancing institutional and behavioral changes arising not out of a conscious, top-down program of reform, but rather as uninte...

  16. Institutional environment for public-private partnership in Ukraine:Do institutions really matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Cherevykov, Ievgen

    2013-01-01

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have become a popular means of implementing public investment projects across the world. Many governments have been using PPPs to implement and realize investment projects concerning highways, power plants, hospitals and other fixed assets. This paper provides a survey of PPPs practices implementation in Ukraine considering PPP as a socio-economic institution.

  17. Nuclear power plants and environment-Legal and institutional aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some legal aspects about nuclear power plants siting in face of environment legislation and policy in the Brazilian law are discussed. The public participation in the process of site selection in face of actual constitutional precepts and the decision given by Supreme Court which determined to private competence of the Union, given by Constitutional rules and by the law number 6803 in 1980. (M.C.K.)

  18. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Amigud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public safety. With the growing scope of distance education programs that permeate critical areas such as healthcare, airspace, water management, and food solutions, universities have a moral obligation to employ secure measures to verify learning outcomes. This study examines the measures universities with large distance education programs employ to align identity of learners with the academic work they do, as well as the effectiveness of and challenges and barriers to their implementation. The research was undertaken using a multiple case approach and examined survey responses from five academic administrators at five officially accredited post secondary institutions in three countries. The cases examined in the study include: Athabasca University, Open University UK, Penn State University World Campus, University of Maryland University College, and eConcordia, Concordia University’s distance learning facility. This study is not an exhaustive attempt to examine all aspects of academic integrity, but rather to create awareness about various learner authentication strategies. This study confirms that secure learner authentication in the distance education environment is possible. However, with greater pressure to enhance security of learner authentication, the openness of open learning is challenged and may change as we know it.

  19. Institutional Changes and Globalisation Alter the Landscape of Chinese Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂鸣; 周煜

    2007-01-01

    In light of the institutional environment transformation and globalisation, this article draws on institutional theory and global value chain theory to explore the growth path of China’s state-owned automakers. The study finds that the institution and globalisation factors have become the growth driver of state-owned automakers. At each stage, it is found that there is a convergence in the organisational behaviour of state-owned automakers. The change in driving force, has, however, led to the transformation of organisational behaviour of those state-owned automobile enterprises undergoing the process of evolving from a joint venture model to a proprietary innovation model. This change has come about due to the leveraging of partnership opportunities with multinational motor companies.

  20. An efficient hybrid planner in changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbehenn, M.; Hutchinson, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Chen, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new hybrid motion planner than is capable of exploiting previous planning episodes when confronted with new planning problems. Our approach is applicable when several (similar) problems are successively posed for the same static environment, or when the environment changes incrementally between planning episodes. At the heart of our system lie two low-level motion planners: a fast, but incomplete planner (which we call LOCAL), and a computationally costly (possibly resolution) complete planner (which we call GLOBAL). When a new planning problem is presented to our planner, a meta-level planner (which we call MANAGER) decomposes the problem into segments that are amenable to solution by LOCAL. This decomposition is made by exploiting a task graph, in which successful planning episodes have been recorded. In cases where the decomposition fails, GLOBAL is invoked. The key to our planner`s success is a novel representation of solution trajectories, in which segments of collision-free paths are associated with the boundary of nearby obstacles.

  1. Natural gas -- The changing competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owners and senior managers don't have to be reminded that the business is getting tougher. Prices aren't behaving as expected, and they are becoming more volatile. Costs are increasing. The futures market is here to stay, not to mention swaps and options. FERC Order 636 is another complicating factor. Whether you are a producer, marketer, pipeline or an LDC, the structure of the market is changing. The answer to the following questions is quite often -- no: Is your company in a position to offer your customers the services they want? Is your company comfortable using hedges? Do you always know your level of risk? Can your company easily track daily positions and P/L and thoughtfully analyze the various business lines? While not all of the above concerns stem from increased price volatility, Order 636 and complexity resulting from the use of more sophisticated risk control instruments, many of them do. There's a cultural change occurring and companies that want to be market leaders must not just ''learn to live'' with this, but install a management process that thrives in this environment. Understanding the meaning of this goal is the focus of this paper

  2. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 November from 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 Climate change and challenges for the environment by C. Schlüchter / Institut für Geologie, Univ. Bern, CH Climate change as seen by a geologist Glaciers are an integrated part of the high altitudes and the high latitudes of our planet. They are sensitive to temperature and moisture changes and adjust their mass balances accordingly. By doing so they interact with their substratum, the geological basement and they produce characteristic imprints of their presence, their variability and their disappearance. In glacial geology and paleoglaciology such imprints of former glaciers are carefully recorded, mapped and, hopefully, dated in order to obtain amplitude and periodicity records of their changes - as forced by changing climate, as we believe. In the upcoming lectures three aspects will be discussed: the last glaciation in the Swiss Alps. A reconstruction is shown based on fieldwor...

  3. The Changing Role of ENGOs in Water Governance: Institutional Entrepreneurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Seanna L.; de Loë, Rob C.

    2016-01-01

    The changing role of the state in the last quarter century has been an important contemporary concern for policy makers, scholars, and the public. Equally, there is increasing recognition among governance scholars that nongovernment actors are exerting new kinds of influence over governance systems and contributing in novel ways to governance processes. The role of environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) is particularly pertinent given the continued involvement of ENGOs within collaborative, adaptive, and co-management governance, across several contexts and regions. This paper uses an analytical framework derived from recent studies on institutional entrepreneurs, to examine the skills ENGOs are applying in order to orchestrate change. An empirical case of governance for water in Canada's Lake Simcoe region provides the foundation for the research. Drawing on a mixed methods approach, the research finds that ENGOs in Lake Simcoe have taken on a role as an institutional entrepreneur, and thereby have altered the relationship between governance actors in this setting. A key outcome of their actions is a more dominant, engaged, and influential role for ENGOs in a critical, regional governance system.

  4. Research Results of Two Personal Learning Environments Experiments in a Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Juarros, Victoria; Salinas Ibáñez, Jesús; de Benito Crosetti, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on institutionally powered personal learning environments (iPLEs). The concept of the iPLE can be seen as a way universities can incorporate learner-centred approach into the architecture of their technology-enhanced learning environments. The aim of this paper is to pose that there are other ways to learn complementary to…

  5. Climate change: Moving from scientific to institutional and policy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of how societies, through their policies and institutional arrangements, can most effectively respond to climate change, is discussed. Four characteristics contributing to the continued failure to resolve the issue are an enormous uncertainty in every part of the problem; the long time scale of effects, ensuring that a modest amount of discounting reduces the present day cost of any future environmental impact that is less than catastrophic to minor proportions; a belief that trying to avert climate change will be very expensive no matter how it is done; and the global nature of the issues calls for an unprecedented amount of international cooperation. Strategies to deal with climate change may be grouped into three categories: preventative, curative and adaptive. The preventative or adjustment strategy involves the restriction or reduction of activities that contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. Under this approach there would be no new fossil fuel plants constructed, and some existing plants might be closed. The curative strategy focuses on addressing the carbon dioxide concentrations being produced and concentrates on neutralizing them. The adaptive or adaptation strategy assumes that carbon dioxide concentrations will continue to build and that society will eventually develop means to cope with the climatic alteration. To assist policy makers, those conducting research need to devote more effort to examining the interrelationships among climate change and other societal concerns, the aspects of uncertainty and surprise, and the range of strategies. 21 refs

  6. Legal and Institutional Aspects of Management of the Environment in Lake Victoria basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Okidi, C.O.

    2006-01-01

    As a contribution to the environmental assessment of Lake Victoria basin this paper presents and appraises available legal provisions and the institutional mechanisms for promoting objectives of rational management of the environment. It presents the legal context of the concept of environmental and associated management concepts like conservation, preservation and the ultimate objective of sustainable development. The legal and institutional arrangements are presented, for analytical purpose...

  7. The Role of Tertiary Education Institutions in Teaching Entrepreneurship in Post- Conflict Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Venter

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of tertiary institutions in teaching entrepreneurship in Post- Conflict Liberia, one of several Post-Conflict Environments (PCEs) in Africa and abroad. The country wracked with years of civil war, and now seemingly on a path of democracy and economic growth rightfully is turning towards entrepreneurship education as a vehicle to job creation, especially among graduates and the unemployed youth. Four institutions of tertiary education in Liberia were earmarked by t...

  8. The Institutional Environment of Health Reproduction as a Part of Human Capital Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana L. Lepikhina; Yuliya V. Karpovich

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of the growing importance of human capital in the processes of Russia’s sustainable development, the role of formal and informal institutions that provide the expanded reproduction of human capital at different levels becomes more and more significant. The subjects of the institutional environment of health reproduction processes as a part of human capital formation are presented in the issue, including identification of the key functions; a need to improve the management mec...

  9. Institutional environment of the retail trade in Ukraine: current state and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Olena Yevgeniyivna; Sahatskiy, Mykola Pavlovych

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is an assessment of the current state of the retail trade institutional environment in Ukraine. The analysis of the institutional "framework" of the public management by the retail trade has been conducted. The retail trade regulative blocks in the legal and regulatory framework were identified. The author has presented a critical analysis of the State program of internal trade development in Ukraine for the period until 2016 (draft), shortcomings of its strategic or...

  10. Understanding organization and institutional changes for management of environmental affairs in the Brazilian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article analyzes how governments and an oil company adapted their institutional and organization frameworks to manage actual and potential environmental impacts of oil-related activities in Brazil. Two major factors are important for understanding these changes. First, the monopoly of the state to explore and produce oil is over. Foreign companies have entered Brazil and increased the competitiveness of the oil sector. Second, major oil spills into waterways in recent years resulted in severe fines and an increasing outcry from government and civil society representatives for greater control over oil activities. These two factors raised a debate about what are, or should be, the roles of various stakeholders involved in controlling oil activities and their impacts on the environment. Legislative changes assigned different roles to the state oil company, to a newly created regulatory agency, to the Navy and to federal and state environmental agencies. Because many of the legal changes were not well defined, accountability among institutional actors remained unclear and institutional conflicts about who is accountable for what were likely to occur. As well, government organizations, public prosecutors, media and civil society increasingly influenced the regulation of both government agencies and companies. As a result, these responded to regulatory change and market forces by changing their relations with external stakeholders and their organizational arrangements for environmental management. This article identifies some of the institutional conflicts in selected case studies from the oil industry, the difficulties in clarifying regulatory roles within the industry, and responses in terms of the environmental strategies of regulatory bodies and oil companies, specifically the Brazilian state company, Petrobas. (author)

  11. The changing environment for US pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P R

    1994-01-01

    Health reform is currently the predominant health policy issue in the US. It carries profound implications for the pharmaceutical field, including the possibility of price controls that could stifle pharmaceutical research. While policy makers are contemplating alternative approaches to reform, the marketplace for pharmaceuticals has changed dramatically. For example, price increases have lessened, price discounting has increased, and new drugs are typically launched at prices lower than those of the leading product in the therapeutic class. These changes are driven in part by the growth of managed care. Further evidence of change in the industry is the number of job reductions announced and the decline in market valuation of pharmaceutical companies. Policy makers need to take the changed marketplace into consideration as they proceed with health reform, to avoid layering additional policy impediments on top of an increasingly harsh and unforgiving market. Such an approach could seriously compromise incentives for pharmaceutical research. PMID:10155590

  12. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social...

  13. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  14. Institutional theory and change: the deinstitutionalization of sports science at Club X

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Sarah; Sillince, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate how sports science was institutionalised and rapidly deinstitutionalised within a Premier League football club. Institutional theory has been critiqued for its lack of responsiveness to change, but recent developments within institutional theory such as the focus on deinstitutionalisation as an explanation of change, the role of institutional entrepreneurs and the increasing interest in institutional work facilitate exploration of change within institu...

  15. Going Global: Professionals and the Micro-foundations of Institutional Change

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, B.

    2015-01-01

    This study links theories of relationality and institutional change to deepen understanding of professionals’ role in globalization. In previous institutional research, it has been conventional to treat professionals as agents of firms or transnational organizations, and institutional change as the result of planned, strategic ‘professional projects’. By bringing a relational analysis to bear on the problem of institutional change, this study reasserts the theoretical significance of individu...

  16. Institutional Change, Growth, and Poverty Levels in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. KEMAL

    2003-01-01

    It is now well-recognised that institutions matter in the growth process both directly and indirectly. Well-functioning institutions lead to higher investment levels, better policies, increase in social capital stock of a community, and better management of ethnic diversity and conflicts [see for example North (1990, 1994); Jutting (2003); Rodrik, et al. (2002); Dollar and Kray (2002); World Bank (2002); Aron (2000); Chu (2001) and Frischtak (1995)]. That the decay of institutions has led to ...

  17. Family control,institutional environment and cash dividend policy:Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua; Wei; Shinong; Wu; Changqing; Li; Wei; Chen

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 1486 Chinese A-share listed companies for the period 2004-2008,this study empirically tests the impact of family control,institutional environment and their interaction on the cash dividend policy of listed companies.Our results indicate that(1)family firms have a lower cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends than non-family firms;(2) a favorable regional institutional environment has a significant positive impact on the cash dividend payout ratio and propensity to pay dividends of listed companies;and(3) the impact of the regional institutional environment on cash dividends is stronger in family firms than in non-family firms.Somewhat surprisingly,we find that controlling family shareholders in China may intensify Agency Problem Ⅰ(the owner-manager conflict) rather than Agency Problem Ⅱ(the controlling shareholder-minority shareholder conflict),and thus have a significant negative impact on cash dividend policy.In contrast,a favorable regional institutional environment plays a positive corporate governance role in mitigating Agency Problem 1 and encouraging family firms to pay cash dividends.

  18. Stories of change in drug treatment: a narrative analysis of 'whats' and 'hows' in institutional storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ditte

    2015-06-01

    Addiction research has demonstrated how recovering individuals need narratives that make sense of past drug use and enable constructions of future, non-addict identities. However, there has not been much investigation into how these recovery narratives actually develop moment-to-moment in drug treatment. Building on the sociology of storytelling and ethnographic fieldwork conducted at two drug treatment institutions for young people in Denmark, this article argues that studying stories in the context of their telling brings forth novel insights. Through a narrative analysis of both 'the whats' (story content) and 'the hows' (storying process) the article presents four findings: (1) stories of change function locally as an institutional requirement; (2) professional drug treatment providers edit young people's storytelling through different techniques; (3) the narrative environment of the drug treatment institution shapes how particular stories make sense of the past, present and future; and (4) storytelling in drug treatment is an interactive achievement. A fine-grained analysis illuminates in particular how some stories on gender and drug use are silenced, while others are encouraged. The demonstration of how local narrative environments shape stories contributes to the general understanding of interactive storytelling in encounters between professionals and clients in treatment settings. PMID:25664499

  19. Unpacking the path-dependent process of institutional change for PPPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Castano, J.; Mahalingam, A.; Dewulf, G.P.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    In the recent past, several countries and states have begun to use Public-Private-Partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure development and have attempted to create institutional environments that enable PPPs. Providing an enabling environment for PPPs entails a combination of institutional creation an

  20. Blended Learning Innovations: Leadership and Change in One Australian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirriahi, Negin; Alonzo, Dennis; McIntyre, Simon; Kligyte, Giedre; Fox, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the current experience of one higher education institution in Australia embarking on the path towards mainstreaming online learning opportunities by providing three complementary academic development initiatives that can inform strategies undertaken by other institutions internationally. First, an academic development program…

  1. New Faculty Experience in Times of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Michelle; Bennett, Deb; McNichol, Jane Stoneman; Merkley, Cari

    2015-01-01

    Many post-secondary institutions in Canada over the past decade have made the transition from college to university status. The researchers on this team were hired in the midst of such a transition at one western Canadian institution. As new faculty we were navigating the normal tides of adjusting to a new faculty position, but our induction…

  2. Layer breeding programmes in changing production environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENSTRA, F.; TEN NAPEL, J.; VISSCHER, J.; VAN SAMBEEK, F.

    2016-01-01

    The housing and management of laying hens and their productivity has gone through enormous developments in the last century. Housing has changed from free-range systems, via battery cages to a variety of loose housing and different types of battery cages, and back to outdoor access systems. Altho

  3. Designing for change: mash-up personal learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Fridolin; Mödritscher, Felix; Sigurdarson, Steinn

    2008-01-01

    Institutions for formal education and most work places are equipped today with at least some kind of tools that bring together people and content artefacts in learning activities to support them in constructing and processing information and knowledge. For almost half a century, science and practice have been discussing models on how to bring personalisation through digital means to these environments. Learning environments and their construction as well as maintenance makes up the most cruci...

  4. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Velasco; Marie K. Harder

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable de...

  5. The Environment and Directed Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Aghion, Philippe; Bursztyn, Leonardo; Hemous, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. A unique final good is produced by combining inputs from two sectors. One of these sectors uses “dirty” machines and thus creates environmental degradation. Research can be directed to improving the technology of machines in either sector. We characterize dynamic tax policies that achieve sustainable growth or maximize intertemporal welfare. We show that: (i) in the ...

  6. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U; A. Brierley

    2014-01-01

    Funding: Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (proposal Nu 253407 (call reference: FP7- PEOPLE-2009-IIF). Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice ...

  7. Governance Change In Facilities Management: An Institutional Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kaleem Zahirul Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Governance of a specific field is shaped by not only the instrumental rationality but also the institutional rationality. In this research the instrumental rationality was manifested by the service providers and consultants who played a pivotal role in the construction of new governance in the field of facilities services in the Netherlands. Further, the role of institutional rationality was investigated wherein it was found that the logic of rationalization shaped the governance in the field of facilities services. Moreover, the implication for the explanation of practice variation by institutional theory is discussed.

  8. The changing winds of atmospheric environment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Changes in atmosphere policies over several decades are analysed. ► Direct regulation is less effective and been complemented by other instruments. ► Policy approaches are more complex and integrated and the scale of the issues has evolved. ► The role of stakeholders has grown and the corporate sector has assumed increased responsibility. ► Governance arrangements have become more complex, multilevel and polycentric. -- Abstract: Atmospheric environmental policies have changed considerably over the last several decades. Clearly the relative importance of the various issues has changed over half a century, for example from smoke, sulphur dioxide and photochemical smog being the top priorities to greenhouse gases being the major priority. The traditional policy instrument to control emissions to the atmosphere has been command and control regulation. In many countries this was successful in reducing emissions from point sources, the first generation issues, and to a lesser extent, emissions from mobile and area sources, the second generation issues, although challenges remain in many jurisdictions. However once the simpler, easier, cheaper and obvious targets had been at least partially controlled this form of regulation became less effective. It has been complemented by other instruments including economic instruments, self-regulation, voluntarism and information instruments to address more complex issues including climate change, a third generation issue. Policy approaches to atmospheric environmental issues have become more complex. Policies that directly focus on atmospheric issues have been partially replaced by more integrated approaches that consider multimedia (water, land, etc.) and sustainability issues. Pressures from stakeholders for inclusion, greater transparency and better communication have grown and non-government stakeholders have become increasingly important participants in governance. The scale of the issues has evolved

  9. Nuclear safety regulation in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of privatization and the opening up of the energy market will enhance competition in the energy industry and bring about a far-reaching restructuring in this sector. As a result, major changes in how nuclear power plants are operated may occur, and additional challenges may arise for nuclear safety. Handling these important issues should be subject to international co-operation in the future, inter alia by the IAEA, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the relevant bodies of the European Union

  10. The environment and directed technical change: comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the growth model with environmental constraints recently presented in (Acemoglu et al., 2011) which focuses on the redirection of technical change by climate policies with research subsidies and a carbon tax. First, Acemoglu et al.'s model and chosen parameters yield numerical results that do not support the conclusion that ambitious climate policies can be conducted 'without sacrificing (much or any) long-run growth'. Second, they select unrealistic key parameters for carbon sinks and elasticity of substitution. We find that more realistic parameters lead to very different results. Third, the model leads to an unrealistic conclusion when used to analyse endogenous growth, suggesting specification problems. (authors)

  11. Fostering Entrepreneurship in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Tachiciu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is the cornerstone of a modern competitive economy. Because of the economic and social importance attributed to entrepreneurship, every country has adopted policies aiming to encourage and to support entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors. Despite the fact that the set of public policy measures is very similar across countries and regions, the outcomes are different. The differences can be observed not only in quantitative terms (i.e. number of newly established ventures, but also in qualitative terms (i.e. proportion of innovative firms, intensity of knowledge and technological level, degree of internationalization etc.. Indeed, entrepreneurship takes different forms ranging from an alternative to employment (self-employed to creation of innovative, competitive and fast growing enterprises. It is also recognized the corporate entrepreneurship, the social entrepreneurship and even the entrepreneurship in the public sector. Different forms of entrepreneurship have a different impact in terms of general progress. Scholars have shown that context is an important factor explaining the variability of entrepreneurship outcomes, calling for a better understanding of the business environment influence on the intensity and quality of the entrepreneurial activity.

  12. Response of Sphagna to the changing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Karsisto, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During last decade, considerable interest has been focused to assess the influence of human activities on ecosystems. The increasing trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} has been predicted to continue till the next century and the amount of nitrogen deposition in the northern hemisphere has increased markedly. Substantial interest has been focused on predicting how these changes will affect on plants. Most boreal mire ecosystems are dominated by mosses of the genus Sphagnum, the litter of which constitutes the main component in the peat deposits and is an important CO{sub 2} sink via peat formation. Since virtually nothing was known about the growth response of peat mosses to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and alerting changes in species composition were detected in the sensitive ombrotrophic mire vegetation under increased N deposition in central Europe, this study was established. Laboratory experiments focused on measurements of the patterns of growth, production and plant metabolism at increased CO{sub 2} and N deposition levels in peat moss species. Long term field experiments were established to study the growth response and spatial competition of two interacting Sphagnum species under the increased nitrogen deposition levels

  13. Controlling risk in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competitive pressures in the electric utility industry today demand an unprecedented focus on improving efficiency and cost effectiveness. Work processes and practices that, in some cases, have been in place for years are now being examined and changed in attempts to achieve better results. When such changes are made in nuclear plant work processes, however, the resulting impact on nuclear risk is a potential concern. Two types of risk must be considered: (a) the direct impact of new processes that might inadvertently introduce new safety concerns and (b) the indirect effects on safety due to worker morale and motivation. Work processes and practices at the GPU nuclear stations at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island (TMI) were developed and put in place in the period following the TMI-2 accident. During this period, great emphasis was placed on installing work processes that attempted to avoid errors through a multiplicity of checks and overchecks. During 1991, GPUN senior management initiated a substantial effort to achieve major improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of key work processes, while maintaining and even enhancing nuclear safety

  14. Efficiency of complex production in changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levanon Erez Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell function necessitates the assemblage of proteins into complexes, a process which requires further regulation on top of the fairly understood mechanisms used to control the transcription and translation of a single protein. However, not much is known about how protein levels are controlled to realize that regulation. Results We integrated data on the composition of yeast protein complexes and the dynamics of their protein building-blocks concentrations to show how the cell regulates protein levels to optimize complex formation. We find that proteins which are subunits of the same complex tend to have similar levels which change similarly following a change in growth conditions, and that abundant proteins undergo larger decrease in their copy number when grown in minimal media. We also study the fluctuations in protein levels and find them to be significantly smaller in large complexes, and in the least abundant subunit of each complex. We use a mathematical model of complex synthesis to explain how all these observations increase the efficiency of complex synthesis, in terms of better utilization of the available molecules and better resilience to stochastic variations. Conclusion In conclusion, these results indicate an intricate regulation at all levels of protein production for the purpose of optimizing complex formation.

  15. Japan's Orientation towards Foreign Investments: Inertia Effects and Driving Force of Institutional Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nir Kshetri; Ralf Bebenroth

    2012-01-01

    We use an institutional perspective to develop a framework for understanding the contexts, mechanisms and processes associated with institutions and institutional changes related to foreign investment in Japan. We examine power dynamics and relational boundaries between diverse actors and analyze why and how some components of institutions have changed and others have not. Also explored in this paper are the conflicting discourses that have been raised in regards to the participation of forei...

  16. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Cerovic; Pero Petrovic; Stanislav Cerovic

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed t...

  17. Bayreuth Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (BITOEK). Research report 1994. Predicting and explaining the response and critical threshold of ecosystems to changing environment; Bayreuter Institut fuer Terrestrische Oekosystemforschung (BITOeK). Forschungsbericht 1994. Vorhersage und Erklaerung des Verhaltens und der Belastbarkeit von Oekosystemen unter veraenderten Umweltbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, E.; Gollan, T.; Hauhs, M.; Huwe, B.

    1995-05-01

    Understanding the function and critical thresholds of ecosystems is a supposition for their appropriate management. Thus the aim of BITOEK is to understand and predict the impact of changing environmental conditions on forest ecosystems. Focus is given to the effects of decreasing S inputs, chronically high N inputs and to the regulation of transpiration. Investigations are conducted on various temporal and spatial scales reaching from short term laboratory to several year field studies. Generalization of the results is the aim of modelling and ecosystem-theroy. BITOe?`K has shown, - that the N load of forest ecosystems is higher than assumed, - that N-deposition causes several destabilizing changes in forest ecosystems, - that N deposition influences water quality from forested catchments, - that the N emissions needs a drastic decrease in order to match critical loads, - that decreasing S deposition does not immediately result in recovery of soils and groundwater, - that soil and water acidification will continue to be high - that the ground vegetation adds significantly to the total transpiration of forests, - that the transpiration can be quantitatively modelled on various scales. The results demonstrate the strong implication of atmospheric pollutants on the functioning of forest ecosystems and will find their application in forest- and water management, nature conservation, and air pollution strategies. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der oekologisch vertraegliche Umgang mit Oekosystemen setzt die Kenntnis ihrer Funktionsweise und Belastbarkeit vorraus. Ziel der Arbeiten von BITOeK ist daher die Erklaerung und Vorhersage der Effekte von Umweltveraenderungen in Waldoekosystemen. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die Auswirkungen verminderter S-Eintraege, chronisch ueberhoehter N-Eintraege und die Regulation der Verdunstung durch Umweltfaktoren. Die Untersuchungen finden auf verschiedenen Ebenen der raeumlichen und zeitlichen Aufloesung statt und reichen von relativ kurzfristigen

  18. Changing rice environment in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The net effects of climate change on rice yields are difficult to predict. Rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere could lead to yield increases whereas atmospheric pollutants could cause yields to decline. Almost nothing is known about the concentration of ozone in the Philippines and in 2001, the authors began to monitor it in Los Banos using automated environmental monitoring system (EMS) that was installed at the IRRI. Samples of air were collected at 3 m height, 1.4 m height, and 0.1 m above the crop canopy. The samples were automatically pumped into the EMS and analyzed for SO2, NO, NOx and O3 concentrations. Hourly mean gas concentrations were recorded for 3 years (2001-2003) on a data logger. This study investigates diurnal and seasonal patterns on real-time concentrations of SO2, NO, NOx, and O3 collected at IRRI. The highest recorded ozone concentrations was 91.4 ppb at noon of 26 Aug 2002. The mean daily (24-hr) concentration of O3 was about 26 ppb. Studies in Europe have shown that such levels can reduce yields by about 20-40%. Ozone concentrations increase with high solar radiation (40 MJ/sq m) and daily maximum temperature (30 deg C). Ozone is produced in a series of reactions involving emissions from motor vehicles mainly in the form of nitrogen oxides. The ozone is related to nitrogen oxide concentration. The observed quantities of NOx in the air depend on motor vehicle emissions, moisture content, and wind direction. The SO2 levels are generally low (10 ppb). Tropospheric pollution appears to be closely linked with the local level of commuter activities

  19. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:27263232

  20. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrie Gilly; Sohonpal Gundeep; Lange Kylie; Golley Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. M...

  1. Changing environments: Coping with diversity and globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nuclear industry representatives such as WANO and the OECD/NEA should develop a strategic plan to correct this issue. How regulatory authorities should be informed and/or responsible for approving significant organizational change in utilities should be considered by the IAEA and other nuclear organizations to provide consensus guidance in this area

  2. Determinants of the acquisition of listed versus unlisted firms in different legal and institutional environments

    OpenAIRE

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Fernández Álvarez, Ana Isabel; Menéndez-Requejo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of the decision to acquire unlisted rather than listed firms in different legal and institutional environments. Our results show that managerial opportunism is a determinant in the acquisition of listed firms, occurring with greater probability in acquiring countries with limited shareholder and minority shareholder protection. Information asymmetry is another relevant determinant that promotes the acquisitions of unlisted firms. Furthermor...

  3. From Cost-Benefit to Institutional Analysis in The Economics of the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Slavikova

    2013-01-01

    Economics of the environment as an applied field of economics was established during the 1960s. At the time of its foundation, neoclassical environmental economics represented the mainstream view regarding the explanation of the causes of environmental problems and their solutions. Since then, however, two other competing approaches - the free market and institutional ecological economics - have evolved. These two new approaches present different analytical focuses as they stress the role of ...

  4. University institutional repositories: competitive environment and their role as communication media of scientific knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Conde, Enar; Calderón-Martínez, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Are institutional repositories mere warehouses for digital documents or are they in fact establishing themselves as a rigorous option for the spread of scientific knowledge? This study analyses the competitive environment of the Top100 university repositories, defined as leaders in terms of market participation and penetration. The study also analyses the basic functionalities of preservation and diffusion of academic production through factors related to the prestige of the repositories and ...

  5. A Tale of Two Provinces: The Institutional Environment and Foreign Ownership in China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yasheng; Di, Wenhua

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we use a unique dataset covering joint ventures in two provinces of China, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, to test the effect of the institutional environment for domestic private firms on ownership structures of FDI projects. Unlike many studies on this subject, we approach the issue from the perspective of local firms seeking FDI rather than from the perspective of foreign firms seeking to invest in China. Applying the prevailing bargaining framework in studies on ownership structures ...

  6. A service-based framework to facilitate the interoperability between personal and institutional learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Conde García, Miguel Ángel; Francisco José GARCÍA PEÑALVO; Alier Forment, Marc; Mayol Sarroca, Enric

    2012-01-01

    The application of the Information and Communications Technology to teaching and learning processes implies a revolution in the tools employed to carry out learning activities. Especially the learning platforms are one of most relevant tools; they provide services both for teachers and students to facilitate their work. However, such platforms are mostly focused on the course and the institution and no so much in the specific needs of the user. This means that other kind of environments are ...

  7. Linking Student Evaluations to Institutional Goals: A Change Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    For the past 30?years, beginning with the seminal work of Herbert Marsh in Australia and New Zealand, institutions of higher education have developed internal practices and procedures to collect and analyse student evaluations of teaching and learning. However, the question remains: has this development resulted in the achievement of institutional…

  8. Development of Recommendations on Improvement of the Institutional Environment of the Educational System of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Timiryasova; L. N. Safiullin; T. V. Kramin; L. V. Vorontsova

    2015-01-01

    The work is devoted to improving the institutional environment of the educational system of Russia as a base forfurther transformation of the institutional environment and innovation activity of the economic system in Russiaunder the accelerating processes of globalization and increasing international competition on the educationalservices market, using the intellectual capital theory.

  9. The General Picture of Supportive Health Environments for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities among 121 Disability Welfare Institutions in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.-D.; Yen, C.-F.; Loh, C.-H.; Chwo, M.-J.; Lee, J.-T.; Wu, J.-L.; Chu, C. M.; Tang, C.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Little information is available on the provision of supportive health environments for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) in institutions. The aim of this study was to present an overview of supportive environments for health in institutions in Taiwan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the perceptions…

  10. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  11. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  12. Instituting Change in Early Childhood Education: Recent Developments in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve preschool education, the Singapore government has embraced the need for change by identifying needed policies related to preschool education. These changes require teachers to rethink their approach to learning and teaching. A proposed tool suggested in this paper that may help facilitate curriculum change is the use of…

  13. Institutions for climate change - A method to assess the inherent characteristics of institutions to enable the adaptive capacity of society

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, J.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Meijerink, S.; Brink, van den, Paul J.; P. de Jong; Nooteboom, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: How can the inherent characteristics of institutions to stimulate the adaptive capacity of society to climate change from local through to national level be assessed? On the basis of a literature review and several brainstorm sessions, this paper presents six criteria: Variety, learning capacity, space for planned and innovative autonomous action, leadership, availability of resources and fair governance.

  14. Sino-Japanese Teamwork Probes Environment Changes on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the support of a CAS project on Holocene environmental changes and their influences on the ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau, a research group headed by Prof. Zhu Liping from the CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and their Japanese collaborators carried out a field survey in Puma Yumco area on the Tibetan Plateau from September 8 to 20.

  15. The Changing Information Needs of Users in Electronic Information Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Gashaw

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the information needs of users that are changing as a results of changes in the availability of information content in electronic form. Highlights the trend and nature of the physical form in which information content is currently being made available for users' access and use in electronic information environments. (Author/LRW)

  16. Business environment change and decision making mechanism of nuclear generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change magnitude of business environment for Japanese nuclear generators is significant. It is rapidly growing in the last several years. There are possibilities that the change might impact to management model of nuclear generators. In the paper, the impact to management model, especially, decision making mechanism of the generators is discussed. (author)

  17. Institutional change through discursive opportunities : The path to marriage equality in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Covaciu, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The thesis investigates the institutional change in the case of the same-sex marriage referendum in Ireland. By using theories of discursive opportunity, framing and institutional change the study traces the public discourse on homosexuality, and analyzes which opportunities for progressive gay rights policies it presented. The focus is particularly on three informal institutions: marriage, family and religion which are at the center of controversy in the case of same-sex marriage. The first ...

  18. Climate change adaptation of the built environment – an examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    In a Danish context, climate changes are primarily manifested in an interaction between modified wind and precipitation patterns, increasing temperature and a rising sea level. The individual factors often act together and are reinforced in interaction with already known natural and cultural...... assess for example a building, and anthropogenic impacts on the environment, also the impact of the environment on installations, and on the human activities must be included in the analysis and assessments. Based on observations and investigations into climate change adaptation in DK and abroad the...... research project, Waterscape (Vandskab), focus on some of the challenges that the architectural disciplines are facing in relation to climate changes adaptation....

  19. Reassembling scholarly publishing: Institutional repositories, open access, and the process of change

    OpenAIRE

    Kennan, Mary Anne; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka

    2007-01-01

    The domain of scholarly publishing is undergoing rapid change. Change has been instigated and produced by the Internet and open access systems – such as disciplinary and institutional repositories and open access journals. However traditional scholarly publishing is strengthening its hold over prestigious journals thus resisting change. How then does the change come about? An attempt at answering this question led us to examine an institutional repository initiative in a University. As we ide...

  20. Institutional Change and Leadership Associated with Blended Learning Innovation: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, D. Randy; Vaughan, Norman D.

    2013-01-01

    This article documents the institutional change and leadership associated with blended learning innovation in higher education. Two case studies are provided that demonstrate how transformational institutional change related to blended teaching and learning approaches is predicated upon committed collaborative leadership that engages all levels of…

  1. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Coninck, H.C. de; Puig, D.

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systema...

  2. The Effects of Institutional Change in European Soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco A.; Koning, Ruud H.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    The last decades have seen two profound changes in European soccer. First, international trade in talent has increased markedly. Second, international competitions such as the Champions League have become much more important. Using a theoretical model, we study how these changes affect competitive b

  3. Changing to problem-oriented methods. Implementation in psychiatric institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, B; Alvis, J; Zarour, N

    1976-08-01

    The so-called problem-oriented methods for organizing and recording clinical information offer many potential benefits to users in psychiatric institutions. Beyond the mechanical aspects of implementation, incorporating a problem-oriented approach into the practices of clinical teams entails conceptual and practical readjustments of considerable magnitude. Based on an 18-month study of eight psychiatric teams with diverse characteristics, the paper discusses rationales and priorities, as well as administrative and educational considerations in the conversion process. Such a process must be studied and understood in setting objectives and channeling resources, if outcomes are to match the expectations. PMID:1085344

  4. The Changing Nature of International Institutions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, Thomas; Manners, Ian; Whitman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The European Union is often compared to other political systems in order to better understand its basic features and how they structure politics. This article argues that this focus on comparative politics instils a domestic bias into the study of the EU, which also ignores the impact of...... goal of the international order of the society of states, the preservation of states as its fundamental units, has been replaced by the goal of the preservation of peace in Europe. Consequently, the five core institutions of international order identified by Bull (balance of power, international law...

  5. FEATURES OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE CIS COUNTRIES: DOES INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Viktorovna Ostapenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of small businesses at the national level through a comparative analysis between the former Soviet countries – Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan. These countries are comparable by the previous path dependence (the period of the USSR, communism, by the position of the geographical location, as well as by similarity of cultural development. As can be seen from the analysis, which was conducted in article, the quantitative characteristics of small business development in the above countries are similar, based on the dependence on foreign markets and conditions in national economies. However, qualitative indicators of small business development in these countries are different. These differences can be attributed to the activities of the institutional environment (formal and informal institutions and its impact on the national economy. Conclusions about the effectiveness of quality of development of small business sector through the analysis of its contribution to the national economy are done.

  6. Verification ghosts. The changing political environment of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years ago, Dr. Hans Blix wrote in the IAEA Bulletin of a 'general optimism about further arms control and verification.' At the time, world events warranted such a prognosis; the IAEA was riding a wave of momentum after its instrumental role in the roll-back of the South African nuclear weapons program and bringing Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan into the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear-weapon States. The NPT's indefinite extension was only two years old, and the most pressing challenges, while recognizable, were somewhat stagnant. Today, some tidings elicit similar optimism. The IAEA's increasing efforts to combat terrorism and the decision by Member States to depart from nearly 20 years of zero real growth budgetary policy are remarkable testaments to the Agency's adaptability and credibility in the face of new threats. And with the worldwide frenzy over terrorism and redoubled phobia of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the Agency garners public attention now as never before. Emblematic of this recent upsurge in political attention, US President George W. Bush's annual State of the Union address in 2003 mentioned supporting the IAEA as a specific priority of his administration, the first mention of the Agency in that speech since President Eisenhower in 1961 lauded its creation under 'Atoms for Peace'. Such visibility portends a future with prospects for overcoming bureaucratic inertia and effecting significant changes to the Agency's benefit. But with that visibility has come an uncertainty about the IAEA's role in world affairs. Despite being able to resolve most benign problems more easily, the Agency must operate in an environment haunted by the non-proliferation analogue of Charles Dickens' triumvirate specters: the ghosts of verification challenges past, present and future -namely, the cessation of UN-mandated inspections in Iraq, the difficulties ensuring compliance in North Korea and Iran, and the need to maintain the IAEA

  7. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  8. Evaluating model of frozen soil environment change under engineering actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingbai(吴青柏); ZHU; Yuanlin(朱元林); LIU; Yongzhi(刘永智)

    2002-01-01

    The change of frozen soil environment is evaluated by permafrost thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability and the quantitatively evaluating model of frozen soil environment is proposed in this paper. The evaluating model of frozen soil environment is calculated by 28 ground temperature measurements along Qinghai-Xizang Highway. The relationships of thermal thaw sensibility and freezing and thawing processes and seasonally thawing depth, thermal stability and permafrost table temperature, mean annual ground temperature and seasonally thawing depth, and surface landscape stability and freezing and thawing hazards and their forming possibility are analyzed. The results show that thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability can be used to evaluate and predict the change of frozen soil environment under human engineering action.

  9. Instituting Cultural Change at a Major Organization: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulek, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the development and implementation of a strategic cultural change program from a case study perspective. Initially, the article describes how the program was developed, including an explanation as to how a communication component was integrated into the program from inception. This integration helped reduce the anxiety that…

  10. Are Dutch water safety Institutions prepared for climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den M.A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Meijerink, S.

    2011-01-01

    For the water sector, adapting to the effects of climate change is a highly complex issue. Due to its geographical position, The Netherlands is vulnerable to sea level rise, increasing river discharges and increasing salt intrusion. Th is paper deals with the question of to what extent the historica

  11. Are Dutch water safety institutions prepared for climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Margo; Termeer, Catrien; Meijerink, Sander

    2011-01-01

    For the water sector, adapting to the effects of climate change is a highly complex issue. Due to its geographical position, The Netherlands is vulnerable to sea level rise, increasing river discharges and increasing salt intrusion. This paper deals with the question of to what extent the historical

  12. Evolution of normative and institutional mechanism of climate change problems’ solution

    OpenAIRE

    Бардіна, О.

    2015-01-01

    This article researches the international institutions, which play an important role in climate change problems solving. The subject of the article is very important in the light of increasing role of international regulation of the climate change problem. As far as the climate change is a global problem its solving shall be implemented by the international organizations because such institutions are made by states for cooperation abroad. The League of Nations and United Nations were innovati...

  13. Confronting the Consequences of a Permanent Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ioana Vosloban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and governments choose how they wish to deal with change. Whether this change is organizational, technological, political, financial etc or even individual pursuing actions as usual is likely to lead to a downward path. The authors of this paper are giving a set of tools for confronting and understanding the consequences of this era of permanent changes by building strengths and seeking opportunities within organizations (private or public and within family (including friends. The work environment and the personal life of the individual have a common point which is adaptability, coping efficiently with changes, a demanded ability of the 3rd millennium human being.

  14. BUSINESS STRATEGIES IN UNSTABLE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT – CASE OF BRIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Rakita,

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The visionary idea of BRIC1 countries and their leading position in the development of globaleconomy, conceived by the leading investment bank Goldman Sachs more than a decade ago, cameunder heavy skepticism. However, what many doubted came true. At the end of 2011 BRIC countriesgenerated approximately 26% of global GDP, and their share in the growth of global GDP was morethan 50%. The impressive growth of BRIC countries has been in large measure due to FDI inflow2.Intensive FDI inflow and economic development have not been followed by improved institutionalefficiency. This article will show that inefficient institutions in BRIC countries have not beendiscouraging to MNCs3, who were predominantly led by the extent and the growth dynamics of themarket. Modifications to business strategies applied in developed countries by MNCs, in order tomanage unstable institutional environment in BRIC countries, will be analyzed. The conclusion isthat the key modification is establishment of strong relationships with local stakeholders, in order forMNCs to gain necessary knowledge of the new business environment and create a sound basis forinstitutional efficiency improvement.

  15. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several...... intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...... further developed include knowledge development, legitimation and marketformation. These could be focal areas for the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. We recommendthat, in future programmes, part of the funding is dedicated to programmes doingresearch and development as well as capability development....

  16. INIST : Tracking Grey Literature in a Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2000-01-01

    The Institute of Scientific & Technical Information (INIST, www.inist.fr), founded in '88 and part of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS, www.cnrs.fr), is a major public database producer (Pascal, Francis) and document supply center. Since 1998, INIST has engaged in a collective reflection on its databases, services and acquisition policy to face up with electronic document and rapidly changing needs. Our approach to "non-conventional literature" (reports, theses, confer...

  17. Workplace learning for information professionals in a changing information environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sacchanand, Chutima

    2000-01-01

    Changes are taking place in society, particularly in higher education. The explosionof knowledge and information technology has virtually altered the characteristics of the learning environment, paving the way for new learning experiences. This is having a dramatic impact on the library and information profession, leading to changes in the continuing education of information professionals. This paper focuses on the role that workplace learning plays in the continuing education of library and...

  18. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de, J.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages to people, the environment and the economy. Not surprisingly, governments currently enact powerful incentives for the development and exploitation of bio ethanol. However, every inch we come closer...

  19. Models for supporting forest management in a changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, L.; Bontemps, J.D.; Bugmann, H.; Oijen, van, P.H.; C. Gracia; Kramer, K.; Lindner, M.; Rötzer, T.; Skovsgaard, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Forests are experiencing an environment that changes much faster than during the past several hundred years. In addition, the abiotic factors determining forest dynamics vary depending on its location. Forest modeling thus faces the new challenge of supporting forest management in the context of environmental change. This review focuses on three types of models that are used in forest management: empirical (EM), process-based (PBM) and hybrid models. Recent approaches may lead to the ap...

  20. Sudden transition and sudden change from open spin environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of sudden transition or sudden change phenomenon for appropriate initial states under dephasing. As illustrative examples, we study the behaviors of quantum correlation dynamics of two noninteracting qubits in independent and common open spin environments, respectively. For the independent environments case, we find that the quantum correlation dynamics is closely related to the Loschmidt echo and the dynamics exhibits a sudden transition from classical to quantum correlation decay. It is also shown that the sudden change phenomenon may occur for the common environment case and stationary quantum discord is found at the high temperature region of the environment. Finally, we investigate the quantum criticality of the open spin environment by exploring the probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo and the scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord, respectively. - Highlights: • Sudden transition or sudden change from open spin baths are studied. • Quantum discord is related to the Loschmidt echo in independent open spin baths. • Steady quantum discord is found in a common open spin bath. • The probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo is analyzed. • The scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord is displayed

  1. Action Research’s Potential to Foster Institutional Change for Urban Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Zikos; Andreas Thiel

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the potential of action research to meet the challenges entailed in institutional design for urban water management. Our overall aim is to briefly present action research and discuss its methodological merits with regard to the challenges posed by the different conceptual bases for extrapolating the effects of institutional design on institutional change. Thus, our aim is to explore how Action Research meets the challenge of scoping the field in an open fashion for determi...

  2. Prospective NATO or EU membership and institutional change in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Bordon, Ingo G.; Melnykovska, Inna; Schweickert, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    This paper quantifies the impact of incentives related to potential membership on institutional change as measured by the World Bank Governance Indicators (WBGI). Based on a panel of 25 transition countries for the period from 1996 to 2008 we show that pre-accession incentives provided by EU and NATO clearly matter for institutional development. In addition, path-dependency determined by cultural norms may be overcome by economic liberalization while foreign aid seems to hamper institutional ...

  3. Challenging financial Institutions in the region on organizational culture change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dritan Abazi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The father of modern management, Peter Drucker, concluded that “We are in one of those great historical periods that occur every 200 ore 300 years when people don’t understand the world anymore, and the past is not sufficient to explain the future”. We think that organizational culture is equal to quality management. At the same time, we think that quality management is determinant in the organizational performance. If management understands the preferred corporate culture of its organization, it can take steps to create or maintain that culture. Importantly, the people-management policies and procedures should be adjusted to align with and support the desired culture. Eventually, the competition for capital in the banking sectors will increase. This will push banks to look for ways to improve ROE or share price, depending on the markets. In other markets, this has led banks to get into risk areas that are not well understood by many, leading to losses. Our research also highlights an important potential competitive advantage for banks in the region. Increasing creativity should lead to new business opportunities. Creating a culture of creativity in banks in the region would be a challenging. Changing organizational culture is a challenging process and should not be influenced only by external environmental factors or the decision-making of the management, strengthening the organizational culture should be a process that must involve the entire organization by taking into account the preferred culture that is affected by local cultures and environmental changes.

  4. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The Academic Training is postponed.

  5. Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Ramsey

    2013-01-01

    Book review of Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment. Naomi F. Miller, Katherine M. Moore, Kathleen Ryan, editors. 2011. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Pp. 352, 73 illustrations. $65.00 (cloth). ISBN 9787934536193.

  6. Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ramsey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment. Naomi F. Miller, Katherine M. Moore, Kathleen Ryan, editors. 2011. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Pp. 352, 73 illustrations. $65.00 (cloth. ISBN 9787934536193.

  7. The quality of political news in a changing media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    What do ongoing changes in the media environment, notably the perceived popularization of news and the shift towards individualized online media, mean for political news quality, both in terms of what it is, as well as how we measure it? This dissertation firstly argues, based on a literature review

  8. The Changing Role of Team Leadership in Multinational Project Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thamhain

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The influences of business environment and leadership style on team performance are examined in a field study of 37 technology-based projects. The findings provide insight into the changing business environment, as well as the leadership style and organizational conditions most conducive to high project performance in complex multinational project environments. One of the most striking finding is the large number of performance factors associated with the human side. Organizational conditions that satisfy personal and professional needs seem to have a strong effect on collaboration, commitment, risk management, and ultimately overall team performance. The paper provides a framework for assessing leadership effectiveness and suggests conditions favorable for building and managing high-performance project teams in complex, globally dispersed project environments.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i2.110

  9. Changing Labour Markets in Europe: The Role of Institutions and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains five papers on the role of institutions in changing labor markets in Europe. "Introduction" (Peter Auer) explores the following topics: institutions and labor market forces; macroeconomic policy; redistribution of working times; equality of opportunity; and industrial relations and social dialogue. "Small-Economy Macroeconomics"…

  10. Use of an Institutional Personal Learning Environment to support learning actions in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Pérez Cascante

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents a pilot experience on the use of an Institutional Personal Learning Environment (iPLE which aimed to describe the conception, design and development of the iPLE, as well as to determine how users approached the iPLE, and to identify the structure of the Personal Learning Environments (PLEs designed by students. Method: The iPLE supported graduated students - specialized on research for social sciences and education –of the University Casa Grande (Guayaquil, Ecuador - in the development of their final master projects and to support other people interested in building and using a PLE. The experiment data sources included academic records, virtual classrooms design, the very PLEs built by the students, statistics of use and access to the iPLE; and a questionnaire held to the participants. Results: The initial results allow the research team to report a favorable acceptance of the iPLE by the students not only as a support for research work, but also to provide a model for the construction of PLEs. In addition, the questionnaire shows that the users of the iPLE rated the environment as having high usability and felt a high grade of satisfaction. Conclusions: The conclusions point out different lines of research related to iPLEs, such as use an iPLE as portfolio of evidence and interaction among students, peers and teachers or the customization of an iPLE by using technological and teaching learning resources.

  11. An ontological framework for requirement change management in distributed environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global Software Development (GSD) is getting fame in the software industry gradually. However, in GSD, multiple and diverse stakeholders are involved in the development of complex software systems. GSD introduces several challenges, i.e. physical distance, time zone, culture difference, language barriers. As requirements play a significant role in any software development. The greatest challenge in GSD environment is to maintain a consistent view of the system even if the requirements change. But at the same time single change in the requirement might affect several other modules. In GSD different people use terms and have different ways of expressing the concepts for which people at remote sites are unable to get uniformity regarding the semantics of the terms. In a global environment requires effective communication and coordination. However, to overcome inconsistencies and ambiguities among the team members and to make the team members aware of the consistent view, a shared and common understanding is required. In this paper an approach beneficial to software industry has been proposed, focusing on changing requirements in a Global Software Development environment. A case study has been used for the evaluation of the proposed approach. Therefore, Requirements change management process has been improved by applying the approach of the case study. The proposed approach is beneficial to the software development organizations where frequent changes occur. It guided the software industry to provide the common understandings to all the development teams residing in remote locations. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the Teaching Standards at Institutions of Higher Education Looks Forward to "Five Changes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhentian, Liu

    2009-01-01

    In order to promote the sustained and healthy development of teaching evaluation work, five changes should be brought about in the evaluation of the level of undergraduate teaching at China's institutions of higher education: Change teaching evaluation from a specific item of work to a system of a long-term and normative nature; change teaching…

  13. An Examination of Organizational Change through Nevada's Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    There is limited research on how postsecondary institutions prepare to become HSIs. This chapter examines organizational change through a group of emerging HSIs and their governance, policy, and leadership.

  14. Making it Rich and Personal: crafting an institutional personal learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    White, Su; Davis, Hugh C.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the communities interested in learning and teaching technologies within higher education now accept the view that a conception of personal learning environments provides a the most realistic and workable perspective of learners’ interactions with and use of technology. This view may not be reflected in the behaviour of those parts of a university which normally purchase and deploy technology infrastructure. These departments or services are slow to change because they are typically, a...

  15. Making it rich and personal: the personal path to institutional learning environments (Invited talk)

    OpenAIRE

    White, Su

    2011-01-01

    The world is changing and universities must respond to students’ needs and expectations in agile and effective ways. Learners enter university with an inevitable diversity of technological familiarity and a mix of naïve and sophisticated approaches to using technology as a part of their learning. The University of Southampton has designed and is implementing a holistic learning environment radically different from the VLEs which have gained widespread use since the late 1990s. Starting from t...

  16. Origins of institutional change: Brazilian alcohol fuel program between 1975 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollinaho, O.I.

    2012-07-01

    In this dissertation, I study the origins of institutional change. In organizational institutionalism institutional change is seen as being triggered either by exogenous shocks or by endogenous factors. I propose to see the origins of change instead through the dichotomy of cognitive versus material. One rationale for this is that, when addressing more broadly dispersed societal practices, the distinction between endogenous and exogenous loses its meaning. Another reason is that without taking materiality into account in a more comprehensive manner, institutional theory is toothless against the vast material fluxes that human activity, patterned as established practices, produces and consumes. Human activity is transforming the very basis of its foundation: raw material sources, ecosystems and even the climate of the planet. Not only does human activity have an impact on the planet, but the materiality in which we live, has its impact on our activity. I argue that changes in materiality affect our habitualized activities depending on how these changes are produced. This setting requires a more comprehensive relating of material and cognitive processes, something that I attempt to elucidate in this dissertation. I ground my conceptual development in the German sociology of knowledge, foremost in the writings of Alfred Schuetz and Thomas Luckmann. Established practices related to fossil fuels are central with regard to the adverse impacts of human activity. I study arguably the most successful attempt to deviate from these patterns: Proalcool. This ambitious Brazilian biofuel program was launched in 1975. Although alcohol was generally argued to be the definitive Brazilian solution and alcohol cars dominated the scene in the 1980s, by the end of the 1990s the program had lost its legitimacy and was seen as baggage to be done away with. I reconstruct the evolution of the program from 1975 to 2000 as a detailed narrative based on some 4000 news articles published in a

  17. A Discourse Analytical Approach to Understanding Institutional Changes in the Irish Advertising Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hand, Rosie; Samra-Fredericks, Dalvir, Professor; Pick, Polly

    2014-01-01

    The central objective of the research upon which this paper draws is to establish how technological, economic and socio-cultural change has impacted the structures, roles and processes of the Irish Advertising Industry. Institutional theory provides the central theoretical framework. The research takes an interpretivist, constructionist and inductivist perspective and employs the methodological approach of discourse analysis to explore how institutions are being shaped and arguably changed by...

  18. Accounting Change and Institutional Capacity: The Case of a Provincial Government in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haryono P. Kamase; Harun Harun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a reporting system change of a provincial government in Indonesia. The study also draws attention to the institutional capacity of the provincial administration andimplementation problems it encountered in adopting an accrual accounting system. Following the work of Lapsley and Pallot (2000), this study uses economic and institutional perspectives in conceptualising how an accounting change has been undertaken. The study shows that from an economic based perspective, the a...

  19. The Sub-Saharan Africa Challenge Program: An experiment in mainstreaming institutional learning and change

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Anne Starks; Jones, Monty; von Kaufmann, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Sub-Saharan Africa Challenge Program (SSA CP) shows how the principles of institutional learning and change (ILAC) can be applied. This Brief outlines the basic components of the SSA CP and highlights various ILAC features of the Program. These include an innovation systems orientation; an approach to ‘thinking globally and acting locally’; the location of research within a broader context of policy, market and institutional change; and an emphasis on collaboration and learning among prog...

  20. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...... the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces...

  1. China's Dilemma: Economic Growth, the Environment and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Wing Thye; Song, Ligang

    2008-01-01

    China’s Dilemma—Economic Growth, the Environment and Climate Change examines the challenges China will have to confront in order to maintain rapid growth while coping with the global financial turbulence, some rising socially destabilising tensions such as income inequality, an over-exploited environment and the long-term pressures of global warming. China’s Dilemma discusses key questions that will have an impact on China’s growth path and offers some in-depth analyses as to how China co...

  2. The DIII-D computing environment: characteristics and recent changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DIII-D tokamak national fusion research facility along with its predecessor Doublet III has been operating for over 21 years. The DIII-D computing environment consists of: real-time systems controlling the tokamak, heating systems, and diagnostics, and systems acquiring experimental data from instrumentation; major data analysis server nodes performing short term and long term data access and data analysis; and systems providing mechanisms for remote collaboration and the dissemination of information over the world wide web. Computer systems for the facility have undergone incredible changes over the course of time as the computer industry has changed dramatically. Yet there are certain valuable characteristics of the DIII-D computing environment that have been developed over time and have been maintained to this day. Some of these characteristics include: continuous computer infrastructure improvements, distributed data and data access, computing platform integration, and remote collaborations. These characteristics are being carried forward as well as new characteristics resulting from recent changes which have included: a dedicated storage system and a hierarchical storage management system for raw shot data, various further infrastructure improvements including deployment of Fast Ethernet, the introduction of MDSplus, Load Sharing Facility (LSF) and common IDL based graphics tools, and improvements to remote collaboration capabilities. This paper will describe this computing environment, important characteristics that over the years have contributed to the success of DIII-D computing systems, and recent changes to computer systems

  3. Human emotions track changes in the acoustic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Thompson, William Forde

    2015-11-24

    Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds. PMID:26553987

  4. Action Research’s Potential to Foster Institutional Change for Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Zikos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the potential of action research to meet the challenges entailed in institutional design for urban water management. Our overall aim is to briefly present action research and discuss its methodological merits with regard to the challenges posed by the different conceptual bases for extrapolating the effects of institutional design on institutional change. Thus, our aim is to explore how Action Research meets the challenge of scoping the field in an open fashion for determining the appropriate mechanisms of institutional change and supporting the emerging of new water institutions. To accomplish this aim, we select the Water Framework Directive (WFD as an illustrative driving force requiring changes in water management practices and implying the need for the emergence of new institutions. We employ a case of urban water management in the Volos Metropolitan Area, part of the Thessaly region in Greece, where a Pilot River Basin Plan was implemented. By applying action research and being involved in a long process of interaction between stakeholders, we examine the emergence of new institutions dealing with urban water management under the general principles of the major driving force for change: the WFD.

  5. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  6. Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society (CLICHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, J.; Korhola, A.; Väliranta, M.; Seppä, H.; Luoto, M.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Leppäranta, M.; Kahilainen, K.; Saarinen, J.; Heikkinen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The predicted climate warming has raised many questions and concerns about its impacts on the environment and society. As a respond to the need of holistic studies comprising both of these areas, The Academy of Finland launched The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (FICCA 2011-2014) in spring 2010 with the main aim to focus on the interaction between the environment and society. Ultimately 11 national consortium projects were funded (total budget 12 million EUR). Here we shortly present the main objectives of the largest consortium project "Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society" (CLICHE). The CLICHE consortium comprises eight interrelated work packages (treeline, diversity, peatlands, snow, lakes, fish, tourism, and traditional livelihoods), each led by a prominent research group and a team leader. The research consortium has three main overall objectives: 1) Investigate, map and model the past, present and future climate change-induced changes in central ecosystems of the European Arctic with unprecedented precision 2) Deepen our understanding of the basic principles of ecosystem and social resilience and dynamics; identify key taxa, structures or processes that clearly indicate impending or realised global change through their loss, occurrence or behaviour, using analogues from the past (e.g. Holocene Thermal Maximum, Medieval Warm Period), experiments, observations and models 3) Develop adaptation and mitigation strategies to minimize the adverse effects of climate change on local communities, traditional livelihoods, fisheries, and tourism industry, and promote sustainable development of local community structures and enhance the quality of life of local human populations. As the project has started only recently no final results are available yet. However, the fieldwork as well as the co-operation between the research teams has thus far been very successful. Thus, the expectations for the final outcome of the project

  7. Global Environments through the Quaternary – Exploring Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Rose Mills

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Born from a series of volumes titled Environmental Change, first printed in 1976, this book is the second edition of a revised history of the global environment published in 2013. It is the collaborative work of David Anderson, Andrew Goudie, and Adrian Parker, all experts in the field of geography, with Parker also having a background in anthropology. Global Environments through the Quaternary provides a general scientific guide to interpreting environmental change. It is aimed at a wide audience and has a full glossary of less well known terms for added clarity. It would be a good accompaniment to a geoarchaeology course or for those interested in the history of environmental fluctuation, with its particular strengths lying in the concise and accessible presentation of scientific data. This enables it to work well as a reference guide that can be used alongside more in-depth research as it provides a key knowledge base with which to formulate personal theories.

  8. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, Christoph; Glackin, Cornelius; Polani, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent's environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  9. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  10. The FEMP Awards Program: Fostering Institutional Change and Energy Management Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Christa; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2014-05-20

    This report assesses the use of institutional change principles and the institutional impact of award-winning projects through interviews with 22 Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE FEMP) award winners. Award winners identified institutional facilitators and barriers in their projects and programs as well as factors in their implementation processes, thus providing information that can guide other efforts. We found that award winners do use strategies based on eight principles of institutional change, most frequently in terms of making changes to infrastructure, engaging leadership, and capitalizing on multiple motivations for making an energy efficiency improvement. The principles drawn on the least often were commitment and social empowerment. Award winners also faced five major types of obstacles that were institutional in nature: lack of resources, constraints of rules, psychological barriers, lack of information, and communication problems. We also used the seven categories of Energy Management Excellence (EME) as a lens to interpret the interview data and assess whether these categories relate to established institutional change principles. We found that the eight principles reflect strategies that have been found to be useful in improving energy efficiency in organizations, whereas the EME categories capture more of a blend of social contextual factors and strategies. The EME categories fill in some of the social context gaps that facilitate institutional change and energy management excellence, for example, personal persistence, a culture that supports creativity and innovation, regular engagement with tenants, contractors, and staff at all levels. Taking together the use of principles, EME criteria, and obstacles faced by interviewees, we make recommendations for how FEMP can better foster institutional change in federal agencies.

  11. Sustainability of biomass utilisation in changing operational environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the project was to assist in strategic decision-making of public administration and companies, as regards the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. This project continued the work of the BIOVAIKU project by exploring in more details the most critical issues identified in sustainability assessment. These include the need to develop assessment methods and criteria in particular for land use and land-use change due to biomass cultivation and harvesting and indirect impacts due to resource competition.

  12. Postprandial changes in the exhalation of radon from the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exhalation of radon originally inhaled from the home environment and dissolved in body fluids and tissues has been studied serially for periods of several hours in six persons. The observation of a pronounced postprandial peak in the rate of exhalation of radon shows that the similar peak observed in the exhalation of radon produced from radium in vivo results from the flushing of a reservoir in soft tissue and not from a change in the fraction lost from bone

  13. Recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, K. (Katja)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The popularity of nature-based tourism has increased worldwide and peripheral areas with conservational value, like protected areas, are attractive destinations. The recreational use and construction of tourism facilities can cause environmental degradation and decrease the conservational and recreational value of areas if not well planned and managed. The aim of this thesis was to improve our knowledge of recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments. Dir...

  14. Continuity and Change in Social-ecological Systems: the Role of Institutional Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years recurring political, economic, and environmental crises require questioning and re-evaluating dominant pathways of human development. However, political and economic frameworks seem to encompass deeply rooted resistance to fundamental changes (e.g., global financial crisis, climate change negotiations. In an effort to repair the system as fast as possible, those paradigms, mechanisms, and structures that led into the crisis are perpetuated. Instead of preserving conventional patterns and focusing on continuity, crises could be used as an opportunity for learning, adapting, and entering onto more sustainable pathways. However, there are different ways not only of arguing for sustainable pathways of development but also of conceptualizing continuity and change. By focusing on institutions, we illustrate the tension between the concepts of continuity and change, how they interact, and how they build or degrade institutional resilience. The analysis draws on empirical research in South Africa and Uzbekistan, which were locked in persistent regimes over decades. Faced with the challenge to transform, Uzbekistan chose a pathway of institutional continuity, while South Africa opted for comprehensive reforms and a high level of change. Based on these case studies, we illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of institutional continuity and change. Elements of institutional continuity during times of transformation include preserving key institutions, which define how the rules are made; maintaining social memory; providing transparency of reform processes and allowing them time to take effect. Elements of institutional change required during phases of consolidation include flexible legislation; regular reviews; and adaptation of legislation during and after implementation.

  15. 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, J.A.; Moore, B. III

    1998-07-01

    This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.

  16. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  17. Managing Organizational Change during Institutional Upheaval: Bosnia-Herzegovina’s Higher Education in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Tiplic, Dijana

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on organizational change in non-stabile environments. Non-stabile environments are characterized by dramatic change at societal, economic and political levels caused by, for example, changes in political regime or armed conflict. The literature suggests that higher education plays an important role in assisting such societies through such turbulent and dramatic times. Past research, with both international and national focus, has identified various responses of higher educa...

  18. Environment Changes of Lampao Dam Communities in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winyoo Sata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to study the environment change of Lampao Dam communities in Northeast Thailand, being a case study of the Sa-Adnathom community, Lamklong sub-district, Muang, Kalasin province, adjacent to the Lampao Dam. Approach: A qualitative research, it started with a review of literature and related researches. Field data were collected by way of interviews and both participant and non-participant observations, involving 15 informants including senior-villagers, who had lived in the village some 10-20 years. The research data were descriptively analyzed and presented. Results: As a result its was found that the Lampao Dam communities date back 200 years to the era of Chiangsom Kingdom. Deserted due to deadly epidemics, the area was later on repopulated by migrants from Yang Talad district, Kalasin province. A new community, called Sa-Adnathom, was born. Prior to the inception of the National Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961, the environment of this community was complete with fertile land and natural resource abundance. People lived in harmony with nature and relied on resources from it for their livelihood, especially from Nong Waeng reservoir, Phan and Yang streams and Khoke Ngoo forest. But with the implementation of the first Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961-1966 the Thai government started the construction of the Lampao Dam in 1963. Completed in 1968, the Dam took land from the villagers, part of which were simply flooded. This forced the village farmers to change their means of livelihood from relying on forest and rivers to production methods which by necessity involved purchase of machines and usage of chemical fertilizers. In short, a change from farming to fishing in Lampao Dam. Their values also changed from local exchanges of goods to money economy, which only led to household debts, increasing with rising degree of consumerism. Eventually people in the

  19. A Model of Institutional Creative Change for Assessing Universities as Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Universities, like students, differ in their ability to learn and to recreate themselves. In this article, I present a 3-part model of institutional creative change for assessing universities as learning organizations that can move creatively into the future. The first part, prerequisites, deals with actual ability to change creatively and belief…

  20. Changes in the value chain of scientific information: economic consequences for academic institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Peter A.Th.M.; Vet, van der Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the pot

  1. The Social Change Experiences of College Students at an Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Kuwihoi; Ghafar, Mohamed Najib Abdul

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of education provides the most effective means to look into in the dynamics of education and the changes it produces in the individual. This research uses in-depth field interviews to study the social change experienced by a group of college students at a private higher learning institution in Malaysia. The results reveal that there…

  2. A Novel Calculus? Institutional Change, Globalization and Industrial Conflict in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2006-01-01

    market protection seem major influences, while institutional and legal changes are important explanations of persistent major inter-country variance. This indicates a novel industrial conflict calculus for employees, which entails a more restricted use, but not the withering away of the strike.......Collective industrial conflict in Europe has declined dramatically since the 1970s. This decline is the result of significant changes in institutional factors, influencing the calculations of employees and their organizations when considering strike action. Declining union density and changes in...

  3. Speculative Fictions for Understanding Global Change Environments: Two Thought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Gough

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a thought experiment, as the term was used by quantum and relativity physicists in the early part of the twentieth century, was not prediction (as is the goal of classical experimental science, but more defensible representations of present ‘realities’. Speculative fictions, from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to the Star Wars cinema saga, can be read as sociotechnical thought experiments that produce alternative representations of present circumstances and uncertainties, and anticipate and critique possible futures. In this essay I demonstrate how two examples of popular speculative fictions, Frank Herbert's Dune (1965 and Ursula Le Guin's The Telling (2000, function as thought experiments that problematise global transitions in their respective eras. I argue that critical readings of such stories can help us to anticipate, critique, and respond constructively to social and cultural changes and change environments within nation-states that constitute, and are constituted by, global change processes and their effects.

  4. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1 investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2 to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. Method Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment – Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p Results After adjustments for child and family demographics, higher levels of perceived food availability (β=-0.2 at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2, restriction (β=0.3 and pressure to eat (β=0.3 were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2, perceived responsibility (β=-0.3 and restriction (β=-0.3 from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in

  5. Persistent Robotic Tasks: Monitoring and Sweeping in Changing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen L; Rus, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    We present controllers that enable mobile robots to persistently monitor or sweep a changing environment. The changing environment is modeled as a field which grows in locations that are not within range of a robot, and decreases in locations that are within range of a robot. We assume that the robots travel on given closed paths. The speed of each robot along its path is controlled to prevent the field from growing unbounded at any location. We consider the space of speed controllers that can be parametrized by a finite set of basis functions. For a single robot, we develop a linear program that is guaranteed to compute a speed controller in this space to keep the field bounded, if such a controller exists. Another linear program is then derived whose solution is the speed controller that minimizes the maximum field value over the environment. We extend our linear program formulation to develop a multi-robot controller that keeps the field bounded. The multi-robot controller has the unique feature that it do...

  6. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  7. All Change : the Ever Evolving Institutional Repository at the University of Melbourne

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Bernadine; Gibson, Daina

    2007-01-01

    Institutional repositories are becoming prevalent in academic libraries as the location for storing theses, research publications, learning objects and other grey literature. This paper will provide brief background information on the history, the role and growth of open access Institutional Repositories and, in particular, will concentrate on the University of Melbourne's repository. The paper will touch upon the origin and changes that it has gone through and its links to the Australasia...

  8. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention. PMID:24022289

  9. The drivers of corporate environment inputs: Based on neo-institution theory evidence from Chinese listed biological and other companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Tao, Lan; Yan, Liang; Chen, Lianfang; Wang, Haijun

    2014-09-01

    From corporate internal governance structure and external institutional environment, this study uses a legitimacy perspective of intuitional theory to analyze the main influence factors on corporate environmental protection inputs and propose some hypotheses. With the establishment of empirical models, it analyzes the data of 2004-2009 listed biological and other companies in China to test the hypotheses. The findings are concluded that in internal institutional environment, the nature of the controlling shareholder, the proportion of the first shareholder in the ownership structure, the combination of chairman and general manager in board efficiency and the intensity of environmental laws and regulations of the industry in external institutional environment have an significant impact on the behaviors of corporate environmental protection inputs. PMID:25262526

  10. New Institutional Mechanism in China Facilitating the Global Sustainability--Environment to Be Counted in Officials' Performance Rating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Jingming; Wang Rusong

    2004-01-01

    Having argued the importance of China's sustainable development in global sustainability, the authors review the achievements of China in sustainable development, especially its institutional construction. Environment to be counted in official's political performance rating system is thought of as a new institutional mechanism in China facilitating its sustainable development and then global sustainability. Then its significance is narrated and visions in future are envisioned. In the end, certain concrete suggestions for the rating system are given in a practical way.

  11. Social Entrepreneurship in an Emerging Economy: A Focus on the Institutional Environment and Social Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Urban

    2013-01-01

    Consistent with the notion that the institutional environment affects entrepreneurial activity, this article interrogates how a person’s willingness to pursue social entrepreneurship is connected with self-efficacy beliefs. Hypotheses are formulated in terms of South Africa’s regulatory, normative, and cognitive institutional profiles relating to an individual’s social entrepreneurship self-efficacy. Findings indicate favourable perceptions of the regulatory and normative dimensions, which ar...

  12. Innovation and institutional change. The transition to a sustainable electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central to this book is the understanding that transformation of systems of production and consumption involves a process of co-evolution of institutional and technological change and involves changes in institutions at different levels and between those levels. At the micro level it involves the development of a new product, technology or concept, made possible as a variety of actors, such as firms, policy-makers, customers, change their way of doing things. At the meso-level it involves changes in practices at the level of sectors, and at the macro-level it involves changes in systems of innovation and regulation. Systems change slowly occurs as changes at different levels start to connect and synchronise, leading to the emergence of new institutional fabric that creates linkages between the different levels. The aim of this book is to specify this perspective by analysing patterns of change in the electricity system. Scientifically, the relevance of the book is in its analysis and explanation of fundamental processes of change, a topic relevant for a range of scientific disciplines, from economics, sociology, technology studies, to policy science. Its societal relevance lies mainly in its use for gaining insight in the way systems change can be directed towards the normative goal of sustainable development. The overall research questions by which this research is guided are: To what extent can the dynamics of transformation in the electricity system be understood as the interaction between technological and institutional change?, applied more specifically to: (a) how does this dynamics take place at and between different levels?; (b) when and how does this dynamics reinforce the existing system, representing processes of lock-in, or destabilise the existing system, representing processes of escaping lock-in?; and, (c) how can these insights be utilised to direct systems change in a more sustainable direction? Chapter two presents an overview of theoretical work

  13. Netware Environment at the Astronomical Institute of the ST. Petersburg University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. B.

    1997-03-01

    The local network of the Astronomical Institute (AI) of the St. Petersburg State University, supported by the Netware environment, integrates several dozens of computers and provides a connection to Internet. The astronomical data, maintained at AI (Database of Radio-astronomical Catalogs -- RAC DB, Galaxies data), are accessible to all local users. Most of the data is accessible through the Internet as well. The development of RAC DB was started in 1994. At present the RAC DB consists of several dozens of well known radio astronomical catalogs and some catalogs of radio sources in galaxy clusters, produced at AI. Galaxies database, which is available at present only for the local users, includes: active galaxy nuclei data (optical polarimetric time series, optical light curves since 1967--1968), polar ring galaxies data (6-meter telescope images and rotation curves), data related to interaction of galaxies. Three access methods are available for RAC DB users: FTP-access, on-line access and access via World Wide Web.

  14. Climate change, uncertainty, and resilient fisheries: Institutional responses through integrative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, K.; Charles, A.; Barange, M.; Brander, Keith; Gallucci, V.F.; Gasalla, M.A.; Khan, A.; Munro, G.; Murtugudde, R.; Ommer, R.E.; Perry, R.I.

    This paper explores the importance of a focus on the fundamental goals of resilience and adaptive capacity in the governance of uncertain fishery systems, particularly in the context of climate change. Climate change interacts strongly with fishery systems, and adds to the inherent uncertainty in...... processes – to support suitable institutional responses, a broader planning perspective, and development of suitable resilience-building strategies. The paper explores how synergies between institutional change and integrative science can facilitate the development of more effective fisheries policy...... approaches. Specifically, integrative science can provide a vehicle (1) to examine policy options with respect to their robustness to uncertainty, particularly to climate-related regime shifts and (2) to allow better assessments of behavioral responses of fish, humans and institutions. The argument is made...

  15. Petroleum privatization and institutional environment: the Russian example; Privatisation petroliere et environnement institutionnel: l'exemple russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locarelli, C.; Finon, D

    2003-09-01

    This paper treats of the reform of the Russian hydrocarbons industry using an institutionalistic approach. The theoretical objective of the privatization is the installation of a growth scheme based on important productivity gains, through large scale re-structuration, investments for the reproduction of oil and gas reserves, and big infrastructures development. The choice of this sector is justified because it represents an extreme case of inadequateness of the measures preconized by the Washington consensus with respect to the institutional environment. Stress has been put on the modification of the property rights of companies. The introduction of market institutions in a transition economy has led to an opportunistic adaptation of the behaviour of private and government actors. There is a clear correlation between the insecurity of property rights in general and the abundance of exploitable and exportable natural resources. Then, the privatization and the limited performance of the hydrocarbons sector in Russia is analyzed in terms of efficiency and long-term strategy, essential for a resources industry to make reserves. The unexpected results of this privatization are explained using an analysis of the market institutions applied to the very specific institutional environment of the Russian economy. Finally, the inadequateness of these institutions with the initial informal institutions has led to adaptations fully dependent of the institutional path with the necessity of preserving a minimum inter-industrial consistency. (J.S.)

  16. Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tošovská, Eva

    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education , 2006 - (Zemčík, P.; Žigić, K.), s. 62-66 ISBN 80-7343-110-6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : environment * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/publications/books/

  17. Climate change, living environment and ways of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project 'Climate Change, Living Environment and Way of Life' is focused on the social concepts of risks and of proposed policies related to global environmental problems as seen by representatives of various social groups. Drawing on the social-scientific methodology and applying its concept apparatus, the research project focuses on two central problems in the field of contemporary environmental research. Firstly, with the way in which environmental problems influence people's values and attitudes. Secondly, with the question of how people seek to act and to show solidarity towards new generations by means of environmental policies or by protecting nature within the framework of their private ways of life

  18. EU-China Cooperation In the Field of Energy, Environment and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro De Matteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the energy market and the intrinsic worldwide scope of environmental threats, such as climate change, are two elements that have pushed the world towards shared approaches to global governance via bilateral institutions and international regimes. This article, with the aid of an institutionalist approach, presents the current status of the EU-China relationship, which is characterised by high institutionalisation, and it underlines how their bilateral cooperation has progressively focused on energy and climate change-related issues. In particular, the article sheds some light on the linkages between energy, environment and climate change and how these have created the basis for the upgrade of the EU-China bilateral relationship to its current level. To do so, it underlines some of the tools, the main frameworks and some of the key outcomes of their bilateral cooperation in these fields.

  19. The evolutionary dynamics of integrons in changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelstädter, Jan; Harms, Klaus; Johnsen, Pål J

    2016-06-01

    Integrons are genetic elements that are common in bacteria and are hotspots for genome evolution. They facilitate the acquisition and reassembly of gene cassettes encoding a variety of functions, including drug resistance. Despite their importance in clinical settings, the selective forces responsible for the evolution and maintenance of integrons are poorly understood. We present a mathematical model of integron evolution within bacterial populations subject to fluctuating antibiotic exposures. Bacteria carrying a functional integrase that mediates reshuffling of cassette genes and thereby modulates gene expression patterns compete with bacteria without a functional integrase. Our results indicate that for a wide range of parameters, the functional integrase can be stably maintained in the population despite substantial fitness costs. This selective advantage arises because gene-cassette shuffling generates genetic diversity, thus enabling the population to respond rapidly to changing selective pressures. We also show that horizontal gene transfer promotes stable maintenance of the integrase and can also lead to de novo assembly of integrons. Our model generates testable predictions for integron evolution, including loss of functional integrases in stable environments and selection for intermediate gene-shuffling rates in changing environments. Our results highlight the need for experimental studies of integron population biology. PMID:26849314

  20. Changes seen in the environment report from Uusimaa Regional Environment Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication describes the environmental changes and the influencing factors occurring within the administrative regions of the Uusimaa Regional Environment Centre. The quality of the environment can be judged as satisfying in regards to both the mental and physical health of humans. Areas have a steady trend of a relatively high growth in population density, while the efficiency of land use in new settlements is low. Traffic and the travel distances are on the rise. A considerable part of the population lives in areas where the noise standards are violated, despite control measures. Waste management, water distribution and sewage networks are under continuous development. In regards to the nature, the situation in some parts is of great concern. The manifold of the nature, cultural landscapes and culturally valuable buildings and sites are threatened. The living space of flora and fauna is continuing to decrease and change. The risks caused by human activities in groundwater areas are increasing. For these reasons the implementation of protection programs is important. Emissions from point sources to the water and air have significantly decreased. Yet, the impacts of air quality deprivation can still be seen in some cities and in the vicinity of some industrial sites. The eutrophication have essentially changed the ecology and fishstocks; however, the water quality has improved in many places. Regarding the above issues, as well as some other topics, included in the report are 16 theme maps 66 pictures. However, the report states that the monitoring and reporting of the environmental quality should be improved. (orig.)

  1. Modeling Soft Institutional Change and the Improvement of Freshwater Governance in the Coastal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Vernier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of soft institutional change to improve freshwater governance in the coastal zone will be examined. Freshwater management seeks to reduce losses due to overexploitation of the common-pool resources provided by river catchments and their associated ecosystems. Due to the complexity of the governance system, improving the performance of one coastal social-ecological system means searching for the appropriate "soft" institutional change. In the Pertuis Charentais region, increasing scarcity of freshwater in summer threatens the health of the coastal ecosystem and the sustainability of human activities, which depend on the use of natural resources. The allocation of freshwater among competing uses or concerns is a core issue for integrated coastal zone management. To address this issue, we have constructed an analytical framework that combines the ecosystem services approach with the institutional analysis of common-pool resources, and have developed an integrated simulation tool based on the system dynamic modeling approach. Freshwater scarcity generates three kinds of user conflict: (1 conflict between two extractive uses of freshwater (irrigation and drinking water, (2 conflicts between extractive uses (provisioning services and other services (support, regulatory, and cultural provided by freshwater, and (3 competition within a given activity sector (agriculture or shellfish farming. Participation by local managers led to the identification of realistic soft institutional changes that might mitigate conflicts and improve the governance system. These possible institutional changes were then integrated as fixed exogenous parameters in the simulation model. The simulated scenarios suggest that innovative collective arrangements involving farmers could be an alternative to other more restrictive top-down measures. This participatory experiment also illustrates the potential of social-ecological modeling for exploring acceptable new

  2. Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, Christine M.; Balbus, John M.; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E.; Newton, Sheila A.; Reid, Britt C.; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. Objectives: In this commentary we p...

  3. Commons For Sale. Economic And Institutional Change In Nineteenth Century Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Lana Berasain

    2006-01-01

    This study examines a facet of institutional change in 19th Century Spain. Empirical analysis of a zone in the Ebro valley confirms that the process of selling commons prior to the 1855 Ley de Desamortización (Disentailment Law) was of great significance. It evaluates the nature of the changes in property rights and identifies the main social protagonists of the era, with the aim of analysing the repercussions these had on production and on the distribution of agrarian income

  4. National Institute for Global Environmental Change, July 1, 1994-- June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the report from the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the period July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. Separate sections for the Great Plains, Midwestern, Norhteast, South Central, Southeast and Western regions are present. Each section contains project descriptions and abstracts for projects managed by the respective regional offices.

  5. Institutional Imperatives versus Emergent Dynamics: A Case Study on Continuous Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakci, Yasar; Van den Broeck, Herman

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines continuous change in a higher education organization (HEO). Both real time and retrospective data covering a 6-year period of the case were collected. The findings suggest that, in order to meet institutional imperatives the HEO defined several managerial and academic domains when the internationalization…

  6. Legal Status Changes in Chinese Higher Education Institutions in the Education System Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Kaisheng

    2009-01-01

    During the past twenty years, higher education institutions in China have gained enormous rights due to both the streamlining of administration and the decentralization of the government. Their legal status has hence changed dramatically. However, the expansion of their rights has also brought about the possibility of higher education institutions…

  7. Increasing Demands and Changing Institutional Research Roles: How Technology Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao; Gibbons, Mary Frances; Vera, Fonda

    2009-01-01

    Despite revolutionary changes in technology, the challenges facing institutional research professionals remain remarkably the same as they were a decade ago. They are still meeting disparate stakeholder demands, developing new skills, adopting new roles, and finding ways to communicate complex information through clear presentation of data. Then…

  8. Evidence of Development Impact from Institutional Change : A Review of the Evidence on Open Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Cristina; Roberts, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature examining the effectiveness of transparency and accountability initiatives, there remains limited substantiation for whether and how open budgeting contributes to reductions in poverty and improvements in the lives of the poor. This paper reviews available evidence and conclude that institutional changes can contribute to higher-level outcomes in cert...

  9. OMV Gas and Power - Adapting to the Changing Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The energy market environment is currently changing, long term growth of gas and power is expected. Key drivers for this assumption is further electrification, CO2 regulations and increased liquidity of gas and power markets. Power generation in OECD Europe drives the gas demand increase. European import dependency shapes the gas infrastructure development as Europe is the largest net gas importer, domestic production is decreasing and the link between Southeastern and Caspian supply regions will increase flexibility. OMV is adapting its business portfolio based on the changing energy map. Creation of energy hubs, new development of combining CO2 capture technologies with EOR and EGR, and strengthening E and P and Gas and Power in terms of investments will change the portfolio. On top, OMV invests in gas fired and renewable power generation assets. Conversion from gas to power enables the optimization of gas and power assets in OMV's core markets. Building up a balanced portfolio of power plants in terms of fuel and markets will create additional value to OMV and a reduction of the CO2 footprint. The flexibility of gas fired power plants and renewable assets fit well together. Overview on the status quo of OMV's power plant projects: CCPP Brazi/Romania, CCPP Samsun/Turkey, CCPP Haiming/Germany, windpower Dorobantu/Romania, Heat Recovery Plant Weitendorf/Austria. (author)

  10. GSF Research Center for Environment and Health, Hydrological Institute. 1994 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1994 annual report of the Institute of Hyrdology presents the findings of 12 current research projects on different subjects in hyrdology. It is supplemented by information on cooperation with other scientific institutions in the form of lists of publications and reports, lectures and posters, university teaching projects, and finished and current dissertations. (VHE)

  11. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The seminar is postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  12. Building institutions for health and health systems in contexts of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gerald; Wolcott, Sara

    2013-11-01

    Many Asian countries are in the midst of multiple interconnected social, economic, demographic, technological, institutional and environmental transitions. These changes are having important impacts on health and well-being and on the capacity of health systems to respond to health-related problems. This paper focuses on the creation of institutions to overcome information asymmetry and encourage the provision of safe, effective and affordable health services in this context of complexity and rapid change. It presents a review of literature on different approaches to the analysis of the management of system development and institution-building. There is a general agreement that the outcome of an intervention depends a great deal on the way that a large number of agents respond. Their response is influenced by the institutional arrangements that mediate relationships between health sector actors and also by their understandings and expectations of how other actors will respond. The impact of a policy or specific intervention is difficult to predict and there is a substantial risk of unintended outcomes. This creates the need for an iterative learning approach in which widespread experimentation is encouraged, good and bad experiences are evaluated and policies are formulated on the basis of the lessons learned. This enables actors to learn their roles and responsibilities and the appropriate responses to new incentive structures. The paper concludes with an outline of the information needs of managers of health system change in societies in the midst of rapid development. PMID:23313497

  13. Facilitating institutional change in West Africa: the CoS–SIS experience

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; O. Sakyi-Dawson; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    The Convergence of Sciences–Strengthening Innovation Systems (CoS–SIS) programme is based on the premise that the livelihood of the African smallholder farmer is constrained by the existence and/or performance of formal and informal institutions that are not conducive to small-farm development. CoS–SIS employs nine platforms in Ghana, Benin and Mali – “Concertation and Innovation Groups” (CIGs) – that aim to facilitate institutional change above the farm level (e.g. rules and regulations, byl...

  14. Marketization trajectories in the Danish road and park sectors: A story of incremental institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Hansen, Morten Balle; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the evolution of marketization in the public sector as a process of institutional change. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a study of marketization and gradual changes in the involvement of private contractors...... (as providers of maintenance services) in the municipal road and park sectors in Denmark over the past 30 years. The study draws theoretically on historical institutionalism as an interpretive framework and empirically on findings from earlier research, register data from municipal accounts as well as...... new survey data. Findings – Marketization within the road and park sectors has historically taken place through gradual changes, in particular by processes of layering and displacement, which has added up to substantial transformations in both sectors. Transformations relate to the levels of private...

  15. Accounting Change and Institutional Capacity: The Case of a Provincial Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono P. Kamase

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a reporting system change of a provincial government in Indonesia. The study also draws attention to the institutional capacity of the provincial administration andimplementation problems it encountered in adopting an accrual accounting system. Following the work of Lapsley and Pallot (2000, this study uses economic and institutional perspectives in conceptualising how an accounting change has been undertaken. The study shows that from an economic based perspective, the adoption of the new reporting system was stimulated by the wish to improve government organisations’ performance in the country. It is also found that the change of the reporting system was not accompanied by the separation of the roles of elected local officials (i.e. the governor and local parliamentary members as politicians and decision-makers in the allocation of funding and budget formulation in theprovincial government. This situation undermines the instrumental roles of accounting for decision making. Moreover, drawing upon institutional theory, the adoption of the new reporting system at provincial level in the country is indicated by the presence of coercive pressure as local administrations in Indonesia are required to comply with rules imposed by the central government. However, based on the experience of a provincial government in implementing the new accounting system, the policy to adopt the new accounting regime fails to recognise a low level of institutional capacity of local administrations. As a consequence, the institutionalisation of the new accounting system has yet to bring intended outcomes. Inthis vein, the role of accounting as a political tool for controlling people overshadows its roles for efficiency and performance improvement. As the study demonstrates the use of mixedmethodological perspectives (i.e. economic and institutional theories is useful to fully capture and understand the dynamic process of accounting change in a

  16. Street environment change detection from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) has become a popular technique for road inventory, building modelling, infrastructure management, mobility assessment, etc. Meanwhile, due to the high mobility of MLS systems, it is easy to revisit interested areas. However, change detection using MLS data of street environment has seldom been studied. In this paper, an approach that combines occupancy grids and a distance-based method for change detection from MLS point clouds is proposed. Unlike conventional occupancy grids, our occupancy-based method models space based on scanning rays and local point distributions in 3D without voxelization. A local cylindrical reference frame is presented for the interpolation of occupancy between rays according to the scanning geometry. The Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is utilized for both intra-data evidence fusion and inter-data consistency assessment. Occupancy of reference point cloud is fused at the location of target points and then the consistency is evaluated directly on the points. A point-to-triangle (PTT) distance-based method is combined to improve the occupancy-based method. Because it is robust to penetrable objects, e.g. vegetation, which cause self-conflicts when modelling occupancy. The combined method tackles irregular point density and occlusion problems, also eliminates false detections on penetrable objects.

  17. Physiological changes in women during exercise in cold environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. J.; Shephard, R. J.; Radomski, M. W. M.

    1986-12-01

    Both the stress of exercise and the stress of a cold environment have been shown to increase the mobilization and utilization of body fat, thereby reducing body fat stores. Much of the research has been done on either rats or male human subjects. The purpose of this research was to show the physiological changes which occur to young, relatively obese, women who exercised during five consecutive days, for 200 min per day, in each of three environmental, chamber conditions: (1) warm-warm (WW), +15‡C; (2) cold-cold (CC), -20‡C; and (3) cold-warm (CW), -20‡C ambient temperature, with +18‡C air pumped to face masks for warmed air breathing. Oxygen cost of exercise, respiratory quotients, energy intake and utilization, and body composition changes were measured before, during, and after each environmental condition. While the respiratory quotients and the skinfold measurements decreased in the colder conditions, the underwater weighing determined percentage body fat did not show the same decrement as the skinfold measures, indicating a possible translocation of body fat from the subcutaneous depots to the deep body fat depots. Body mass loss was significant (Pfat in the female, a longer cold exposure would be required to observe the fully developed BAT thermogenesis which would follow after the consequences of fat translocation which we have documented.

  18. Expansion planning of brazilian electric sector: institutional changes, new policies and new instruments for planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian power supply industry has been in crisis for many years, particularly due to financial and institutional problems. There are many reasons for that, several of them from outside the industry. In this paper a diagnosis of the main elements of this crisis is worked out, in the context of the industry's expansion planning. Following, institutional changes, new policies and new instruments are proposed for this planning. The institutional setting, the demand studies, the demand side management, the supply optimisation, the rural electrification, the decentralized generation of electricity, the tariff structure, the ways of financing the industry, the technological advances, the social and environmental impacts and the integrated planning of the industry are discussed, together with the planning of the power supply industry interactions with the other energy supply industries and the rest of the economy. (author)

  19. International financial institutions and health in Egypt and Tunisia: change or continuity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sharif

    2013-01-01

    The revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia appeared to herald a re-casting of International Monetary Fund and World Bank policy across the region. Public pronouncements by the heads of both institutions in the months following February 2011 acknowledged flaws in their approach to macroeconomic advice, against a background of worsening socioeconomic indicators, widespread youth unemployment, and widening health inequalities. Evidence on the ground, however, suggests continuity rather than change in international financial institution policies in Egypt and Tunisia, notwithstanding the emergence of a powerful new player-the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In the long term, new electoral realities and hardening public opposition in both countries seem likely to force a fundamentally different relationship between regional governments and the major international financial institutions than existed before 2011. PMID:23527454

  20. Institutional adaptation to climate change: flood responses at the municipal level in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article examines the role institutions play in climate adaptation in Norway. Using examples from two municipalities in the context of institutional responses to floods, we find, first, that the institutional framework for flood management in Norway gives weak incentives for proactive local flood management. Second, when strong local political and economic interests coincide with national level willingness to pay and provide support, measures are often carried out rapidly at the expense of weaker environmental interests. Third, we find that new perspectives on flood management are more apparent at the national than the municipal level, as new perspectives are filtered by local power structures. The findings have important implications for vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in terms of policy options and the local level as the optimal level for adaptation. (author)

  1. Dynamics and life histories of northern ungulates in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichsen, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climate and local weather conditions can profoundly influence life history parameters (growth, survival, fecundity) and population dynamics in northern ungulates (Post and Stenseth 1999, Coulson et al. 2001). The influence is both direct, for example through reduced growth or survival (Aanes et al. 2000, Tyler et al. 2008), and indirect, for example through changes in resource distribution, phenology and quality, changes which subsequently influence consumer dynamics (Post et al. 2008). By comparing and contrasting data from three spatially independent populations of ungulates, I discuss how variation in local weather parameters and vegetation growth influence spatial and temporal dynamics through changes in life history parameters and/or behavioural dynamics. The data originate from long term (11-15 years) monitoring data from three populations of ungulates in one subarctic and two high Arctic sites; semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway, Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) on Spitsbergen and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in Northeast Greenland. The results show that juvenile animals can be particularly vulnerable to changes in their environment, and that this is mirrored to different degrees in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the three populations. Adverse weather conditions, acting either directly or mediated through access to and quality of vegetation, experienced by young early in life, or even by their dams during pregnancy, can lead to reduced growth, lower survival and reduced reproductive performance later in life. The influence of current climatic variation, and the predictions of how local weather conditions may change over time, differs between the three sites, resulting in potentially different responses in the three populations. Aanes R, Saether BE and Øritsland NA. 2000. Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation. Ecography

  2. Impact of a changing environment on the built heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C. M.; Brimblecombe, P.; Bonazza, A.

    2012-04-01

    Stone monuments are degraded by both climate and pollution. Deterioration by pollution was especially intense from the 1700s and until the late 20th century the dominant impact of air pollution was the sulfation of surfaces. The parallel deposition of soot caused blackening and on some surfaces dark coloured crusts. The decrease of sulfur and soot from coal combustion during the last decades of the 20th century led to cleaner air in cities, a decrease of pollution-decay rates on building stones and a public desire for cleaner buildings. Although there were decreases in SO2, it was replaced by ozone, nitrogen oxides and particles richer in organic compounds, the result of an extensive use of automobiles. Deposited organic compounds can oxidise in modern urban environments in a yellowing process. The future may reveal variation in building colour from biological growth in a changing climate. In urban atmospheres with less sulfur, biological growth is more effective. A greater rate of delivery of nitrate to building surfaces that acts as "airborne fertiliser" favours colonisation. Depending on climate, there might be different processes (e.g. greening or reddening) and patterns of colouration. Climate is also a relevant factor in the weathering of monuments. Recent research suggests the concept of Heritage Climatology in the study of climate interactions with monuments, materials and sites. These parameters concentrate on aspects and combinations of meteorological variables that relate to material damage. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification can be a good approximation for some heritage risks. For instance, the number of salt transitions shows distinct seasonality which can be related to Köppen-Geiger climate types and their change during the 21th century. The study of changing pollution and climate impacts on the built heritage needs the output of pollution emissions and climate change models, which are prone to uncertainties. The use of multiple climate models

  3. Learning to listen. Institutional change and legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackerron, G. [SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Berkhout, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Over the course of 50 years, UK radioactive waste policy change has been coupled with institutional change, without much progress towards the ultimate goal of safe, long-term stewardship of wastes. We explain this history as a search for legitimacy against a shifting context of legitimation needs and deficits. Following Habermas, we argue that legitimation is derived from a process of justificatory discourse. In principle, there must be a reasonable exchange of arguments between diverse parties in society, based on common norms, for legitimacy to be achieved. We show that the work of legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy has moved from a focus on factual validity claims towards an increasing emphasis on deliberative processes. This reframing of legitimation needs explains institutional and policy changes in UK radioactive waste policy. The most recent phase of policy and institutional change, which placed public deliberation about long-term management and disposal options centre-stage, represents a new step towards bridging legitimation deficits. Plans to build new nuclear reactors in the UK based on a more closed 'streamlined' decision process risk reversing the legitimacy gains that have been achieved through growing openness on radioactive waste management.

  4. A Diagnostic Procedure for Transformative Change Based on Transitions, Resilience, and Institutional Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briony C. Ferguson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water governance regimes around the world have traditionally planned large-scale, centralized infrastructure systems that aim to control variables and reduce uncertainties. There is growing sectoral awareness that a transition toward sustainable alternatives is necessary if systems are to meet society's future water needs in the context of drivers such as climate change and variability, demographic changes, environmental degradation, and resource scarcity. However, there is minimal understanding of how the urban water sector should operationalize its strategic planning for such change to facilitate the transition to a sustainable water future. We have integrated concepts from transitions, resilience, and institutional theory to develop a diagnostic procedure for revealing insights into which types of strategic action are most likely to influence the direction and pace of change in the overall system toward a desired trajectory. The procedure used the multipattern approach, from transition theory, to identify the system conditions and type of changes necessary for enabling system transformation. It incorporated the adaptive cycle, from resilience theory, to identify the current phase of change for different parts of the system. Finally, it drew on the concepts of institutional pillars and institutional work to identify mechanisms that are likely to be most effective in influencing the transformative dynamics of the system toward a desired trajectory. We have demonstrated application of the proposed diagnostic procedure on a case study of recent transformative change in the urban water system of Melbourne, Australia. We have proposed that an operational diagnostic procedure provides a useful platform from which planners, policy analysts, and decision makers could follow a process of deduction that identifies which types of strategic action best fit the current system conditions.

  5. 34 CFR 668.203 - Determining cohort default rates for institutions that have undergone a change in status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... institutions that have undergone a change in status. (a) General. (1) Except as provided under 34 CFR 600.32(d... applicable to the other institution under §§ 668.204 and 668.208. (b) Acquisition or merger of institutions... participated independently in the Title IV, HEA programs immediately before the acquisition or merger— (1)...

  6. 34 CFR 668.184 - Determining cohort default rates for institutions that have undergone a change in status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... institutions that have undergone a change in status. (a) General. (1) Except as provided under 34 CFR 600.32(d... applicable to the other institution under §§ 668.185 and 668.189. (b) Acquisition or merger of institutions... participated independently in the Title IV, HEA programs immediately before the acquisition or merger— (1)...

  7. The Change of Financial Environment and the Evolvement of Financial Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhui Jian

    2009-01-01

    With the changing financial environment, financial goals are constantly changing. In the course of development of financial theory, there were numerous financial goals theories, which are mainly "profit maximization, shareholders’ wealth maximization, and stakeholders’ wealth maximization." These financial goals basically reflect the business requirements of the market environment, the adaptation to the changing financial environment, and also reflect the different preferences of the differen...

  8. Climate adaptation, institutional change, and sustainable livelihoods of herder communities in northern Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wang; Yang Wang; Shuangcheng Li; Dahe Qin

    2016-01-01

    The Tibetan grassland social-ecological systems are widely held to be highly vulnerable to climate change. We aim to investigate livelihood adaptation strategies of herder households and the types of local institutions that shaped those adaptation strategies. We examined the barriers and opportunities for strengthening adaptive capacity of local herder communities. We designed and implemented a household survey in the herder communities of northern Tibet. The survey results showed that migrat...

  9. Unemployment compensation in Germany: provisions and institutional changes since the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Wörz, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Social protection in case of unemployment has always been a particularly contentious issue. This paper focuses on institutional changes in the unemployment compensation system in Germany since the 1980s. It starts with a description of key features and the structure of the unemployment insurance system. The paper goes on to show how insurance coverage, benefit generosity (in terms of amount and duration of benefits), and eligibility requirements for drawing on unemployment benefits have evolv...

  10. The Treaty of Lisbon and Essential Changes in the Institutional System of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Hruskovic

    2011-01-01

    Following the unsuccessful Treaty on the Constitution for Europe project, European Union member states adopted the Treaty of Lisbon. The Treaty of Lisbon brought about certain amendments in the institutional framework of the European Union, targeted at increasing the efficiency of the Union’s activities. Considering the wide-ranging scale of the topic, the author, rather than deliberating on all of the relevant changes, is primarily focusing on an analysis of those of essential significance.

  11. Institutional Change and its Economic Consequence in Japan: The bright and dark sides of hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    MIYAJIMA Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Central to recent changes in corporate Japan is the dominance of hybrid firms which combine market-based principles and relational governance in different economic domains such as finance and organizational architectures (employment system). Since hybridization is opposed to the institutional complementarity that is at the core of the varieties of capitalism argument, the natural questions are whether it is transitional to the Anglo-Saxon model or if it has stabilized in a new equilibrium, an...

  12. Historical Context, Institutional Change, Organizational Structure, and the Mental Illness Career

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Charles Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation demonstrates how patients' mental illness treatment careers depend on the change and/or stability among differing levels of social structure. Theorists of the mental illness career tend to ignore the role that higher levels of social structural change have on individuals' mental illness career. Researchers using an organizational perspective tend to focus on the organizational environment but ignore the treatment process from the individual's point of view. Both perspectives...

  13. The Role of Economics and Democracy in Institutional Change for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Söderbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutional change for sustainable development does not happen by itself. Individuals and organizations function as actors to influence development processes. Reference is made to a “political economic person” (PEP guided by her/his “ideological orientation” and “political economic organization” (PEO, guided by its “mission”. Leaving present unsustainable trends behind is a matter of politics and ideology and even power positions, where democracy plays a crucial role. The perspectives of influential (and other actors are essential in facilitating (or hindering change. I will discuss ideas of the role of science in society, mainstream neoclassical economics in relation to institutional economics in the spirit of K. William Kapp and Gunnar Myrdal as well as neo-liberalism as ideology (where neoclassical economics has contributed to strengthen the legitimacy of neo-liberalism. Various aspects of inertia and flexibility in institutional change processes, such as path dependence, are discussed. Emphasis is on the role of economics and how a strengthened democracy can open the door for a degree of pluralism.

  14. The oil surprise in Brazil, and changes in the strategic, institutional and legal context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of large amounts of oil in the rocky layers under the halite (or pre-halite) of off-shore sedimentary basins is a veritable oil surprise in Brazil, changing the country's oil strategy context. This event is being debated in all political circles and has also gained widespread attention in national and international media. It is becoming a major issue impacting on campaign impetus for the 2010 presidential elections, which look to be difficult and unpredictable for predictable or all potential candidates. The administration of president Lula has aimed to put in place a clear historical (and geographical) limit by proposing significant legal and institutional changes for the development of pre-halite oil resources (as opposed to the current scheme which will remain valid for reserves found in the rocky layers above the halite, or post halite). The purpose of this article is to introduce the main legal and institutional change actors that are proposed. The text mainly focuses on the upstream activities from oil exploration to production and on the capture and distribution of the oil rent. These are the two main areas that the new legal and institutional scheme will cover. (authors)

  15. The paradoxical effects of institutional change for the legitimacy of European governance: the case of EU Social Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Wendler

    2004-01-01

    .This article discusses the tensions between two aspects of institutional change in the EU: the adaptation of institutional arrangements with the prospect of the legitimization of Community governance within a policy-making arena on the one hand, and the external evaluation of these institutional developments from the viewpoint of democratic theory on the other. Taking up the example of EU Social Policy, the argument proposed is twofold: First, a reconstruction of the institutional evolution ...

  16. Relegitimizing the medical profession: The role of opinion leaders in maintaining institutions through engaging with change

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Moralee

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to address how actors from an elite social position (known herein as ‘opinion leaders’) have engaged with change, which maintains the institution and relegitimizes its role. Situated in the case of the medical profession within the English National Health Service (NHS), this paper aims to explore and explain how individuals have taken the opportunity and advantage of a particular context, time and space in the NHS ‘story’, to practise, act and work to bring about change to m...

  17. Entrepreneurs, institutional entrepreneurship and institutional change: Contextualizing the changing role of actors in the institutionalization of temporary work in the Netherlands from 1960 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Koene, Bas; Ansari, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe intersection of entrepreneurship research and institutional theory has begun to attract increasing scholarly attention. While much recent research has studied "institutional entrepreneurs" credited with creating new or transforming existing institutions to support their projects, less attention has been paid to the institutions that constitute the menus from which choices are made, and delineate resources for entrepreneurial or other agentic activities. While models of institu...

  18. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  19. Strategic Renewal in Regulatory Environments. How inter- and intra-organisational institutional forces influence European incumbent energy firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stienstra, M.

    2008-11-20

    How do incumbent firms strategically renew in regulatory environments? Assuming that regulation can both constrain and enable a firm's strategic renewal opportunities, we investigate how and to what extent incumbent firms undertake exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions in order to remain competitive. Exploitative strategic renewal involves those actions that strengthen or optimise a firm's current resource deployments, whereas explorative strategic renewal relates to actions that generate new sources of value creation for the firm. Based on old institutional theory, new institutional theory, neo-institutional theory and institutional entrepreneurship literature, a multi-level framework that combines selection and adaptation arguments has been developed and applied to investigate strategic renewal behaviour of a sample of European energy incumbents. At industry level of analysis, results show how inter-organisational institutional forces significantly impact firms' choices of exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions through regulative, normative and cognitive forces. At organisational unit level of analysis, we find that the extent of intra-organisational regulative forces is positively related to exploitative strategic renewal actions. In addition, entrepreneurial proclivity appears to be a catalyst of both exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions. Finally, our results provide insights how environmental selection and firm level adaptation are interrelated in the context of regulation. The extent of inter-organisational regulative forces positively moderates the relationship between intra-organisational regulative forces and exploitative strategic renewal actions.

  20. Strategic Renewal in Regulatory Environments. How inter- and intra-organisational institutional forces influence European incumbent energy firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How do incumbent firms strategically renew in regulatory environments? Assuming that regulation can both constrain and enable a firm's strategic renewal opportunities, we investigate how and to what extent incumbent firms undertake exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions in order to remain competitive. Exploitative strategic renewal involves those actions that strengthen or optimise a firm's current resource deployments, whereas explorative strategic renewal relates to actions that generate new sources of value creation for the firm. Based on old institutional theory, new institutional theory, neo-institutional theory and institutional entrepreneurship literature, a multi-level framework that combines selection and adaptation arguments has been developed and applied to investigate strategic renewal behaviour of a sample of European energy incumbents. At industry level of analysis, results show how inter-organisational institutional forces significantly impact firms' choices of exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions through regulative, normative and cognitive forces. At organisational unit level of analysis, we find that the extent of intra-organisational regulative forces is positively related to exploitative strategic renewal actions. In addition, entrepreneurial proclivity appears to be a catalyst of both exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions. Finally, our results provide insights how environmental selection and firm level adaptation are interrelated in the context of regulation. The extent of inter-organisational regulative forces positively moderates the relationship between intra-organisational regulative forces and exploitative strategic renewal actions.

  1. Identification of Institutional Genderedness through Organizational Operations: An Analysis of Community College Working Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie J.; Warnick, Erika M.; Taylor, Colette M.

    2015-01-01

    Though the number of women employed in the workforce has increased, there continues to be an inequity in employment of women in the highest ranks of community colleges. Guided by gendered organizational theory, the study looked at both overt and covert knowledge of genderedness at community colleges. As one might infer, institutional genderedness…

  2. Institutional v. Technical Environments: Reconciling the Goals of Decentralization in an Evolving Charter School Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes how macrolevel institutional forces persist and limit the expansion of decentralized schools that attempt to challenge normative definitions and practices of traditional school organizations. Using qualitative case study methodology, the analysis focuses on how one decentralized charter school navigated and reconciled its…

  3. ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT: HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Salvary

    2005-01-01

    Over time, a changing environment has produced changes in the types of accounting information and in the dissemination of such information (financial reporting). Certain changes in the environment do impel changes in accounting. This paper examines various theoretical issues in accounting in a historical setting and provides some insight on the manner in which the accounting profession has responded to problems.

  4. Institutional Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in U.S. National Parks and Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Lawler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will increasingly challenge ecosystem managers' ability to protect species diversity and maintain ecosystem function. In response, the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service have promoted climate change adaptation as a management strategy to increase ecosystem resilience to changing climatic conditions. However, very few examples of completed adaptation plans or projects exist. Here, we examine managers' perceptions of internal and external institutional barriers to implementing adaptation strategies. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n=32 with regional managers and agency staff in six park and forest units in Washington State. We found that internal barriers, including unclear mandates from superiors and bureaucratic rules and procedures, are perceived as greater constraints than external barriers related to existing federal environmental laws. Respondents perceived process-oriented environmental laws, such as the National Environmental Policy Act, as enablers of adaptation strategies, and prescriptive laws, such as the Endangered Species Act, as barriers. Our results suggest that climate change adaptation is more often discussed than pursued, and that institutional barriers within agencies limit what can be accomplished.

  5. The Patterns of Change in Higher Education Institutions: The Context of the Changing Quality Assurance Mechanisms in England, Japan, and New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify the patterns of change in higher education institutions. It examines the contexts of the changing quality assurance mechanisms used by the different types of higher education institutions in England, Japan, and New York State between 2001 and 2007. The paper argues that there were no clear patterns of…

  6. Institutional change in European natural gas markets and implications for energy security: Lessons from the German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on institutional change in the German gas market driven by EU internal market and climate policies. It argues that institutional change has functional externalities for energy security. The German gas market provides a useful case study, as Germany is the biggest continental gas market, a major hub and transport country which has largely privatised, unbundled and separated its natural gas undertakings. Transition is ongoing, tending towards an internal market. Inter/national natural gas economics is in flux. Institutional evolution has repercussions for corporate and market structures, the operating of the system and the realization of transactions. Changes in the institutional framework crucially affect energy security, which is often associated with institutional stability. On the basis of this case study, it is argued herein that the security of natural gas supplies should be reexamined in the context of the developments described above, since overall the institutional changes in natural gas security lag behind the EU’s internal natural gas market development. - Highlights: • EU natural gas market regulation primarily aims to establish competitive markets. • German/EU regulatory approach has externalities for supply security. • Institutional changes and breaks with path dependencies take place in Germany/the EU. • Institutional change results in increasing uncertainty and complexity. • Subsequent change in perceptions and expectations may destabilise trade relations

  7. Universities in change managing higher education institutions in the age of globalization

    CERN Document Server

    Ebersberger, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Universities find themselves in dynamic change. They are confronted with growing expectations from their stakeholders, increasing international competition, and new technological challenges.  Featuring insights and in-depth case studies from leading researchers and university decision makers from around the world, this book argues that institutions of higher education, in order to be successful, have to actively reflect on circumstances, visions, and strategies to master the future.    Drawing from their experiences across a diverse array of institutions in Europe, Asia, and the Americas, the authors explore the pressures on today’s universities and the opportunities for excelling in the contest for resources.  They discuss operational issues, such as strategic management, IT governance, leadership development, and entrepreneurial culture, and broader concerns, such as the roles and responsibilities of universities in promoting technology transfer and economic and social development.  The result is a ...

  8. Rich and personal agendas: organizational learning from co-creation of an institutional personal learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    White, Su; Davis, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Universities are increasingly seeking to establish individual identities which set them apart from fellow institutions promoting their values educational strengths and standing. In recent years putting students at the centre of learning has become an increasingly prominent theme. Furthermore an increasing role is being played by technology as an integral part of the infrastructure to support learning, contributing to the personal skillset acquired by graduates during their academic career. It...

  9. The trans-national corporations and the social-historical institution of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our thesis relates to the trans-national corporations whose activities are blamed in the climate change problem. It deals with their actions in relation to the political process engaged by the states at the beginning of the 1990's, and with their influence on the definition of the solutions to be brought to the problem. More precisely, as part of a broader reflection on the social-historical institution of the problem - the fact that it is instituted, by means of the imaginary, in and by particular societies, at a certain moment of their history and for a certain time - and considering the period extending from 1989 to 2001, we wanted to elucidate two things. On the one hand, why, for (or against) what and how did these corporations act (i.e. the cause, the aim and the content of their actions) in relation to the political process. And, on the other hand, up to what point these actions (making the most of a 'relational power'), but also the sole fact that the studied corporations exist (a situation from which they derive an 'institutional power'), had effects on the process and, more especially, on the definition of the solutions. The choice of analysing these major 'non-state' actors arose from two intermingled motivations. The main motivation was to demonstrate the need to take into account these large firms (in addition to the states, the interstate institutions and the other non-state actors) to be able to understand the evolution of the political process, and thus to remedy at the lack of studies on the subject. The other motivation was to contribute, more in filigree, at the comprehension of the way capitalism - understood as a 'social regime' (i.e. a specific type of institution of the society) that can exist only in and by the corporation - face this problem which, more than any other ecological problem, deeply questions it, that means threatens it. (author)

  10. A look at the changing environment along the Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Das, V

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Natl_Symp_Environ_1992_V.pdf.txt stream_source_info Natl_Symp_Environ_1992_V.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Climate change in the Baltic sea region: a cross-country analysis of institutional stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Hansson, Anders; Hjerpe, Mattias; Chubarenko, Boris; Karmanov, Konstantin

    2012-09-01

    Before climate change is considered in long-term coastal management, it is necessary to investigate how institutional stakeholders in coastal management conceptualize climate change, as their awareness will ultimately affect their actions. Using questionnaires in eight Baltic Sea riparian countries, this study examines environmental managers' awareness of climate change. Our results indicate that problems related to global warming are deemed secondary to short-term social and economic issues. Respondents agree that problems caused by global warming will become increasingly important, but pay little attention to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Current environmental problems are expected to continue to be urgent in the future. We conclude that an apparent gap exists between decision making, public concerns, and scientific consensus, resulting in a situation in which the latest evidence rarely influences commonly held opinions. PMID:22926886

  12. Marketization trajectories in the Danish road and park sectors: A story of incremental institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Hansen, Morten Balle; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The article’s purpose is to improve the understanding of the evolution of marketization in the public sector as a process of institutional change. Design/methodology/ approach – The article is based on a study of marketization and gradual changes in the involvement of private contractors...... new survey data. Findings – Marketization within the road and park sectors has historically taken place through gradual changes, in particular by processes of layering and displacement, which has added up to substantial transformations in both sectors. Transformations relate to the levels of private...... sector involvement, the purpose of using private contractors, the extent of competition and the design of contractual arrangements. The road sector has been a frontrunner in this marketization process, while the park sector increasingly has been “catching up.” Originality/value – The article contributes...

  13. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  14. A New Theory of Educational Change--Punctuated Equilibrium: The Case of the Internationalisation of Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Christine; Fidler, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for a new theoretical paradigm for the analysis of change in educational institutions that is able to deal with such issues as readiness for change, transformational change and the failure of change strategies. Punctuated equilibrium (Tushman and Romanelli, 1985) is a theory which has wide application. It envisages long-term…

  15. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  16. Educating Young People in Multicultural Educational Environment of Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupova, Gulnaz F.; Podgorecki, Józef; Markova, Nadezhda G.

    2015-01-01

    The issue is relevant today because there is the formation of culture of international relations between students in a multicultural educational environment. The article is aimed at multicultural education, which can minimize culture shock, increase and diversify the experience of cross-cultural communication between countries and peoples who are…

  17. Institutional dynamics in environmental corporatism: The impact of market and technological change on the Dutch polder model

    OpenAIRE

    Tjiong, Henri

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how market and technological change can be conceived to affect corporatist politics in the area of waste management. The paper adopts a political economy approach to in-stitutional change which seeks to trace the impact of market and techological change on estab-lished political and regulatory institutions. The paper demonstrates that the main impact of mar-ketization of waste services and the introduction of ISO 14001 environmental management sys-tems was to expand the r...

  18. Discursive shifts in Dutch river management: 'deep' institutional change or adaptation strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, B.J.M.; Wiering, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that a discursive shift is taking place in Dutch water policy, from `a battle against water¿ to `living with water¿ or `accommodating water¿. Yet we ask ourselves whether this shift is just an adaptation strategy of the existing elite group of water managers, who pay lip-service to new management approaches in order to maintain their vested interests, as some authors claim, or whether it implies `deep¿ institutional change, e.g. in terms of the emergence of new water institu...

  19. The Role of Economics and Democracy in Institutional Change for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Söderbaum

    2014-01-01

    Institutional change for sustainable development does not happen by itself. Individuals and organizations function as actors to influence development processes. Reference is made to a “political economic person†(PEP) guided by her/his “ideological orientation†and “political economic organization†(PEO), guided by its “mission†. Leaving present unsustainable trends behind is a matter of politics and ideology and even power positions, where democracy plays a crucial role. The per...

  20. The impact of business environment changes on recent costing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧涓

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction The acceleration of globalization and the prosperity of information technology benefit business a great deal.But with the speeding up of economic development,firms are facing more and more pressure from various aspects of their business.The heated debate is on about whether traditional management accounting practices and techniques are irrelevant to the current business environment and this essay will explore the causes for using some traditional management accounting practices and techniques in the current business environment are inappropriate and put forward some contemporary management accounting techniques which is relevant to the current business environment.Thus,the essay will be divided into three sections to discuss the traditional management accounting practices and techniques and contemporary management accounting techniques in current business environment.

  1. Do institutions matter in business strategy? – The changing focus of strategic management to institutions: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Felsmann, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    The post-crisis managerial literature emphasizes the roles of institutional factors in any disruption of the ecosystem of market capitalism and puts it in the middle of its analytical framework. It has become clear that nowadays, scientific discussions about the measure of increase of direct state involvement in certain economic areas has become more relevant. The socio-economic model based on market coordination was no doubt shaken by the crisis in 2008 across the world and inspired vario...

  2. Changes in the perceived neighborhood environment in relation to changes in physical activity: A longitudinal study from childhood into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; De Meester, Femke; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to investigate how physical activity and the perceived neighborhood environment in children change when they enter adolescence. Also the relation between changes in the perceived environment and changes in children's physical activity was investigated. In total, 321 children and one of their parents filled out a physical activity questionnaire and the NEWS-Y at two time points (last grade of elementary school and 2 years later). Children also wore an activity monitor. Changes in children's physical activity were dependent on the physical activity domain. Only less than half of children's perceived neighborhood factors changed and about half of the parental perceived neighborhood factors changed. Most of these factors changed towards higher activity friendliness. Changes in the perceived environment were only limitedly related to changes in children's physical activity. PMID:25840351

  3. Cost-competitive incentives for wind energy development in China: institutional dynamics and policy changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the development of wind power in China. The factors that affect the directions of wind power development are analyzed. It examines the economics of wind farm development and compares it with conventional energy sources. The major constraints in wind technology development, and defects of the current policies, are discussed. It points out that wind power development should be subject to rational policy change and institutional adjustment. It discusses the incentive mechanisms and institutional frameworks for future development. Particular importance is attributed to market incentives for wind power to reach the objectives of industrialization and commercialization. A number of cost-competitive incentive measures and policies are recommended: (i) introducing market based mechanisms through standard power purchase agreement; (ii) establishing effective investment policies and regulations to attract private investment; (iii) promoting localization of wind turbine production; (iv) adjusting tax and subsidy policies; and (v) reforming governmental institutions to make clear rules and responsibilities for policymaking, and enhancing communication/coordination between relevant government agencies in order to formulate uniform and effective policies. (Author)

  4. Emerging Vector-borne Diseases in a Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER, Nurdan

    2005-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, demographic and societal changes, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, genetic changes in pathogens in the last two decades of the twentieth century. Climate changes also can influence the emergence and reemergence of these diseases which are malaria, dengue, yellow fever, plague, filariasis, louse-borne typhus, lyme disease, trypanoso...

  5. The Failure of Institutional Restructuring and Its Solution in Institutional Change: A Case Study of Change in the Yiwu Small Commodities Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangLiqing

    2005-01-01

    Seen from the point of view of its institutional environment, Yiwu in South China's Zhejiang province, does not enjoy the prerequisites for building itself into a national commodity distribution center. The key to its success lies in the fact that, rather than simply using voluntary community incentives and the local government's ability to act as go-between in diffusing these, Yiwu has seen the formation of mutually beneficial mechanisms involving a combination of the two forces. Within this mechanism,

  6. Measuring the Business Environment for Entrepreneurship: SMEs, Quality of Institutions and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Guglielmetti

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to understand the role of entrepreneurship in fragile states, which despite the practical interest and relevance has been somewhat disregarded in academic research. Given the necessity to support policy formulation with appropriate and relevant measurement of entrepreneurship and the business environment, the primary focus in this paper is to scrutinise existing international indicators, in particular the World Bank Doing Business Indicators (DBIs) and ask whethe...

  7. Prototyping an institutional IAIMS/UMLS information environment for an academic medical center.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, P. L.; Paton, J A; Clyman, J. I.; Powsner, S M

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a prototype information environment designed to link network-based information resources in an integrated fashion and thus enhance the information capabilities of an academic medical center. The prototype was implemented on a single Macintosh computer to permit exploration of the overall "information architecture" and to demonstrate the various desired capabilities prior to full-scale network-based implementation. At the heart of the prototype are two components: a diverse...

  8. Changing Public Discourse on the Environment: Danish Media Coverage of the Rio and Johannesburg UN Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    cases of wider public conceptions of the environment. Over a decade rhetoric about the summits and the environment changed, the agenda changed, and key environmental issues were repackaged. These changes are further interpreted in relation to ecological modernisation and discussed as a possible...

  9. Mechanisms for Creating a Psychologically Safe Learning Environment in an Educational Institution of General Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova O.I.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the moment the question of how to create and maintain the psychological safety of the educational environment of the school is not sufficiently studied. Meanwhile, there has been proved its positive effect on the psychological health of students, their emotional and personal well-being, the formation of a meta-subjective and personal educational outcomes. This paper describes a study the purpose of which was to examine and verify empiricaly the features of management activities in the educational organization to create a psychologically safe learning environment. We studied personality traits of the Head of an educational organization by the procedure "Troubleshooting leadership abilities" (E. Zharikova, E. Krushelnytsky, techniques "Diagnosis of the level of burnout" (V.V. Boyko, methods of self-management style assessment (A.V. Agrashenkova, modified by E.P. Ilyin, and methods for rapid assessment of health, activity, mood (SAN. We proposed mechanisms to solve the problem of creating a comfortable and safe learning environment in the educational organization of general education

  10. MIDWESTERN REGIONAL CENTER OF THE DOE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR CLIMATIC CHANGE RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Andrew J. [Michigan Technological University

    2014-02-28

    The goal of NICCR (National Institute for Climatic Change Research) was to mobilize university researchers, from all regions of the country, in support of the climatic change research objectives of DOE/BER. The NICCR Midwestern Regional Center (MRC) supported work in the following states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. The MRC of NICCR was able to support nearly $8 million in climatic change research, including $6,671,303 for twenty projects solicited and selected by the MRC over five requests for proposals (RFPs) and $1,051,666 for the final year of ten projects from the discontinued DOE NIGEC (National Institute for Global Environmental Change) program. The projects selected and funded by the MRC resulted in 135 peer-reviewed publications and supported the training of 25 PhD students and 23 Masters students. Another 36 publications were generated by the final year of continuing NIGEC projects supported by the MRC. The projects funded by the MRC used a variety of approaches to answer questions relevant to the DOE’s climate change research program. These included experiments that manipulated temperature, moisture and other global change factors; studies that sought to understand how the distribution of species and ecosystems might change under future climates; studies that used measurements and modeling to examine current ecosystem fluxes of energy and mass and those that would exist under future conditions; and studies that synthesized existing data sets to improve our understanding of the effects of climatic change on terrestrial ecosystems. In all of these efforts, the MRC specifically sought to identify and quantify responses of terrestrial ecosystems that were not well understood or not well modeled by current efforts. The MRC also sought to better understand and model important feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems, atmospheric chemistry, and regional

  11. Institutions and Social Change: implementing co-operative housing and environmentally sustainable development at Christie Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan McClean

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available How can institutions contribute to the building of civil society in the twenty- first century? It is clear that the old laissez-faire approach and the more recent neo-conservative reliance on the market have failed to deliver housing for many people. On the other hand the state-based welfare housing model espoused by the Australian Labor Party over the twentieth century has also been beset by problems. Social alienation, and the crisis in affordable housing make the case that individualist approaches to urban living are not working. More communal solutions are needed - solutions attuned to a complex view of civil society outlined by Michael Edwards' tripartite definition. At the same time the onset of global warming now prompts Australians to create more environmentally sustainable ways of living. Addressing the theme of responsibility, this paper focuses on citizenship in its broader environmental, social and active forms. It analyses interviews and documentary evidence concerning the planning and development of Christie Walk, an innovative, medium density eco-city development in Adelaide. The investigation reveals the effects of some Australian institutions on residents' efforts to live socially and environmentally sustainable lives in an urban environment. The paper offers transdisciplinary research and analysis, linking the fields of history, urban housing, community development and environmental theory.

  12. Creating a Suitable Physical Environment at the Institutions of Higher Education Considering the Needs of Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalė Pilipavičiūtė

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to develop a model for meas­uring the suitability of a physical environment at the institu­tions of higher education considering the needs of students with disabilities. The article examines the progress in this field under regulations made by the system of indicators and carried out expert survey employing the ranking method. To establish the significance of the developed programs, the importance of calculated indicators and their groups has been determined thus making a model for evaluating the physical environment suitable for the needs of students with disabilities at any institution of higher education in Lithuania.Article in Lithuanian

  13. The internationalization of islamic banking and finance: the co-evolution of institutional changes, the supply of financial

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The basis for Islamic finance lies in the Shariah. In this paper we point out the co-evolution of institutional change and the banking expansion in Islamic countries; there are certain parallelism between the quantitative and qualitative developments of the Islamic financing industry and the emergence of supportive institutions. There are certain convergences of Islamic banking products and institutions towards traditional banking functioning but keeping their principles. The Isla...

  14. Implementing Social Sustainability in the Bangladeshi Apparel Industry: Isomorphism, Diffusion, Decoupling and Change in Institutional Logics due to Environmental Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    F Huq, M Stevenson, M Zorzini

    2014-01-01

    Most social sustainability studies are from the developed country buying firm perspective and lack theoretical underpinning. We examine the implementation of social sustainability in the apparel industry of Bangladesh using institutional theory, investigating how institutional pressures exerted by actors, e.g. developing country suppliers, NGOs and trade bodies, impact the diffusion of socially sustainable practices; and, how changes in institutional logics affect implementation. Preliminary ...

  15. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  16. The paradoxical effects of institutional change for the legitimacy of European governance: the case of EU Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wendler

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available .This article discusses the tensions between two aspects of institutional change in the EU: the adaptation of institutional arrangements with the prospect of the legitimization of Community governance within a policy-making arena on the one hand, and the external evaluation of these institutional developments from the viewpoint of democratic theory on the other. Taking up the example of EU Social Policy, the argument proposed is twofold: First, a reconstruction of the institutional evolution in this field shows that strong tendencies towards the adaptation of Community governance to its contested legitimacy base – with regard to power relations, the behaviour of actors, the definition of policy ideas and the mechanisms of institutional change itself – are present. Second, evaluating these changes from the perspective of democratic theory reveals legitimacy deficits that are not just related to the imbalance of the input- and output-dimensions of legitimacy, but also to the tension between different normative standards of legitimate governance.

  17. Typification of Natural Seasonal Dynamics of Vegetation to Reveal Impact of Land Surface Change on Environment (by Satellite Data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, A.; Vysotskaya, G.; Sidko, A.; Dunaev, K.

    Deep insight into types of vegetation variability provided by AVHRR space scanner images of vegetation index spatial distribution helps reveal impact of land surface changes on environment.The Institute of Computational Modeling SB RAS has developed nonparametric algorithms of automatic to classify and recognize patterns of these images which helped to reveal: (1) major variability types (generally connected); (2) areas belonging to small classes, which can be used to reveal deviations from ``normal'' (e.g., forest fires, etc.); (3) deviation from a certain type of dynamics indicative of changes in condition of plants, which can be used to diagnose pathology at early stages; (4) impact of economical activities on vegetation in Norilsk area. The authors provide biological interpretation of the satellite data. Computer-animated dynamics and color maps are presented. Nonparametric algorithms of an automatic classification and pattern recognition were provided by the Institute of Computational Modeling SB RAS

  18. The Change of Financial Environment and the Evolvement of Financial Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Jian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With the changing financial environment, financial goals are constantly changing. In the course of development of financial theory, there were numerous financial goals theories, which are mainly "profit maximization, shareholders’ wealth maximization, and stakeholders’ wealth maximization." These financial goals basically reflect the business requirements of the market environment, the adaptation to the changing financial environment, and also reflect the different preferences of the different periods of property rights.

  19. Exploring the use of knowledge management practices in an academic library in a changing information environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mavodza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some academic libraries have significantly developed and are applying some knowledge management (KM principles and practices in the provision of library services. KM has been implemented in commercial and business environments towards achieving operational advantages. Its principles and tools can help libraries to improve performance and fulfil their mandate. By using a case study approach, the objective of this research was to find out how knowledge is identified, captured, shared and retained in order to enhance performance and improve the quality of service in the Metropolitan College of New York (MCNY library. A web-based questionnaire, some institutional documents, observation and face-toface interviews were used to collect data. Data was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings indicate that the MCNY library practices are not deliberately informed by KM principles, but are amenable to KM principles. It is recommended that KM, with its potential to turn individual knowledge into organisational knowledge, should be used in positioning the MCNY library in a changing information environment.

  20. Radioactivity of environment in the region of the Research institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measuring the RIAR radioactive effluents and samples of atmospheric air, soil, vegetation, fallouts, agricultural properties, bottom sediments, water from open basins in the area of its location are given. It is shown that α, β and γ radioactive isotope contents in the environment are at the level of the global values. Their radioactivity by hundreds and more times lowely than concentrations allowable according to the NRB-78/87 standard and is net connected with the RIAR activity. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  1. Lactic acid bacteria in a changing legislative environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feord, J.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of using lactic acid bacteria in the food chain, both through direct consumption and production of ingredients, are increasingly recognised by the food industry and consumers alike. The regulatory environment surrounding these products is diverse, covering foods and food ingredients, pr

  2. Northern hydrology and water resources in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role that climatic change may play in altering various components of the hydrologic cycle in Arctic regions is discussed. The hydrologic setting of these regions is first described, noting the importance of subsurface freezing and thawing on hydrologic pathways and the lack of incorporation of soil freezing and thawing into climate models. Major processes of interest in the relation between climate change and hydrology are the timing and magnitude of fluxes entering and leaving a basin: precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, and runoff. The active layer of the soil could be drastically increased by only a few degrees of surface warming. The natural hydrologic cycle has considerable yearly variation, tending to mask any hydrologic changes caused by climatic change. There are too many unknowns at present for an adequate prediction of the impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle. The biggest uncertainty is how the timing and quantity of precipitation is going to change. This quantity could be altered by any major changes in vegetation, which would be closely related to the amount of warming. In hydrologic scenarios where air temperature rises 4 degree C over 50 y, under stable, high, and low precipitation conditions, there are no significant changes in hydrologic response. 24 refs., 6 figs

  3. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  4. The Problems faced by Higher Education Institutions because of the Constantly Changing Objectives, sometimes Imposed Externally, sometimes Self-imposed

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent to which the objectives the universities and other higher education institutions try to achieve are changing and, in particular, how a multiplicity of objectives has emerged.

  5. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carriero, G.; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Clarke, N.; Matteucci, G.; Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Mikkelsen, J. D.; Fischer, R.; Cudlín, Pavel; Serengil, Y.; Boscaleri, F.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Feng, Z.; Paoletti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2014), s. 197-207. ISSN 2163-0429 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : air pollution * climate change * forests * supersites * COST * FP0903 Action Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Simulation of machine interference in randomly changing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztrik J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation tool lcpSim can be used to investigate special level crossing problems of queuing systems of type HYPOk / HYPOr / 1 // n embedded in different Markovian environments (recently referred to as Markov modulated ones. Our observed system consists of n heterogeneous machines (requests and a server that 'repairs' the broken machines according to the most commonly used service disciplines, such as FIFO, LIFO, PPS, HOL, Preemptive Priorities (Resume, Repeat, Transfer, Polling, Nearest. We specify a maximum number of stopped machines for an operating system and our aim is to give the main steady-state performance measures of the system, such as, server utilization, machine utilization, mean waiting times, mean response times, the probability of an operating system and the mean operating time of the system. These values can be calculated by lcpSim level crossing problem Simulation package for different random environment types and service disciplines.

  7. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren S Proppe

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  8. Climate change, adaptation and the environment in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for integrated approaches, such as the building of environmental management into climate change responses, addressing the total impact of livelihood stresses in social vulnerability perspectives, and ensuring that overall adaptation policies adequately address social justice...

  9. Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is rife with uncertainties. Yet, we can expect to resolve much of this uncertainty in the next 100 years or so. Therefore, current actions should reflect the value of flexibility. Nevertheless, most models of climate change, particularly game-theoretic models, abstract from uncertainty. A model of the impacts of uncertainty and learning in a non-cooperative game shows that the level of correlation of damages across countries is crucial for determining optimal policy

  10. Sustaininq an educational environment for change and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haden, N Karl; Anderson, Eugene L

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability refers to the capacity to continue. For the most part, United States dental schools have shown an amazing ability to endure over the past century. Dental schools have continued through fluctuations in application cycles and through persistent faculty shortages. Today, dental schools, particularly public institutions, find themselves faced with draconian budget cuts as states slash funding to higher education. While dental schools face threats, they also enjoy unprecedented opportunities. Scientific advances, particularly in genetics and molecular biology, presage the emergence of new modalities of patient care. The desirability of the dental profession as evidenced by the demand for dental services and the rising income of dentists is at an all time high. Public awareness about the importance of oral health care continues to grow. PMID:20836409

  11. Social care going market : Institutional and cultural change regarding services for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Bode

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades or so, major Western societies have remoulded the institutional set-up by which they are deailing with social risks related to frailty during old age. While the 20th century had brought a transnational tendency towards the establishment of elderly care ‘going public’, the proliferation of more market-based services brings confusion into the societal norm-set underlying the aforementioned tendency. Marketisation has placed the emphasis on economic values engrained in liberal worldviews, leading into a new welfare culture that devaluates universalism and reemphasises the sovereignty of the individual. However, the new cult of the individual produces contradictory signals. Drawing on an encompassing study on the ‘culture of welfare markets’ in elderly care provision, covering two (post-liberal and two (post-corporatist welfare regimes (Canada, Britain; France, Germany, the paper looks at these fuzzy developments in order to assess the cultural embeddedness of what can be referred to as the mixed economy of elderly care. The analysis, charting major patterns of both institutional change and public communication around it, elucidates that we currently are facing a permanent struggle between liberal values and (renewed elements of the ‘going-public-agenda’ proliferating over the 1970s and 1980s, that is, a hybrid and ‘nervous’ cultural configuration in which senior social citizenship remains an issue, albeit on precarious foundations.

  12. Italy: Delayed adaptation of social institutions to changes in family behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Zanatta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.

  13. Resilience of institutional culture: mental nursing in a decade of radical change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Niall

    2014-03-01

    Mental nursing has continued to be neglected in the history of psychiatry. This paper considers the impact of a decade of radical developments on the role and outlook of nurses in British mental hospitals during the 1930s. The Mental Treatment Act 1930 introduced voluntary admission for early, supposedly treatable cases, although there was paucity of effective treatment. In the mid-1930s shock therapies, administered with great enthusiasm by asylum doctors, promised to cure insanity by physical means. Although these were important milestones in the progress of psychiatry, for the majority of nurses and patients life continued much as before. Despite advances in training, working conditions and therapeutic activity, the institutional culture of nursing was remarkably resilient to the forces of change. PMID:24594822

  14. L’entreprise comme institution fondamentale de l’échange marchand

    OpenAIRE

    Robé, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Pour vous parler de l’entreprise comme « institution fondamentale de l’échange marchand », il me faut, peut-être de façon surprenante, commencer par évoquer brièvement le droit de l’ancienne France, le droit d’avant la Révolution française. Ce point de départ, en plus de surprendre, peut sembler très ethnocentrique. Mais on suivra sur ce point Immanuel Wallerstein (peu soupçonnable d’ethnocentrisme) pour qui « la Révolution française a marqué un tournant dans l’histoire culturelle du système-...

  15. Approaching Integrated Urban-Rural Development in China: The Changing Institutional Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of institutional change on the implementation of China’s integrated urban-rural development strategy in the period 1981–2010. The findings indicate that governmental investment in rural areas and the development of non-agricultural industries in the countryside in fact contributed positively to the integration of urban-rural development in the period studied. The household registration system, however, was found to have acted as an obstacle to integration due to its exclusion of rural immigrants from welfare benefits. The reform of the agricultural production price system was not found to have exerted an impact, since low agricultural incomes compelled peasants to undertake non-agricultural work in towns and cities. A robustness check performed as part of the study proved the reliability of these findings.

  16. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  17. The Networked University: The Structure, Culture, and Policy of Universities in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The universities in Europe are finding themselves in a turbulent environment. They are exposed to global and European developments. This article links changes in the structure, culture, and policy of universities to these developments and changes in the broader-than-national environment. The central question is, in short: what is globalisation…

  18. Amphibian immune defenses against chytridiomycosis: impacts of changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Pask, James D; Reinert, Laura K; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2011-10-01

    Eco-immunology is the field of study that attempts to understand the functions of the immune system in the context of the host's environment. Amphibians are currently suffering devastating declines and extinctions in nearly all parts of the world due to the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Because chytridiomycosis is a skin infection and remains confined to the skin, immune defenses of the skin are critical for survival. Skin defenses include secreted antimicrobial peptides and immunoglobulins as well as antifungal metabolites produced by symbiotic skin bacteria. Low temperatures, toxic chemicals, and stress inhibit the immune system and may impair natural defenses against B. dendrobatidis. Tadpoles' mouth parts can be infected by B. dendrobatidis. Damage to the mouth parts can impair growth, and the affected tadpoles maintain the pathogen in the environment even when adults have dispersed. Newly metamorphosing frogs appear to be especially vulnerable to infection and to the lethal effects of this pathogen because the immune system undergoes a dramatic reorganization at metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic defenses are not yet mature. Here we review our current understanding of amphibian immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis and the ability of the pathogen to resist those defenses. We also briefly review what is known about the impacts of temperature, environmental chemicals, and stress on the host-pathogen interactions and suggest future directions for research. PMID:21816807

  19. Communicating Climate Change to Visitors of Informal Science Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfler, Jes A.; Heimlich, Joe E.; Yocco, Victor S.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports findings on visitors' preferences for content presentation of a future global warming and climate change exhibit. The study was conducted with two groups: one from the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, and the other at the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. The…

  20. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    support further improvements in efficiency and scale up renewable generation at an acceptable level of cost and reliability. Chapter 6 examines energy use and GHG emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use, arguing that energy use and GHG emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China are high relative to other countries because of China's historical support for small and medium-sized enterprises using domestic technology; its continued provision of energy subsidies to fertilizer producers; and its lack of a well-functioning agricultural extension system. The case studies illustrate the limits of energy and climate policy in China without institutional reform. China's leaders have historically relied on economic growth to defer the difficult changes in political economy that accompany economic and social transition. However, many of the challenges of energy and climate policy require political decisions that reallocate resources among stakeholders. For instance, restructuring the Chinese economy away from heavy industrial investment and toward a higher GDP share of consumption will require financial sector reforms, such as interest rate liberalization or higher dividend payments for state-owned enterprises, that reallocate income from the industrial sector to households. Increasing power system flexibility will require price reforms that reallocate revenues and costs among generators, between generators and the grid companies, between producers and ratepayers, among ratepayer classes, and between and among provinces. Strong public interest institutions are needed to make these changes, which suggests that China's energy and GHG emissions trajectories will be determined, to a large extent, by the politics of institutional reform.

  1. Changing heartbeat perception to induce anxiety in virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose a general technique to induce anxiety in virtual environments (VEs) which exploits auditory heartbeat perception and biofeedback. Then, we consider a VE that reproduces a real-world anxiety-inducing experience (being suddenly surrounded by smoke during a fire evacuation of a building), and we describe an experiment that contrasts 3 conditions: (i) an augmentation of the VE with a bar that indicates when the user's avatar gets hurt, (ii) an augmentation of the VE with the typical audio visual stimuli which are employed in violent videogames when the user's avatar gets hurt, (iii) introduction of the proposed biofeedback technique in the previous condition. We carry out an electrodermal analysis showing that the introduction of the proposed technique produces much higher physiological arousal in terms of skin conductance level (SCL) than the other two conditions. Subjective measures of users' state anxiety are consistent with the recorded physiological reactions. PMID:22954850

  2. Evolutionary neural network learning algorithms for changing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Miguel; Cortez, Paulo; Neves, José

    2004-01-01

    Classical Machine Learning methods are usually developed to work in static data sets. Yet, real world data typically changes over time and there is the need to develop novel adaptive learning algorithms. In this work, a number of algorithms, combining Neural Network learning models and Evolutionary Computation optimization techniques, are compared, being held several simulations based on artificial and real world problems. The results favor the combination of evolution and lifetime learning a...

  3. Coastal sedimentary environments and sea-level changes

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrio, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the 3-D arrangement and lateral facies relationships of the stacking patterns in coastal deposits is essential to approach many geological problems such as precise tracing of sea level changes, particularly during small scale fluctuations. These are useful data regarding the geodynamic evolution of basin margins and yield profit in oil exploration. Sediment supply, wave-and tidal processes, coastal morphology, and accommodation space generated by eustasy and t...

  4. Leveraging Environment and Climate Change Initiatives for Corporate Excellence

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatachalam ANBUMOZHI; Kimura, Mari; Isono, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    As an integral part of sustainable development, the impacts from climate change, including increasing water stress, more extreme weather events, the potential for high levels of migration and the disruption of international markets are critical challenges for all Asian countries. With rapid economic growth and modernization, the countries in the region are increasing production and consumption, calling for critical adaption measures. With the Asian countries and the energy sector exceedingly ...

  5. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  6. Adaptive wetland management in an uncertain and changing arid environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah Downard; Joanna Endter-Wada; Kettenring, Karin M.

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands in the arid western United States provide rare and critical migratory bird habitat and constitute a critical nexus within larger social-ecological systems (SES) where multiple changing land-use and water-use patterns meet. The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, USA, presents a case study of the ways that wetland managers have created adaptive management strategies that are responsive to the social and hydrological conditions of the agriculture-dominated SES within which they a...

  7. Mining and the environment: driving forces for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public perceptions of the mining industry and its environmental, economic and socio-cultural impacts are of basic importance with regard to the development of regulations and of company strategies. Identifying those public attitudes (expressed either formally or informally) that will become widespread forces for change can be difficult, as can choosing the correct response. There is a need for the industry as a whole to define generally applicable social and environmental principles. (author)

  8. Greenhouse gases: Changing the nature of our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of carbon dioxide and other agriculturally, industrially, and energy-related gases are altering the composition of the atmosphere in a manner that will enhance the trapping of infrared radiation and lend to increasing global average temperatures. Analysis of the historical climate record is under way to identify evidence that the changes in atmospheric concentration to data have already initiated the model-predicted warming. Observations suggest that the global average temperature has risen ∼0.5 ± 0.2 degree C over the past 150 yr, which is, depending on how account is taken of the ocean heat lag and of natural variability, roughly consistent with the lower half of the model-estimated range. The most recent model estimates are, however, in the upper half of this range, suggesting a factor of 2 disagreement and prompting intensive studies of the role of clouds in influencing climate change. What is certain is that the atmospheric composition is changing and that climate will respond, almost certainly by a few-degrees warming if emissions continue unabated. Reducing the uncertainties and refining estimates of impacts to the point where energy and other policies may be affected, however, poses a significant research challenge

  9. Teaching the surgical craft: Surgery residents perception of the operating theater educational environment in a tertiary institution in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transformation of a surgical trainee into a surgeon is strongly influenced by the quality of teaching in the operating theater. This study investigates the perceptions of residents about the educational environment of the operating theater and identifies variables that may improve the operating theater education of our trainees. Materials and Methods: Residents in the department of surgery anonymously evaluated teaching in the operating room using the operating theater education environment measure. The residents evaluated 33 variables that might have an impact on their surgical skills within the operating theater. The variables were grouped into four subscales; teaching and training, learning opportunities, operating theater atmosphere and workload/supervision/support. Differences between male and female residents and junior and senior registrars were assessed using Mann-Whitney test. Statistical analysis was completed with the statistics package for the social sciences version 17. Results: A total of 33 residents were participated in this study. Twenty nine (88% males and 4 (12% females. 30 (90% were junior registrars. The mean total score was 67.5%. Operating theater atmosphere subscale had the highest score of 79.2% while workload/supervision/support subscale had the least score of 48.3%. There were significant differences between male and female resident′s perception of workload/supervision/support P 0.05. Conclusion: This study has shown a satisfactory teaching environment based on the existing local realities of means, resources and tools and highlighted the need for improvement in workload/supervision/support in our institution. An acceptable learning environment in the operating theatre will produce surgeons that are technically competent to bridge the gap in the enormous unmet need for surgical care in Nigeria.

  10. Changing Environments by Changing Individuals: The Emergent Effects of Psychological Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Joseph T; Cook, Jonathan E; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Garcia, Julio; Apfel, Nancy; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2016-02-01

    The two studies reported here tested whether a classroom-based psychological intervention that benefited a few African American 7th graders could trigger emergent ecological effects that benefited their entire classrooms. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data that previously documented the benefits of values affirmations on African American students' grades. The density of African American students who received the intervention in each classroom (i.e., treatment density) was used as an independent predictor of grades. Within a classroom, the greater the density of African American students who participated in the intervention exercise, the higher the grades of all classmates on average, regardless of their race or whether they participated in the intervention exercise. Benefits of treatment density were most pronounced among students with a history of poor performance. Results suggest that the benefits of psychological intervention do not end with the individual. Changed individuals can improve their social environments, and such improvements can benefit others regardless of whether they participated in the intervention. These findings have implications for understanding the emergence of ecological consequences from psychological processes. PMID:26671909

  11. Implementing the Agenda of the Namibian Ministry of Environment and Tourism : A Rapid Country Environmental Analysis with a Public Expenditure Review for Aligning Policy, Institutional and Financing Priorities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is organized around three thematic chapters. Chapter one looks at the contribution of the environment and tourism sector to the Namibian economy as well as at some key achievements and challenges. Chapter two describes the policy and legislative framework, and the institutional analysis of the environment and tourism sector. Chapter three examines the financing of the sector an...

  12. The impact of changing computing technology on EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] nuclear analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Reload Management Program of the Nuclear Power Division (NPD) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has the responsibility for initiating and managing applied research in selected nuclear engineering analysis functions for nuclear utilities. The computer systems that result from the research projects consist of large FORTRAN programs containing elaborate computational algorithms used to access such areas as core physics, fuel performance, thermal hydraulics, and transient analysis. This paper summarizes a study of computing technology trends sponsored by the NPD. The approach taken was to interview hardware and software vendors, industry observers, and utility personnel focusing on expected changes that will occur in the computing industry over the next 3 to 5 yr. Particular emphasis was placed on how these changes will impact engineering/scientific computer code development, maintenance, and use. In addition to the interviews, a workshop was held with attendees from EPRI, Power Computing Company, industry, and utilities. The workshop provided a forum for discussing issues and providing input into EPRI's long-term computer code planning process

  13. Institutional change for strong sustainable consumption: sustainable consumption and the degrowth economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim H. Spangenberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental space concept illustrates that socially unsustainable underconsumption must be overcome and environmentally unsustainable overconsumption must be phased out. The planetary boundaries help to quantify the “ceiling,” while the social protection floor concept operationalizes the linea de dignidad, the minimal conditions for a dignified life. In order for Western societies to respect these limits, significant institutional change is needed with respect to both orientations and mechanisms. For the ceiling, this article suggests a shift to an orientation of “better but less” for affluent groups, and toward “enough and better” for those still living in poverty. The corresponding mechanisms include a redistribution of income and wealth, a cap on income, an unconditional minimum income, and a strengthening of democracy. The choice of instruments has to take into account that consumption is to a large degree not an individual but a social act and to employ informational, financial, and legal measures that overcome the preference of decision makers for market instruments. Implementing these changes would alter the fabric of our societies. Important first steps can be taken here and now.

  14. Leadership of Modern Financial Institutions and the Changing Paradigm of Banking in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikpefan OA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is an established fact that there exist leadership crisis at levels of organizational management. And organizational leadership crisis have occupied the front pages of various tabloids all over the world. Leadership crisis has engulfed various SMEs, conglomerates, governments, and financial institutions all over the world. The resultant effects of these have given rise to the present crisis, chaos and rots that are being witnessed in all nooks and crannies of the globe. This paper addressed issues relating leadership and the changing paradigm in the Nigerian financial landscape. The aim among others was to analyze the leadership theories especially the most appropriate circumstances for their application to current banking systems. The characteristics of and expectations from a good leaders; due mainly to the changing paradigm in banking e.g., optimizing the use of funds and building up management information system for decision making and better management of assets and liabilities and how leaders can rise to the challenges of global crisis. The theoretical findings showed that leaders should be abreast of risk inherent in currency market and keep an eye on the ball of underlying credit risk. It concludes that leadership needs to address issues of technical mismanagement, cosmetic management, desperate mismanagement and fraud which pose threat to the health of a bank. For effective leadership, there is need for good combination of teamwork, right organization, power and appropriate style of leadership.

  15. Community Institutions, Sustainable Forest Management, and Forest Cover Change in Southern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fabusoro, E.; Maruyama, M.; Shoyama, K.; Braimoh, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the activities of community institutions in achieving sustainable forest management (SFM) and sustained forest cover. Three institutions representing the administrative, economic, and social/traditional institutions were identified. The institutions had 30 forest management activities and satisfied about 66% of SFM Criteria and Indicators. A loss of 122 ha of forest cover was estimated over the last 30 yr, attributed to conversion of forests to built-up areas. Cooperati...

  16. Understanding Academic Work in a Changing Institutional Enviroment.Faculty Autonomy, Productitivity, and Identity, in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, L.; Dee, J.R.; Smart, J.C.; Paulsen, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore the shifting nature of academic work at European and US research universities. Our analyses reveal four trends. First, despite significant differences in higher education governance, institutional environments have led to a shift away from the “integrated scholar” model t

  17. On Efficiency of the Compulsive Institution in the Environment Governance%论强制性环境治理制度的实施效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊根耀; 蒋莉

    2005-01-01

    Limited by the condition of information, technology and natural elements, the compulsive institutions in the environment governance can not form a "hard constraint" to the individuals. Because of the individual's speculative behaviors, the government's deviation from its environmental governance, and the non-cooperative game between individuals and the legal organization, the implementation of the compulsive institutions is not as good as being expected. Through analyzing the mechanism of the compulsive institutions, this paper puts forward some suggestions to enhance the efficiency of such institutions' implementation.

  18. A Comment on the environment and directed technical change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Heggedal, Tom-Reiel

    2012-07-01

    The major claim in Acemoglu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (2012) (AABH) is that subsidies for research and development of clean technologies are more important than carbon taxes when dealing with climate change. However, they – unconventionally – assume that a patent only lasts for one period. In this note we introduce long-lived patents into the AABH model. This makes the role of a research subsidy for clean technologies in AABH far less crucial and reestablishes the role of the carbon tax. This is good news as it is far easier to tax emissions than to pick the right technologies to subsidize.(Author)

  19. Climate change and the cultural environment: Recognized impacts challenges in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    BerghÀll, Jonna; Pesu, Minna

    2008-01-01

    Climate change impacts the cultural heritage of Finland. Adaptation and mitigation measures are posing challenges along with the consequences of climate change. Cultural landscapes, the built cultural environment and the archaeological heritage all will be affected. The impacts of climate change that Finland will face and the challenges posed by them for the care of the cultural environment also apply to the Boreal Zone of Northern Europe in more general terms. This report charts the chall...

  20. Developing Frameworks for Studies on Sedimentary Fluxes and Budgets in Changing Cold Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Beylich A. Achim; Lamoureux F. Scott; Decaulne Armelle

    2011-01-01

    Geomorphic processes that are responsible for the transfer of sediments and landform change are highly dependent on climate and vegetation cover. It is anticipated that climate change will have a major impact on the behaviour of Earth surface systems and that the most profound changes will occur in high-latitude and high-altitude cold environments. Collection, comparison and evaluation of data from a range of different high-latitude and high-altitude cold environments are required to permit g...

  1. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  2. A report on the climate change and investment risk workshop : best practices for Canadian pension funds and institutional investors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investors realize that the value of investment portfolios can be influenced by environmental risks such as climate change. This report is intended to raise awareness within the financial community of climate change risk, and to encourage greater corporate disclosure on climate change. It presents recommended best practices from the Social Investment Organization (SIO) regarding pension funds and other institutional investors for assessing and managing climate change risk. In 2003, 87 institutional investors handling $9 trillion, asked the 500 largest publicly traded companies in the world to disclose investment-relevant information concerning their greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 800 organizations in all sectors of the Canadian economy have launched voluntary action plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The SIO recommends that Canadian institutional investors should sign the Carbon Disclosure Project, a mechanism designed to obtain carbon risk data from the largest companies in the world. Mandatory disclosure programs have been a successful tool in promoting sustainable development. 37 refs

  3. Transhumance Farming in Swiss Mountains: Adaptation to a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Jurt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Families living on transhumance farms (Stufenbetriebe in the Swiss Alps may move with their cattle up to 12 times a year between as many as 4 altitudinal levels. Transhumance farms have come under increasing political pressure to improve their economic performance, which has been hampered by a number of factors, such as rising infrastructure costs for meeting animal welfare regulations at multiple farm locations, lack of access roads, and restrictions on the creation of new transhumance farms. Little is known about transhumant farming practices and the role they play in mountain regions. In this exploratory anthropological study, we interviewed 39 transhumance farm family members in 7 Swiss cantons about their history, present situation, and visions of the future. A special focus was the risk perceptions upon which decisions and management strategies are based. The semistructured interviews were analyzed according to principles of content analysis and risk network analysis, with a focus on social, cultural, economic, and political risks as well as natural hazards. The results show that many transhumance farms are undergoing a process of adaptation to a changing social, political, economic, environmental, and cultural context. Transhumance farming has allowed individuals to survive as mountain farmers despite often difficult conditions. This study offers important insights into the risk perceptions and strategies of adaptation to ongoing changes developed by the families on these farms.

  4. Plant adaptation to dynamically changing environment: the shade avoidance response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, I; Sessa, G; Ciolfi, A; Possenti, M; Carabelli, M; Morelli, G

    2012-01-01

    The success of competitive interactions between plants determines the chance of survival of individuals and eventually of whole plant species. Shade-tolerant plants have adapted their photosynthesis to function optimally under low-light conditions. These plants are therefore capable of long-term survival under a canopy shade. In contrast, shade-avoiding plants adapt their growth to perceive maximum sunlight and therefore rapidly dominate gaps in a canopy. Daylight contains roughly equal proportions of red and far-red light, but within vegetation that ratio is lowered as a result of red absorption by photosynthetic pigments. This light quality change is perceived through the phytochrome system as an unambiguous signal of the proximity of neighbors resulting in a suite of developmental responses (termed the shade avoidance response) that, when successful, result in the overgrowth of those neighbors. Shoot elongation induced by low red/far-red light may confer high relative fitness in natural dense communities. However, since elongation is often achieved at the expense of leaf and root growth, shade avoidance may lead to reduction in crop plant productivity. Over the past decade, major progresses have been achieved in the understanding of the molecular basis of shade avoidance. However, uncovering the mechanisms underpinning plant response and adaptation to changes in the ratio of red to far-red light is key to design new strategies to precise modulate shade avoidance in time and space without impairing the overall crop ability to compete for light. PMID:21888962

  5. On the world's ice ages and changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All known ice ages during the earth's history are reviewed. The oldest glaciation occurred around 2.3 billion years ago, followed by a series of large glaciations 950-650, 450-430 and 310-270 million years ago. Continental drift played a major role in these long-term climatic changes. The present Quaternary ice age actually began 17 million years ago, when a large ice mass grew over Antarctica. A detailed account is given of the climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary period (over 2.5 million years). Different stratigraphic records, and the relationship of climatic variations to orbital forcing are discussed. Large environmental changes took place in the course of the climate oscillations. Large ice sheets waxed and waned, global sea-levels fluctuated, forests disappeared from many regions during cold times and advanced during favourable times. The ice masses depressed the earth's crust markedly, and this then rose rapidly when the ice melted. The extent of glacial erosion is also discussed. Finally the postglacial climatic history of the earth is described and the consequences of the possible greenhouse effect are considered.(orig.)

  6. Changes in macrophage function modulated by the lipid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael R; Cauvi, David M; Rivera, Isabel; Hawisher, Dennis; De Maio, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages (Mφs) play a critical role in the defense against pathogens, orchestrating the inflammatory response during injury and maintaining tissue homeostasis. During these processes, macrophages encounter a variety of environmental conditions that are likely to change their gene expression pattern, which modulates their function. In this study, we found that murine Mφs displayed two different subpopulations characterized by differences in morphologies, expression of surface markers and phagocytic capacity under non-stimulated conditions. These two subpopulations could be recapitulated by changes in the culture conditions. Thus, Mφs grown in suspension in the presence of serum were highly phagocytic, whereas subtraction of serum resulted in rapid attachment and reduced phagocytic activity. The difference in phagocytosis between these subpopulations was correlated with the expression levels of FcγR. These two cell subpopulations also differed in their responses to LPS and the expression of surface markers, including CD14, CD86, scavenger receptor A1, TLR4 and low-density lipoprotein receptor. Moreover, we found that the lipid/cholesterol content in the culture medium mediated the differences between these two cell subpopulations. Thus, we described a mechanism that modulates Mφ function depending on the exposure to lipids within their surrounding microenvironment. PMID:26951856

  7. Accessing the Global Value Chain in a Changing Institutional Environment: Comparing Aeronautics and Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Cafaggi, Fabrizio; Swensson, Luana F. Joppert; Macedo, Ronaldo Porto; ANDREOTTI E SILVA, Tiago; Piterman Gross, Clarissa; Gabriel de Almeida, Lucila; Alves Ribeiro, Thiago

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper, based on empirical research in Brazil, is to investigate how supply chains have evolved over time, what factors have driven this evolution and also how a specific set of contractual practices along these chains is linked to access to international markets. The two selected case studies in the field of agriculture and aeronautics permit comparison between different modes of accessing international markets and GVCs; they illustrate the roles of transnational corporations a...

  8. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Final Technical Report 1990-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasios Toulopoulos

    2007-11-01

    Research conducted by the six NIGEC Regional Centers during recent years is reported. An overview of the NIGEC program from its beginnings provides a description and evaluation of the program's vision, strategy and major accomplishments. The program's purpose was to support academic research on environmental change in regions of the country that had historically received relatively little federal funding. The overall vision of NIGEC may be stated as the performance of academic research on the regional interactions between ecosystems and climate. NIGEC's research presents important evidence on the impacts of climate variability and change, and in some cases adaptability, for a broad range of both managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and has thereby documented significant regional issues on the environmental responses to climate change. NIGEC's research has demonstrated large regional differences in the atmospheric carbon exchange budgets of croplands and forests, that there are significant variations of this exchange on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales due to atmospheric variability (including temperature, precipitation and cloudiness), and that management practices and past history have predominant effects in grasslands and croplands. It is the mid-latitude forests, however, that have received more attention in NIGEC than any other specific ecosystem, and NIGEC's initiation of and participation in the AmeriFlux program, network of carbon flux measurement sites in North American old-growth forests, is generally considered to be its most significant single accomplishment. By including appendices with complete listings of NIGEC publications, principal investigators and participating institutions, this report may also serve as a useful comprehensive documentation of NIGEC.

  9. Adaptive wetland management in an uncertain and changing arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Downard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in the arid western United States provide rare and critical migratory bird habitat and constitute a critical nexus within larger social-ecological systems (SES where multiple changing land-use and water-use patterns meet. The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, USA, presents a case study of the ways that wetland managers have created adaptive management strategies that are responsive to the social and hydrological conditions of the agriculture-dominated SES within which they are located. Managers have acquired water rights and constructed infrastructure while cultivating collaborative relationships with other water users to increase the adaptive capacity of the region and decrease conflict. Historically, water management involved diversion and impoundment of water within wetland units timed around patterns of agricultural water needs. In the last 20 years, managers have learned from flood and drought events and developed a long-term adaptive management plan that specifies alternative management actions managers can choose each year based on habitat needs and projected water supply. Each alternative includes habitat goals and target wetland water depth. However, wetland management adapted to agricultural return-flow availability may prove insufficient as population growth and climate change alter patterns of land and water use. Future management will likely depend more on negotiation, collaboration, and learning from social developments within the SES than strictly focusing on water management within refuge boundaries. To face this problem, managers have worked to be included in negotiations with regional water users, a strategy that may prove instructive for other wetland managers in agriculture-dominated watersheds.

  10. Radioactivity of marine environment: pr occupations of the Romanian Institute of Marine Research at Constanta (1977-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear laboratory installed in the frame of Romanian Institute of Marine Research has been initially charged with the study of primary plankton productivity as a basic element of bio-productivity using the C-14 method. The results contributed with significant data to complete the ecological picture of the marine environment regarding particularly the nutrient basis of living resources. The laboratory developed its activities by a systematic space-time monitoring of the marine radioactivity making use of a large network of measuring stations extended from Danube mouths through the southern limit of Romanian seashore and occasionally offshore up to 90 miles. Currently, global beta measurements, radiochemical determinations (for Sr-90 for instance) and high resolution gamma spectroscopic measurements (especially on K-40, Cs-134, and Cs-137) are carried out. At the end of 199 a tritium determination chain has been installed to monitor continuously the environment from around Cernavoda NPP across the Dobrogea up to the sea shore. These measurements and studies were made under technical co-operation contracts with IAEA and other national or international organisations while the results were incorporated in two important documents: 'Global Inventory of Radioactivity of Mediterranean Sea (CIESEM/GIRMED)' and 'A Global Data Base of Marine Radioactivity (IAEA/GLOMARD)'

  11. SHERPA and Institutional Repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, Bill

    2003-01-01

    The SHERPA project (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access) has been set up to encourage change in the scholarly communication process by creating open-access institutional "e-print" repositories for the dissemination of research findings. This article looks at the terminology involved with such repositories and at the issues that such repositories raise for their construction and use. It reviews the advantages of having an institutional basis for a repository and ...

  12. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  13. Science-policy interaction in the global greenhouse. Institutional design and institutional performance in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, Tora

    1999-08-01

    This paper explores the science-policy interaction and the extent to which and how institutional arrangements may be used as instruments for enhancing the effectiveness of the dialog. The first part develops the theory. The point of departure of the analysis is the internal dynamics of science and politics in their pure forms and the nature of the dynamics that are generated when these two distinct systems of behaviour meet. On this basis, then, the question of which functions the institutional apparatus should be able to serve in order to enhance the effectiveness of science-policy dialogue is addressed. This approach is then applied to an empirical case study of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) from its establishment in 1988 to the provision of the Second IPCC Assessment Report in 1995. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Strengthening CERN and particle physics in a changing global environment

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As we welcome Romania as our 22nd Member State in late July, now is a good time to reflect on the geographical enlargement process that was initiated in 2010.   Let me begin by setting the context. CERN operates in an increasingly complex and globalised world. Political and economic developments in the European neighbourhood and well beyond can have an impact on our work – directly or indirectly, in the short term or in a much longer perspective. We need to anticipate that change as far as we can, while also being agile enough to meet the challenges that we do not expect. The UK’s EU referendum on 23 June is a case in point. Because CERN is an organisation founded to facilitate cooperation across borders, Brexit is an uncomfortable truth to many of us. It is, nevertheless, the outcome of the political processes of one of our founding Member States, and is something we must respect. Whatever direction the UK now takes, we will be working with the country’s particle ph...

  15. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  16. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  17. Respiratory changes due to extreme cold in the Arctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, P.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1993-03-01

    Effects of acute exposure and acclimatisation to cold stress on respiratory functions were investigated in healthy tropical Indian men ( n=10). Initial baseline recordings were carried out at Delhi and thereafter serially thrice at the arctic region and once on return to Delhi. For comparison the respiratory functions were also evaluated on Russian migrants (RM; n=7) and Russian natives (RN; n=6). The respiratory functions were evaluated using standard methodology on a Vitalograph: In Indians, there was an initial decrease in lung vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume 1st s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) on acute exposure to cold stress, followed by gradual recovery during acclimatisation for 4 weeks and a further significant improvement after 9 weeks of stay at the arctic region. On return to India all the parameters reached near baseline values except for MVV which remained slightly elevated. RM and RN showed similar respiratory functions at the beginning of acute cold exposure at the arctic zone. RN showed an improvement after 10 weeks of stay whereas RM did not show much change. The respiratory responses during acute cold exposure are similar to those of initial altitude responses.

  18. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  19. Globalisation, technological progress and changes in regulations and institutions: Which impact on the rise of earnings inequality in OECD countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Förster, Michael; Llena-Nozal, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the distributive impact of economic globalisation, technological progress and changes in labour market policies, regulations and institutions in OECD countries over the past quarter century, up to the Great Recession. It identifies the relevant pathways between macro-economic developments and earnings inequality among the whole working-age population by accounting for both changes in wage dispersion among workers and changes in earnings gaps between the employed and non-em...

  20. Ages of celiac disease: From changing environment to improved diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Tommasini; Tarcisio Not; Alessandro Ventura

    2011-01-01

    From the time of Gee's landmark writings, the recent history of celiac disease (CD) can be divided into manyages, each driven by a diagnostic advance and a deeperknowledge of disease pathogenesis. At the same time,these advances were paralleled by the identification of new clinical patterns associated with CD and by a continuous redefinition of the prevalence of the diseasein population. In the beginning, CD was considered a chronic indigestion, even if the causative food was notknown; later, the disease was proven to depend on anintolerance to wheat gliadin, leading to typical mucosalchanges in the gut and to a malabsorption syndrome. This knowledge led to curing the disease with a gluten-free diet. After the identification of antibodies to gluten(AGA) in the serum of patients and the identification of gluten-specific lymphocytes in the mucosa, CD was described as an immune disorder, resembling a chronic "gluten infection". The use of serological testing for AGA allowed identification of the higher prevalence of this disorder, revealing atypical patterns of presenta-tion. More recently, the characterization of autoantibod-ies to endomysium and to transglutaminase shifted the attention to a complex autoimmune pathogenesis and to the increased risk of developing autoimmune disor-ders in untreated CD. New diagnostic assays, based on molecular technologies, will introduce new changes, with the promise of better defining the spectrum of gluten reactivity and the real burden of gluten related-disorders in the population. Herein, we describe the different periods of CD experience, and further devel-opments for the next celiac age will be proposed.

  1. Instructional change in academic departments: An analysis from the persepctive of two environment-focused change strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Kathleen M.

    Numerous reports demand changes in college and university teaching practices. This is especially true for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. STEM stakeholders are concerned about student retention within STEM majors, as well as the lack of sufficient graduates with the knowledge to advance these fields. A common conclusion of these reports is that teaching practices must change. Although these calls for change have occurred for decades, STEM fields have yet to experience widespread change. Thus, there is a need for more effective change strategies. Recently, researchers have suggested that effective change strategies should focus on changing the environments of academic departments. This is in contrast to most commonly-used change strategies that focus on individual instructors. Environmentfocused change strategies have two main varieties: those that have a goal of implementing prescribed outcomes, and those that expect the outcomes to emerge from the change process. Yet, little is known about how to enact environment-focused change strategies. The goal of this research is to provide guidance for change agents and researchers by analyzing a large-scale change initiative from the perspective of two environment-focused change strategies: Kotter's eight-stage leadership process (prescribed) and complexity leadership theory (emergent). This analysis was guided by two research questions. 1. Within the context of a higher education change initiative, how is the change process described from the perspectives of two distinct leadership theories? 2. How do these descriptions frame problems and solutions associated with change? Each change strategy identified different activities as contributing to change as well as different missed opportunities. For example, when the change vision was not communicated effectively, the eight-stage leadership process indicated that the involvement of the department chair was needed, while complexity

  2. A Decade of Change: An Institutional Experience with Breast Surgery in 1995 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber A. Guth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the adoption of routine screening mammography, breast cancers are being diagnosed at earlier stages, with DCIS now accouting for 22.5% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers. This has been attributed to both increased breast cancer awareness and improvements in breast imaging techniques. How have these changes, including the increased use of image-guided sampling techniques, influenced the clinical practice of breast surgery?Methods: The institutional pathology database was queried for all breast surgeries, including breast reconstruction, performed in 1995 and 2005. Cosmetic procedures were excluded. The results were analysed utilizing the Chi-square test.Results: Surgical indications changed during 10-year study period, with an increase in preoperatively diagnosed cancers undergoing definitive surgical management. ADH, and to a lesser extent, ALH, became indications for surgical excision. Fewer surgical biopsies were performed for indeterminate abnormalities on breast imaging, due to the introduction of stereotactic large core biopsy. While the rate of benign breast biopsies remained constant, there was a higher percentage of precancerous and DCIS cases in 2005. The overall rate of mastectomy decreased from 36.8% in 1995 to 14.5% in 2005. With the increase in sentinel node procedures, the rate of ALND dropped from 18.3% to 13.7%. Accompanying the increased recognition of early-stage cancers, the rate of positive ALND also decreased, from 43.3% to 25.0%.Conclusions: While the rate of benign breast biopsies has remained constant over a recent 10-year period, fewer diagnostic surgical image-guided biopsies were performed in 2005. A greater percentage of patients with breast cancer or preinvasive disease have these diagnoses determined before surgery. More preinvasive and Stage 0 cancers are undergoing surgical management. Earlier stage invasive cancers are being detected, reflected by the lower incidence of axillary nodal

  3. Climate Change and Water Infrastructure in Central Asia: adaptation capacities and institutional challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, Iskandar; Rakhmatullaev, Shavkat

    2014-05-01

    The paper discusses vulnerability areas of water sector in arid Central Asia due to climate change projections with particular focus on adaptation to sustainable operation of physical infrastructure capacities (from legal, institutional and technical aspects). Two types of technical installations are the main focus of this paper, i.e., electrical lift irrigation systems and water reservoirs. The first set of electrical lift infrastructure is strategic for delivering water to water users via pumps, diversion structures, vertical drainage facilities and groundwater boreholes; on the other hand, the primarily task of second set of structures is to accumulate the water resources for sectors of economy. In Central Asia, approximately, 20-50% of irrigation water is lifted, yet major of lift structures are in very poor technical conditions coupled with ever increasing of electricity tariffs. Furthermore, useful volumes capacities of water reservoirs are being severely diminished due to bio-physical geomorphologic processes, improper operational regimes and chronic financing for special in-house sedimentation surveys. Most importantly, the key argument is that irrigation sector should internalize its adaptation efforts, i.e., integrate renewable energy technologies, energy audit programs and lastly design comprehensive investment prioritization processes and programs. Otherwise, water sector will be at great risk for continued provision of fundamental services to the public, food security and industry

  4. Remote sensing based change analysis of rice environments in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Mohanty, Samarendu; Nelson, Andrew; Arnel, Rala; Mohammed, Irshad A; Das, Satya Ranjan

    2015-01-15

    The rainfed rice-growing environment is perhaps one of the most vulnerable to water stress such as drought and floods. It is important to determine the spatial extent of the stress-prone areas to effectively and efficiently promote proper technologies (e.g., stress-tolerant varieties) to tackle the problem of sustainable food production. This study was conducted in Odisha state located in eastern India. Odisha is predominantly a rainfed rice ecosystem (71% rainfed and 29% canal irrigated during kharif-monsoon season), where rice is the major crop and staple food of the people. However, rice productivity in Odisha is one of the lowest in India and a significant decline (9%) in rice cultivated area was observed in 2002 (a drought year). The present study analyzed the temporal rice cropping pattern in various ecosystems and identified the stress-prone areas due to submergence (flooding) and water shortage. The spatial distribution of rice areas was mapped using MODIS (MOD09Q1) 250-m 8-day time-series data (2000-2010) and spectral matching techniques. The mapped rice areas were strongly correlated (R(2) = 90%) with district-level statistics. Also the class accuracy based on field-plot data was 84.8%. The area under the rainfed rice ecosystem continues to dominate, recording the largest share among rice classes across all the years. The use of remote-sensing techniques is rapid, cost-effective, and reliable to monitor changes in rice cultivated area over long periods of time and estimate the reduction in area cultivated due to abiotic stress such as water stress and submergence. Agricultural research institutes and line departments in the government can use these techniques for better planning, regular monitoring of land-use changes, and dissemination of appropriate technologies. PMID:24405761

  5. Revising the formal, retrieving the hidden: Undergraduate curricular reform in medicine and the scientific, institutional, & social transformation of the clinical training environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagosh, Justin J.

    2009-12-01

    In 2004, members of the McGill University Faculty of Medicine began implementing a new curriculum for undergraduate medical education entitled, Physicianship: The Physician as Professional and Healer. The initiative underscores the idea that physician training entails cultivating not only scientific knowledge and technical skill, but a mindset guided by intrinsic principles of doctoring. Although the McGill case exemplifies a wide-spread paradigm shift in medical teaching, there is a dearth of analysis concerning the degree of congruency between the objectives of formal undergraduate curricular revision and the so-called 'hidden curriculum' of the hospital training environment. With Physicianship as a point of departure, this dissertation maps evolutionary patterns in clinical medicine and, using qualitative methods, analyzes the perspectives of twenty physician-educators on curricular reform and the transforming clinical training environment. Physicians interviewed were generally supportive of the new curricular initiative. Concerns were raised, however, that many recent changes within the teaching hospital environment interfere with students' cultivation of professional and healer attributes. These changes were organized into three main themes: scientific, institutional, and social. Physicians expressed concern that what is often considered beneficial for patients is often detrimental for medical training. For example, increased use of diagnostic technologies has improved patient care but reduces opportunities for trainees' clinical skill development. Concern was raised that the concept of selfless service has been undermined through recent shift-work regulations and a culture gap between older and younger generation physicians. Alternatively, some perceived new policies of the clinical environment to be more conducive to physicians' self-care and quality of life. Younger trainees were often described as more competent in managing medical information, more open

  6. The institutional changes of hydrocarbon national and international industries; As mudancas institucionais da industria nacional e internacional de hidrocarbonetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simao, Newton Brito [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Dutra, Luis E.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    This paper approaches the development of the petroleum market from the beginning in the year of 1859, aiming to give the exact dimension of the recent modifications in the petroleum industry. A description of the dynamics of the institutional modifications in Germany, Italy, France, Japan, United Kingdom, USA, Mexico and Venezuela is presented, from the first petroleum 'shock', conducted mostly for the adaptation of the respective internal markets, to the new conditions imposed by the international market. The authors use the political and institutional changes occurred in the aforementioned, for the identification of the disagreement among those changes and those implemented in the hydrocarbon Brazilian national market.

  7. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Krushelnitsky, A. D.; Ogorodniychuk, I. V.; Ivanko, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers  the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  8. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Krushelnitsky A.D.; Ogorodniychuk I.V.; Ivanko O.M.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  9. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitsky A.D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  10. Adaptation, plasticity, and extinction in a changing environment: towards a predictive theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Miguel Chevin

    Full Text Available Many species are experiencing sustained environmental change mainly due to human activities. The unusual rate and extent of anthropogenic alterations of the environment may exceed the capacity of developmental, genetic, and demographic mechanisms that populations have evolved to deal with environmental change. To begin to understand the limits to population persistence, we present a simple evolutionary model for the critical rate of environmental change beyond which a population must decline and go extinct. We use this model to highlight the major determinants of extinction risk in a changing environment, and identify research needs for improved predictions based on projected changes in environmental variables. Two key parameters relating the environment to population biology have not yet received sufficient attention. Phenotypic plasticity, the direct influence of environment on the development of individual phenotypes, is increasingly considered an important component of phenotypic change in the wild and should be incorporated in models of population persistence. Environmental sensitivity of selection, the change in the optimum phenotype with the environment, still crucially needs empirical assessment. We use environmental tolerance curves and other examples of ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change to illustrate how these mechanistic approaches can be developed for predictive purposes.

  11. Climate change – health impacts due to changes in the indoor environment; research need

    OpenAIRE

    Crump, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    People in industrialised countries spend approximately 80% of their time indoors and the young and the elderly and people in poor health are likely to spend considerably more time indoors, particularly at home. Therefore all aspects of health that are related to environmental conditions can be impacted by the quality of the indoor environment. The indoor environment should provide shelter from the extremes of the outdoors and maintain a comfortable indoor climate, particular...

  12. Optimisation of product change process and demand-supply chain in high tech environment

    OpenAIRE

    D. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information and communications technology (ICT) companies face challenges in an unpredictable business environment, where demand-supply forecasting is not accurate enough. How to optimally manage product change process and demand-supply chain in this type of environment? Companies face pressures to simultaneously be efficient, responsive and innovative, i.e. to minimise costs, and shorten order delivery and product change periods. This thesis included three action research c...

  13. RISK ENVIRONMENT AS SOCIAL REALITY CHANGE FACTOR: THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    ZUBOK YU. A.; CHUPROV V.I.

    2015-01-01

    The article explains the theoretical concept of modern environment study transformation based on risk approach. The risks occurring in the environment are conceptualized as the environmental and the activity phenomenon appearing during the transition from certainty to uncertainty and vice versa. The dialectical relationship of uncertainty and non-linearity is argued in changing social reality of modern risk society. The problems of risk social regulation in a changing reality.Reflecting in th...

  14. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The COST Action FP0903 “Climate Change and Forest Mitigation and Adaptation in a Polluted Environment (MAFor)” involved 29 countries and created a platform for information exchange with experts from different fields, with the following main objectives: 1) to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest mitigation and adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment and 2) to reconcile process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modelling at comprehensive f...

  15. Image Is Everything--Strategies for Measuring, Changing, and Maintaining Your Institution's Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Research suggests that students make their college choice based on their perceptions of the institution's image. Smart, aggressive, well-administered institutions see their image as their most significant asset and manage it carefully by prioritizing audiences, conducting market research, establishing clear goals, planning, and implementing the…

  16. Changes in built environment and in vernacular architecture through globalization: Case of Battalgazi inTurkiye

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Mucahit; Korkmaz, Mahir

    2012-01-01

    Housing and its architectural characteristics physically change in step with changes in culture, social demographics, behavior and environmental structures. These physical changes influence the environment and housing because of contemporary life-styles and behaviors. The cultural identity which has been created in a long period of time is going to be lost rapidly. Cultural changes also include migration. The migration from rural areas to the downtowns causes variety in traditions and the arc...

  17. Institution-wide language programmes, higher education and blended learning : students’ experience of a virtual learning environment among beginners and post-beginners of French

    OpenAIRE

    Ticheler, Nathalie Valerie

    2013-01-01

    In a context of precariousness of Modern Foreign Languages and promotion of e-learning at national level, often referred to as “technology-enhanced learning”, the targeted institution, a “new” university in the United Kingdom, offers an Institution-Wide Language Programme where language classes are presented as a blended learning package of face-to-face classes coupled with the use of the Blackboard Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Operating within a hermeneutical phenomenological appr...

  18. Endobronchial Ultrasound Changed the World of Lung Cancer Patients: A 11-Year Institutional Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available The role of advanced bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques in the detection and staging of lung cancer has increased sharply in recent years. The development of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS improved minimally invasive mediastinal staging and diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions (PLLs. We investigated the impact of using EBUS as a diagnostic method for tissue acquisition in lung cancer patients.In a single center observational retrospective study, 3712 subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer from 2003 to 2013 (EBUS was introduced in 2008. Thus, we divided the data into two periods: the conventional bronchoscopy period (2003 to 2007 and the EBUS period (2008 to 2013.A total of 3712 patients were included in the analysis. Comparing the conventional bronchoscopy period with the EBUS period data, there has been a significant reduction in the use of diagnostic modalities: CT-guided biopsy (P < 0.0001 and pleural effusion cytology (P < 0.0001. The proportion of subjects diagnosed using bronchoscopy significantly increased from 39.4% in the conventional period to 47.4% in the EBUS period (P < 0.0001. In the EBUS period, there has also been a significant increase in the proportion of patients proceeding directly to diagnostic surgery (P < 0.0001. Compared to bronchoscopy, the incidence of complications was higher in those who underwent CT guide biopsy. The incidence of iatrogenic pneumothorax significantly decreased in the EBUS period.Advanced bronchoscopic techniques are widely used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. At our institution, the increasing use of EBUS for providing lung cancer diagnosis has led to a significant reduction in other diagnostic modalities, namely CT-guided biopsy and pleural effusion cytology. These changes in practice also led to a reduction in the incidence of complications.

  19. Public institutions and private transactions : the legal and regulatory environment for business private transactions in Brazil and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Andrew; Levy, Brian; Paredes, Ricardo

    1992-01-01

    Drawing on the new institutional economics, the authors examine the impact on businesses of Brazil's relatively complex, nontransparent legal and regulatory institutions and compare their costs with those of Chile's institutions, which are relatively simple. They examine four basic areas where legal and regulatory institutions could create critical obstacles to efficiency in the garment industries of Sao Paulo and Santiago: (a) the start-up of a new business (entry); (b) the regulation of bus...

  20. Corporate Culture, Societal Culture, and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Guiso; Paola Sapienza; Luigi Zingales

    2015-01-01

    While both cultural and legal norms (institutions) help foster cooperation, culture is the more primitive of the two and itself sustains formal institutions. Cultural changes are rarer and slower than changes in legal institutions, which makes it difficult to identify the role played by culture. Cultural changes and their effects are easier to identify in simpler, more controlled, environments, such as corporations. Corporate culture, thus, is not only interesting per se, but also as a labora...

  1. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the...... origin and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  2. Institutional changes and industrial policy in the petroleum sector; Mudanca institucional e politica industrial no setor de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Andre Tosi

    2007-07-01

    This article poses a position that the main responsibility for the institutional change in petroleum and gas sectors was due to the opportunity to rise the investment volumes to attend the final consumer and to give value to the country potential resources.

  3. Plio-Pleistocene climate change and geographic heterogeneity in plant diversity-environment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have induced geographic heterogeneity in plant species richness-environment relationships in Europe due to greater in situ species survival and speciation rates in southern Europe. We formulate distinct hypotheses on how Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have...... for the contrasting findings for the two richness-environment relationships. In conclusion, we find support for the idea that Plio-Pleistocene climate change may sometimes affect current species richness-environment relationships via its effects on regional species pools. However, further studies integrating...... analyses showed that plant species richness generally increased with topographic heterogeneity (ln-transformed altitudinal range) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). We also found evidence for strong geographic heterogeneity in the species richness-environment relationship, with a greater increase...

  4. Future monitoring and research needs for forest ecosystems in a changing environment: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub M

    2009-01-01

    In order to identify future monitoring and research needs, a COST Strategic workshop on the role of "Forest ecosystems in a changing environment" assembled nearly 180 scientists from 30 countries in Istanbul on 11-13 March 2008. The workshop specifically tackled the fields of climate change and forests, ozone, atmospheric deposition and critical loads, biodiversity, as well as quality assurance in forest monitoring.

  5. Climate change impacts on wheat production in a Mediterranean environment in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Asseng, S.

    2006-01-01

    The environment in which crops will be grown in the future will change. CO2 concentrations [CO2] and temperatures (T) will probably increase and a decline of winter rainfall is predicted for south-west Australia. To be able to adapt crop systems to a changing climate it is important to know how diff

  6. The trans-national corporations and the social-historical institution of climate change; Les firmes transnationales et l'institution social-historique du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, M

    2007-06-15

    Our thesis relates to the trans-national corporations whose activities are blamed in the climate change problem. It deals with their actions in relation to the political process engaged by the states at the beginning of the 1990's, and with their influence on the definition of the solutions to be brought to the problem. More precisely, as part of a broader reflection on the social-historical institution of the problem - the fact that it is instituted, by means of the imaginary, in and by particular societies, at a certain moment of their history and for a certain time - and considering the period extending from 1989 to 2001, we wanted to elucidate two things. On the one hand, why, for (or against) what and how did these corporations act (i.e. the cause, the aim and the content of their actions) in relation to the political process. And, on the other hand, up to what point these actions (making the most of a 'relational power'), but also the sole fact that the studied corporations exist (a situation from which they derive an 'institutional power'), had effects on the process and, more especially, on the definition of the solutions. The choice of analysing these major 'non-st= ate' actors arose from two intermingled motivations. The main motivation was to demonstrate the need to take into account these large firms (in addition to the states, the interstate institutions and the other non-state actors) to be able to understand the evolution of the political process, and thus to remedy at the lack of studies on the subject. The other motivation was to contribute, more in filigree, at the comprehension of the way capitalism - understood as a 'social regime' (i.e. a specific type of institution of the society) that can exist only in and by the corporation - face this problem which, more than any other ecological problem, deeply questions it, that means threatens it. (author)

  7. The Institutional Embeddedness of Economic Change. An Appraisal of the "Evolutionary" and "Regulationist" Research Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Coriat, B.; Dosi, G

    1995-01-01

    In the 1990s, institutional and evolutionary economics emerged as one of the most creative and successful approaches in the modern social sciences. This timely reader gathers together seminal contributions from leading international authors in the field of institutional and evolutionary economics including Eileen Appelbaum, Benjamin Coriat, Giovanni Dosi, Sheila C. Dow, Bengt-åke Lundvall, Uskali Mäki, Bart Nooteboom and Marc R. Tool. The emphasis is on key concepts such as learning, trust, p...

  8. Comparing forest decentralization and local institutional change in Bolivia, Kenya, Mexico and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, E.; Fleischman, F.; Bauer, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we assess the institutional and environmental impacts of forest decentralization policies in Bolivia, Kenya, Mexico, and Uganda. Although decentralization is often described as if it were a single policy intervention, many different types of reforms have been described as decentralization. We develop theories of institutional impacts based upon the specific decentralization reforms in the specific context of each country and then argue that decentralization impacts are moderated...

  9. Learning Is Change: Creating an Environment for Sustainable Organizational Change in Continuing and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which learning itself is a form of organizational change and, as such, supports organizational readiness for change. The study considers a continuing education unit within a major Canadian university that managed to transform its decentralized and independent student records and administration system (student…

  10. Change: Threat or opportunity for human progress? V. 5. Ecological change: Environment, development and poverty linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume consists of 18 articles that examine the changing ecological balance of the world and its effect on human prosperity. The problems caused by global warning, climate change and environmental degradation will have serious effects in both the short and the long term. Two of the 18 articles fall within INIS scope: these have been indexed separately. Tabs

  11. From traditional to patient-centered learning: curriculum change as an intervention for changing institutional culture and promoting professionalism in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Charles E; McBride, Rosanne B; Vari, Richard C; Olson, Linda; Wilson, H David

    2007-11-01

    The authors reframe a curriculum change from a traditional lecture-based to an integrated patient-centered approach as an intervention for changing the culture and hidden curriculum of an institution in ways that promote professionalism. Within this context, the authors articulate some of the inherent process and relational factors brought about by these curricular changes that are essential elements of this intervention process. In 1998 the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences (UNDSMHS) introduced a new preclinical patient-centered learning (PCL) curriculum for first- and second-year medical students. Case-based, small-group learning forms the critical foundation of the PCL process, and an integrated basic and clinical science didactic component supports this process. At the student level, the case-based PCL process generates innovative opportunities for professionalism education from the explicitly articulated formal content that arises naturally from the cases, but more importantly from the implicit values inherent to the PCL small-group process itself--humanism, accountability, pursuit of excellence, and altruism. Further, the organizational changes necessary for the transformation to the PCL curriculum required process changes at student, faculty, and administrative levels that have resulted in a cultural shift toward relationship centeredness within the institution. The authors describe the evolution and structure of the PCL curriculum at UNDSMHS and how this curricular transformation has served as an intervention that promotes professionalism and institutional culture change through (1) processes at the student level that present new opportunities for professionalism education, and (2) processes at student, faculty, administrative, and institutional levels that have created an institutional culture that supports, models, and promotes relationship-centered professional values. PMID:17971696

  12. Dynamics of evolutionary rescue in changing environments and the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Saddler, Clare A; Valckenborgh, Frank; Tanaka, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    Populations can go extinct when their environments deteriorate, but evolutionary rescue occurs when a shrinking population adapts to the new environmental conditions. The emergence of resistance from a drug sensitive bacterial population under treatment can be regarded as an instance of evolutionary rescue. Understanding evolutionary rescue in a particular context such as drug resistance requires knowledge of how the environment changes and how selection coefficients change as a result. In this study, we propose a model for evolutionary rescue under three different scenarios of environmental change: abrupt change, periodic fluctuation and gradual decay. The model makes use of the notion of reaction norms to describe fitness values that depend on both genotype and environmental state. We find that although drug sensitive bacterial populations may be large, allowing them to generate resistant mutants frequently, a harsh abrupt change due to the drug usually drives them extinct. Evolutionary rescue occurs far more frequently under the milder forms of environmental change we investigated. Rescue is favoured when the absolute fitnesses of individuals remain sufficiently high over the range of environment qualities experienced by the population. The minimum environment quality, which is inversely related to drug dose in the antibiotic context, is thus an important factor. Interestingly, in the periodic fluctuation model, the inter-dose period is less influential in promoting rescue through resistance unless the minimum environment quality is in a particular range. We also investigated fitness trade-offs across environments including the case of a resistant allele not subject to any trade-off (a "superbug"). This fitness trade-off affects the probability of rescue in decaying environments, but surprisingly has only a weak effect in the periodic fluctuation scenario. Finally, we use the model to show how niche construction, whereby organisms are the source of environmental

  13. How changes in the environment of the nuclear community are challenging the regulators of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A country introducing nuclear power in its energy strategy has a lifelong obligation. The obligation is not mainly a question of energy production. It is an obligation to maintain safety during the phase of construction, energy production and decommissioning, as well as to take care of all the waste streams from nuclear installations. In addition, a country introducing nuclear power has an obligation that nuclear sources, material and equipment is used solely for peaceful purposes. In order to protect individuals and the environment, society has decided on legal requirements for the operation of nuclear facilities and established national safety authorities to oversee that the licensees fulfil their obligation and responsibility for safety. The changing environment related to nuclear will most certainly challenge the regulator, thus influencing oversight strategies and inspection practices - change which has started already. The paper addresses some of the changes and regulatory challenges related to this changing environment. (author)

  14. Vulnerability of the Barents Sea environment to climate changes: a review of the current assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfan, A.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.

    2009-07-15

    Authors' conclusion: Climate change is not considered to be just 'one more stress' on the ecosystem, but rather it will create complex and dynamic changes in the environment that may alter the level of its vulnerability. Cumulative effects can be defined as changes to the environment that are caused by an action in combination with other past, present and future human actions (Environment Canada 2003). The magnitude and effects of multiple stresses can be equal to the sum of the individual effects (additive effects) or they may strengthen or weaken each other (positive or negative feedbacks). To understand complex interactions within the system atmosphere-land surface-ocean at regional scales and to assess influence of the environmental changes on the ecological conditions, sophisticated models should be developed allowing to account for regional peculiarities of these systems. Development of such models is considered as one of the main challenge of the Earth system science. (author)

  15. New Change Detection Techniques to monitor land cover dynamics in mine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.

    2014-11-01

    Land use and land cover are dynamic and is an important component in understanding the interactions of the human activities with the environment and thus it is necessary to simulate environmental changes. Land use/cover (LU/LC) change detection is very essential for better understanding of landuse dynamic during a known period of time for sustainable management. Mining is one of the most dynamic processes with direct as well as indirect impact on the environment. Hence, mine area provides ideal situation for evaluating the chronological changes in land-use patterns. Digital change detection of satellite data at different time interval helps in analyzing the changes in the spatial extent of mine along with the associated activities. In present study, various algorithms Iteratively Re-weighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) on raw data where class wise comparison becomes a difficult proposition and object based segmentation and change detection as post classification comparison were assessed.

  16. Development policy for non-grid-connected wind power in China: An analysis based on institutional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Government policy continues to play a crucial role in the development of wind power industry in China. The 2005 “Renewable Energy Law” and related policies have driven the rapid increase in wind power installed capacity in China over the past half-decade, with capacity doubling annually since 2005. However, a large number of wind farms generate electricity well below their installed capacity, resulting in considerable wastage of resources. Non-grid-connected wind power theory proposes that large-scale wind power output does not necessarily have to be fed into the grid, but can be used directly in industrial production. Thus, the use of the theory can promote the sustainable development of the wind power industry by obviating the need for power grid. In this paper we analyze the influence of government policy on wind power industry from the perspective of institutional change, by employing the basic theories of new institutional economics. A development model for non-grid-connected wind power is proposed in order to implement institutional change in accordance with the specific characteristics of wind power industry in China. This model requires the government to play an active role in institutional development by increasing economic efficiency in order to promote the sustainable development of wind power. - Highlights: ► New institutional economics-based analysis paradigm for wind power policy proposed. ► Policies for China's wind power industry analyzed according to the paradigm. ► Hybrid development mode of institutional change is the best pathway for wind power. ► Potential development policy for China's wind power industry recommended.

  17. Learning and assessment credibility: The design of examination strategies in a changing learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Diprose

    2013-01-01

    Learning environments for higher education have changed considerably in the last 20 years, especially since the advent of the internet. In addition to the change in learning technologies has come an increasing politicisation of higher education and in the UK a change from being virtually free in the 1980s to one where annual costs (Sheffield Press Release, 2012) can now be in excess of £9000 p.a. Since there are various routes to attaining higher education and commercialisation and competitio...

  18. Climate Change and Our Environment: The Effect on Respiratory and Allergic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Charles S.; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; John R. Cohn; Demain, Jeffrey G.; Horner, Elliott; Levetin, Estelle; Nel, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. This article provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth’s environment into their patient’s treatment plan. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated. Exam...

  19. Complexity in Organizations and Environment - Adaptive Changes and Adaptive Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Fabac

    2010-01-01

    The features of complexity are ever more present in modern organizations and in environments in which they operate, trying to survive and be as competitive as possible.) In the processes of, the so-called emergence, the formal organizational structure, designed purposefully and with a plan, is going through a change due to complexity and the need for adaptation. As a result, there is a variety of new informal groups. At the same time, the intended structural changes and business process chang...

  20. Technological and Organizational Changes. Developing a management platform based on participatory institutions and practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Management Programmes aimed at organisational and technological change often run into problems when it comes to implementing change. The purpose of the papeer is to discuss the possibilities for establishing a cooperation based platform for change.......Management Programmes aimed at organisational and technological change often run into problems when it comes to implementing change. The purpose of the papeer is to discuss the possibilities for establishing a cooperation based platform for change....

  1. "I 'Feel' Like I Am at University Even though I Am Online." Exploring How Students Narrate Their Engagement with Higher Education Institutions in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Shea, Sarah; Stone, Cathy; Delahunty, Janine

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines a collaborative study between higher education institutions in Australia, which qualitatively explored the online learning experience for undergraduate and postgraduate students. The project adopted a narrative inquiry approach and encouraged students to "story" their experiences of this virtual environment,…

  2. Pedagogy 2.0 responsive and innovation blende learning environments in a Changing Socio-technological Landscape; a Research-based Design of Saudi higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Alghanmi

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogy 2.0 responsive and innovation blende learning environments in a Changing Socio-technological Landscape; a Research-based Design of Saudi higher EducationLiterature has yielded valuable promises of blended learning in higher education institutions (HEI), Considerably, "increasing traditional and online courses have been converted to blended courses. Thus, it is believed that blended learning is the future traditional method of teaching and learning. Additionally, the progressive devel...

  3. The Continuity and Change of Indonesia’s Islamic Higher Educational Institutions in the amid of Educational Policy Change

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad M Said; Nuryani Muhammad; Kaviyarasu Elangkovan

    2014-01-01

    Education means either human or social capital investment to build up an intellectual community possessing wider knowledge. Some define education as a process of transferring knowledge from one generation to another. By investing in education, we tend to create a dynamic society which in return would contribute significantly to the development of nation. The main objective of this study is to explore information related to the policy in developing Islamic higher educational institutions and t...

  4. Strategic Institutional Change to Support Advancement of Women Scientists in the Academy: Lessons from a Study of ADVANCE-IT Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, S. L.; Austin, A. E.; Soto, M.; Martinez, D.

    2011-12-01

    While women's representation among undergraduate and graduate degree-earners has grown steadily in most science fields, progress at the faculty level has been slow to realize, especially in upper academic ranks and in higher status institutions. This is only partly explained by the slow turnover of faculty positions. While some efforts to address this issue have aimed to support individual women and foster their career success, the National Science Foundation's ADVANCE program has taken a different approach, calling for institutions to take a systemic and organizational approach to enhance women's representation in the academy. Since 2001, some 50 institutions have received ADVANCE Institutional Transformation (IT) awards to develop such systemic approaches. Most ADVANCE-IT projects have attended to structures (e.g. committee and departmental leadership roles), processes (e.g. hiring), policy (e.g. family leave), attitudes and awareness (e.g. training for chairs), and workplace climate, as well as interventions that focus on faculty members as valuable human resources. Our research team is studying ADVANCE institutions' approaches to organizational change, by identifying and categorizing individual change interventions, examining how they combine to build an overall change portfolio, and considering how change interventions are selected or adapted to fit a specific institutional context. Because universities are complex organizations composed of multiple, loosely coupled, interconnected sub-systems, an overall change strategy cannot depend on a single type of intervention. Yet any particular intervention might be deployed on behalf of multiple goals and in a variety of forms that may depend on the context, or institutional system, in which it is introduced. We will discuss some common types of strategic intervention used in ADVANCE-IT projects, categorized by Bolman and Deal's (1991) four main perspectives or "lenses" for understanding organizational issues. The

  5. Adaptive management of irrigated rice in the changing environments of the Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    De, Vries

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Alternate wetting and drying, Climate change adaptation, Crop growth simulation models, Genotype × environment interaction, N use efficiency,  Oryza sativa L., Phenology, Sahelian irrigation schemes, Sowing date, Spikelet sterility, Temperature increase, Water productivity, Weed control. In the vulnerable environment of the Sahel with its erratic rainfall pattern, irrigated rice production is of major importance. To aid Sahelian rice farmers to sustain irrigated rice pro...

  6. The future of marketing: an appropriate response to the environment changes

    OpenAIRE

    Victor DANCIU

    2013-01-01

    The future landscape of the business worldwide will have the marketing evolutions as a driver. These evolutions will be the response to the changes of business and marketing environment. The paper aims to analyze both the key trends that are shaping the macro environment, markets and consumers and their impact on the marketing at business level. First, these issues are presented as they result of both theoretical and applied various researches performed by numerous international and national ...

  7. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriero, Giulia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Clarke, Nicholas;

    2014-01-01

    The COST Action FP0903 “Climate Change and Forest Mitigation and Adaptation in a Polluted Environment (MAFor)” involved 29 countries and created a platform for information exchange with experts from different fields, with the following main objectives: 1) to increase understanding of the state...... and potential of forest mitigation and adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment and 2) to reconcile process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modelling at comprehensive forest research sites. In particular, MAFor translated the existing European knowledge on climate and air...... the information from European forest research/monitoring networks; the development of a new concept of forest sites for research and monitoring (Supersites); the identification of the main knowledge gaps; and the definition of priorities for forest adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment...

  8. Greasing the Wheels of Change : The Impact of Corruption and Institutions on Firm Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krammer, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Innovation is regarded as a critical source of competitive advantage. While the literature examines various firm, sector and country- specific determinants of innovation such as competition, networks or human capital, little is known about how institutional elements stimulate or inhibit firms to inn

  9. Facilitating institutional change in West Africa: the CoS–SIS experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    The Convergence of Sciences–Strengthening Innovation Systems (CoS–SIS) programme is based on the premise that the livelihood of the African smallholder farmer is constrained by the existence and/or performance of formal and informal institutions that are not conducive to small-farm development. CoS–

  10. A Quantitative Analysis of Recessions and Financial Changes in Higher Education Institution Alumni Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between recession and alumni contributions to institutions of higher education for operational expenses and capital expenditures that include property, buildings, and equipment. Identifying variables that may decrease alumni contributions is important because decreased state funding for higher education…

  11. Orchestrating Organizational Change in One Traditional Post-Secondary Institution in the Midst of Trying Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    American higher education finds itself in a veritable upheaval as it attempts to respond to shifting social, economic, and political times. Raising tuition, cutting or consolidating programs, furloughing staff and faculty, drawing down endowments, and capping enrollments are common responses by public and private institutions. This qualitative…

  12. Academic Entrepreneurialism vs. Changing Governance and Institutional Management Structures in European Universities (Chapter 5)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we will discuss a historically relatively new phenomenon in European higher education systems: academic entrepreneurialism – especially with regard to governance and management. Entrepreneurial universities seem to be increasingly important points of reference for international and European-level policy discussions about the future of higher education. Entrepreneurial institutions, functionally similar although variously termed, currently seem to be an almost natur...

  13. Policy drivers of land use/landscape change and the role of institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Vesterager, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    institutions play in these processes. The report is based on the country reports from the case study countries (Netherlands (NL), Greece (GR), Romania (RO), Austria (AT) and Denmark (DK)). Each policy is analysed in separate parts of the deliverable and the results are compared in the common discussion and...

  14. The Framing of Abortion in the Czech Republic: How the Continuity of Discourse Prevents Institutional Change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2010), s. 945-975. ISSN 0038-0288 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : abortion policy * body discourse * frame analysis Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2010

  15. When Might Institutions Change? Elite Support for Direct Democracy in Three Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowler, Shaun; Donovan, Todd; Karp, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Legislators typically control the design of political institutions, and can be expected to craft rules that work to their advantage. In some nations, however, legislators adopt provisions for direct democracy-an institu- tion that might weaken the control that established parties and incum- bents ha

  16. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  17. The Green New Deal and Evolution of Institutional Environments for Multifunctionality: the case of Certified Organic Agriculture in Brazil and China

    OpenAIRE

    Egelyng, H.; de Abreu, L.S.; Fonseca, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The Global Green New Deal (GGND) aim to green the global economy across a range of sectors including agriculture, to pursue future prosperity and job creation, while at the same time addressing social and environmental challenges. Taking its point of departure in some of the institutional changes envisioned in GGND publications, the paper proceeds to present results of the authors’ current research, within a research programme on institutional dimensions of the current globalization of certif...

  18. NAFTA, CAFTA and the Environment: The Role of Institutions TLCAN, CAFTA y el medio ambiente: el papel de las instituciones L’ALENA, l’ALEAC et l’environnement : le rôle des institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrie Baver

    2011-01-01

    After sifting through the various arguments on the trade-environment nexus, I argue that an underrated positive feature on NAFTA (1994) and other recent U.S. bi- or multilateral trade agreements with developing countries, is creation of specific mechanisms to promote democratic environmental governance and environmental protection. While these formal institutions have not shown great autonomy and capacity to date, they provide one of several levers for domestic and transnational civil society...

  19. Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Carothers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of global climate change, with significant implications for the livelihoods of Arctic peoples. In this paper, based on ethnographic research conducted with the Iñupiaq communities of Noatak and Selawik in northwestern Alaska, we detail prominent environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence-based lifestyles. However, we suggest that it is ultimately insufficient to try to understand how Arctic communities are experiencing and responding to climate change in isolation from other stressors. During interviews and participant observation documenting local observations of climatic and related environmental shifts and impacts to subsistence fishing practices, we find the inseparability of environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political realms for community residents. Many of our informants, who live in a mixed economy based on various forms of income and widespread subsistence harvesting of fish and game, perceive and experience climate change as embedded among numerous other factors affecting subsistence patterns and practices. Changing lifestyles, decreasing interest by younger generations in pursuing subsistence livelihoods, and economic challenges are greatly affecting contemporary subsistence patterns and practices in rural Alaska. Observations of climate change are perceived, experienced, and articulated to researchers through a broader lens of these linked lifestyle and cultural shifts. Therefore, we argue that to properly assess and understand the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices in Arctic communities, we must also consider the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people, communities, and their surrounding environments.

  20. Local Irrigation Management Institutions Mediate Changes Driven by External Policy and Market Pressures in Nepal and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastakoti, Ram C.; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Lebel, Louis

    2010-09-01

    This article assesses the role of local institutions in managing irrigation water use. Fifty irrigation systems in each country were studied in Nepal and Thailand to compare the influence of local institutions on performance of irrigation systems amid changes in external policy and market pressures. Nepal’s new irrigation policy after the re-instatement of multiparty democracy in 1990 emphasized participatory irrigation management transferring the management responsibility from state authorities to water users. The water user associations of traditional farmer-managed irrigation systems were formally recognized by requiring registration with related state authorities. In Thailand also government policies encouraged people’s participation in irrigation management. Today water users are directly involved in management of even some large irrigation systems at the level of tertiary canals. Traditional communal irrigation systems in northern Thailand received support for system infrastructure improvement but have faced increased interference from government. In Thailand market development supported diversification in farming practices resulting in increased areas under high water-demanding commercial crops in the dry season. In contrast, the command areas of most irrigation systems in Nepal include cereal-based subsistence farming with only one-third having commercial farming. Cropping intensities are higher in Nepal than in Thailand reflecting, in part, differences in availability of land and management. In both countries local institutions play an important role in maintaining the performance of irrigation systems as external drivers and local contexts change. Local institutions have provided alternative options for irrigation water use by mediating external pressures.

  1. The Role of Aerosol in Climate Change,the Environment,and Human Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol is an important component of the atmosphere,and its source,composition,distribution,and effects are highly complicated.Governments and scientists have given much attention to aerosol problems,and it has become a hot topic due to the important role it plays in climate change and the Earth's environment.In this paper,1) the importance of aerosol in climate change,the atmospheric environment,and human health is summarized;2) the recent serious problems of aerosol pollution and the shortage of current aerosol research in China are pointed out;and 3) the necessity to enhance aerosol research in China is emphasized.

  2. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin-Ragaven Laurel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complicity of the South African health sector in apartheid and the international relevance of human rights as a professional obligation prompted moves to include human rights competencies in the curricula of health professionals in South Africa. A Train-the-Trainers course in Health and Human Rights was established in 1998 to equip faculty members from health sciences institutions nationwide with the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to teach human rights to their students. This study followed up participants to determine the extent of curriculum implementation, support needed as well as barriers encountered in integrating human rights into health sciences teaching and learning. Methods A survey including both quantitative and qualitative components was distributed in 2007 to past course participants from 1998-2006 via telephone, fax and electronic communication. Results Out of 162 past participants, 46 (28% completed the survey, the majority of whom were still employed in academic settings (67%. Twenty-two respondents (48% implemented a total of 33 formal human rights courses into the curricula at their institutions. Respondents were nine times more likely (relative risk 9.26; 95% CI 5.14-16.66 to implement human rights education after completing the training. Seventy-two extracurricular activities were offered by 21 respondents, many of whom had successfully implemented formal curricula. Enabling factors for implementation included: prior teaching experience in human rights, general institutional support and the presence of allies - most commonly coworkers as well as deans. Frequently cited barriers to implementation included: budget restrictions, time constraints and perceived apathy of colleagues or students. Overall, respondents noted personal enrichment and optimism in teaching human rights. Conclusion This Train-the-Trainer course provides the historical context, educational tools, and collective motivation

  3. Students’ Perceived Challenges in an Online Collaborative Learning Environment: A Case of Higher Learning Institutions in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina Elizaphan Muuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier forms of distance education were characterized by minimal social interaction like correspondence, television, video and radio. However, the World Wide Web (WWW and online learning introduced the opportunity for much more social interaction, particularly among learners, and this has been further made possible through social media in Web 2.0. The increased availability of collaborative tools in Web 2.0 has made it possible to have online collaborative learning realized in Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs. However, learners can perceive the online collaborative learning process as challenging and they fail to utilize these collaborative tools effectively. Although a number of challenges have been mentioned in the literature, considerable diversity exists among countries due to diversity in infrastructure support for e-learning and learners’ background. This motivated this study to investigate components of online collaborative learning perceived as challenging by learners in HLIs in Kenya. Using a questionnaire, a survey was conducted in two public universities and two private universities to identify students’ perceived challenges in an online collaborative learning environment. Through purposive sampling the questionnaire was distributed to 210 students using e-mail and 183 students responded. Based on descriptive analysis the following five major challenges were rated as high: lack of feedback from instructors, lack of feedback from peers, lack of time to participate, slow internet connectivity, and low or no participation of other group members. There was also a relationship between the university type (private or public with the perceived challenges which included: lack of feedback from the instructor (p=0.046 and work load not shared equally among group members (p=0.000. Apart from slow internet connectivity the rest of the challenges were in line with the observed challenges in the literature.These key challenges identified in

  4. “The Bush is No More”: Insights on Institutional Change and Natural Resource Availability in Rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, Tracy; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The past decade has brought substantial transition to South Africa. The introduction of democracy in 1994 has yielded important political and socioeconomic transformations affecting millions of people. Here, we explore the impact of institutional and structural changes on the availability and management of fuelwood, a key natural resource in rural South Africa. As in other developing regions, many households depend on natural resources for both sustenance and energy needs. Drawing on qualitat...

  5. Impacts of climate change on environment and economic sectors in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Zuzana; Duží, Barbora

    Praha: Karlova univerzita v Praze, 2012, s. 98-109 ISBN 978-80-87404-33-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * economic sectors * reginal vulnerability * agriculture regional zones in Europa * ecosystem services * human health * tourism Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Approaching integrated urban-rural development in China: The changing institutional roles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuheng; Hu, Zhichao; Liu, Yansui

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the twenty-first century, the Chinese government has been undertaking a series of rural-favored policies and measures to promote comprehensive development in rural China. The fundamental purpose is to accomplish integrated urban-rural development (IURD) given the ever enlarging urban-rural inequalities during the post-reform era. Considering the long time biased policies against the countryside, the paper aims to examine the institutional roles in approaching the IURD. IURD at prov...

  7. Addiction treatment outcomes, process, and change: Texas Institute of Behavioral Research at TCU

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, D Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Dansereau, Donald F.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    For over 40 years the Texas Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) has given special attention to assessment and evaluation of drug user populations, addiction treatment services, and various cognitive and behavioral interventions. Emphasis has been on studies in real-world settings and the use of multivariate methodologies to address evaluation issues within the context of longitudinal natural designs. Historically, its program of addiction treatment research may be divided into three sequen...

  8. Entrepreneurship in transition economies: the role of institutions and generational change

    OpenAIRE

    Estrin, Saul; Mickiewicz, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The transition economies have lower rates of entrepreneurship than are observed in most developed and developing market economies. The difference is even more marked in the countries of the former Soviet Union than those of Central and Eastern Europe. We link these differences partly with the legacy of communist planning, which needs to be replaced with formal market-supporting institutions. But many of these developments have now taken place, yet entrepreneurial activity still remains low in...

  9. Institutional Change and Academic Patenting: French Universities and the Innovation Act of the 1999.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Della Malva; Francesco Lissoni; Patrick Llerena

    2008-01-01

    Recent empirical work in the field of university-industry technology transfer has stressed the importance of IPR-related reforms and university patenting has major forces behind the success of US high-tech industry. European policy-makers have been tempted to explain the poorer technological performance of their countries with the lower propensity of their academic institutions to get engaged in patenting and commercializing their research results. As a consequence, a number of measures have ...

  10. Assessing Water Charges under Changing Institutional Irrigation Management in Pakistan: A Methodological Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Ul Hassan; M. GHAFFAR CHAUDHRY

    1998-01-01

    The Government of Pakistan has opted for institutional reforms for canal irrigation system of the country with a view to undertaking efficient operation and maintenance of the system and improving cost recovery. In the new reforms, the Farmers’ Organisations will manage distributaries and minors and pay the cost of upstream water in full. The complex hierarchy of the system poses serious challenges for working out the cost of water delivery for various channels. The paper presents a methodolo...

  11. Leadership of Modern Financial Institutions and the Changing Paradigm of Banking in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikpefan OA; Agwu ME

    2015-01-01

    It is an established fact that there exist leadership crisis at levels of organizational management. And organizational leadership crisis have occupied the front pages of various tabloids all over the world. Leadership crisis has engulfed various SMEs, conglomerates, governments, and financial institutions all over the world. The resultant effects of these have given rise to the present crisis, chaos and rots that are being witnessed in all nooks and crannies of the globe. This paper addresse...

  12. Future monitoring and research needs for forest ecosystems in a changing environment: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify future monitoring and research needs, a COST Strategic workshop on the role of "Forest ecosystems in a changing environment" assembled nearly 180 scientists from 30 countries in Istanbul on 11-13 March 2008. The workshop specifically tackled the fields of climate change and forests, ozone, atmospheric deposition and critical loads, biodiversity, as well as quality assurance in forest monitoring.

  13. Foreign direct investment in a changing political environment : Finnish investment decisions in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Kristiina

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to an understanding of foreign direct investment (FDI) in a changing political environment. The theoretical framework of the study is positioned to the geography of enterprise approach, but it has been contributed with theories from the fields of strategic management, international business, and political economy. The research problem of the study asks how transnational corporations (TNCs) perceive and react to the change in the host country’s political environme...

  14. Changing the learning environment to promote deep learning approaches in first year accounting students

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Matthew; Ramsay, Alan; Raven, John

    2004-01-01

    Developing deep approaches to learning is claimed to enhance students' engagement with their subject material and result in improved analytical and conceptual thinking skills. Numerous calls have been made for accounting educators to adopt strategies that produce such results. This paper reports on changes to the learning environment centring on the introduction of group learning activities that were designed to improve the quality of students' learning outcomes. The impact of changes in the ...

  15. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; Imam, B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins wi...

  16. Deregulation of the Swedish Audit Industry and Changes in the Competitive Environment : Conflict, Imitation, and Innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Sebhatu, Abiel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the deregulation of the audit industry in Sweden, the changing competitive environment and innovativeness, a research gap that has not yet been bridged. This paper raises the question of how the innovativeness of firms within the audit industry have changed after deregulation. The ambition of this research is to have both theoretical and practical knowledge contribution. The theoretical framework constructed for this research is rooted in the literature review of thre...

  17. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  18. Market seeking orientation and performance in China : the impact of institutional environment, subsidiary ownership structure and experience.

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xinming; Zhang, Jianhong; Wang, Jinmeng

    2015-01-01

    Many foreign firms tend to follow the market-seeking mandate in China. However this orientation alone does not guarantee superior performance. From the perspectives of strategic fit and institutional theory, this research seeks to reveal several conditions under which market-seeking MNEs can achieve superior performance in China. We identify three performance contributors to marketing seeking FDI: the host country’s favorable formal institutions towards FDI, the subsidiaries’ operational expe...

  19. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem...... computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  20. The Effect of Corporate Governance on Strategic Change in Financial Institutions: Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Antwi; Frederick Binfor

    2013-01-01

    The research has investigated the effect of corporate governance on strategic change in rural banks in the Eastern Region of Ghana. It was also examined the importance of governance mechanism and strategic decisions on weaknesses and threats to the banks effective operation. It has examined the understanding of ownership, board, and the top management team in strategic change on banks values. It has also revealed the relationship between strategic/policy changes and the bank performance in th...