WorldWideScience

Sample records for change wolves record

  1. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Getz, Wayne M

    2005-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  2. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmers Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  3. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Wilmers

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  4. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmers Christopher C; Getz Wayne M; Getz Wayne M

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefo...

  5. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher C Wilmers; Wayne M Getz

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefo...

  6. Carrion--It's What's for Dinner: Wolves Reduce the Impact of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consitble, Juanita M.; Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of wolves to Yellowstone National park after a 7-year absence created a natural experiment on the ecological effects of top predators. In this activity, students use mathematical models to explore how carrion from wolf kills can reduce negative effects of climate change on scavengers in the park.

  7. Response of Wolves to Corridor Restoration and Human Use Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Shepherd

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corridor restoration is increasingly being used to connect habitat in mountainous areas where rugged topography and increasing human activity fragment habitat. Wolves (Canis lupus are a conservation priority because they avoid areas with high levels of human use and are ecologically important predators. We examined how corridor restoration through a golf course changes the distribution of wolves and their prey in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. We followed and recorded wolf paths in the snow both within the corridor and in the surrounding landscape before and after a corridor was re-established. Track transects were used to estimate prey abundance and snow depths, and trail counters measured human activity. We compared resources on wolf paths to available movement routes using conditional logistic regression and also compared resources used by wolves before and after restoration. We addressed potential confounding effects of prey abundance, snow depths, and levels of human use by testing for changes in these variables. Prior to restoration, wolves traveled around the golf course and used the mountainside to connect valley-bottom habitat. Conversely, elk (Cervus elaphus densities were highest in the golf course. After restoration, wolves shifted most of their movement to the golf course corridor, whereas elk dispersed along the corridor and mountainside. When traveling through the study area, wolves selected for areas with high prey abundance, low elevations, and low levels of human activity. Corridor restoration increased the area of high quality habitat available to wolves and increased their access to elk and deer at low elevations. Our results corroborate other studies suggesting that wolves and elk quickly adapt to landscape changes and that corridor restoration can improve habitat quality and reduce habitat fragmentation.

  8. Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Boitani, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Wolves are some of the world's most charismatic and controversial animals, capturing the imaginations of their friends and foes alike. Highly intelligent and adaptable, they hunt and play together in close-knit packs, sometimes roaming over hundreds of square miles in search of food. Once teetering on the brink of extinction across much of the United States and Europe, wolves have made a tremendous comeback in recent years, thanks to legal protection, changing human attitudes, and efforts to reintroduce them to suitable habitats in North America.As wolf populations have rebounded, scientific studies of them have also flourished. But there hasn't been a systematic, comprehensive overview of wolf biology since 1970. In Wolves, many of the world's leading wolf experts provide state-of-the-art coverage of just about everything you could want to know about these fascinating creatures. Individual chapters cover wolf social ecology, behavior, communication, feeding habits and hunting techniques, population dynamics, physiology and pathology, molecular genetics, evolution and taxonomy, interactions with nonhuman animals such as bears and coyotes, reintroduction, interactions with humans, and conservation and recovery efforts. The book discusses both gray and red wolves in detail and includes information about wolves around the world, from the United States and Canada to Italy, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Israel, India, and Mongolia. Wolves is also extensively illustrated with black and white photos, line drawings, maps, and fifty color plates.

  9. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article commenting on: Ripple, W. J., Beschta, R. L., Fortin, J. K., & Robbins, C. T. (2014) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone. Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, 223-233. Comparisons Ripple et al. (2014) used to demonstrate increased fruit availability and consumption by grizzly bears post-wolf reintroduction are flawed and tenuous at best. Importantly, a more parsimonious (than trophic cascades) hypothesis, not sufficiently considered by Ripple et al., exists and is better supported by available data I review. Published 2015. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. The analysis of morphometric data on rocky mountain wolves and artic wolves using statistical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar Shafi, Muhammad; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Hamzah, Nor Shamsidah Amir; Nor, Maria Elena; Ahmad, Noor’ani; Azia Hazida Mohamad Azmi, Nur; Latip, Muhammad Faez Ab; Hilmi Azman, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Morphometrics is a quantitative analysis depending on the shape and size of several specimens. Morphometric quantitative analyses are commonly used to analyse fossil record, shape and size of specimens and others. The aim of the study is to find the differences between rocky mountain wolves and arctic wolves based on gender. The sample utilised secondary data which included seven variables as independent variables and two dependent variables. Statistical modelling was used in the analysis such was the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results showed there exist differentiating results between arctic wolves and rocky mountain wolves based on independent factors and gender.

  11. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  12. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykyy Ihor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. Results We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Conclusions Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  13. Potential ungulate prey for Gray Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.; Mack, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Data were gathered for six ungulate species that reside in or near Yellowstone National Park. If gray wolves (Canis lupus) are reintroduced into the Yellowstone area, their avoidance of human activities or their management by human may determine their range. Therefore, the area of wolf occupation cannot be predicted now. We restricted our analysis to Yellowstone National Park and to the adjacent national forest wilderness areas. We included mostly ungulate herds that summer inside or adjacent to the park and that would probably be affected by wolves. Our wolf study area includes Yellowstone National Park and adjacent wilderness areas most likely to be occupied by wolves. We reviewed publications, park records, survey reports, and state fish and game surveys and reports for statistics on ungulate populations. These data [provide an overview of ungulate populations and harvests. Each ungulate herd is described in detail. We restricted our analysis to 1980-89, because population surveys were more complete during that period and because population estimates of most ungulate populations had increased by the 1980's. We feel the higher estimates of the 1980's reflect more up-to-date techniques and are most representative of the situation into which the wolves would be reintroduced.

  14. Surveying wolves without snow: a critical review of the methods used in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) are difficult to survey, and in most countries, snow is used for identifying the species, counting individuals, recording movements and determining social position. However, in the Iberian peninsula and other southern regions of its gobal range, snow is very scarce in winter, so wolves must be surveyed without snow. In Spain and Portugal, wolves are surveyed through estimating number of wolf packs in summer by means of locating litters of pups when they are at rendezvous ...

  15. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females died: one likely related to the capture procedure, the other of a peritonitis unrelated to the surgery. One wolf had a litter. None of the wolves have shown changes in behavioral patterns. Surgical sterilization can be effective, but other, less invasive, fertility control techniques should be investigated.

  16. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Cole, Steven W.; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species’ high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging. PMID:27189566

  17. Is climate change affecting wolf populations in the high Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Gobal climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80?? N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  18. Payment changes require integrating records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, M A

    1990-06-01

    The greatest challenges for healthcare organizations facing radical changes in their payment and reporting structures lie in finding ways to integrate various forms of patient information. An analysis of how three New York City hospitals dealt with their state's switch to an all-payer diagnosis related group-based payment system reveals strengths and weaknesses in their existing information systems and in steps taken to adapt to the change.

  19. Blue laser phase change recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger; Dambach, S.Soeren; Richter, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The migration paths from DVD phase change recording with red laser to the next generation optical disk formats with blue laser and high NA optics are discussed with respect to optical aberration margins and disc capacities. A test system for the evaluation of phase change disks with more than 20 GB capacity is presented and first results of the recording performance are shown

  20. Predation rate by wolves on the Porcupine caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Hayes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Large migratory catibou {Rangifer tarandus herds in the Arctic tend to be cyclic, and population trends are mainly driven by changes in forage or weather events, not by predation. We estimated daily kill rate by wolves on adult caribou in winter, then constructed a time and space dependent model to estimate annual wolf (Canis lupus predation rate (P annual on adult Porcupine caribou. Our model adjusts predation seasonally depending on caribou distribution: Pannual = SIGMAdaily* W *Ap(2*Dp. In our model we assumed that wolves killed adult caribou at a constant rate (Kdaily, 0.08 caribou wolf1 day1 based on our studies and elsewhere; that wolf density (W doubled to 6 wolves 1000 km2-1 on all seasonal ranges; and that the average area occupied by the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH in eight seasonal life cycle periods (Dp was two times gteater than the area described by the outer boundaries of telemetry data (Ap /1000 km2. Results from our model projected that wolves kill about 7600 adult caribou each year, regardless of herd size. The model estimated that wolves removed 5.8 to 7.4% of adult caribou as the herd declined in the 1990s. Our predation rate model supports the hypothesis of Bergerud that spacing away by caribou is an effective anti-predatory strategy that greatly reduces wolf predation on adult caribou in the spring and summer.

  1. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R.O.; Jacobs, A.K.; Drummer, T.D.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997-1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

  2. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Sand

    Full Text Available Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves' choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population.

  3. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Håkan; Eklund, Ann; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces) and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves' choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population.

  4. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A; Mech, L David; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression. We recorded the behaviors and characteristics of all individuals present during the interactions (n=534 individuals) and which individuals participated in each step (i.e. chase, attack, kill, flight) of the interaction. Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent's size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size. Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray-colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray-colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves, indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior. Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits related

  5. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A.; Mech, L. David; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2017-01-01

    Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression. We recorded the behaviors and characteristics of all individuals present during the interactions (n = 534 individuals) and which individuals participated in each step (i.e. chase, attack, kill, flight) of the interaction. Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent’s size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size. Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray-colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray-colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves, indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior. Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits

  6. Infectious diseases of wolves in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    The summer of 2005 began with such promise for wolves in Yellowstone.  The population had been at an all-time high the last few years, and the wolves appeared to be in good condition.  Several packs had been particularly busy during the breeding season, and early summer pup counts suggested another healthy crop of new wolves rising through the ranks.

  7. Trophic cascades linking wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.J.; Harlow, H.J.; Harlow, T.S.; Biggins, D.; Ripple, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    When large carnivores are extirpated from ecosystems that evolved with apex predators, these systems can change at the herbivore and plant trophic levels. Such changes across trophic levels are called cascading effects and they are very important to conservation. Studies on the effects of reintroduced wolves in Yellowstone National Park have examined the interaction pathway of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) to ungulates to plants. This study examines the interaction effects of wolves to coyotes to rodents (reversing mesopredator release in the absence of wolves). Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) generally avoided areas near a wolf den. However, when in the proximity of a den, they used woody habitats (pine or sage) compared with herbaceous habitats (grass or forb or sedge)- when they were away from the wolf den. Our data suggested a significant increase in rodent numbers, particularly voles (genus Microtus Schrank, 1798), during the 3-year study on plots that were within 3 km of the wolf den, but we did not detect a significant change in rodent numbers over time for more distant plots. Predation by coyotes may have depressed numbers of small mammals in areas away from the wolf den. These factors indicate a top-down effect by wolves on coyotes and subsequently on the rodents of the area. Restoration of wolves could be a powerful tool for regulating predation at lower trophic levels.

  8. Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Duquette, L.S.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied 22sodium (22Na) turnover as a means of estimating food intake in 6 captive, adult gray wolves (Canis lupus) (2 F, 4 M) over a 31-day feeding period. Wolves were fed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) meat only. Mean mass-specific exchangeable Na pool was 44.8 .+-. 0.7 mEq/kg; there was no differeence between males and females. Total exchangeable Na was related (r2 = 0.85, P food consumption (g/kg/day) in wolves over a 32-day period. Sampling blood and weighing wolves every 1-4 days permitted identification of several potential sources of error, including changes in size of exchangeable Na pools, exchange of 22Na with gastrointestinal and bone Na, and rapid loss of the isotope by urinary excretion.

  9. Regurgitative food transfer among wild wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Mech; Paul C. Wolf; Jane M. Packard

    1999-01-01

    Few studies of monogamous canids have addressed regurgitation in the context of extended parental care and alloparental care within family groups. We studied food transfer by regurgitation in a pack of wolves on Ellesmere Island, North West Territories, Canada, during 6 summers from 1988 through 1996. All adult wolves, including yearlings and a post-reproductive female...

  10. Predation rate by wolves on the Porcupine caribou herd

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Robert D.; Russell, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    Large migratory catibou {Rangifer tarandus) herds in the Arctic tend to be cyclic, and population trends are mainly driven by changes in forage or weather events, not by predation. We estimated daily kill rate by wolves on adult caribou in winter, then constructed a time and space dependent model to estimate annual wolf (Canis lupus) predation rate (P annual) on adult Porcupine caribou. Our model adjusts predation seasonally depending on caribou distribution: Pannual = SIGMAdaily* W *Ap(2)*Dp...

  11. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2012-01-01

    Lake sediment records provide an excellent means to reconstruct past climate and environmental change because they typically provide long, high-resolution and continuous archives of environmental change. Lake sediment records typically exhibit high sedimentation rates (centennial to millennial scale variability is common and annual resolution is possible in some sites), contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, tend to exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to reconstruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sediment cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author). 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Prey Selection of Scandinavian Wolves: Single Large or Several Small?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Ann; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators’ primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces) and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Among wolf territories, the proportion of roe deer in wolf kills was related to both pack size and roe deer density, but not to moose density. Pairs of wolves killed a higher proportion of roe deer than did packs, and wolves switched to kill more roe deer as their density increased above a 1:1 ratio in relation to the availability of the two species. At the intra-territorial level, wolves again responded to changes in roe deer density in their prey selection whereas we found no effect of snow depth, time during winter, or other predator-related factors on the wolves’ choice to kill moose or roe deer. Moose population density was only weakly related to intra-territorial prey selection. Our results show that the functional response of wolves on moose, the species hitherto considered as the main prey, was strongly dependent on the density of a smaller, alternative, ungulate prey. The impact of wolf predation on the prey species community is therefore likely to change with the composition of the multi-prey species community along with the geographical expansion of the wolf population. PMID:28030549

  13. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Vucetich, John A; Mech, L David; Stahler, Daniel R; Packer, Craig

    2009-12-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics.

  14. Predatory senescence in aging wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Vucetich, John A.; Mech, L. David; Stahler, Daniel R.; Packer, Craig

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics.

  15. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Valley of the Wolves as Representative of Turkish Popular Attitudes toward Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In 2006, the Turkish film, Valley of the Wolves (Kurtlar Vadisi-Irak) (Serdar Akar, 2006), was released to audiences in Turkey and Europe. Costing $10 million, it was the most costly production in the history of Turkish cinema, breaking all box office records in the country. A

  17. A meta-analysis of studies on attitudes toward bears and wolves across Europe 1976-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, S; Sandström, C; Ericsson, G

    2015-04-01

    The ranges of wolves (Canis lupus) and bears (Ursus arctos) across Europe have expanded recently, and it is important to assess public attitudes toward this expansion because responses toward these species vary widely. General attitudes toward an object are good predictors of broad behavioral patterns; thus, attitudes toward wolves and bears can be used as indicators to assess the social foundation for future conservation efforts. However, most attitude surveys toward bears and wolves are limited in scope, both temporally and spatially, and provide only a snapshot of attitudes. To extend the results of individual surveys over a much larger temporal and geographical range so as to identify transnational patterns and changes in attitudes toward bears and wolves over time, we conducted a meta-analysis. Our analysis included 105 quantitative surveys conducted in 24 countries from 1976 to 2012. Across Europe, people's attitudes were more positive toward bears than wolves. Attitudes toward bears became more positive over time, but attitudes toward wolves seemed to become less favorable the longer people coexisted with them. Younger and more educated people had more positive attitudes toward wolves and bears than people who had experienced damage from these species, and farmers and hunters had less positive attitudes toward wolves than the general public. For bears attitudes among social groups did not differ. To inform conservation of large carnivores, we recommend that standardized longitudinal surveys be established to monitor changes in attitudes over time relative to carnivore population development. Our results emphasize the need for interdisciplinary research in this field and more advanced explanatory models capable of capturing individual and societal responses to changes in large carnivore policy and management. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Wolves trigger a trophic cascade to berries as alternative food for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    This is a Forum article in response to: Barber-Meyer, S. (2015) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12338. We used multiple data sets and study areas as well as several lines of evidence to investigate potential trophic linkages in Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that a trophic cascade from wolves to elk to berry production to berry consumption by grizzly bears may now be underway in the Park. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  19. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

  20. Attributing Changing Rates of Temperature Record Breaking to Anthropogenic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew D.

    2017-11-01

    Record-breaking temperatures attract attention from the media, so understanding how and why the rate of record breaking is changing may be useful in communicating the effects of climate change. A simple methodology designed for estimating the anthropogenic influence on rates of record breaking in a given time series is proposed here. The frequency of hot and cold record-breaking temperature occurrences is shown to be changing due to the anthropogenic influence on the climate. Using ensembles of model simulations with and without human-induced forcings, it is demonstrated that the effect of climate change on global record-breaking temperatures can be detected as far back as the 1930s. On local scales, a climate change signal is detected more recently at most locations. The anthropogenic influence on the increased occurrence of hot record-breaking temperatures is clearer than it is for the decreased occurrence of cold records. The approach proposed here could be applied in rapid attribution studies of record extremes to quantify the influence of climate change on the rate of record breaking in addition to the climate anomaly being studied. This application is demonstrated for the global temperature record of 2016 and the Central England temperature record in 2014.

  1. Are Literary Translators (still) Lone Wolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    of a questionnaire on collaboration within literary translation in Scandinavia. Concepts from Community Studies, such as generalized reciprocity, interpersonal trust and active participation, are employed to discuss whether literary translators feel like members of a community, lone wolves, or simply lonely....

  2. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2013-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author). 31 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author).

  4. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author)

  5. Lake sediment records of Quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, C.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of climate and environmental change. Lakes typically exhibit high sedimentation rates, contain sedimentary components well-suited for a multi-proxy approach, multiple dating methods can be applied, exhibit a broad geographic distribution, and are relatively accessible for study. Furthermore, a number of geochemical techniques can be applied to recontsruct components of the climate system based on the stable isotope geochemistry of carbonate or organic phases preserved and exposed in lacustrine sedimentary cores. Various stable isotope methods can be applied to lacustrine systems and these are a valuable tool that can be used to monitor physical processes (e.g. evaporation), vegetation dynamics within the watershed (C 3 vs C 4 plant distributions), biologic processes (aquatic productivity), all of which can be driven by a regional climate forcing. (author)

  6. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  7. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    . After delisting, state Fish and Wildlife Services in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming will be responsible for managing wolves. Each state must submit a wolf management plan to the USFWS which then must be approved before management shifts occur. As of this writing, the process of delisting the wolves in the state of Wyoming is ongoing. However, the reclassification of wolves nationwide was completed on April 1, 2003. Wolves outside of YNP changed in status from endangered to threatened. The wolves classified in the experimental nonessential population did not change in status (USFWS and others, 2004). This classification of experimental nonessential population allows for flexibility in management decisions concerning the wolves (Smith and others, 2004). For example, control actions in the GYA included trapping and radio-collaring four wolves; intensive monitoring; increasing riders on grazing allotments; harassing wolves with rubber bullets, cracker shells, and lights; moving livestock to different pastures; and issuing four shoot on-sight permits. When non-lethal control methods were not effective, wolves were killed in an attempt to prevent further livestock depredations (USFWS and others, 2004; Table 1). At the same time that wolf numbers are rising, human population statistics in the GRTE area are also rising. The population of Teton County, Wyoming in 1990 was just over 11,000 people; today that number has increased to approximately 19,000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2005). park visitation for GRTE has been substantial over the last several years with an average visitation of 2.5 million visitors (NPS, 2004a). Furthermore, land ownership surrounding GRTE and the establishment of grazing rights within park boundaries are problem areas for wolf-human interactions due to livestock depredation. With increasing numbers of visitors, residents, and livestock it is reasonable to assume that conflicts are going to increase also. In 1950, GRTE was expanded to in

  8. Wolves in Utah: An analysis of potential impacts and recommendations for management

    OpenAIRE

    Switalski, T. Adam; Simmons, Trey; Duncan, Shiree L.; Chavez, Andreas S.; Schmidt, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    The historic range of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Utah was essentially statewide. Although their presence cannot be disputed, the historic abundance of wolves in Utah is unknown. The release of gray wolves into Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995 established growing populations, and increasing dispersal is bringing these wolves closer to Utah. It seems likely that wolves will commingle with Utah's other native mammals in the near future. The potential presence of wolves in Ut...

  9. Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in a 2,060km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus (CPV). The CPV had little effect (P gt 0.05) on wolf population size while epizootic during 1979-83. However, after CPV became enzootic, percentage of pups captured during summer-fall 1984-93 and changes in subsequent winter wolf numbers were each inversely related to the serological prevalence of CPV in wolves captured during July-November (r2 = 0.39 and 0.72, P = 0.05 and lt 0.01, respectively). The CPV antibody prevalence in adult wolves increased to 87% in 1993 (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.05). However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation. We -predict that the winter wolf population will decline when CPV prevalence in adults consistently exceeds 76%. The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations.

  10. A guide for recording esthetic and biologic changes with photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill; R.H. Twiss

    1965-01-01

    Photography has long been a useful tool for recording and analyzing environmental conditions. Permanent camera points can be established to help detect ,and analyze changes in the esthetics and ecology of wildland resources. This note describes the usefulness of permanent camera points and outlines procedures for establishing points and recording data.

  11. Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

  12. Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

    2015-01-01

    The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  13. Social modulation of contagious yawning in wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Romero

    Full Text Available On the basis of observational and experimental evidence, several authors have proposed that contagious yawn is linked to our capacity for empathy, thus presenting a powerful tool to explore the root of empathy in animal evolution. The evidence for the occurrence of contagious yawning and its link to empathy, however, is meagre outside primates and only recently domestic dogs have demonstrated this ability when exposed to human yawns. Since dogs are unusually skillful at reading human communicative behaviors, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is deeply rooted in the evolutionary history of mammals or evolved de novo in dogs as a result of domestication. Here we show that wolves are capable of yawn contagion, suggesting that such ability is a common ancestral trait shared by other mammalian taxa. Furthermore, the strength of the social bond between the model and the subject positively affected the frequency of contagious yawning, suggesting that in wolves the susceptibility of yawn contagion correlates with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, female wolves showed a shorter reaction time than males when observing yawns of close associates, suggesting that females are more responsive to their social stimuli. These results are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy and suggests that basic building blocks of empathy might be present in a wide range of species.

  14. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  15. Accounts of famous North American Wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined historical accounts of 59 famous North American Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) reported during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Fifty of the 59 wolves were purportedly responsible for great losses to livestock, but for 29 reports, evidence suggested that ???2 wolves (e.g., packs) were responsible for the purported kills; in addition, seven wolves had traits that suggested they were hybrids with dogs, and one wolf was probably not from the area where the damage purportedly occurred. Reported livestock losses, especially to Longhorn cattle, from individual wolves appeared excessively high in relation to current literature. Most famous wolves were old and/or impaired from past injuries: 19 were reportedly ???10 years old, 18 had mutilated feet from past trap injuries, and one had a partially severed trachea from being in a snare. Old age and physical impairments probably contributed to livestock depredations by some famous wolves. Several accounts appeared exaggerated, inaccurate, or fabricated. Historical accounts of famous wolves should be interpreted with great caution, especially when considering impacts of wolf reintroductions or when modeling predation rates.

  16. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Savolaimen, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-18

    The grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China , published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China.

  17. Wolves on the hunt: The behavior of wolves hunting wild prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature—displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting—or more infamous, more misjudged—than the wolf. Because of wolves’ habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and—in the e-book edition and online—video segments from cinematographer Robert K. Landis, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf—or especially a pack of wolves—can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one-third of their time hunting—the most time consuming of all wolf activities—and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey—including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, musk oxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others—Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature’s greatest hunters.

  18. Changes to criminal records checks used to safeguard vulnerable patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2012-07-01

    The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is introducing changes to the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) checks carried out on those people who work with vulnerable groups. The new law is the coalition Government's response to the criticism of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Group Act 2006. It will merge the CRB and Independent Safeguarding Authority into a new Disclosure and Barring Service and will enhance the rights of applicants to challenge the CRB's right to disclose non-conviction information as part of an enhanced criminal records check. In the first of two articles on the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the current framework for disclosing criminal records and the impact of the changes on district nurses applying for new posts.

  19. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females...

  20. Climatic Changes on Tibetan Plateau Based on Ice Core Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, T.

    2008-12-01

    Climatic changes have been reconstructed for the Tibetan Plateau based on ice core records. The Guliya ice core on the Tibetan Plateau presents climatic changes in the past 100,000 years, thus is comparative with that from Vostok ice core in Antarctica and GISP2 record in Arctic. These three records share an important common feature, i.e., our climate is not stable. It is also evident that the major patterns of climatic changes are similar on the earth. Why does climatic change over the earth follow a same pattern? It might be attributed to solar radiation. We found that the cold periods correspond to low insolation periods, and warm periods to high insolation periods. We found abrupt climatic change in the ice core climatic records, which presented dramatic temperature variation of as much as 10 °C in 50 or 60 years. Our major challenge in the study of both climate and environment is that greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 are possibly amplifying global warming, though at what degree remains unclear. One of the ways to understand the role of greenhouse gases is to reconstruct the past greenhouse gases recorded in ice. In 1997, we drilled an ice core from 7100 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas to reconstruct methane record. Based on the record, we found seasonal cycles in methane variation. In particular, the methane concentration is high in summer, suggestiing active methane emission from wet land in summer. Based on the seasonal cycle, we can reconstruct the methane fluctuation history in the past 500 years. The most prominent feature of the methane record in the Himalayan ice core is the abrupt increase since 1850 A.D.. This is closely related to the industrial revolution worldwide. We can also observe sudden decrease in methane concentration during the World War I and World War II. It implies that the industrial revolution has dominated the atmospheric greenhouse gas emission for about 100 years. Besides, the average methane concentration in the Himalayan ice core is

  1. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Andy P Dobson

    2014-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the r...

  2. Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Phillips, M.K.; Smith, D.W.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

  3. Long-term bird study records Arctic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    Alaska's summer of 2005 was the second warmest on record there, with a record retreat of arctic pack ice. As Alaskan temperatures gradually increase, artic birds, such as the black guillemots of Cooper Island, near Barrow, Alaska, are experiencing drastic habitat changes. Though these small black and white birds—the subjects of a long-term study of climate change—fared better this year than they have in the recent past (due to local cool conditions), they are nonetheless struggling to adapt as their artic island summer home becomes subarctic.George Divokyan ornithologist at the Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, discovered the Cooper Island colony of guillemots in the early 1970s and has spent every summer since 1975 there studying these birds. He presented his latest research during a 3 November talk in Washington, D.C.

  4. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Gable

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58% kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80% kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1 waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2 using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3 immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  5. Mono Lake sediments preserve a record of recent environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixnerova, J.; Betts, M.; Westacott, S.; Ingalls, M.; Miller, L. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Trower, L.; Geobiology Course, A.

    2017-12-01

    Modern Mono Lake is a geochemically unique closed-basin, hypersaline soda lake. Since 1941, anthropogenic water diversions have decreased the lake's volume and water level, driving changes in water chemistry and ecology. Mono Lake sediments offer an opportunity to investigate the nature and extent of these changes. We analyzed a 70 cm sediment core from the center of Mono Lake recording the past 116 years of deposition. At the time of recovery, the entire core was dark green. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated a sedimentary bacterial community dominated by Cyanobacteria. SEM imaging revealed abundant, well-preserved diatom frustules below 10 cm core depth, in contrast they are nearly absent above 10 cm depth. Fatty acid (FAME) biomarkers for diatoms and algal sterols were present throughout the core in varying concentrations. Phytol was exceptionally abundant in the core; ratios of phytol/C-18 FAME were commonly >200. The δ13Corg ranged between -17.5 and -20‰ in the lower 52 cm of the core while the upper part shows significant decrease of δ13Corg to -28‰. We interpret the shift in δ13Corg as an ecological transition from mainly diatoms in the lower core towards the green alga Picocystis, which is the main primary producer today and has a δ13Corg value of -32.5‰. The onset of this change dates back 23 years, which roughly coincides with the highest reported salinity, 88 g/L in 1995. We hypothesize that diatoms gradually became marginalized as a result of hypersaline conditions. We also observed a variety of trends that may be characterized as unique fingerprints of Mono Lake. The unusually high abundance of phytol was consistent with the core's pervasive green coloring and could potentially indicate a higher preservation potential of phytol under alkaline conditions. Throughout the core, δ15Norg fluctuated between +10 and +13‰. Such atypical enrichment in δ15Norg could be explained by NH4 dissociation and subsequent NH3 volatilization under high p

  6. A Test of Canine Olfactory Capacity: Comparing Various Dog Breeds and Wolves in a Natural Detection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Zita; Kinnunen, Mari; Újváry, Dóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Many dog breeds are bred specifically for increased performance in scent-based tasks. Whether dogs bred for this purpose have higher olfactory capacities than other dogs, or even wolves with whom they share a common ancestor, has not yet been studied. Indeed, there is no standard test for assessing canine olfactory ability. This study aimed to create a simple procedure that requires no pre-training and to use it to measure differences in olfactory capacity across four groups of canines: (1) dog breeds that have been selected for their scenting ability; (2) dog breeds that have been bred for other purposes; (3) dog breeds with exaggerated short-nosed features; and (4) hand-reared grey wolves. The procedure involved baiting a container with raw turkey meat and placing it under one of four identical ceramic pots. Subjects were led along the row of pots and were tasked with determining by olfaction alone which of them contained the bait. There were five levels of increasing difficulty determined by the number of holes on the container's lid. A subsample of both dogs and wolves was retested to assess reliability. The results showed that breeds selected for scent work were better than both short-nosed and non-scent breeds. In the most difficult level, wolves and scenting breeds performed better than chance, while non-scenting and short-nosed breeds did not. In the retested samples wolves improved their success; however, dogs showed no change in their performances indicating that a single test may be reliable enough to assess their capacity. Overall, we revealed measurable differences between dog breeds in their olfactory abilities and suggest that the Natural Detection Task is a good foundation for developing an efficient way of quantifying them.

  7. A Test of Canine Olfactory Capacity: Comparing Various Dog Breeds and Wolves in a Natural Detection Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Polgár

    Full Text Available Many dog breeds are bred specifically for increased performance in scent-based tasks. Whether dogs bred for this purpose have higher olfactory capacities than other dogs, or even wolves with whom they share a common ancestor, has not yet been studied. Indeed, there is no standard test for assessing canine olfactory ability. This study aimed to create a simple procedure that requires no pre-training and to use it to measure differences in olfactory capacity across four groups of canines: (1 dog breeds that have been selected for their scenting ability; (2 dog breeds that have been bred for other purposes; (3 dog breeds with exaggerated short-nosed features; and (4 hand-reared grey wolves. The procedure involved baiting a container with raw turkey meat and placing it under one of four identical ceramic pots. Subjects were led along the row of pots and were tasked with determining by olfaction alone which of them contained the bait. There were five levels of increasing difficulty determined by the number of holes on the container's lid. A subsample of both dogs and wolves was retested to assess reliability. The results showed that breeds selected for scent work were better than both short-nosed and non-scent breeds. In the most difficult level, wolves and scenting breeds performed better than chance, while non-scenting and short-nosed breeds did not. In the retested samples wolves improved their success; however, dogs showed no change in their performances indicating that a single test may be reliable enough to assess their capacity. Overall, we revealed measurable differences between dog breeds in their olfactory abilities and suggest that the Natural Detection Task is a good foundation for developing an efficient way of quantifying them.

  8. Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Almberg, Emily S.; Haase, Catherine G; Hudson, Peter J.; Maloney, Shane K; Metz, Matthew C; Munn, Adam J; Nugent, Paul; Putzeys, Olivier; Stahler, Daniel R.; Stewart, Anya C; Smith, Doug W.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss. We predict that during the winter in Montana, more severe mange infection increases heat loss by around 5.2 to 12 MJ per night (1240 to 2850 kcal, or a 65% to 78% increase) for small and large wolves, respectively accounting for wind effects. To maintain body temperature would require a significant proportion of a healthy wolf's total daily energy demands (18-22 MJ/day). We also predict how these thermal costs may increase in colder climates by comparing our predictions in Bozeman, Montana to those from a place with lower ambient temperatures (Fairbanks, Alaska). Contrary to our expectations, the 14°C differential between these regions was not as important as the potential differences in wind speed. These large increases in energetic demands can be mitigated by either increasing consumption rates or decreasing other energy demands. Data from GPS-collared wolves indicated that healthy wolves move, on average, 17 km per day, which was reduced by 1.5, 1.8 and 6.5 km for light, medium, and severe hair loss. In addition, the wolf with the most hair loss was less active at night and more active during the day, which is the converse of the movement patterns of healthy wolves. At the individual level mange infections create significant energy demands and altered behavioral patterns, this may have cascading effects on prey consumption rates, food web dynamics, predator-prey interactions, and scavenger communities.

  9. Local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While there have been increasing numbers of reports of human-wolf conflict in China during recent years, little is known about the nature of this conflict. In this study, we used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate local villagers’ perceptions of wolves in Jiuzhaigou County, western China. We sampled nine villages with more frequent reports of wolf depredation to the local government, but included three villages near alpine pastures in which reports of depredation were less frequent. We sampled 100 residents, a subset of the local population who were more likely to have had experience with wolves. During the preceding three years, most families of the respondents grazed livestock on alpine pastures, and most of them reported that their livestock suffered from depredation by wolves. The mean value of the reported annual livestock loss rates was considerably higher in villages that reported depredation more frequently than in those with less frequent reports of depredation. Most respondents in the more frequently depredated villages perceived an increase in wolf populations, whereas many in the less frequently depredated villages perceived a decrease in wolf populations in their areas. People’s attitudes towards wolves did not differ significantly between these two village categories. The majority of the respondents were negative in their attitude to wolves, despite a prevalent Tibetan culture that favors the protection of wildlife. People’s negative attitude was directly related to the number of livestock owned by their family. Those with a larger number of livestock were more likely to have a negative attitude towards wolves. Factors such as village category, ethnicity, age and education level did not influence people’s attitudes to wolves. We suggest that improved guarding of livestock and provision of monetary support on human resources and infrastructure may mitigate human-wolf conflicts in this region.

  10. 76 FR 7875 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... the central Idaho and Yellowstone area nonessential experimental populations of gray wolves in the...-0000-C3] Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the Lolo Elk Management Zone of Idaho; Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish...

  11. Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in wolves from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M; Elkin, Brett T; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-02-01

    Echinococcus species are important parasites of wildlife, domestic animals and people worldwide; however, little is known about the prevalence, intensity and genetic diversity of Echinococcus tapeworms in Canadian wildlife. Echinococcus tapeworms were harvested from the intestines of 42% of 93 wolves (Canis lupus) from five sampling regions in the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and visually identified to genus level by microscopic examination. Genetic characterization was successful for tapeworms from 30 wolves, and identified both Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis in all sampling locations. Mixed infections of E. canadensis/E. multilocularis, as well as the G8/G10 genotypes of E. canadensis were observed. These findings suggest that wolves may be an important definitive host for both parasite species in western Canada. This represents the first report of wolves naturally infected with E. multilocularis in North America, and of wolves harbouring mixed infections with multiple species and genotypes of Echinococcus. These observations provide important information regarding the distribution and diversity of zoonotic species of Echinococcus in western North America, and may be of interest from public health and wildlife conservation perspectives.

  12. A nutritionally mediated risk effect of wolves on elk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, David; Creel, Scott

    2010-04-01

    Though it is widely argued that antipredator responses carry nutritional costs, or risk effects, these costs are rarely measured in wild populations. To quantify risk effects in elk, a species that strongly responds to the presence of wolves, we noninvasively monitored diet selection and nutrient balance in wintering elk in the Upper Gallatin, Montana, USA, over three winters while quantifying the local presence of wolves at a fine spatiotemporal scale. Standard nutritional indices based on the botanical and chemical composition of 786 fecal samples, 606 snow urine samples, and 224 forage samples showed that elk were generally malnourished throughout winter. Increased selection for dietary nitrogen within forage types (e.g., grasses) led to approximately 8% higher fecal nitrogen in the presence of wolves. However, urinary allantoin : creatinine and potassium : creatinine ratios decreased in the presence of wolves, suggesting large declines in energy intake, equal to 27% of maintenance requirements. Urinary nitrogen : creatinine ratios confirmed that deficiencies in nitrogen and/or energy were exacerbated in the presence of wolves, leading to increased endogenous protein catabolism. Overall, the nutritional effects of wolf presence may be of sufficient magnitude to reduce survival and reproduction in wintering elk. Nutritionally mediated risk effects may be important for understanding predator-prey dynamics in wild populations, but such effects could be masked as bottom-up forces if antipredator responses are not considered.

  13. Recording membrane potential changes through photoacoustic voltage sensitive dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Jeeun; Yan, Ping; Abou, Diane S.; Le, Hanh N. D.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Kang, Jin U.; Gjedde, Albert; Rahmim, Arman; Wong, Dean F.; Loew, Leslie M.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2017-03-01

    Monitoring of the membrane potential is possible using voltage sensitive dyes (VSD), where fluorescence intensity changes in response to neuronal electrical activity. However, fluorescence imaging is limited by depth of penetration and high scattering losses, which leads to low sensitivity in vivo systems for external detection. In contrast, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, an emerging modality, is capable of deep tissue, noninvasive imaging by combining near infrared light excitation and ultrasound detection. In this work, we develop the theoretical concept whereby the voltage-dependent quenching of dye fluorescence leads to a reciprocal enhancement of PA intensity. Based on this concept, we synthesized a novel near infrared photoacoustic VSD (PA-VSD) whose PA intensity change is sensitive to membrane potential. In the polarized state, this cyanine-based probe enhances PA intensity while decreasing fluorescence output in a lipid vesicle membrane model. With a 3-9 μM VSD concentration, we measured a PA signal increase in the range of 5.3 % to 18.1 %, and observed a corresponding signal reduction in fluorescence emission of 30.0 % to 48.7 %. A theoretical model successfully accounts for how the experimental PA intensity change depends on fluorescence and absorbance properties of the dye. These results not only demonstrate the voltage sensing capability of the dye, but also indicate the necessity of considering both fluorescence and absorbance spectral sensitivities in order to optimize the characteristics of improved photoacoustic probes. Together, our results demonstrate photoacoustic sensing as a potential new modality for sub-second recording and external imaging of electrophysiological and neurochemical events in the brain.

  14. Protective immune response of oral rabies vaccine in stray dogs, corsacs and steppe wolves after a single immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhugunissov, K; Bulatov, Ye; Taranov, D; Yershebulov, Z; Koshemetov, Zh; Abduraimov, Ye; Kondibayeva, Zh; Samoltyrova, A; Amanova, Zh; Khairullin, B; Sansyzbay, A

    2017-11-01

    In this study the safety and protective immunity of an oral rabies vaccine, based on the live, modified rabies virus strain VRC-RZ2, was examined in stray dogs (Canis Sp.), corsacs (Vulpes corsac) and steppe wolves (Canis lupus campestris). In the safety group (dogs, n=6; corsacs, n=3; wolves, n=3) which was vaccinated with a 10-times field dose/animal, no animals showed any signs of disease or changes in behavior or appetite during the period of clinical observation, similar to the animals in the negative control group. Saliva samples taken from animals prior and post (5 th and 10 th days) vaccination failed to demonstrate rabies virus antigen. Observations of immunogenicity in vaccinated carnivores (dogs, corsacs and wolves) during a 180 day period showed the titers of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in the blood sera of vaccinated dogs to be within 0.59-1.37 IU/mL. On 14 days post vaccination (dpv), all the wild carnivores had detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, with mean titers ranging from 0.50 ± 0.07 IU/mL (for wolves) to 0.59 ± 0.10 IU/mL (for corsacs). Weeks after vaccination, all the vaccinated wolves and corsacs had higher levels of neutralizing antibodies: 0.70 ± 0.10 - 0.71 ± 0.08 IU/mL at 30 dpv, 1.06 ± 0.08 - 1.28 ± 0.21 IU/mL at 60 dpv and 0.41 ± 0.09 - 047 ± 0.06 at 180 dpv. The highest level of VNA (˃1.0 IU/ml) was detected at 60 dpv, in all vaccinated animals. After challenge all vaccinated dogs remained healthy for 180 days. Control animals (unvaccinated dogs) developed symptoms of rabies on day 6 post administration of a virulent virus and died of rabies on days 11-13. Of note, the VNA titers in all the wild carnivores (corsacs and wolves) immunized with VRC-RZ2 were higher than 0.5 IU/ml (0.59 ± 0.11 IU/ml), even as early as 14 days post vaccination. These, presumably protective, titers of antibodies to rabies virus were present in the dogs and wild carnivores examined in this study for at

  15. A gene expression signature of confinement in peripheral blood of red wolves (Canis rufus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerly, Erin; Ballmann, Anne; Martin, Stanton; Wolfinger, Russ; Gregory, Simon; Stoskopf, Michael; Gibson, Greg

    2008-06-01

    The stresses that animals experience as a result of modification of their ecological circumstances induce physiological changes that leave a signature in profiles of gene expression. We illustrate this concept in a comparison of free range and confined North American red wolves (Canis rufus). Transcription profiling of peripheral blood samples from 13 red wolf individuals in the Alligator River region of North Carolina revealed a strong signal of differentiation. Four hundred eighty-two out of 2980 transcripts detected on Illumina HumanRef8 oligonucleotide bead arrays were found to differentiate free range and confined wolves at a false discovery rate of 12.8% and P stress responses in confined animals. Consequently, characterization of differential transcript abundance in an accessible tissue such as peripheral blood identifies biomarkers that could be useful in animal management practices and for evaluating the impact of habitat changes on population health, particularly as attention turns to the impact of climate change on physiology and in turn species distributions.

  16. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: is bigger better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Mech, L David; Eberly, Lynn E

    2009-05-01

    1. Large body size hinders locomotor performance in ways that may lead to trade-offs in predator foraging ability that limit the net predatory benefit of larger size. For example, size-related improvements in handling prey may come at the expense of pursuing prey and thus negate any enhancement in overall predatory performance due to increasing size. 2. This hypothesis was tested with longitudinal data from repeated observations of 94 individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Wolf size was estimated from an individually based sex-specific growth model derived from body mass measurements of 304 wolves. 3. Larger size granted individual wolves a net predatory advantage despite substantial variation in its effect on the performance of different predatory tasks; larger size improved performance of a strength-related task (grappling and subduing elk) but failed to improve performance of a locomotor-related task (selecting an elk from a group) for wolves > 39 kg. 4. Sexual dimorphism in wolf size also explained why males outperformed females in each of the three tasks considered (attacking, selecting, and killing). 5. These findings support the generalization that bigger predators are overall better hunters, but they also indicate that increasing size ultimately limits elements of predatory behaviour that require superior locomotor performance. We argue that this could potentially narrow the dietary niche of larger carnivores as well as limit the evolution of larger size if prey are substantially more difficult to pursue than to handle.

  17. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.

  18. Pathogens of wild maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Curi, Nelson Henrique; Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Campos Cordeiro Malta, Marcelo; Magni, Elisa Maria Vaz; Sábato, Marco Aurelio Lima; Araújo, Amanda Soriano; Lobato, Zelia Inês Portela; Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Santos, Hudson Andrade; Ragozo, Alessandra Alves Mara; de Souza, Silvio Luís Pereira

    2012-10-01

    The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered Neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. Diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. We performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from Galheiro Natural Private Reserve, Perdizes City, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. We found high prevalences of antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV; 13/14), canine parvovirus (CPV; 4/14), canine adenovirus type 2 (13/14), canine coronavirus (5/11), canine parainfluenza virus (5/5), and Toxoplasma gondii (6/8), along with Ancylostomidae eggs in all feces samples. Antibodies against Leishmania sp. were found in one of 10 maned wolves, and all samples were negative for Neospora caninum. Evidence of high exposure to these viral agents was also observed in unvaccinated domestic dogs from neighboring farms. High prevalence of viral agents and parasites such as CDV, CPV, and Ancylostomidae indicates that this population faces considerable risk of outbreaks and chronic debilitating parasites. This is the first report of exposure to canine parainfluenza virus in Neotropical free-ranging wild canids. Our findings highlight that canine pathogens pose a serious hazard to the viability of maned wolves and other wild carnivore populations in the area and emphasize the need for monitoring and protecting wildlife health in remaining fragments of the Cerrado biome.

  19. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: Is bigger better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Mech, L.D.; Eberly, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Large body size hinders locomotor performance in ways that may lead to trade-offs in predator foraging ability that limit the net predatory benefit of larger size. For example, size-related improvements in handling prey may come at the expense of pursuing prey and thus negate any enhancement in overall predatory performance due to increasing size. 2. This hypothesis was tested with longitudinal data from repeated observations of 94 individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Wolf size was estimated from an individually based sex-specific growth model derived from body mass measurements of 304 wolves. 3. Larger size granted individual wolves a net predatory advantage despite substantial variation in its effect on the performance of different predatory tasks; larger size improved performance of a strength-related task (grappling and subduing elk) but failed to improve performance of a locomotor-related task (selecting an elk from a group) for wolves > 39 kg. 4. Sexual dimorphism in wolf size also explained why males outperformed females in each of the three tasks considered (attacking, selecting, and killing). 5. These findings support the generalization that bigger predators are overall better hunters, but they also indicate that increasing size ultimately limits elements of predatory behaviour that require superior locomotor performance. We argue that this could potentially narrow the dietary niche of larger carnivores as well as limit the evolution of larger size if prey are substantially more difficult to pursue than to handle. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

  20. The scientific classification of wolves: Canis lupus soupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Gray wolf, timber wolf, red wolf, eastern wolf, brush wolf, arctic wolf, Mexican wolf, maned wolf, Ethiopian wolf, etc., etc. How many kinds of wolves are there? And what are the differences? This is a really good question, and the answer is getting more complicated all the time.

  1. A system for automatically recording weight changes in sapling trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold F. Haupt; Bud L. Jeffers

    1967-01-01

    Describes an accurate and simple system for taking continuous weight records of sapling-size trees. Measurements obtained using this system have helped in describing the mechanism of interception storage in tree crowns during snowfall.

  2. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Rotella, Jay J

    2010-09-29

    Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus) populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  3. Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Creel

    Full Text Available Following the growth and geographic expansion of wolf (Canis lupus populations reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho in 1995-1996, Rocky Mountain wolves were removed from the endangered species list in May 2009. Idaho and Montana immediately established hunting seasons with quotas equaling 20% of the regional wolf population. Combining hunting with predator control, 37.1% of Montana and Idaho wolves were killed in the year of delisting. Hunting and predator control are well-established methods to broaden societal acceptance of large carnivores, but it is unprecedented for a species to move so rapidly from protection under the Endangered Species Act to heavy direct harvest, and it is important to use all available data to assess the likely consequences of these changes in policy. For wolves, it is widely argued that human offtake has little effect on total mortality rates, so that a harvest of 28-50% per year can be sustained. Using previously published data from 21 North American wolf populations, we related total annual mortality and population growth to annual human offtake. Contrary to current conventional wisdom, there was a strong association between human offtake and total mortality rates across North American wolf populations. Human offtake was associated with a strongly additive or super-additive increase in total mortality. Population growth declined as human offtake increased, even at low rates of offtake. Finally, wolf populations declined with harvests substantially lower than the thresholds identified in current state and federal policies. These results should help to inform management of Rocky Mountain wolves.

  4. Group or ungroup - moose behavioural response to recolonization of wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Johan; Prima, Marie-Caroline; Nicholson, Kerry L; Wikenros, Camilla; Sand, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Predation risk is a primary motivator for prey to congregate in larger groups. A large group can be beneficial to detect predators, share predation risk among individuals and cause confusion for an attacking predator. However, forming large groups also has disadvantages like higher detection and attack rates of predators or interspecific competition. With the current recolonization of wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Scandinavia, we studied whether moose ( Alces alces ) respond by changing grouping behaviour as an anti-predatory strategy and that this change should be related to the duration of wolf presence within the local moose population. In particular, as females with calves are most vulnerable to predation risk, they should be more likely to alter behaviour. To study grouping behaviour, we used aerial observations of moose ( n  = 1335, where each observation included one or several moose) inside and outside wolf territories. Moose mostly stayed solitary or in small groups (82% of the observations consisted of less than three adult moose), and this behavior was independent of wolf presence. The results did not provide unequivocal support for our main hypothesis of an overall change in grouping behaviour in the moose population in response to wolf presence. Other variables such as moose density, snow depth and adult sex ratio of the group were overall more influential on grouping behaviour. However, the results showed a sex specific difference in social grouping in relation to wolf presence where males tended to form larger groups inside as compared to outside wolf territories. For male moose, population- and environmentally related variables were also important for the pattern of grouping. The results did not give support for that wolf recolonization has resulted in an overall change in moose grouping behaviour. If indeed wolf-induced effects do exist, they may be difficult to discern because the effects from moose population and environmental factors may be

  5. Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Hill, Janet E; Paquet, Paul C; Thompson, R C Andrew; Wagner, Brent; Smits, Judit E G

    2012-05-01

    Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health. We provide the first report of gastrointestinal parasites in gray wolves from the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada. Across 60 000 km(2), wolf feces were collected from 34 packs in 2005-2008. At a smaller spatial scale (3300 km(2)), 8 packs were sampled in spring and autumn. Parasite eggs, larvae, and cysts were identified using standard flotation techniques and morphology. A subset of samples was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify tapeworm eggs (n=9) and Giardia cysts (n=14). We detected ≥14 parasite taxa in 1558 fecal samples. Sarcocystis sporocysts occurred most frequently in feces (43·7%), followed by taeniid eggs (23·9%), Diphyllobothrium eggs (9·1%), Giardia cysts (6·8%), Toxocara canis eggs (2·1%), and Cryptosporidium oocysts (1·7%). Other parasites occurred in ≤1% of feces. Genetic analyses revealed Echinococcus canadensis strains G8 and G10, Taenia ovis krabbei, Diphyllobothrium nehonkaiense, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B. Parasite prevalence differed between seasons and island/mainland sites. Patterns in parasite prevalence reflect seasonal and spatial resource use by wolves and wolf-salmon associations. These data provide a unique, extensive and solid baseline for monitoring parasite community structure in relation to environmental change.

  6. Wire position system to consistently measure and record the location change of girders following ground changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.

  7. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Davaasuren, Anu; Sumiya, Battulga; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ki, Toshiaki; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas two genotypes (G6/7 and G10) of Echinococcus canadensis were found in two and three wolves, respectively. No adult Echinococcus worms were found in the corsac foxes examined. The genotypes of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis are discussed in terms of host specificity and distribution in Mongolia. The importance of wolves in the completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus spp. is also discussed.

  8. 32 CFR 701.117 - Changes to PA systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.117 Changes to PA systems of... consider the sensitivity and use of the records; present and projected threats and vulnerabilities; and... who records are maintained. For example, a decision to expand a system of records that originally...

  9. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy P

    2014-12-01

    Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding.

  10. Yellowstone wolves and the forces that structure natural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy P Dobson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1995 and 1996, wolves have had effects on Yellowstone that ripple across the entire structure of the food web that defines biodiversity in the Northern Rockies ecosystem. Ecological interpretations of the wolves have generated a significant amount of debate about the relative strength of top-down versus bottom-up forces in determining herbivore and vegetation abundance in Yellowstone. Debates such as this are central to the resolution of broader debates about the role of natural enemies and climate as forces that structure food webs and modify ecosystem function. Ecologists need to significantly raise the profile of these discussions; understanding the forces that structure food webs and determine species abundance and the supply of ecosystem services is one of the central scientific questions for this century; its complexity will require new minds, new mathematics, and significant, consistent funding.

  11. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  12. GASTRIC DILATATION VOLVULUS IN ADULT MANED WOLVES (CHRYSOCYON BRACHYURUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Jenna D; Padilla, Luis R; Joyner, Priscilla H; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Walsh, Timothy F; Aitken-Palmer, Copper

    2017-06-01

    Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) was identified in six adult maned wolves ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) housed at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal, Virginia, and the Dickerson Park Zoo in Springfield, Missouri. Four individuals were found dead in their enclosures, and GDV was diagnosed postmortem based on radiographic and necropsy findings. Two individuals were diagnosed with GDV antemortem, with one wolf surviving following surgical intervention and supportive management. A concurrent splenic torsion was identified in three of six cases. Although GDV has been well documented in domestic dogs and is known to occur in maned wolves, objective, detailed case descriptions have been limited in this species. This report represents the first description of a surviving case of GDV in the maned wolf. Thorough species-specific documentation of any acutely fatal condition, such as GDV, is imperative for proper case recognition and medical management, with profound implications for species recovery efforts.

  13. FAS 33: accurately recording effects of changing prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, L G

    1987-02-01

    FAS 33 addresses the problem of distortion in conventional historical cost financial statements because of changing prices. It requires 1300 business enterprises to report selected changing price data on a supplementary basis. It has been demonstrated that it is also feasible and beneficial for hospitals to present price disclosures as supplementary information to their financial statements. The possible application of FAS 33 is supported on the basis that the accounting and reporting methods of healthcare institutions are similar to the accounting and reporting practices of profit-seeking entities.

  14. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J; Beschta, Robert L; Fortin, Jennifer K; Robbins, Charles T

    2014-01-01

    We explored multiple linkages among grey wolves (Canis lupus), elk (Cervus elaphus), berry-producing shrubs and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Yellowstone National Park. We hypothesized competition between elk and grizzly bears whereby, in the absence of wolves, increases in elk numbers would increase browsing on berry-producing shrubs and decrease fruit availability to grizzly bears. After wolves were reintroduced and with a reduced elk population, we hypothesized there would be an increase in the establishment of berry-producing shrubs, such as serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), which is a major berry-producing plant. We also hypothesized that the percentage fruit in the grizzly bear diet would be greater after than before wolf reintroduction. We compared the frequency of fruit in grizzly bear scats to elk densities prior to wolf reintroduction during a time of increasing elk densities (1968-1987). For a period after wolf reintroduction, we calculated the percentage fruit in grizzly bear scat by month based on scats collected in 2007-2009 (n = 778 scats) and compared these results to scat data collected before wolf reintroduction. Additionally, we developed an age structure for serviceberry showing the origination year of stems in a northern range study area. We found that over a 19-year period, the percentage frequency of fruit in the grizzly diet (6231 scats) was inversely correlated (P wolves and other large carnivores on elk, a reduced and redistributed elk population, decreased herbivory and increased production of plant-based foods that may aid threatened grizzly bears. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  15. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  16. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Lute

    Full Text Available Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666 cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.

  17. Heterozygote Advantage in a Finite Population: Black Color in Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Stahler, Daniel R; Dekker, Dick

    2014-01-01

    There is a striking color polymorphism for wolves in the Yellowstone National Park where approximately half the wolves are black. The genetic basis for this polymorphism is known, and fitnesses of the genotypes are estimated. These estimates suggest that there is strong heterozygote advantage but substantial asymmetry in the fitness differences of the 2 homozygotes. Theoretically, such fitnesses in a finite population are thought to reduce genetic variation at least as fast as if there were no selection at all. Because the color polymorphism has remained at about the same frequency for 17 years, about 4 generations, we investigated whether this was consistent with the theoretical predictions. Counter to this general expectation of loss, given the initial frequency of black wolves, the theoretical expectation in this case was found to be that the frequency would only decline slowly over time. For example, if the effective population size is 20, then the expected black allele frequency after 4 generations would be 0.191, somewhat less than the observed value of 0.237. However, nearly 30% of the time the expected frequency is 0.25 or greater, consistent with the contemporary observed frequency. In other words and in contrast to general theoretical predictions, because of the short period of time in evolutionary terms and the relatively weak selection at low frequencies, the observed variation and the predicted theoretical variation are not inconsistent. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Recording membrane potential changes through photoacoustic voltage sensitive dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Kang, Jeeun; Yan, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of the membrane potential is possible using voltage sensitive dyes (VSD), where fluorescence intensity changes in response to neuronal electrical activity. However, fluorescence imaging is limited by depth of penetration and high scattering losses, which leads to low sensitivity in vivo...... systems for external detection. In contrast, photoacoustic (PA) imaging, an emerging modality, is capable of deep tissue, noninvasive imaging by combining near infrared light excitation and ultrasound detection. In this work, we develop the theoretical concept whereby the voltage-dependent quenching...... the experimental PA intensity change depends on fluorescence and absorbance properties of the dye. These results not only demonstrate the voltage sensing capability of the dye, but also indicate the necessity of considering both fluorescence and absorbance spectral sensitivities in order to optimize...

  20. Sea level change: lessons from the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Rising sea level is potentially one of the most serious impacts of climatic change. Even a small sea level rise would have serious economic consequences because it would cause extensive damage to the world's coastal regions. Sea level can rise in the future because the ocean surface can expand due to warming and because polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers can melt, increasing the ocean's volume of water. Today, ice caps on Antarctica and Greenland contain 91 and 8 percent of the world's ice, respectively. The world's mountain glaciers together contain only about 1 percent. Melting all this ice would raise sea level about 80 meters. Although this extreme scenario is not expected, geologists know that sea level can rise and fall rapidly due to changing volume of ice on continents. For example, during the last ice age, about 18,000 years ago, continental ice sheets contained more than double the modem volume of ice. As ice sheets melted, sea level rose 2 to 3 meters per century, and possibly faster during certain times. During periods in which global climate was very warm, polar ice was reduced and sea level was higher than today.

  1. 76 FR 17439 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... nonessential experimental population areas for the gray wolf under section 10(j) of the ESA: the Yellowstone...-0000-C3] Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the West Fork Elk Management Unit of Montana; Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY...

  2. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest.By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves.We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  3. The influence of relationships on neophobia and exploration in wolves and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Lucia; Hentrup, Marleen; Kotrschal, Kurt; Range, Friederike

    2015-09-01

    Exploration is important for animals to be able to gather information about features of their environment that may directly or indirectly influence survival and reproduction. Closely related to exploration is neophobia, which may reduce exposure to danger, but also constrain explorative behaviour. Here we investigated the effects of social relationships on neophobia and exploration in wolves, Canis lupus , and dogs, Canis familiaris . Eleven pack-living wolves reared by human foster parents and 13 identically raised and kept dogs were tested in a novel object test under three different conditions: (1) alone, (2) paired with a pack mate and (3) together with the entire pack. Dogs were less neophobic than wolves and interacted faster with the novel objects. However, the dogs showed overall less interest in the novel objects than wolves, which investigated the objects for longer than the dogs. Both wolves and dogs manipulated objects for longer when paired or in the pack than when alone. While kinship facilitated the investigation of novel objects in the pair condition in both wolves and dogs, rank distance had opposite effects. Our results suggest that the presence of conspecifics supported the exploration of novel objects in both wolves and dogs, particularly within kin and that this may be interpreted as risk sharing. The reduced latency to approach objects and less time spent exploring objects in dogs compared to wolves may be interpreted as an effect of domestication.

  4. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  5. Famous North American wolves and the credibility of early wildlife literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the credibility of early literature about famous North American wolves (Canis lupus). Many famous wolves were reported to be older than they actually were, and we estimated they did not live long enough to have caused purported damage to livestock and game animals. Wolf kill rates on free-ranging livestock appeared to be inflated compared to recently published kill rates on native ungulates and livestock. Surplus killing of sheep and goats may have accounted for some high kill rates, but surplus killing of free-ranging longhorn cattle probably did not occur. Some famous wolves may actually have been dogs (C. familiaris), wolf-dog hybrids, or possibly coyote (C. latrans)-dog hybrids. We documented instances where early authors appeared to embellish or fabricate information about famous wolves. Caution should be exercised when using early literature about wolves as a basis for wolf management decisions.

  6. The need for the management of wolves — an open letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur T. Bergerud

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Mountain and Boreal Woodland Caribou are facing extinction from increased predation, predominantly wolves (Canis lupus and coyotes (Canis latrans. These predators are increasing as moose (Alces alces and deer (Odocoileus spp. expand their range north with climate change. Mitigation endeavors will not be sufficient; there are too many predators. The critical habitat for caribou is the low predation risk habitat they select at calving: It is not old growth forests and climax lichens. The southern boundary of caribou in North America is not based on the presence of lichens but on reduced mammalian diversity. Caribou are just as adaptable as other cervids in their use of broadleaf seed plant as forage. Without predator management these woodland caribou will go extinct in our life time.

  7. Space Use and Habitat Selection by Resident and Transient Red Wolves (Canis rufus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Hinton

    Full Text Available Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans. Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009-2011, we used global positioning system (GPS radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that

  8. Space use and habitat selection by resident and transient red wolves (Canis rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Proctor, Christine; Kelly, Marcella J.; van Manen, Frank T.; Vaughan, Michael R.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans). Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence. During 2009–2011, we used global positioning system (GPS) radio-telemetry to quantify space use and 3rd-order habitat selection for resident and transient red wolves on the Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. The Albemarle Peninsula was a predominantly agricultural landscape in which red wolves maintained spatially stable home ranges that varied between 25 km2 and 190 km2. Conversely, transient red wolves did not maintain home ranges and traversed areas between 122 km2 and 681 km2. Space use by transient red wolves was not spatially stable and exhibited shifting patterns until residency was achieved by individual wolves. Habitat selection was similar between resident and transient red wolves in which agricultural habitats were selected over forested habitats. However, transients showed stronger selection for edges and roads than resident red wolves. Behaviors of transient wolves are rarely reported in studies of space use and habitat selection because of technological limitations to observed extensive space use and because they do not contribute reproductively to populations. Transients in our study comprised displaced red wolves and younger dispersers that competed for limited space and mating opportunities. Therefore, our results suggest that transiency is likely an important life-history strategy for red wolves that facilitates

  9. Ungulate predation and ecological roles of wolves and coyotes in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Loveless, Karen M; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the ecological roles of species that influence ecosystem processes is a central goal of ecology and conservation biology. Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) have ascended to the role of apex predator across much of eastern North America since the extirpation of wolves (Canis spp.) and there has been considerable confusion regarding their ability to prey on ungulates and their ecological niche relative to wolves. Eastern wolves (C. lycaon) are thought to have been the historical top predator in eastern deciduous forests and have previously been characterized as deer specialists that are inefficient predators of moose because of their smaller size relative to gray wolves (C. lupus). We investigated intrinsic and extrinsic influences on per capita kill rates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces) during winter by sympatric packs of eastern coyotes, eastern wolves, and admixed canids in Ontario, Canada to clarify the predatory ability and ecological roles of the different canid top predators of eastern North America. Eastern coyote ancestry within packs negatively influenced per capita total ungulate (deer and moose combined) and moose kill rates. Furthermore, canids in packs dominated by eastern coyote ancestry consumed significantly less ungulate biomass and more anthropogenic food than packs dominated by wolf ancestry. Similar to gray wolves in previous studies, eastern wolves preyed on deer where they were available. However, in areas were deer were scarce, eastern wolves killed moose at rates similar to those previously documented for gray wolves at comparable moose densities across North America. Eastern coyotes are effective deer predators, but their dietary flexibility and low kill rates on moose suggest they have not replaced the ecological role of wolves in eastern North America. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Using lecture recordings to support curriculum changes in the European convergence process

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Herrera, Sandra; Barra Arias, Enrique; Quemada Vives, Juan; Pastor Caño, Jose Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the experience of using lecture recordings to support curriculum changes within the framework of the European convergence process, mainly courses that need to be promoted or discontinued. We will explain an integrated solution for recording lectures consisting of a web portal, a videoconferencing tool and an economical and easily transportable kit. The validation process was performed recording three different courses at the Universidad Politécnica of Madri...

  11. Research Note. Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections and associated lesions in wolves (Canis lupus from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacher A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of Pearsonema plica and Eucoleus böhmi infections in wolves (Canis lupus in Europe are limited and data on associated lesions are lacking. In the present study urinary bladders, nasal turbinates and faecal samples from 8 necropsied wolves were examined for P. plica and E. böhmi infections and associated lesions. P. plica was identified in the bladder of four wolves. At histological examination, follicular chronic cystitis and eosinophilic cystitis were found. E. böhmi nematodes and eggs were identified from the nasal turbinates and rectal faecal samples of three wolves. Worms and eggs were found embedded in the mucosa among the nasal bone laminae. Two wolves were found coinfected by P. plica and E. böhmi. This is the first report of P. plica and E. böhmi infections in wolves from Italy and the first description of pathological lesions associated with P. plica infection in wolves.

  12. Extending the Instrumental Record of Sea-Level Change: A 1300-Year Sea-Level Record From Eastern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J. P.; Cleary, P.

    2002-12-01

    The instrumental record of sea-level change in the northeastern United States extends back to the early 20th century and at New York City (NYC) extends back to 1856. These tide gauge records indicate that sea level has risen at a rate of 2.5 to 4 mm/year over the last 100-150 years. Geologic evidence of sea-level change in the region over the last 2,000 years indicates rates of sea-level rise of about 1 mm/year or less. The discordance between the instrumental and geologic records is frequently cited as potentially providing evidence that anthropogenic warming of the climate system has resulted in an increase in the rate of sea-level rise. In order to begin to test the hypothesis that acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise has occurred in the last 150 years due to anthropogenic climate warming, accurate and precise information on the timing of the apparent acceleration in sea-level rise are needed. Here we construct a high-resolution relative sea-level record for the past 1350 years by dating basal salt marsh peat samples above a glacial erratic in a western Connecticut salt marsh. Preservation of marsh vegetation remains in the sediment record that has a narrow vertical habitat range at the upper end of the tidal range provides information on past sea levels. { \\it Spartina patens} (marsh hay) and { \\it Juncus gerardi} (black rush) dominate both the modern marsh and their remains are the major constituent of the marsh sediments and occur in the modern marsh between mean high water (MHW) and mean highest high water. We use the elevation distribution of modern plant communities to estimate the relationship of sediment samples to paleo-mean high water. The chronology is based on 15 radiocarbon ages, supplemented by age estimates derived from the horizons of industrial Pb pollution and pollen indicative of European land clearance. Thirteen of the radiocarbon ages and the Pb and pollen data come from samples taken along a contact between marsh peat and a glacial

  13. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  14. Organizational Change and How It Affects Healthcare Employees: A Study on Employee Resistance to Change in Electronic Medical Record Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluwakemi A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the exploratory qualitative study was to explore the strategies for reducing employee resistance to Electronic Medical Record (EMR) technology changes in a healthcare organization during implementation. The study focused on EPIC as the EMR application. Ten healthcare participants who had experienced a change to EMR were selected in…

  15. Antibodies against canine parvovirus of wolves of Minnesota: A serologic study from 1975 through 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Rademacher, R.A.; Khan, M.A.; Seal, U.S.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 137) from 47 wild wolves (Canis lupus; 21 pups and 26 adults) were evaluated from 1975 to 1985 for antibodies against canine parvovirus, using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. In addition, several blood samples (n = 35) from 14 of these wolves (6 pups and 8 adults) were evaluated simultaneously for erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and for hemoglobin and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. Sixty-nine (50%) of the serum samples (35 wolves) had HI titers of greater than or equal to 256, whereas 68 (50%) of the samples (16 wolves) had HI titers of less than or equal to 128. Significant differences in the geometric mean titers were not found between pups and adults or between males and females. Of the 47 wolves evaluated, 12 (25%) developed a greater than or equal to fourfold increase in antibody titers during the 11-year period, with 2 wolves developing serologic conversions in 1976. The data indicate that canine parvovirus may have begun infecting wolves before or at the same time that it began infecting the dog population in the United States.

  16. Accuracy and precision of estimating age of gray wolves by tooth wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Nowak, R.M.; Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy and precision of tooth wear for aging gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario based on 47 known-age or known-minimum-age skulls. Estimates of age using tooth wear and a commercial cementum annuli-aging service were useful for wolves up to 14 years old. The precision of estimates from cementum annuli was greater than estimates from tooth wear, but tooth wear estimates are more applicable in the field. We tended to overestimate age by 1-2 years and occasionally by 3 or 4 years. The commercial service aged young wolves with cementum annuli to within ?? 1 year of actual age, but under estimated ages of wolves ???9 years old by 1-3 years. No differences were detected in tooth wear patterns for wild wolves from Alaska, Minnesota, and Ontario, nor between captive and wild wolves. Tooth wear was not appropriate for aging wolves with an underbite that prevented normal wear or severely broken and missing teeth.

  17. Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhahn, Geraldine; Virányi, Zsófia; Barrera, Gabriela; Sommese, Andrea; Range, Friederike

    2016-08-01

    Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills might have been altered through domestication that may have influenced their performance in Study 1. Because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans, we suggest that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Does interference competition with wolves limit the distribution and abundance of coyotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kim Murray; Gese, Eric M

    2007-11-01

    Interference competition with wolves Canis lupus is hypothesized to limit the distribution and abundance of coyotes Canis latrans, and the extirpation of wolves is often invoked to explain the expansion in coyote range throughout much of North America. We used spatial, seasonal and temporal heterogeneity in wolf distribution and abundance to test the hypothesis that interference competition with wolves limits the distribution and abundance of coyotes. From August 2001 to August 2004, we gathered data on cause-specific mortality and survival rates of coyotes captured at wolf-free and wolf-abundant sites in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP), Wyoming, USA, to determine whether mortality due to wolves is sufficient to reduce coyote densities. We examined whether spatial segregation limits the local distribution of coyotes by evaluating home-range overlap between resident coyotes and wolves, and by contrasting dispersal rates of transient coyotes captured in wolf-free and wolf-abundant areas. Finally, we analysed data on population densities of both species at three study areas across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) to determine whether an inverse relationship exists between coyote and wolf densities. Although coyotes were the numerically dominant predator, across the GYE, densities varied spatially and temporally in accordance with wolf abundance. Mean coyote densities were 33% lower at wolf-abundant sites in GTNP, and densities declined 39% in Yellowstone National Park following wolf reintroduction. A strong negative relationship between coyote and wolf densities (beta = -3.988, P wolves limits coyote populations. Overall mortality of coyotes resulting from wolf predation was low, but wolves were responsible for 56% of transient coyote deaths (n = 5). In addition, dispersal rates of transient coyotes captured at wolf-abundant sites were 117% higher than for transients captured in wolf-free areas. Our results support the hypothesis that coyote abundance is

  19. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  20. Unusual behavior by Bison, Bison bison, toward Elk, Cervus elaphus, and wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McIntyre, R.T.; Smith, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents are described of Bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park mauling and possibly killing a young Elk (Cervus elaphus) calf, chasing wolves (Canis lupus) off Elk they had just killed or were killing, and keeping the wolves away for extended periods. During one of the latter cases, the Bison knocked a wolf-wounded Elk down. Bison were also seen approaching wolves that were resting and sleeping, rousting them, following them to new resting places and repeating this behavior. These behaviors might represent some type of generalized hyper-defensiveness that functions as an anti-predator strategy.

  1. "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze": Correction to Werhahn et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Wolves ( Canis lupus ) and dogs ( Canis familiaris ) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-26311-001.) Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual's head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills

  2. Size‐assortative choice and mate availability influences hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Gittleman, John L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic hybridization of historically isolated taxa has become a primary conservation challenge for many imperiled species. Indeed, hybridization between red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) poses a significant challenge to red wolf recovery. We considered seven hypotheses to assess factors influencing hybridization between red wolves and coyotes via pair‐bonding between the two species. Because long‐term monogamy and defense of all‐purpose territories are core characteristics of both species, mate choice has long‐term consequences. Therefore, red wolves may choose similar‐sized mates to acquire partners that behave similarly to themselves in the use of space and diet. We observed multiple factors influencing breeding pair formation by red wolves and found that most wolves paired with similar‐sized conspecifics and wolves that formed congeneric pairs with nonwolves (coyotes and hybrids) were mostly female wolves, the smaller of the two sexes. Additionally, we observed that lower red wolf abundance relative to nonwolves and the absence of helpers increased the probability that wolves consorted with nonwolves. However, successful pairings between red wolves and nonwolves were associated with wolves that maintained small home ranges. Behaviors associated with territoriality are energetically demanding and behaviors (e.g., aggressive interactions, foraging, and space use) involved in maintaining territories are influenced by body size. Consequently, we propose the hypothesis that size disparities between consorting red wolves and coyotes influence positive assortative mating and may represent a reproductive barrier between the two species. We offer that it may be possible to maintain wild populations of red wolves in the presence of coyotes if management strategies increase red wolf abundance on the landscape by mitigating key threats, such as human‐caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes. Increasing red wolf abundance would

  3. Regional environmental change and human activity over the past hundred years recorded in the sedimentary record of Lake Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, ZhanJiang; Wang, Qiugui; Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Hu, Jufang; Ma, Yujun; Kong, Fancui; Wang, Zhuan

    2017-04-01

    Environmental change and human activity can be recorded in sediment cores in aquatic systems such as lakes. Information from such records may be useful for environmental governance in the future. Six sediment cores were collected from Lake Qinghai, China and its sublakes during 2012 and 2013. Measurements of sediment grain-size fractions indicate that sedimentation in the north and southwest of Lake Qinghai is dominated by river input, whereas that in Lake Gahai and Lake Erhai is dominated by dunes. The sedimentation rates in Lake Qinghai were calculated to be 0.101-0.159 cm/y, similar to the rates in other lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using these data and sedimentation rates from the literature, we compiled the spatial distribution of sedimentation rates. Higher values were obtained in the three main areas of Lake Qinghai: two in river estuaries and one close to sand dunes. Lower values were measured in the center and south of the lake. Measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus concentrations, and TOC/TN ratios in three cores (QH01, QH02, and Z04) revealed four horizons corresponding to times of increased human activity. These anthropogenic events were (1) the development of large areas of cropland in the Lake Qinghai watershed in 1960, (2) the beginning of nationwide fertilizer use and increases in cropland area in the lake watershed after 1970, (3) the implementation of the national program "Grain to Green," and (4) the rapid increase in the tourism industry from 2000. Profiles of Rb, Sr concentrations, the Rb/Sr ratio, and grain-size fraction in core Z04 indicate that the climate has become drier over the past 100 years. Therefore, we suggest that lake sediments such as those in Lake Qinghai are useful media for high-resolution studies of regional environmental change and human activity.

  4. A record of change - Science and elder observations on the Navajo Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret M.; Wessells, Stephen M.

    2017-09-20

    A Record of Change - Science and Elder Observations on the Navajo Nation is a 25-minute documentary about combining observations from Navajo elders with conventional science to determine how tribal lands and culture are affected by climate change. On the Navajo Nation, there is a shortage of historical climate data, making it difficult to assess changing environmental conditions.This video reveals how a team of scientists, anthropologists, and translators combined the rich local knowledge of Navajo elders with recent scientific investigation to effectively document environmental change. Increasing aridity and declining snowfall in this poorly monitored region of the Southwest are accompanied by declining river flow and migrating sand dunes. The observations of Navajo elders verify and supplement this record of change by informing how shifting weather patterns are reflected in Navajo cultural practices and living conditions.

  5. Importance of a species' socioecology: Wolves outperform dogs in a conspecific cooperation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Schwarz, Jonas F L; Kostelnik, Inga; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2017-10-31

    A number of domestication hypotheses suggest that dogs have acquired a more tolerant temperament than wolves, promoting cooperative interactions with humans and conspecifics. This selection process has been proposed to resemble the one responsible for our own greater cooperative inclinations in comparison with our closest living relatives. However, the socioecology of wolves and dogs, with the former relying more heavily on cooperative activities, predicts that at least with conspecifics, wolves should cooperate better than dogs. Here we tested similarly raised wolves and dogs in a cooperative string-pulling task with conspecifics and found that wolves outperformed dogs, despite comparable levels of interest in the task. Whereas wolves coordinated their actions so as to simultaneously pull the rope ends, leading to success, dogs pulled the ropes in alternate moments, thereby never succeeding. Indeed in dog dyads it was also less likely that both members simultaneously engaged in other manipulative behaviors on the apparatus. Different conflict-management strategies are likely responsible for these results, with dogs' avoidance of potential competition over the apparatus constraining their capacity to coordinate actions. Wolves, in contrast, did not hesitate to manipulate the ropes simultaneously, and once cooperation was initiated, rapidly learned to coordinate in more complex conditions as well. Social dynamics (rank and affiliation) played a key role in success rates. Results call those domestication hypotheses that suggest dogs evolved greater cooperative inclinations into question, and rather support the idea that dogs' and wolves' different social ecologies played a role in affecting their capacity for conspecific cooperation and communication. Published under the PNAS license.

  6. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in wolves in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brynn; Hebblewhite, Mark; Ezenwa, Vanessa; Shury, Todd; Merrill, Evelyn H; Paquet, Paul C; Schmiegelow, Fiona; Seip, Dale; Skinner, Geoff; Webb, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Wild carnivores are often exposed to diseases via contact with peridomestic host species that travel through the wildland-urban interfaces. To determine the antibody prevalences and relationships to human activity for two common canid pathogens, we sampled 99 wolves (Canis lupus) from 2000 to 2008 for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) in Banff and Jasper National Parks and surrounding areas of the Canadian Rockies. This population was the source for wolves reintroduced into the Northern Rockies of the US. Of 99 wolves sampled, 94 had detectable antibody to CPV (95%), 24 were antibody-positive for CDV (24%), and 24 had antibodies to both pathogens (24%). We tested whether antibody prevalences for CPV and CDV were higher closer to human activity (roads, town sites, First Nation reserves) and as a function of sex and age class. Wolves ≥2 yr old were more likely to be have antibodies to CPV. For CDV, male wolves, wolves ≥2 yr, and those closer to First Nation reserves were more likely to have antibodies. Overall, however, we found minimal support for human influence on antibody prevalence for CDV and CPV. The similarity between our antibody prevalence results and results from recent studies in Yellowstone National Park suggests that at least in the case of CDV, and perhaps CPV, these could be important pathogens with potential effects on wolf populations.

  7. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts.

  8. Where can wolves live and how can we live with them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    In the contiguous 48 United States, southern Canada, and in Europe, wolves (Canis lupus) have greatly increased and expanded their range during the past few decades.They are prolific, disperse long distances, readily recolonize new areas where humans allow them, and are difficult to control when populations become established.Because wolves originally lived nearly everywhere throughout North America and Eurasia, and food in the form of wild and domestic prey is abundant there, many conservation-minded people favor wolves inhabiting even more areas.On the other hand, wolves conflict in several ways with rural residents who prefer fewer wolves. This article discusses the recovery of wolves, their benefits and values, the ways in which they conflict with humans, and the potential for their expansion into new areas.It concludes that wolf conservation will best be accomplished by each responsible political entity adaptively prescribing different management strategies for different zones within its purview.Some zones for some periods can support total protection, whereas in others, wolf numbers will have to be reduced to various degrees or removed.

  9. Effect of change in coding rules on recording diabetes in hospital administrative datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Guevarra, Veth M; Stubbs, Joanne M

    2016-10-01

    During 2008-2011 Australian Coding Standards mandated a causal relationship between diabetes and inpatient care as a criterion for recording diabetes as a comorbidity in hospital administrative datasets. We aim to measure the effect of the causality mandate on recorded diabetes and associated inter-hospital variations. For patients with diabetes, all admissions between 2004 and 2013 to all New South Wales acute public hospitals were investigated. Poisson mixed models were employed to derive adjusted rates and variations. The non-recorded diabetes incidence rate was 20.7%. The causality mandate increased the incidence rate four fold during the change period, 2008-2011, compared to the pre- or post-change periods (32.5% vs 8.4% and 6.9%). The inter-hospital variation was also higher, with twice the difference in the non-recorded rate between hospitals with the highest and lowest rates (50% vs 24% and 27% risk gap). The variation decreased during the change period (29%), while the rate continued to rise (53%). Admission characteristics accounted for over 44% of the variation compared with at most two per cent attributable to patient or hospital characteristics. Contributing characteristics explained less of the variation within the change period compared to pre- or post-change (46% vs 58% and 53%). Hospital relative performance was not constant over time. The causality mandate substantially increased the non-recorded diabetes rate and associated inter-hospital variation. Longitudinal accumulation of clinical information at the patient level, and the development of appropriate adoption protocols to achieve comprehensive and timely implementation of coding changes are essential to supporting the integrity of hospital administrative datasets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Climatic change during historical times in japan : reconstruction from climatic hazard records

    OpenAIRE

    Maejima, Ikuo; Tagami, Yoshio

    1986-01-01

    A synoptic analysis of climatic hazard records in historical times of Japan is presented. The cool age (7-9c.), the warm age (10-14c.) and the cold age (15-19c.) are indicated. The relationship between summer and winter conditions in the climatic change is also shown. Thus, the knowledge of the climatic change in Japan from the 7th to the 19th century was systematically summarized.

  11. Continuous Record Laplace-based Inference about the Break Date in Structural Change Models

    OpenAIRE

    Casini, Alessandro; Perron, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Building upon the continuous record asymptotic framework recently introduced by Casini and Perron (2017a) for inference in structural change models, we propose a Laplace-based (Quasi-Bayes) procedure for the construction of the estimate and confidence set for the date of a structural change. The procedure relies on a Laplace-type estimator defined by an integration-based rather than an optimization-based method. A transformation of the leastsquares criterion function is evaluated in order to ...

  12. Climatic Change over the 'Third Pole' from Long Tree-Ring Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E.

    2011-12-01

    Climatic change over the Greater Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, the 'Third Pole' of the world, is of great concern now as the Earth continues to warm at an alarming rate. While future climatic change over this region and its resulting impacts on humanity and the environment are difficult to predict with much certainty, knowing how climate has varied in the past can provide both an improved understanding of the range of variability and change that could occur in the future and the necessary context for assessing recent observed climatic change there. For this purpose, one of the best natural archives of past climate information available for study of the Third Pole environment is the changing pattern of annual ring widths found in long tree-ring chronologies. The forests of the Third Pole support many long-lived tree species, with some having life spans in excess of 1,000 years. This natural resource is steadily dwindling now due to continuing deforestation caused by human activity, but there is still enough remaining forest cover to produce a detailed network of long tree-ring chronologies for study of climate variability and change covering the past several centuries. The tree-ring records provide a mix of climate information, including that related to both temperature and precipitation. Examples of long drought-sensitive tree-ring records from the more arid parts of the Karakoram and Tibetan Plateau will be presented, along with records that primarily reflect changing temperatures in moister environments such as in Bhutan. Together they provide a glimpse of how climate of the Third Pole has changed over the past several centuries, the range of natural variability that could occur in the future independent of changes caused by greenhouse warming, and how changes during the latter part of the 20th century period of rapid global warming compare to the past.

  13. The signal of aerosol-induced changes in sunshine duration records: A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Romero, A.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; González, J. A.; Azorin-Molina, C.

    2014-04-01

    Aerosols play a significant yet complex and central role in the Earth's radiation budget, and knowledge of long-term changes in the atmospheric turbidity induced by aerosols is therefore fundamental for a better understanding of climate change. However, there is little available information on changes in aerosol concentration in the atmosphere, especially prior to the 1980s. The present paper reviews publications reporting the suitability of sunshine duration records with regard to detecting changes in atmospheric aerosols. Some of the studies reviewed propose methods for estimating aerosol-related magnitudes, such as turbidity, from sunshine deficit at approximately sunrise and sunset, when the impact of aerosols on the solar beam is more easily observed. In addition, there is abundant evidence that one cause of the decadal changes observed in sunshine duration records involves variations in atmospheric aerosol loading. Possible directions for future research are also suggested: in particular, detailed studies of the burn (not only its length but also its width) registered by means of Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorders may provide a way of creating time series of atmospheric aerosol loading metrics dating back to over 120 years from the present.

  14. Holocene precipitation changes in the deep tropics recorded by Speleothems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R.; Kong, X.; Cheng, H.; Cruz, F. W.; Wang, Y.; Broecker, W. S.

    2010-12-01

    We have obtained a high-resolution oxygen isotope (δ18O) record of cave calcite from Paraiso Cave, eastern Amazon, which covers most of the Holocene. Its chronology was determined by U-Th ages from three column-shaped stalagmites. Their δ18O profiles replicate among their contemporaneous growth periods. Therefore, the samples were likely precipitated under equilibrium conditions and their oxygen isotopic variations are primarily caused by climate change. We find that the δ18O decreases steadily from ~11.0 to 5.0 thousand years ago, with a growth gap between ~8.4 to 6.3 thousand years ago, and then gradually increases until the present. The large amplitude of the δ18O change (up to 4 per mil) suggests that the variation in δ18O value is dominated by meteoric precipitation change at this equatorial site. In order to investigate the interactions between the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), monsoons and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity during the Holocene, we compare the Paraiso record to speleothem records from other locations in the deep tropics, namely, cave sites from Flores, Borneo and Peru. We find that all these speleothem records are consistent, with a progressive δ18O decrease (rainfall increase) during the early Holocene, probably in response to the southward retreat of the ITCZ from its northernmost location in the early Holocene. This is evident from the strong anti-correlation between the speleothem monsoonal records from China and southern Brazil. However, our record is distinct from the others during the last 4 thousand years, when it switches to a continuous δ18O increase (rainfall decrease) trend, while the others flatten out. We propose that, during the late Holocene, the strengthened South American Summer Monsoon may override the ENSO influence and cause the discrepancy in precipitation between eastern Amazon and other deep tropical cave sites.

  15. Dog days of summer: Influences on decision of wolves to move pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Nordhagen, Matthew; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    For animals that forage widely, protecting young from predation can span relatively long time periods due to the inability of young to travel with and be protected by their parents. Moving relatively immobile young to improve access to important resources, limit detection of concentrated scent by predators, and decrease infestations by ectoparasites can be advantageous. Moving young, however, can also expose them to increased mortality risks (e.g., accidents, getting lost, predation). For group-living animals that live in variable environments and care for young over extended time periods, the influence of biotic factors (e.g., group size, predation risk) and abiotic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation) on the decision to move young is unknown. We used data from 25 satellite-collared wolves ( Canis lupus ) in Idaho, Montana, and Yellowstone National Park to evaluate how these factors could influence the decision to move pups during the pup-rearing season. We hypothesized that litter size, the number of adults in a group, and perceived predation risk would positively affect the number of times gray wolves moved pups. We further hypothesized that wolves would move their pups more often when it was hot and dry to ensure sufficient access to water. Contrary to our hypothesis, monthly temperature above the 30-year average was negatively related to the number of times wolves moved their pups. Monthly precipitation above the 30-year average, however, was positively related to the amount of time wolves spent at pup-rearing sites after leaving the natal den. We found little relationship between risk of predation (by grizzly bears, humans, or conspecifics) or group and litter sizes and number of times wolves moved their pups. Our findings suggest that abiotic factors most strongly influence the decision of wolves to move pups, although responses to unpredictable biotic events (e.g., a predator encountering pups) cannot be ruled out.

  16. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae detection methods in Alaska gray wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Woldstad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae was first documented on Alaska (USA gray wolves (Canis lupus on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10 cm by 10 cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers.

  17. High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2004-09-01

    We developed a high density near field optical recording disc system with a solid immersion lens and two laser sources. In order to realize the near field optical recording, we used a phase change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. The near field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with numerical aperture of 1.84. The clear eye pattern of 90.2 GB capacity (160nm track pitch and 62 nm per bit) was observed. The jitter using a limit equalizer was 10.0 % without cross-talk. The bit error rate using an adaptive PRML with 8 taps was 3.7e-6 without cross-talk. We confirmed that the near field optical disc system is a promising technology for a next generation high density optical disc system.

  18. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  19. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Earl, Dent A; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of the grey wolf in Yellowstone National Park is an outstanding example of a successful reintroduction. A general question concerning reintroduction is the degree to which genetic variation has been preserved and the specific behavioural mechanisms that enhance the preservation of genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding. We have analysed 200 Yellowstone wolves, including all 31 founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the 10-year reintroduction period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (1995 H(0) = 0.69; 2004 H(0) = 0.73) with low levels of inbreeding (1995 F(IS) = -0.063; 2004 F(IS) = -0.051) and throughout, the population expanded rapidly (N(1995) = 21; N(2004) = 169). Pedigree-based effective population size ratios did not vary appreciably over the duration of population expansion (1995 N(e)/N(g) = 0.29; 2000 N(e)/N(g) = 0.26; 2004 N(e)/N(g) = 0.33). We estimated kinship and found only two of 30 natural breeding pairs showed evidence of being related (average r = -0.026, SE = 0.03). We reconstructed the genealogy of 200 wolves based on genetic and field data and discovered that they avoid inbreeding through a wide variety of behavioural mechanisms including absolute avoidance of breeding with related pack members, male-biased dispersal to packs where they breed with nonrelatives, and female-biased subordinate breeding. We documented a greater diversity of such population assembly patterns in Yellowstone than previously observed in any other natural wolf population. Inbreeding avoidance is nearly absolute despite the high probability of within-pack inbreeding opportunities and extensive interpack kinship ties between adjacent packs. Simulations showed that the Yellowstone population has levels of genetic variation similar to that of a population managed for high variation and low inbreeding, and greater than that expected for random breeding within packs or across the entire breeding pool. Although short

  20. Demographic and Component Allee Effects in Southern Lake Superior Gray Wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Stenglein

    Full Text Available Recovering populations of carnivores suffering Allee effects risk extinction because positive population growth requires a minimum number of cooperating individuals. Conservationists seldom consider these issues in planning for carnivore recovery because of data limitations, but ignoring Allee effects could lead to overly optimistic predictions for growth and underestimates of extinction risk. We used Bayesian splines to document a demographic Allee effect in the time series of gray wolf (Canis lupus population counts (1980-2011 in the southern Lake Superior region (SLS, Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan, USA in each of four measures of population growth. We estimated that the population crossed the Allee threshold at roughly 20 wolves in four to five packs. Maximum per-capita population growth occurred in the mid-1990s when there were approximately 135 wolves in the SLS population. To infer mechanisms behind the demographic Allee effect, we evaluated a potential component Allee effect using an individual-based spatially explicit model for gray wolves in the SLS region. Our simulations varied the perception neighborhoods for mate-finding and the mean dispersal distances of wolves. Simulation of wolves with long-distance dispersals and reduced perception neighborhoods were most likely to go extinct or experience Allee effects. These phenomena likely restricted population growth in early years of SLS wolf population recovery.

  1. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison), to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus), a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  2. Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R MacNulty

    Full Text Available An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus hunting their most formidable prey, bison (Bison bison, to test the hypothesis that large groups are more cooperative when hunting difficult prey. We quantified the relationship between capture success and wolf group size, and compared it to previously reported results for Yellowstone wolves hunting elk (Cervus elaphus, a prey that was, on average, 3 times easier to capture than bison. Whereas improvement in elk capture success levelled off at 2-6 wolves, bison capture success levelled off at 9-13 wolves with evidence that it continued to increase beyond 13 wolves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hunters in large groups are more cooperative when hunting more formidable prey. Improved ability to capture formidable prey could therefore promote the formation and maintenance of large predator groups, particularly among predators that specialize on such prey.

  3. Interactions between wolves and female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2004-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) by the 1920s through predator control actions (Murie 1940,Young and Goldman 1944, Weaver 1978), then reintroduced into the park from 1995 to 1996 to restore ecological integrity and adhere to legal mandates (Bangs and Fritts 1996, Phillips and Smith 1996, Smith et al. 2000). Prior to reintroduction, the potential effects of wolves on the region’s threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population were evaluated (Servheen and Knight 1993). In areas where wolves and grizzly bears are sympatric, interspecific killing by both species occasionally occurs (Ballard 1980, 1982; Hayes and Baer 1992). Most agonistic interactions between wolves and grizzly bears involve defense of young or competition for carcasses (Murie 1944, 1981; Ballard 1982; Hornbeck and Horejsi 1986; Hayes and Mossop 1987; Kehoe 1995; McNulty et al. 2001). Servheen and Knight (1993) predicted that reintroduced wolves could reduce the frequency of winter-killed and disease-killed ungulates available for bears to scavenge, and that grizzly bears would occasionally usurp wolf-killed ungulate carcasses. Servheen and Knight (1993) hypothesized that interspecific killing and competition for carcasses would have little or no population level effect on either species.

  4. Using diets of Canis breeding pairs to assess resource partitioning between sympatric red wolves and coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Ashley, Annaliese K.; Dellinger, Justin A.; Gittleman, John L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Foraging behaviors of red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are complex and their ability to form congeneric breeding pairs and hybridize further complicates our understanding of factors influencing their diets. Through scat analysis, we assessed prey selection of red wolf, coyote, and congeneric breeding pairs formed by red wolves and coyotes, and found that all 3 had similar diets. However, red wolf and congeneric pairs consumed more white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) than coyote pairs. Coyotes forming breeding pairs with red wolves had 12% more white-tailed deer in their diet than conspecifics paired with coyotes. Contrary to many studies on coyotes in the southeastern United States, we found coyotes in eastern North Carolina to be primarily carnivorous with increased consumption of deer during winter. Although prey selection was generally similar among the 3 groups, differences in diet among different breeding pairs were strongly associated with body mass. Larger breeding pairs consumed more white-tailed deer, and fewer rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) and other small mammals. Partitioning of food resources by sympatric red wolves and coyotes is likely via differences in the proportions of similar prey consumed, rather than differences in types of prey exploited. Consequently, our results suggest coexistence of red wolves and coyotes in the southeastern United States may not be possible because there are limited opportunities for niche partitioning to reduce competitive interactions.

  5. Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Young, Julie; Fannin, Barbara; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stenglein, Jennifer L.; Waits, Lisette P.; Shivik, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Canids can be difficult to detect and their populations difficult to monitor. We tested whether hair samples could be collected from coyotes (Canis latrans) in Texas, USA and gray wolves (C. lupus) in Montana, USA using lure to elicit rubbing behavior at both man-made and natural collection devices. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to determine whether collected hair samples were from coyote, wolf, or nontarget species. Both coyotes and wolves rubbed on man-made barbed surfaces but coyotes in Texas seldom rubbed on hanging barbed surfaces. Wolves in Montana showed a tendency to rub at stations where natural-material collection devices (sticks and debris) were present. Time to detection was relatively short (5 nights and 4 nights for coyotes and wolves, respectively) with nontarget and unknown species comprising approximately 26% of the detections in both locations. Eliciting rubbing behavior from coyotes and wolves using lures has advantages over opportunistic genetic sampling methods (e.g., scat transects) because it elicits a behavior that deposits a hair sample at a fixed sampling location, thereby increasing the efficiency of sampling for these canids. Hair samples from rub stations could be used to provide estimates of abundance, measures of genetic diversity and health, and detection-nondetection data useful for cost-effective population monitoring.

  6. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  7. Maximum rates of climate change are systematically underestimated in the geological record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David B; Eichenseer, Kilian; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-11-10

    Recently observed rates of environmental change are typically much higher than those inferred for the geological past. At the same time, the magnitudes of ancient changes were often substantially greater than those established in recent history. The most pertinent disparity, however, between recent and geological rates is the timespan over which the rates are measured, which typically differ by several orders of magnitude. Here we show that rates of marked temperature changes inferred from proxy data in Earth history scale with measurement timespan as an approximate power law across nearly six orders of magnitude (10(2) to >10(7) years). This scaling reveals how climate signals measured in the geological record alias transient variability, even during the most pronounced climatic perturbations of the Phanerozoic. Our findings indicate that the true attainable pace of climate change on timescales of greatest societal relevance is underestimated in geological archives.

  8. Lethal distemper in badgers (Meles meles) following epidemic in dogs and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Daria; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Malatesta, Daniela; Brugnola, Luca; Marcacci, Maurilia; Portanti, Ottavio; De Massis, Fabrizio; Savini, Giovanni; Teodori, Liana; Ruggieri, Enzo; Mangone, Iolanda; Badagliacca, Pietro; Lorusso, Alessio

    2016-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important conservation threat to many wild carnivores. A large distemper epidemic sustained by an Arctic-lineage strain occurred in Italy in 2013, mainly in the Abruzzi region, causing overt disease in domestic and shepherd dogs, Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) and other wild carnivores. Two badgers were collected by the end of September 2015 in a rural area of the Abruzzi region and were demonstrated to be CDV-positive by real time RT-PCR and IHC in several tissues. The genome of CDV isolates from badgers showed Y549H substitution in the mature H protein. By employing all publicly available Arctic-lineage H protein encoding gene sequences, six amino acid changes in recent Italian strains with respect to Italian strains of dogs from 2000 to 2008, were observed. A CDV strain belonging to the European-wildlife lineage was also identified in a fox found dead in the same region in 2016, proving co-circulation of an additional CDV lineage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Boltysh crater record of rapid vegetation change during the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, D. W.; Daly, R.; Gilmour, I.; Gilmour, M.; Kelley, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of a cored borehole drilled through the sedimentary fill of the 24km wide Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine has yielded a unique, high resolution record spanning algae records. These records reflect environmental change from the K/Pg1 to the post Dan-C2 Danian. Leading into the CIE, warm temperate gymnosperm - angiosperm - fern communities are replaced by precipitation limited (winterwet) plant communities within the negative CIE. Winterwet plant communities dominate the negative CIE, but are replaced within the isotope recovery stage by warm temperate floras. These in turn give way to cooler temperate floras in the post positive CIE section of the uppermost crater fill. The distribution of temperate taxa about the negative CIE represents the broadest scale of oscillatory variation in the palynofloras. Shorter frequency oscillations are evident from diversity and botanical group distributions reflecting changes in moisture availability over several thousand years. Detailed analysis of variability within one of these oscillations records plant community cyclicity across the inception of the negative CIE. This short term cyclicity provides evidence that the replacement of warm termperate by winterwet floras occurred in a stepwise manner at the negative CIE suggesting cumulative atmospheric forcing. At <1mm scale, lamination within the negative CIE showed no obvious lithological or colour differences, and are not seasonal couplets. However, palynofloral analysis of laminations from within the negative CIE has yielded evidence of annual variation identifying the potential for recoding changes in 'paleoweather' across a major hyperthermal event. [1] Jolley, D. W. et al. (2010) Geology 38, 835-838.

  10. The influence of oxygen and nitrogen doping on GeSbTe phase-change optical recording media properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, D.; Shieh, H.-P.D

    2004-03-15

    Nitrogen and oxygen doped and co-doped GeSbTe (GST) films for phase-change optical recording are investigated. It is found that the crystallization temperature increased as well as the crystalline microstructure refined by doping. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and erasability of phase-change optical disks are improved being up to 52 and 35 dB, respectively, by using an appropriate nitrogen doping or co-doping concentration in the recording layer. Optical disks with co-doped recording layer are found to be superior in the recording characteristics then the single doped recording layer disks.

  11. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1 followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats of taeniids in this area.

  12. Connecting the records: exploiting tephra deposits to help understand abrupt climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S. M.; Abbott, P. M.; Bourne, A. J.; Chapman, M.; Pearce, N. J. G.; Griggs, A. J.; Cook, E.

    2016-12-01

    The causal mechanism of abrupt climate change during the last glacial period remains a key challenge. Although these events are well-documented in a wide range of proxy records, the triggers and drivers remain poorly understood, largely due to the dating uncertainties that prevent the integration of different archives. Unravelling the lead/lag responses (hence cause and effect) between the Earth's climate components is limited by the challenges of synchronising palaeoclimate records on a common timescale. Here we present the potential and the challenges of optimising the use of cryptotephra deposits to precisely correlate the Greenland ice-cores with North Atlantic marine records. A series of new cryptotephra deposits have been identified in Greenland, increasing the scope of identifying coeval isochrons in the marine environment. This new framework, however, brings new challenges in the search for unique and robust geochemical fingerprints for unequivocal tephra correlations. As such, some tephra deposits are proposed to be more valuable than others and underpin key snapshots in time during the last glacial period. The North Atlantic Ash Zone II, for instance, represents the most widespread isochron and constrains the cooling of GI-15. Some tephra deposits in the ice-core record originate from ultra-distal sources beyond the North Atlantic region and we also explore the potential for establishing North Pacific linkages.

  13. 20 years of speleothem paleoluminescence records of environmental changes: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shopov Yavor Y.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses advance of the research on Speleothem paleoluminescence Records of Environmental Changes after it have been first introduced by the author 20 years ago.It is demonstrated that most of the progress in this field was made in result of the operation of the International Program “Luminescence of Cave Minerals” of the commission on Physical Chemistry and Hydrogeology of Karst of UIS of UNESCO.Potential, resolution and limitations of high resolution luminescence speleothem proxy records of Paleotemperature, Solar Insolation, Solar Luminosity, Glaciations, Sea Level advances, Past Precipitation, Plants Populations, Paleosoils, Past Karst Denudation, Chemical Pollution, Geomagnetic field and Cosmic Rays Flux variations, Cosmogenic Isotopes production and Supernova Eruptions in the Past, Advances of Hydrothermal Waters, and Tectonic Uplift are discussed.It is demonstrated that speleothems allow extremely high resolution (higher than in any other paleoclimatic terrestrial archives and long duration of records. Some speleothems can be used as natural climatic stations for obtaining of quantitative proxy records of Quaternary climates with annual resolution.

  14. Climatic changes and anthropogenic pollution as evidenced by two Alpine lacustrine records, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Poté, John; Guédron, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Chiaradia, Massimo; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Spangenberg, Jorge; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to provide high-resolution records of climatic changes and human impacts on two different Alpine environments: Lake Lucerne is a large (114 km2) lake located at 434 m asl in Central Switzerland, whereas Meidsee is a small (industrial history and the last millennia were sampled with a resolution of 1 cm, and investigated for organic (13δC, 15δN, C/N) and/or inorganic (δ13C, δ18O) matter contents, and elemental composition (REE compositions, trace elements, and heavy metals). Both sites exhibit 1) rapid hydrological changes related to variations in winter precipitations, and 2) increases in atmospheric pollution due to human activities. Lead enrichment factors combined to changes in lead isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb ratio) are used to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources. The greatest mercury and lead atmospheric emissions occurred during the twentieth century, resulting from the extensive combustion of fossil coal and petroleum in Europe. Although the highest heavy metals fluxes are synchronous with major anthropogenic changes (e.g. Roman mining, industrial revolution), proxies show that in absence of such events, the heavy metals deposition in the sedimentary records is primarily influenced by sedimentological processes linked to climate variations (i.e. runoff and erosion processes).

  15. Records of millennial-scale climate change from the Great Basin of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Larry

    High-resolution (decadal) records of climate change from the Owens, Mono, and Pyramid Lake basins of California and Nevada indicate that millennialscale oscillations in climate of the Great Basin occurred between 52.6 and 9.2 14C ka. Climate records from the Owens and Pyramid Lake basins indicate that most, but not all, glacier advances (stades) between 52.6 and ˜15.0 14C ka occurred during relatively dry times. During the last alpine glacial period (˜60.0 to ˜14.0 14C ka), stadial/interstadial oscillations were recorded in Owens and Pyramid Lake sediments by the negative response of phytoplankton productivity to the influx of glacially derived silicates. During glacier advances, rock flour diluted the TOC fraction of lake sediments and introduction of glacially derived suspended sediment also increased the turbidity of lake water, decreasing light penetration and photosynthetic production of organic carbon. It is not possible to correlate objectively peaks in the Owens and Pyramid Lake TOC records (interstades) with Dansgaard-Oeschger interstades in the GISP2 ice-core δ18O record given uncertainties in age control and difference in the shapes of the OL90, PLC92 and GISP2 records. In the North Atlantic region, some climate records have clearly defined variability/cyclicity with periodicities of 102 to 103 yr; these records are correlatable over several thousand km. In the Great Basin, climate proxies also have clearly defined variability with similar time constants, but the distance over which this variability can be correlated remains unknown. Globally, there may be minimal spatial scales (domains) within which climate varies coherently on centennial and millennial scales, but it is likely that the sizes of these domains vary with geographic setting and time. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of climate forcing and the physical linkages between climate forcing and system response is needed in order to predict the spatial scale(s) over which

  16. Object permanence in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, Sylvain; Plourde, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that phylogenetic constraints exerted on dogs by the process of domestication have altered the ability of dogs to represent the physical world and the displacement of objects. In this study, invisible (Experiment 1) and visible (Experiment 2) displacement problems were administered to determine whether domestic dogs' and gray wolves' cognitive capacities to infer the position of a hidden object differ. The results revealed that adult dogs and wolves performed similarly in searching for disappearing objects: Both species succeeded the visible displacement tasks but failed the invisible displacement problems. We conclude that physical cognition for finding hidden objects in domestic dogs and gray wolves is alike and unrelated to the process of domestication.

  17. A serosurvey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Michelle; Giudice, John H.; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Dubey, J. P.; Erb, John; Stark, Dan; Hart, John; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David; Windels, Steve K.; Edwards, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum. Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults). Exposure rates were lower for canine distemper (19% adults, 5% pups) and heartworm (7% adults, 3% pups). Significant spatial trends were observed in wolves exposed to canine parvovirus and Lyme disease. Serologic data do not confirm clinical disease, but better understanding of disease ecology of wolves can provide valuable insight into wildlife population dynamics and improve management of these species.

  18. The ESA climate change initiative: Satellite data records for essential climate variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, R.; Merchant, C.J.; Saunders, R.

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) to provide satellite-based climate data records (CDRs) that meet the challenging requirements of the climate community. The aim is to realize the full potential of the long-term Earth observation (EO) archives...... that both ESA and third parties have established. This includes aspects of producing a CDR, which involve data acquisition, calibration, algorithm development, validation, maintenance, and provision of the data to the climate research community. The CCI is consistent with several international efforts...... targeting the generation of satellite derived climate data records. One focus of the CCI is to provide products for climate modelers who increasingly use satellite data to initialize, constrain, and validate models on a wide range of space and time scales....

  19. Indirect effects and traditional trophic cascades: a test involving wolves, coyotes, and pronghorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kim Murray; Gese, Eric M; Berger, Joel

    2008-03-01

    The traditional trophic cascades model is based on consumer resource interactions at each link in a food chain. However, trophic-level interactions, such as mesocarnivore release resulting from intraguild predation, may also be important mediators of cascades. From September 2001 to August 2004, we used spatial and seasonal heterogeneity in wolf distribution and abundance in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem to evaluate whether mesopredator release of coyotes (Canis latrans), resulting from the extirpation of wolves (Canis lupus), accounts for high rates of coyote predation on pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) fawns observed in some areas. Results of this ecological perturbation in wolf densities, coyote densities, and pronghorn neonatal survival at wolf-free and wolf-abundant sites support the existence of a species-level trophic cascade. That wolves precipitated a trophic cascade was evidenced by fawn survival rates that were four-fold higher at sites used by wolves. A negative correlation between coyote and wolf densities supports the hypothesis that interspecific interactions between the two species facilitated the difference in fawn survival. Whereas densities of resident coyotes were similar between wolf-free and wolf-abundant sites, the abundance of transient coyotes was significantly lower in areas used by wolves. Thus, differential effects of wolves on solitary coyotes may be an important mechanism by which wolves limit coyote densities. Our results support the hypothesis that mesopredator release of coyotes contributes to high rates of coyote predation on pronghorn fawns, and demonstrate the importance of alternative food web pathways in structuring the dynamics of terrestrial systems.

  20. The Effect of Domestication on Inhibitory Control: Wolves and Dogs Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory control i.e. blocking an impulsive or prepotent response in favour of a more appropriate alternative, has been suggested to play an important role in cooperative behaviour. Interestingly, while dogs and wolves show a similar social organization, they differ in their intraspecific cooperation tendencies in that wolves rely more heavily on group coordination in regard to hunting and pup-rearing compared to dogs. Hence, based on the ‘canine cooperation’ hypothesis wolves should show better inhibitory control than dogs. On the other hand, through the domestication process, dogs may have been selected for cooperative tendencies towards humans and/or a less reactive temperament, which may in turn have affected their inhibitory control abilities. Hence, based on the latter hypothesis, we would expect dogs to show a higher performance in tasks requiring inhibitory control. To test the predictive value of these alternative hypotheses, in the current study two tasks; the ‘cylinder task’ and the ‘detour task’, which are designed to assess inhibitory control, were used to evaluate the performance of identically raised pack dogs and wolves. Results from the cylinder task showed a significantly poorer performance in wolves than identically-raised pack dogs (and showed that pack-dogs performed similarly to pet dogs with different training experiences), however contrary results emerged in the detour task, with wolves showing a shorter latency to success and less perseverative behaviour at the fence. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies using these paradigms and in terms of the validity of these two methods in assessing inhibitory control. PMID:25714840

  1. Implementing change in primary care practices using electronic medical records: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Lynne S; Feifer, Chris; Stuart, Gail W; Ornstein, Steven M

    2008-01-16

    Implementing change in primary care is difficult, and little practical guidance is available to assist small primary care practices. Methods to structure care and develop new roles are often needed to implement an evidence-based practice that improves care. This study explored the process of change used to implement clinical guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary care practices that used a common electronic medical record (EMR). Multiple conceptual frameworks informed the design of this study designed to explain the complex phenomena of implementing change in primary care practice. Qualitative methods were used to examine the processes of change that practice members used to implement the guidelines. Purposive sampling in eight primary care practices within the Practice Partner Research Network-Translating Researching into Practice (PPRNet-TRIP II) clinical trial yielded 28 staff members and clinicians who were interviewed regarding how change in practice occurred while implementing clinical guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and strokes. A conceptual framework for implementing clinical guidelines into primary care practice was developed through this research. Seven concepts and their relationships were modelled within this framework: leaders setting a vision with clear goals for staff to embrace; involving the team to enable the goals and vision for the practice to be achieved; enhancing communication systems to reinforce goals for patient care; developing the team to enable the staff to contribute toward practice improvement; taking small steps, encouraging practices' tests of small changes in practice; assimilating the electronic medical record to maximize clinical effectiveness, enhancing practices' use of the electronic tool they have invested in for patient care improvement; and providing feedback within a culture of improvement, leading to an iterative cycle of goal setting

  2. Changes to the Fossil Record of Insects through Fifteen Years of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, David B.; Mayhew, Peter J.; Ross, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The first and last occurrences of hexapod families in the fossil record are compiled from publications up to end-2009. The major features of these data are compared with those of previous datasets (1993 and 1994). About a third of families (>400) are new to the fossil record since 1994, over half of the earlier, existing families have experienced changes in their known stratigraphic range and only about ten percent have unchanged ranges. Despite these significant additions to knowledge, the broad pattern of described richness through time remains similar, with described richness increasing steadily through geological history and a shift in dominant taxa, from Palaeoptera and Polyneoptera to Paraneoptera and Holometabola, after the Palaeozoic. However, after detrending, described richness is not well correlated with the earlier datasets, indicating significant changes in shorter-term patterns. There is reduced Palaeozoic richness, peaking at a different time, and a less pronounced Permian decline. A pronounced Triassic peak and decline is shown, and the plateau from the mid Early Cretaceous to the end of the period remains, albeit at substantially higher richness compared to earlier datasets. Origination and extinction rates are broadly similar to before, with a broad decline in both through time but episodic peaks, including end-Permian turnover. Origination more consistently exceeds extinction compared to previous datasets and exceptions are mainly in the Palaeozoic. These changes suggest that some inferences about causal mechanisms in insect macroevolution are likely to differ as well. PMID:26176667

  3. Changes to the Fossil Record of Insects through Fifteen Years of Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Nicholson

    Full Text Available The first and last occurrences of hexapod families in the fossil record are compiled from publications up to end-2009. The major features of these data are compared with those of previous datasets (1993 and 1994. About a third of families (>400 are new to the fossil record since 1994, over half of the earlier, existing families have experienced changes in their known stratigraphic range and only about ten percent have unchanged ranges. Despite these significant additions to knowledge, the broad pattern of described richness through time remains similar, with described richness increasing steadily through geological history and a shift in dominant taxa, from Palaeoptera and Polyneoptera to Paraneoptera and Holometabola, after the Palaeozoic. However, after detrending, described richness is not well correlated with the earlier datasets, indicating significant changes in shorter-term patterns. There is reduced Palaeozoic richness, peaking at a different time, and a less pronounced Permian decline. A pronounced Triassic peak and decline is shown, and the plateau from the mid Early Cretaceous to the end of the period remains, albeit at substantially higher richness compared to earlier datasets. Origination and extinction rates are broadly similar to before, with a broad decline in both through time but episodic peaks, including end-Permian turnover. Origination more consistently exceeds extinction compared to previous datasets and exceptions are mainly in the Palaeozoic. These changes suggest that some inferences about causal mechanisms in insect macroevolution are likely to differ as well.

  4. Statistical methods for change-point detection in surface temperature records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, A. L.; Possolo, A.; Zhang, N. F.

    2013-09-01

    We describe several statistical methods to detect possible change-points in a time series of values of surface temperature measured at a meteorological station, and to assess the statistical significance of such changes, taking into account the natural variability of the measured values, and the autocorrelations between them. These methods serve to determine whether the record may suffer from biases unrelated to the climate signal, hence whether there may be a need for adjustments as considered by M. J. Menne and C. N. Williams (2009) "Homogenization of Temperature Series via Pairwise Comparisons", Journal of Climate 22 (7), 1700-1717. We also review methods to characterize patterns of seasonality (seasonal decomposition using monthly medians or robust local regression), and explain the role they play in the imputation of missing values, and in enabling robust decompositions of the measured values into a seasonal component, a possible climate signal, and a station-specific remainder. The methods for change-point detection that we describe include statistical process control, wavelet multi-resolution analysis, adaptive weights smoothing, and a Bayesian procedure, all of which are applicable to single station records.

  5. A 25-year Record of Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevation and Mass Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Muir, A. S.; Sundal, A.; McMillan, M.; Briggs, K.; Hogg, A.; Engdahl, M.; Gilbert, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1992, the European Remote-Sensing (ERS-1 and ERS-2), ENVISAT, and CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimeters have measured the Antarctic ice sheet surface elevation, repeatedly, at approximately monthly intervals. These data constitute the longest continuous record of ice sheet wide change. In this paper, we use these observations to determine changes in the elevation, volume and mass of the East Antarctic and West Antarctic ice sheets, and of parts of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet, over a 25-year period. The root mean square difference between elevation rates computed from our survey and 257,296 estimates determined from airborne laser measurements is 54 cm/yr. The longevity of the satellite altimeter data record allows to identify and chart the evolution of changes associated with meteorology and ice flow, and we estimate that 3.6 % of the continental ice sheet, and 21.7 % of West Antarctica, is in a state of dynamical imbalance. Based on this partitioning, we estimate the mass balance of the East and West Antarctic ice sheet drainage basins and the root mean square difference between these and independent estimates derived from satellite gravimetry is less than 5 Gt yr-1.

  6. Savage Nature and Noble Spirit in Han Sorya's Wolves: A North Korean Morality Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzo David-West

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer reviewed article. This paper is a narratological study of Han Sorya's Wolves, a canonical novelette in the tradition of North Korean socialist realism that has been adjudicated outside North Korea as anti-American, anti-Christian, and extremely racist. The novelette, however, is a more metaphorical, hybrid, and complicated piece of writing than has previously been assumed. Descriptive and interpretative narratological analysis reveals that Wolves is a patriotic-proletarian morality tale against colonialism, imperialism, racism, and war. The story also reveals grand metaphysical and normative Neo-Confucian imperatives, which operate as moral shaping principles that are interwoven into character, plot, and theme.

  7. Buffer zones of territories of gray wolves as regions of intraspecific strife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    The locations of 22 territorial gray wolves (Canis lupus) killed by conspecifics in northeastern Minnesota were analyzed in a study involving radio-telemetry from 1968 through 1992. Twenty-three percent of the wolves were killed precisely on the borders of their estimated territories; 41%, within 1.0 km (16% of the radius of their mean-estimated territory) inside or outside the estimated edge; 91%, within 3.2 km inside or outside (50% of the radius of their mean-estimated territory) of the estimated edge. This appears to be the first report of intraspecific mortality of mammals along territorial boundaries.

  8. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zawadzki, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    , the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed...... to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter...

  9. Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Henson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on its global distribution comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of satellite-derived chlorophyll and productivity data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute climate change-driven trends in productivity? Here we compare recent trends in satellite ocean colour data to longer-term time series from three biogeochemical models (GFDL, IPSL and NCAR. We find that detection of climate change-driven trends in the satellite data is confounded by the relatively short time series and large interannual and decadal variability in productivity. Thus, recent observed changes in chlorophyll, primary production and the size of the oligotrophic gyres cannot be unequivocally attributed to the impact of global climate change. Instead, our analyses suggest that a time series of ~40 years length is needed to distinguish a global warming trend from natural variability. In some regions, notably equatorial regions, detection times are predicted to be shorter (~20–30 years. Analysis of modelled chlorophyll and primary production from 2001–2100 suggests that, on average, the climate change-driven trend will not be unambiguously separable from decadal variability until ~2055. Because the magnitude of natural variability in chlorophyll and primary production is larger than, or similar to, the global warming trend, a consistent, decades-long data record must be established if the impact of climate change on ocean productivity is to be definitively detected.

  10. Synchrotron X-ray microscopy of marine calcifiers: how plankton record past climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, S A T; Branson, O; Read, E

    2017-01-01

    We have used STXM and PEEM to reveal the underpinning chemistry and nanoscale structure behind palaeo-climate geochemical signatures, such as trace Mg in shells- proposed proxies for palaeo-ocean temperature. This has allowed us to test the chemical assumptions and mechanisms underpinning the use of such empirical proxies. We have determined the control on driving chemical variations in biogenic carbonates using STXM at the absorption edge of Mg, B, and Na in the shells of modern plankton. The power of these observations lies in their ability to link changes in chemistry, microstructure, and growth process in biogenic carbonate to environmental influences. We have seen that such changes occur at length scales of tens of nanometres and demonstrated that STXM provides an invaluable route to understanding chemical environment and key heterogeneity at the appropriate length scale. This new understanding provides new routes for future measurements of past climate variation in the sea floor fossil record. (paper)

  11. Changes to Workflow and Process Measures in the PICU During Transition From Semi to Full Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Mina; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Dasgupta, Mahua; Zimmerman, Haydee; Hanson, Sheila

    2015-10-01

    Studies showing the changes in workflow during transition from semi to full electronic medical records are lacking. This objective study is to identify the changes in workflow in the PICU during transition from semi to full electronic health record. Prospective observational study. Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Institutional Review Board waived the need for approval so this study was institutional review board exempt. This study measured clinical workflow variables at a 72-bed PICU during different phases of transition to a full electronic health record, which occurred on November 4, 2012. Phases of electronic health record transition were defined as follows: pre-electronic health record (baseline data prior to transition to full electronic health record), transition phase (3 wk after electronic health record), and stabilization (6 mo after electronic health record). Data were analyzed for the three phases using Mann-Whitney U test with a two-sided p value of less than 0.05 considered significant. Seventy-two bed PICU. All patients in the PICU were included during the study periods. Five hundred and sixty-four patients with 2,355 patient days were evaluated in the three phases. Duration of rounds decreased from a median of 9 minutes per patient pre--electronic health record to 7 minutes per patient post electronic health record. Time to final note decreased from 2.06 days pre--electronic health record to 0.5 days post electronic health record. Time to first medication administration after admission also decreased from 33 minutes pre--electronic health record and 7 minutes post electronic health record. Time to Time to medication reconciliation was significantly higher pre-electronic health record than post electronic health record and percent of medication reconciliation completion was significantly lower pre--electronic health record than post electronic health record and percent of medication reconciliation completion was significantly higher pre

  12. Automatic Threshold Determination for a Local Approach of Change Detection in Long-Term Signal Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hewson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CUSUM (cumulative sum is a well-known method that can be used to detect changes in a signal when the parameters of this signal are known. This paper presents an adaptation of the CUSUM-based change detection algorithms to long-term signal recordings where the various hypotheses contained in the signal are unknown. The starting point of the work was the dynamic cumulative sum (DCS algorithm, previously developed for application to long-term electromyography (EMG recordings. DCS has been improved in two ways. The first was a new procedure to estimate the distribution parameters to ensure the respect of the detectability property. The second was the definition of two separate, automatically determined thresholds. One of them (lower threshold acted to stop the estimation process, the other one (upper threshold was applied to the detection function. The automatic determination of the thresholds was based on the Kullback-Leibler distance which gives information about the distance between the detected segments (events. Tests on simulated data demonstrated the efficiency of these improvements of the DCS algorithm.

  13. Comparison Between Paeoenvironmental and Land Use Changes Records in Brazilian Amazon Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B. J.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Sifeddine, A.; Seoane, J. S.; Simões Filho, F. L.; Conceicao, M. G.

    2008-12-01

    Interpretations of biomass burn records in lacustrine sediments need a comparison among the charcoal particle fluxes influenced by different plant communities. The charcoal fluxes, which are related with paleofires, represent an important disturbance to the atmospheric system. These charcoal particles emitted to the atmosphere can promote a decrease in the sunlight penetration and greenhouse gas enhancement.Thus, the evaluation of charcoal deposition, as a consequence of regional burns, will have great importance to determine the impact of climatic change in different tropical ecosystems. This subject will be an important contribution for understanding the dynamics among vegetation, climate and carbon cycle along the present interglacial. In this study, paleofires records were obtained through the charcoal particle fluxes analysis in sediments of lakes surrounded by different vegetation, which represents the most spread ecosystems in Brazil. The main goals were to identify major events of vegetation burn during the Holocene and evaluate the influence of biomass availability to charcoal fluxes. Fires records were obtained through the charcoal particles flux analyses in lacustrine sediments cores at the following locations Brazilian Amazon: Lagoa da Pata (AM); Humaitá (AM), Lago do Saci (PA), Carajás N4, (PA); and Caracarana (RO) and reservoirs sediments in an intense land use change region (Alta Floresta, MT). The charcoal analyses could have also a great importance in evaluating the impact of dry climates in different ecosystems. Determination of fire frequencies and dimensions in key areas of South America, during the Holocene, is a first step to understand the global carbon transference between terrestrial and atmospheric systems. The synchronism among the fires occurrences show a good relation with the middle Holocene dry climate phase in Brazil. Discrepancy in the flux values could be attributed to differences in biomass availability provided by these

  14. Southwest Greenland's Alpine Glacier History: Recent Glacier Change in the Context of the Holocene Geologic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, L. J.; Axford, Y.; Lasher, G. E.; Lee, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Due to anthropogenic climate change, the Arctic region is currently undergoing major transformation, and is expected to continue warming much faster than the global average. To put recent and future changes into context, a longer-term understanding of this region's past response to natural climate variability is needed. Given their sensitivity to modest climate change, small alpine glaciers and ice caps on Greenland's coastal margin (beyond the Greenland Ice Sheet) represent ideal features to record climate variability through the Holocene. Here we investigate the Holocene history of a small ( 160 square km) ice cap and adjacent alpine glaciers, located in southwest Greenland approximately 50 km south of Nuuk. We employ measurements on sediment cores from a glacier-fed lake in combination with geospatial analysis of satellite images spanning the past several decades. Sedimentary indicators of sediment source and thus glacial activity, including organic matter abundance, inferred chlorophyll-a content, sediment major element abundances, grain size, and magnetic susceptibility are presented from cores collected from a distal glacier-fed lake (informally referred to here as Per's Lake) in the summer of 2015. These parameters reflect changes in the amount and character of inorganic detrital input into the lake, which may be linked to the size of the upstream glaciers and ice cap and allow us to reconstruct their status through the Holocene. Additionally, we present a complementary record of recent changes in Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) for the upstream alpine glaciers. Modern ELAs are inferred using the accumulation area ratio (AAR) method in ArcGIS via Landsat and Worldview-2 satellite imagery, along with elevation data obtained from digital elevation models (DEMs). Paleo-ELAs are inferred from the positions of moraines and trim lines marking the glaciers' most recent expanded state, which we attribute to the Little Ice Age (LIA). This approach will allow us to

  15. Natural re-colonization and admixture of wolves (Canis lupus) in the US Pacific Northwest: challenges for the protection and management of rare and endangered taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sarah A; Schweizer, Rena M; Harrigan, Ryan J; Pollinger, John P; Paquet, Paul C; Darimont, Chris T; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Wayne, Robert K

    2018-06-07

    Admixture resulting from natural dispersal processes can potentially generate novel phenotypic variation that may facilitate persistence in changing environments or result in the loss of population-specific adaptations. Yet, under the US Endangered Species Act, policy is limited for management of individuals whose ancestry includes a protected taxon; therefore, they are generally not protected under the Act. This issue is exemplified by the recently re-established grey wolves of the Pacific Northwest states of Washington and Oregon, USA. This population was likely founded by two phenotypically and genetically distinct wolf ecotypes: Northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) forest and coastal rainforest. The latter is considered potentially threatened in southeast Alaska and thus the source of migrants may affect plans for their protection. To assess the genetic source of the re-established population, we sequenced a ~ 300 bp portion of the mitochondrial control region and ~ 5 Mbp of the nuclear genome. Genetic analysis revealed that the Washington wolves share ancestry with both wolf ecotypes, whereas the Oregon population shares ancestry with NRM forest wolves only. Using ecological niche modelling, we found that the Pacific Northwest states contain environments suitable for each ecotype, with wolf packs established in both environmental types. Continued migration from coastal rainforest and NRM forest source populations may increase the genetic diversity of the Pacific Northwest population. However, this admixed population challenges traditional management regimes given that admixture occurs between an adaptively distinct ecotype and a more abundant reintroduced interior form. Our results emphasize the need for a more precise US policy to address the general problem of admixture in the management of endangered species, subspecies, and distinct population segments.

  16. Holocene environmental changes recorded in Dicksonfjorden and Woodfjorden, Svalbard: impacts of global climate changes in a glacial-marine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Y. J.; Nam, S. I.; Son, Y. J.; Forwick, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fjords in the Svalbard archipelago are characterized by an extreme environmental gradient between 1) the glacial system affected by tidewater glaciers and seasonal sea ice inside the fjords and 2) the warm Atlantic Water intrusion by the West Spitsbergen Current from open ocean. As sediment is largely supplied from the terrestrial source area exposed along the steep slopes of the fjords, the changes in the surface processes affected by glaciers are likely preserved in the sediments in the inner fjords. On the other hand, variations in the influence of the warm Atlantic Water in the marine realm (e.g. marine productivity) can be archived in the sediment deposited in the vicinity of the entrance to the fjords. Since the last deglaciation of the Svalbard-Barents ice sheet ( 13000 yrs BP), the Svalbard fjords have faced dramatic climate changes including the early Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) and subsequent cooling that eventually led to the current cold and dry climate. We investigate the Holocene environmental changes in both terrestrial and marine realms based on stable isotopic and inorganic geochemical analyses of sediments deposited in Dicksonfjorden and Woodfjorden in the western and northern Spitsbergen, respectively. The two fjords are expected to provide intriguing information regarding how terrestrial and marine realms of the Arctic fjords system responded to regional and global climate changes. Being a branch of the larger Isfjorden, Dicksonfjorden penetrates deeply to the land, whereas Woodfjorden is rather directly connected to the open ocean. Accordingly, the results suggest that the Dicksonfjorden sediment records mainly terrestrial signals with marked fluctuations in sediment composition that coincide with major climate changes (e.g. HCO). On the contrary, the two Woodfjorden cores collected from different parts of the fjord exhibit contrasting results, likely illustrating differing response of terrestrial and marine realms to the climate changes in

  17. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves: insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13 000 and 17 000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man,

  18. Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; Vucetich, John A.; Packer, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Despite the popular view that social predators live in groups because group hunting facilitates prey capture, the apparent tendency for hunting success to peak at small group sizes suggests that the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture. Few empirical studies, however, have tested for nonlinear relationships between hunting success and group size, and none have demonstrated why success trails off after peaking. Here, we use a unique dataset of observations of individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to show that the relationship between success and group size is indeed nonlinear and that individuals withholding effort (free riding) is why success does not increase across large group sizes. Beyond 4 wolves, hunting success leveled off, and individual performance (a measure of effort) decreased for reasons unrelated to interference from inept hunters, individual age, or size. But performance did drop faster among wolves with an incentive to hold back, i.e., nonbreeders with no dependent offspring, those performing dangerous predatory tasks, i.e., grabbing and restraining prey, and those in groups of proficient hunters. These results suggest that decreasing performance was free riding and that was why success leveled off in groups with >4 wolves that had superficially appeared to be cooperating. This is the first direct evidence that nonlinear trends in group hunting success reflect a switch from cooperation to free riding. It also highlights how hunting success per se is unlikely to promote formation and maintenance of large groups.

  19. Subsidized Fencing of Livestock as a Means of Increasing Tolerance for Wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Karlsson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of how proactive measures to reduce livestock depredation by carnivores affect human tolerance toward carnivores are extremely rare. Nevertheless, substantial amounts of money are spent each year on proactive measures to facilitate large carnivore conservation. The objective of this study was to assess how subsidies for proactive measures to reduce sheep losses to wolves are associated with public attitudes toward wolves. The respondents were 445 people living inside wolf territories in Sweden. Our data set is unique because we combine wolf territory level information regarding proactive subsidies and wolf attacks on dogs and sheep with geographical information of the respondents. Consequently, the respondents can be assigned to a specific wolf territory. The number of wolf attacks on sheep and dogs in the respective territories as well as the number of years that the wolf territory had existed did not affect human attitudes toward wolves. Subsidies for proactive measures to reduce wolf predation on sheep significantly increased positive attitudes toward wolf presence on the local scale. The magnitude of the effect of subsidies for proactive measures was comparable to the effect of other variables well known to affect human attitudes toward wolves such as age or education. Our data show that subsidies not only made the already positive more positive, but also made people with negative attitudes to wolf presence locally, less negative. Our conclusion is, therefore, that subsidies for proactive measures are an effective tool when working with "the human dimension" of conservation biology.

  20. Weekly summer diet of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Thomas D.; Windels, Steve K.; Bruggink, John G.; Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) are opportunistic predators and will capitalize on available abundant food sources. However, wolf diet has primarily been examined at monthly, seasonal, or annual scales, which can obscure short-term responses to available food. We examined weekly wolf diet from late June to early October by collecting scats from a single wolf pack in northeastern Minnesota. During our 15 week study, nonungulate food types constituted 58% of diet biomass. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns were a major food item until mid-July after which berries (primarily Vaccinium and Rubus spp.) composed 56–83% of weekly diet biomass until mid-August. After mid-August, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and adult deer were the primary prey. Weekly diet diversity approximately doubled from June to October as wolves began using several food types in similar proportions as the summer transitioned into fall. Recreational hunting of black bears (Ursus americanus) contributed to weekly wolf diet in the fall as wolves consumed foods from bear bait piles and from gut piles/carcasses of successfully harvested or fatally wounded bears. To our knowledge, we are the first to examine wolf diet via scat analysis at weekly intervals, which enabled us to provide a detailed description of diet plasticity of this wolf pack, as well as the rapidity with which wolves can respond to new available food sources.

  1. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  2. Comment on "Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, S; Passalacqua, C; Valsecchi, P; Prato-Previde, E

    2010-07-09

    Topál et al. (Reports, 4 September 2009, p. 1269) showed that dogs, like infants but unlike wolves, make perseverative search errors that can be explained by the use of ostensive cues from the experimenter. We suggest that a simpler learning process, local enhancement, can account for errors made by dogs.

  3. Sociability and gazing toward humans in dogs and wolves: Simple behaviors with broad implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentosela, Mariana; Wynne, C D L; D'Orazio, M; Elgier, A; Udell, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Sociability, defined as the tendency to approach and interact with unfamiliar people, has been found to modulate some communicative responses in domestic dogs, including gaze behavior toward the human face. The objective of this study was to compare sociability and gaze behavior in pet domestic dogs and in human-socialized captive wolves in order to identify the relative influence of domestication and learning in the development of the dog-human bond. In Experiment 1, we assessed the approach behavior and social tendencies of dogs and wolves to a familiar and an unfamiliar person. In Experiment 2, we compared the animal's duration of gaze toward a person's face in the presence of food, which the animals could see but not access. Dogs showed higher levels of interspecific sociability than wolves in all conditions, including those where attention was unavailable. In addition, dogs gazed longer at the person's face than wolves in the presence of out-of-reach food. The potential contributions of domestication, associative learning, and experiences during ontogeny to prosocial behavior toward humans are discussed. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Near-Field Phase-Change Optical Recording of 1.36 Numerical Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Isao; Kishima, Koichiro; Osato, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kuroda, Yuji; Saito, Kimihiro

    2000-02-01

    A bit density of 125 nm was demonstrated through near-field phase-change (PC) optical recording at the wavelength of 657 nm by using a supersphere solid immersion lens (SIL). The lens unit consists of a standard objective and a φ2.5 mm SIL@. Since this lens size still prevents the unit from being mounted on an air-bearing slider, we developed a one-axis positioning actuator and an active capacitance servo for precise gap control to thoroughly investigate near-field recording. An electrode was fabricated on the bottom of the SIL, and a capacitor was formed facing a disk material. This setup realized a stable air gap below 50 nm, and a new method of simulating modulation transfer function (MTF) optimized the PC disk structure at this gap height. Obtained jitter of 8.8% and a clear eye-pattern prove that our system successfully attained the designed numerical-aperture (\\mathit{NA}) of 1.36.

  5. Changing atmospheric fallout of magnetic particles recorded in recent ombrotrophic peat sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, F; Thompson, R; Barber, K E

    1978-02-10

    Magnetic measurements of ombrotrophic peat allow a reconstruction of changes in the past fallout of magnetic particles through the atmosphere. In recent peat profiles from three sites in Britain and Northern Ireland, a marked increase in saturated isothermal remanent magnetization of the peat is recorded in levels which can be shown to postdate the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Furthermore the spatial variation in contemporary isothermal remanent magnetization values is consistent with a recent industrial and urban origin for the bulk of the magnetic minerals present. Pre-Industrial Revolution values are between two and three orders of magnitude lower, suggesting that the natural cosmic and terrestrial sources previously cited for such material have been dominated in recent times by the products of human activity. Magnetic measurements provide a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method of monitoring and differentiating various types of particulate atmospheric fallout for both recent and preindustrial times.

  6. Numerical Modeling of Climatic Change from the Terminus Record of Lewis Glacier, Mount Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruss, Phillip Donald

    Over the last 100 years, the glaciers and lakes of East Africa have undergone dramatic change in response to climatic forcing. However, the available conventional meterological series have not proven sufficient to explain these environmental events. The secular climatic change at Lewis Glacier, Mount Kenya (0(DEGREES)9'S, 37(DEGREES)19'E), is reconstructed from its terminus record documented since 1893. The short-time-step numerical model developed for this study consists of climate and ice dynamics segments. The climate segment directly computes the effect on the net balance of change in the four forcings: precipitation, albedo, cloudiness, and temperature. The flow segment calculates the dynamic glacier response to net balance variation. Climatic change occurs over a wide range of time scales. Each glacier responds in a unique fashion to this spectrum of climatic forcings. The response of the Lewis terminus extent to repeated sinusoidal fluctuation in the net balance is calculated. The net balance versus elevation profile is separately translated along the orthogonal balance and elevation axes. Net balance amplitudes of 0.1 to 0.5 m a('-1) of ice and 10 to 50 m elevation, respectively, and periods ranging from 20 to 1000 years are covered. Consideration of the Lewis response is perspective with similar results for Hintereisferner, Storglaciaren, and Berendon and South Cascade Glaciers identifies general characteristics of the time lag and amplitude of the terminus response. The magnitude and timing of the change in only one of the climatic forcings precipitation, albedo, cloudiness, or temperature necessary to produce the retreat of the Lewis terminus from its late 19th century maximum are computed. Equivalent changes for two scenarios of simultaneous variation, namely precipitation/albedo/cloudiness and temperature/albedo, are also estimated. These numerical results are interpreted in the light of long-term lake level, river flow, and instrumental information. A

  7. Natural Selection and Origin of a Melanistic Allele in North American Gray Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Rena M; Durvasula, Arun; Smith, Joel; Vohr, Samuel H; Stahler, Daniel R; Galaverni, Marco; Thalmann, Olaf; Smith, Douglas W; Randi, Ettore; Ostrander, Elaine A; Green, Richard E; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2018-05-01

    Pigmentation is often used to understand how natural selection affects genetic variation in wild populations since it can have a simple genetic basis, and can affect a variety of fitness-related traits (e.g., camouflage, thermoregulation, and sexual display). In gray wolves, the K locus, a β-defensin gene, causes black coat color via a dominantly inherited KB allele. The allele is derived from dog-wolf hybridization and is at high frequency in North American wolf populations. We designed a DNA capture array to probe the geographic origin, age, and number of introgression events of the KB allele in a panel of 331 wolves and 20 dogs. We found low diversity in KB, but not ancestral ky, wolf haplotypes consistent with a selective sweep of the black haplotype across North America. Further, North American wolf KB haplotypes are monophyletic, suggesting that a single adaptive introgression from dogs to wolves most likely occurred in the Northwest Territories or Yukon. We use a new analytical approach to date the origin of the KB allele in Yukon wolves to between 1,598 and 7,248 years ago, suggesting that introgression with early Native American dogs was the source. Using population genetic simulations, we show that the K locus is undergoing natural selection in four wolf populations. We find evidence for balancing selection, specifically in Yellowstone wolves, which could be a result of selection for enhanced immunity in response to distemper. With these data, we demonstrate how the spread of an adaptive variant may have occurred across a species' geographic range.

  8. Terrestrial mollusk records from Chinese loess sequences and changes in the East Asian monsoonal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiqin; Li, Fengjiang; Rousseau, Denis-Didier

    2018-04-01

    The terrestrial mollusk fossils found in Chinese loess strata have been studied for over one hundred years. However, the greatest progress in these studies has been made only in the last two decades. In this paper, we review the advancements, advantages and limitations of terrestrial mollusk studies in Chinese loess deposits. Improvements in research methods and approaches have allowed the extraction of more detailed paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information from mollusk assemblages. The broadened research scope and content have yielded many new findings and results. The mollusk record has thus become one of the most important proxies in the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction of loess-paleosol sequences in China. The greatest progress in the studies of terrestrial mollusks in Chinese loess sequences can be summarized as follows: (1) modern mollusk assemblages can be classified into four ecotypes, based on their temperature and humidity requirements, including eurytopic, semi-aridiphilous and sub-humidiphilous, cold-aridiphilous, and thermo-humidiphilous types; (2) Quaternary mollusk assemblages can be modified into the following three ecological types: glacial loess, interglacial paleosol, and interstadial weakly-developed paleosol assemblages; (3) mollusk records successfully reveal long-term climatic and environmental changes reflective of the history of East Asian monsoonal variations since the Late Cenozoic, and the succession of mollusk species also indicate short-term environmental changes such as millennial climate variability during Last Glacial Maximum and unstable climatic fluctuations during glacial and interglacial periods; and (4) more recently, new analytical approaches have offered increased research potential in areas such as paleotemperature reconstruction using the isotopic compositions of modern and fossil mollusk shells, combined with higher accuracy 14C dating of Quaternary loess deposits, which will greatly improve

  9. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  10. Changing Requirements for Archiving Climate Data Records Derived From Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, A. J.; Tilmes, C.

    2007-05-01

    With the arrival of long term sets of measurements of remotely sensed data it becomes important to improve the standard practices associated with archival of information needed to allow creation of climate data records, CDRs, from individual sets of measurements. Several aspects of the production of CDRs suggest that there should be changes in standard best practices for archival. A fundamental requirement for understanding long- term trends in climate data is that changes with time shown by the data reflect changes in actual geophysical parameters rather than changes in the measurement system. Even well developed and validated data sets from remotely sensed measurements contain artifacts. If the nature of the measurement and the algorithm is consistent over time, these artifacts may have little impact on trends derived from the data. However data sets derived with different algorithms created with different assumptions are likely to introduce non-physical changes in trend data. Yet technology for making measurements and analyzing data improves with time and this must be accounted for. To do this for an ongoing long term data set based on multiple instruments it is important to understand exactly how the preceding data was produced. But we are reaching the point where the scientists and engineers that developed the initial measurements and algorithms are no longer available to explain and assist in adapting today's systems for use with future measurement systems. In an era where tens to hundreds of man years are involved in calibrating an instrument and producing and validating a set of geophysical measurements from the calibrated data we have long passed the time when it was reasonable to say "just give me the basic measurement and a bright graduate student and I can produce anything I need in a year." Examples of problems encountered and alternative solutions will be provided based on developing and reprocessing data sets from long term measurements of

  11. Changes in record-breaking temperature events in China and projections for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hanqing; Liu, Chun; Lu, Yanyu; He, Dongyan; Tian, Hong

    2017-06-01

    As global warming intensifies, more record-breaking (RB) temperature events are reported in many places around the world where temperatures are higher than ever before http://cn.bing.com/dict/search?q=.&FORM=BDVSP6&mkt=zh-cn. The RB temperatures have caused severe impacts on ecosystems and human society. Here, we address changes in RB temperature events occurring over China in the past (1961-2014) as well as future projections (2006-2100) using observational data and the newly available simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The number of RB events has a significant multi-decadal variability in China, and the intensity expresses a strong decrease from 1961 to 2014. However, more frequent RB events occurred in mid-eastern and northeastern China over last 30 years (1981-2010). Comparisons with observational data indicate multi-model ensemble (MME) simulations from the CMIP5 model perform well in simulating RB events for the historical run period (1961-2005). CMIP5 MME shows a relatively larger uncertainty for the change in intensity. From 2051 to 2100, fewer RB events are projected to occur in most parts of China according to RCP 2.6 scenarios. Over the longer period from 2006 to 2100, a remarkable increase is expected for the entire country according to RCP 8.5 scenarios and the maximum numbers of RB events increase by approximately 600 per year at end of twenty-first century.

  12. Change or Continuity in US-Latin American Policy: the Obama Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Randall

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the ambitions, challenges, successes and perceived failures and disappointments of the policies pursued by the Democratic administrations of President Barack Obama, with particular focus on Honduras, Mexico and Colombia. The article notes the eloquent and optimistic rhetoric of Obama, in his first presidential campaign and in the early days of his first administration, commitments to significant change in U.S. policy toward Latin America. In contrast the record of the first five years of his administrations have witnessed the continuation of policies which are difficult to distinguish from those of his predecessor. The article also notes the general decline in U.S. influence in the region. There has been insignificant change in Cuban policy, save for a liberalization of family travel to Cuba. His administration implemented the controversial Free Trade Agreement with Colombia which his own party leaders had long opposed. He has maintained the funding levels of the equally controversial Plan Colombia which began under Bill Clinton, and he has continued to adhere to a largely Republican agenda on border security with Mexico.

  13. Electronic Health Record (EHR) Organizational Change: Explaining Resistance Through Profession, Organizational Experience, and EHR Communication Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ashley K

    2018-04-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act passed by the U.S. government in 2009 mandates that all healthcare organizations adopt a certified electronic health record (EHR) system by 2015. Failure to comply will result in Medicare reimbursement penalties, which steadily increase with each year of delinquency. There are several repercussions of this seemingly top-down, rule-bound organizational change-one of which is employee resistance. Given the penalties for violating EHR meaningful use standards are ongoing, resistance to this mandate presents a serious issue for healthcare organizations. This study surveyed 345 employees in one healthcare organization that recently implemented an EHR. Analysis of variance results offer theoretical and pragmatic contributions by demonstrating physicians, nurses, and employees with more experience in their organization are the most resistant to EHR change. The job characteristics model is used to explain these findings. Hierarchical regression analyses also demonstrate the quality of communication surrounding EHR implementation-from both formal and informal sources-is negatively associated with EHR resistance and positively associated with perceived EHR implementation success and EHR's perceived relative advantage.

  14. Reconstructing Historical Changes in Watersheds from Environmental Records: An Information Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.; Ruddell, B.; Penaranda, V.; Murillo, P.

    2015-12-01

    A 20% of the world's population is living in watersheds that suffer from water shortage. This situation has complex causes associated with historical changes in watersheds. However, disentangling the role of key drivers of water availability like climate change or land use practices is challenging. Part of the difficulty resides in that historical analysis is basically a process of empirical reconstruction from available environmental records (e.g. sediment cores or long-term hydrologic time series). We developed a mathematical approach, based on information theory, for historical reconstructions in watersheds. We analyze spectral entropies calculated directly or indirectly for sediment cores or long-term hydrologic time series respectively. Spectral entropy measures changes in Shannon's information of natural patterns (e.g. particle size distributions in lake bottoms or streamflow regimes) as they respond to different drivers. We illustrate the application of our approach with two case studies: a reconstruction of a time series of historical changes from a sediment core, and the detection of hydrologic alterations in watersheds associated to climate and forestry activities. In the first case we calculated spectral entropies from 700 sediment layers encompassing 1500 years of history in Loon Lake (Southern Oregon). In the second case, we calculated annual spectral entropies from daily discharge for the last 45 years in two experimental watersheds in the H. J. Andrews LTER site (Oregon Cascades). In Loon Lake our approach separated, without supervision, earthquakes from landslides and floods. It can also help to improve age models for sedimentary layers. At H. J. Andrews's sites our approach was able to identify hydrological alterations following a complete clear cut in 1975. It is also helpful to identify potential long-term impacts of these forestry activities, enhanced by climate change. Our results suggest that spectral entropy is central for translating between

  15. Population Dynamics of Wolves and Coyotes at Yellowstone National Park: Modeling Interference Competition with an Infectious Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Krystal; Barley, Kamal; Mubayi, Anuj

    2014-01-01

    Gray wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in 1995. The population initially flourished, but since 2003 the population has experience significant reductions due to factors that may include disease-induced mortality, illegal hunting, park control pro- grams, vehicle induced deaths and intra-species aggression. Despite facing similar conditions, and interference competition with the wolves, the coyote population at YNP has persisted. In this paper we introduce an epidemiol...

  16. Geographic pattern of serum antibody prevalence for Brucella spp. in caribou, grizzly bears, and wolves from Alaska, 1975-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, Randall L; Ver Hoef, Jay M; DeLong, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 2,635 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 1,238 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 930 wolves (Canis lupus) from throughout mainland Alaska during 1975-98. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Brucella spp. Serum antibody prevalences were highest in the northwestern region of the state. In any specific area, antibody prevalences for caribou and wolves were of a similar magnitude, whereas antibody prevalence for bears in these same areas were two to three times higher.

  17. A multiproxy fjord sediment record of Holocene climate change from the subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, I. M.; Moy, C. M.; Wilson, G. S.; Neil, H.; Riesselman, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SHWW) and the associated oceanic fronts have a major influence on atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. Sediment cores recovered from fjords along the eastern margin of the sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands (51°S, 166°E) are ideally located to sensitively record changes in the strength and position of the SHWW throughout the Holocene. A 5.75m core from Hanfield Inlet preserves both marine and terrestrial environmental components, which we use to develop a multiproxy record of past climatic conditions. This core, composed entirely of brown marine mud and silt, was recovered from a depth of 44m. Based on the entrance sill depth of the fjord (10mbsl) and our knowledge of regional sea level rise, we infer that the base of the core will be early Holocene in age, which will be confirmed using radiocarbon age dating. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages (125-500μm fraction) in surface and downcore samples are dominated by three taxa, Nonionellina flemingi, Cassidulina carinata and Quinqueloculina seminula. These species are either shallow infaunal or infaunal. We will use stable carbon (δ¹³C) and oxygen (δ¹⁸O) isotope geochemistry of the benthic foraminifera Nonionellina flemingi, Bolivina cf. earlandi, Trifarina angulosa, Bulimina marginata f. marginata and Cibicides species (all identified from Rose Bengal stained box-core samples) to reconstruct water column fluctuations associated with frontal migration. These results will compliment bulk sediment C and N concentration and isotope reconstructions of terrestrial organic matter delivery to fjord sub-basins over the past 12,000 years.

  18. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Ming, Qingzhong; Shi, Zhengtao; Chen, Guangjie; Niu, Jie; Lei, Guoliang; Chang, Fengqin; Zhang, Hucai

    2014-01-01

    Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and CaCO3 content), as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP) were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  19. Lake sediment records on climate change and human activities in the Xingyun Lake catchment, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Sediments from Xinyun Lake in central Yunnan, southwest China, provide a record of environmental history since the Holocene. With the application of multi-proxy indicators (total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, δ13C and δ15N isotopes, C/N ratio, grain size, magnetic susceptibility (MS and CaCO3 content, as well as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C datings, four major climatic stages during the Holocene have been identified in Xingyun's catchment. A marked increase in lacustrine palaeoproductivity occurred from 11.06 to 9.98 cal. ka BP, which likely resulted from an enhanced Asian southwest monsoon and warm-humid climate. Between 9.98 and 5.93 cal. ka BP, a gradually increased lake level might have reached the optimum water depth, causing a marked decline in coverage by aquatic plants and lake productivity of the lake. This was caused by strong Asian southwest monsoon, and coincided with the global Holocene Optimum. During the period of 5.60-1.35 cal. ka BP, it resulted in a warm and dry climate at this stage, which is comparable to the aridification of India during the mid- and late Holocene. The intensifying human activity and land-use in the lake catchment since the early Tang Dynasty (∼1.35 cal. ka BP were associated with the ancient Dian culture within Xingyun's catchment. The extensive deforestation and development of agriculture in the lake catchment caused heavy soil loss. Our study clearly shows that long-term human activities and land-use change have strongly impacted the evolution of the lake environment and therefore modulated the sediment records of the regional climate in central Yunnan for more than one thousand years.

  20. Abrupt Greenland Ice Sheet runoff and sea water temperature changes since 1821, recorded by coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenos, N.; Hoey, T.; Bedford, J.; Claverie, T.; Fallick, A. E.; Lamb, C. M.; Nienow, P. W.; O'Neill, S.; Shepherd, I.; Thormar, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contains the largest store of fresh water in the northern hemisphere, equivalent to ~7.4m of eustatic sea level rise, but its impacts on current, past and future sea level, ocean circulation and European climate are poorly understood. Previous estimates of GrIS melt, from 26 years of satellite observations and temperature driven melt-models over 48 years, show a trend of increasing melt. There are however no runoff data of comparable duration with which to validate temperature-based runoff models, or relationships between the spatial extent of melt and runoff. Further, longer runoff records that extend GrIS melt records to centennial timescales will enable recently observed trends to be put into a better historical context. We measured Mg/Ca, δ18O and structural cell size in annual growth bands of red coralline algae to reconstruct: (1) near surface sea water temperature; and, (2) melt/runoff from the GrIS. (1) Temperature: we reconstructed the longest (1821-2009) sub-annual resolution record of water temperature in Disko Bugt (western Greenland) showing an abrupt change in temperature oscillation patterns during the 1920s which may be attributable to the interaction between atmospheric temperature and mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier. (2) GrIS runoff: using samples from distal parts of Søndre Strømfjord we produced the first reconstruction of decadal (1939-2002) GrIS runoff. We observed significant negative relationships between historic runoff, relative salinity and marine summer temperature. Our reconstruction shows a trend of increasing reconstructed runoff since the mid 1980s. In situ summer marine temperatures followed a similar trend. We suggest that since 1939 atmospheric temperatures have been important in forcing runoff. Subject to locating in situ coralline algae samples, these methods can be applied across hundreds to thousands of years. These results show that our technique has significant potential to enhance

  1. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Climate and Oceanographic Change From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Gilmer, G.; Nichols, J. E.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L.; Vandergoes, M.; Aebig, C.; Wilson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid-latitude climate and CO2 exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere along seasonal to glaicial-interglacial timescales. Despite their importance, our understanding of past SHWW change is limited by the small number of paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum, which are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S), a key latitude where ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and mid-latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have multiple protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate studies suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, and the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. During the Late Glacial and early Holocene (15 to 9 ka), elevated long-chain n-alkane δD values from ombrotrophic peatlands and an increase in the concentration of redox-sensitive elements in fjord sediment cores, signal weakening of the SHWW that appears to be coincident with periods of rapid deglacial warming of West Antarctica. Since 5.5 ka, we interpret declining n-alkane δD values to indicate enhanced westerly flow. These interpretations are in broad agreement with terrestrial paleoclimate records developed from southern South America and argue for a symmetrical response of the SHWW during

  2. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michaël; Zawadzki, Lionel; Zuo, Hao; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Scharffenberg, Martin G.; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Joana Fernandes, M.; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Rudenko, Sergei; Cipollini, Paolo; Quartly, Graham D.; Passaro, Marcello; Cazenave, Anny; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2018-02-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change since it integrates the impacts of ocean warming and ice mass loss from glaciers and the ice sheets. Sea level has been listed as an essential climate variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During the past 25 years, the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter standards were selected to produce new sea level products (called SL_cci v2.0) based on nine altimeter missions for the period 1993-2015 (https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2015-v_2.0-201612; Legeais and the ESA SL_cci team, 2016c). Corresponding orbit solutions, geophysical corrections and altimeter standards used in this v2.0 dataset are described in detail in Quartly et al. (2017). The present paper focuses on the description of the SL_cci v2.0 ECV and associated uncertainty and discusses how it has been validated. Various approaches have been used for the quality assessment such as internal validation, comparisons with sea level records from other groups and with in situ measurements, sea level budget closure analyses and comparisons with model outputs. Compared with the previous version of the sea level ECV, we show that use of improved geophysical corrections, careful bias reduction between missions and inclusion of new altimeter missions lead to improved sea level products with reduced uncertainties on different spatial and temporal scales. However, there

  3. Herbarium records are reliable sources of phenological change driven by climate and provide novel insights into species' phenological cueing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles C; Willis, Charles G; Connolly, Bryan; Kelly, Courtland; Ellison, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change has resulted in major changes in the phenology of some species but not others. Long-term field observational records provide the best assessment of these changes, but geographic and taxonomic biases limit their utility. Plant specimens in herbaria have been hypothesized to provide a wealth of additional data for studying phenological responses to climatic change. However, no study to our knowledge has comprehensively addressed whether herbarium data are accurate measures of phenological response and thus applicable to addressing such questions. We compared flowering phenology determined from field observations (years 1852-1858, 1875, 1878-1908, 2003-2006, 2011-2013) and herbarium records (1852-2013) of 20 species from New England, United States. Earliest flowering date estimated from herbarium records faithfully reflected field observations of first flowering date and substantially increased the sampling range across climatic conditions. Additionally, although most species demonstrated a response to interannual temperature variation, long-term temporal changes in phenological response were not detectable. Our findings support the use of herbarium records for understanding plant phenological responses to changes in temperature, and also importantly establish a new use of herbarium collections: inferring primary phenological cueing mechanisms of individual species (e.g., temperature, winter chilling, photoperiod). These latter data are lacking from most investigations of phenological change, but are vital for understanding differential responses of individual species to ongoing climate change. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Natural regeneration on seismic lines influences movement behaviour of wolves and grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Laura; Pigeon, Karine E; Cranston, Jerome; Hebblewhite, Mark; Musiani, Marco; Neufeld, Lalenia; Schmiegelow, Fiona; Duval, Julie; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2018-01-01

    Across the boreal forest of Canada, habitat disturbance is the ultimate cause of caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) declines. Habitat restoration is a focus of caribou recovery efforts, with a goal to finding ways to reduce predator use of disturbances, and caribou-predator encounters. One of the most pervasive disturbances within caribou ranges in Alberta, Canada are seismic lines cleared for energy exploration. Seismic lines facilitate predator movement, and although vegetation on some seismic lines is regenerating, it remains unknown whether vegetation regrowth is sufficient to alter predator response. We used Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data, and GPS locations, to understand how vegetation and other attributes of seismic lines influence movements of two predators, wolves (Canis lupus) and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). During winter, wolves moved towards seismic lines regardless of vegetation height, while during spring wolves moved towards seismic lines with higher vegetation. During summer, wolves moved towards seismic lines with lower vegetation and also moved faster near seismic lines with vegetation grizzly bears during spring and summer, but there was no relationship between vegetation height and grizzly bear movement rates. These results suggest that wolves use seismic lines for travel during summer, but during winter wolf movements relative to seismic lines could be influenced by factors additional to movement efficiency; potentially enhanced access to areas frequented by ungulate prey. Grizzly bears may be using seismic lines for movement, but could also be using seismic lines as a source of vegetative food or ungulate prey. To reduce wolf movement rate, restoration could focus on seismic lines with vegetation <1 m in height. However our results revealed that seismic lines continue to influence wolf movement behaviour decades after they were built, and even at later stages of regeneration. Therefore it remains unknown at what stage of natural

  5. Surrogate hosts: Hunting dogs and recolonizing grey wolves share their endoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lesniak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how closely related wildlife species and their domesticated counterparts exchange or share parasites, or replace each other in parasite life cycles, is of great interest to veterinary and human public health, and wildlife ecology. Grey wolves (Canis lupus host and spread endoparasites that can either directly infect canid conspecifics or their prey serving as intermediate hosts of indirectly transmitted species. The wolf recolonization of Central Europe represents an opportunity to study parasite transmission dynamics between wildlife and domestic species for cases when a definitive host returns after local extinction – a situation equivalent to a ‘removal experiment’.Here we investigate whether the re–appearance of wolves has increased parasite pressure on hunting dogs – a group of companion animals of particular interest as they have a similar diet to wolves and flush wolf habitats when hunting. We compared prevalence (P and species richness (SR of helminths and the protozoan Sarcocystis to determine whether they were higher in hunting dogs from wolf areas (ndogs = 49 than a control area (ndogs = 29 without wolves. Of particular interest were S. grueneri and S. taeniata, known as ‘wolf specialists’.Five helminth and 11 Sarcocystis species were identified, of which all helminths and eight Sarcocystis species were shared between dogs and wolves. Overall prevalence and species richness of helminths (P:38.5% vs. 24.1%; SRmean:0.4 vs. 0.3 species and Sarcocystis (P:63.3% vs. 65.5%, SRmean:2.1 vs. 1.8 species did not differ between study sites. However, hunting dogs were significantly more likely to be infected with S. grueneri in wolf areas (P:45.2% vs. 10.5%; p = 0.035. The findings suggest that wolves indirectly increase S. grueneri infection risk for hunting dogs since cervids are intermediate hosts and occasionally fed to dogs. Furthermore, a periodic anthelminthic treatment of hunting dogs may be an

  6. Sequential planning of flood protection infrastructure under limited historic flood record and climate change uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Flood protection is often designed to safeguard people and property following regulations and standards, which specify a target design flood protection level, such as the 100-year flood level prescribed in Germany (DWA, 2011). In practice, the magnitude of such an event is only known within a range of uncertainty, which is caused by limited historic records and uncertain climate change impacts, among other factors (Hall & Solomatine, 2008). As more observations and improved climate projections become available in the future, the design flood estimate changes and the capacity of the flood protection may be deemed insufficient at a future point in time. This problem can be mitigated by the implementation of flexible flood protection systems (that can easily be adjusted in the future) and/or by adding an additional reserve to the flood protection, i.e. by applying a safety factor to the design. But how high should such a safety factor be? And how much should the decision maker be willing to pay to make the system flexible, i.e. what is the Value of Flexibility (Špačková & Straub, 2017)? We propose a decision model that identifies cost-optimal decisions on flood protection capacity in the face of uncertainty (Dittes et al. 2017). It considers sequential adjustments of the protection system during its lifetime, taking into account its flexibility. The proposed framework is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis, using Decision Trees and Markov Decision Processes, and is fully quantitative. It can include a wide range of uncertainty components such as uncertainty associated with limited historic record or uncertain climate or socio-economic change. It is shown that since flexible systems are less costly to adjust when flood estimates are changing, they justify initially lower safety factors. Investigation on the Value of Flexibility (VoF) demonstrates that VoF depends on the type and degree of uncertainty, on the learning effect (i.e. kind and quality of

  7. Growing Canopy on a College Campus: Understanding Urban Forest Change through Archival Records and Aerial Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Lara A; Fristensky, Jason P; Eisenman, Theodore S; Greenfield, Eric J; Lundgren, Robert E; Cerwinka, Chloe E; Hewitt, David A; Welsh, Caitlin C

    2017-12-01

    Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records (1870-2017), complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery (1970-2012), our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change. We organized the historical narrative into periods reflecting campus planting actions and management approaches; these periods are also connected to broader urban greening and city planning movements, such as City Beautiful and urban sustainability. University faculty in botany, landscape architecture, and urban design contributed to the design of campus green spaces, developed comprehensive landscape plans, and advocated for campus trees. A 1977 Landscape Development Plan was particularly influential, setting forth design principles and planting recommendations that enabled the dramatic canopy cover gains we observed, and continue to guide landscape management today. Our results indicate that increasing urban tree cover requires generational time scales and systematic management coupled with a clear urban design vision and long-term commitments. With the campus as a microcosm of broader trends in urban forest development, we conclude with a discussion of implications for municipal tree cover planning.

  8. Crystallization kinetics in antimony and tellurium alloys used for phase change recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis makes a contribution to a fundamental understanding of the crystallization kinetics of amorphous and liquid phase change materials. In one project of this study, ex situ atomic force microscopy in combination with a high-precision furnace was identified as a powerful and accurate tool to determine isothermal crystallization parameters in thin films as a function of time and temperature. This method was employed for a systematic study of crystallization kinetics in sputtered amorphous Ag 0.055 In 0.065 Sb 0.59 Te 0.29 (hereafter: AgIn-SbTe), Ge 4 Sb 1 Te 5 , and Ge 1 Sb 2 Te 4 thin films used for phase change recording. The temperature dependence of the crystal nucleation rate and the crystal growth velocity were determined between 90 and 190 C by direct observation of crystals. The time dependence of the nucleation rate was also investigated. Ex situ transmission electron microscopy was used to study the crystal morphology in these alloys. In a second project, sputtered amorphous films in the compositions mentioned above were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. In a third project, droplets of molten alloys of composition Ge 12 Sb 88 , AgIn-Sb 2 Te, Ge 4 Sb 1 Te 5 and Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , surrounded by a molten dehydrated B 2 O 3 flux, were undercooled to 40-80 K below their liquidus temperature in a differential thermal analyzer. The crystal-melt interfacial energy was determined from the nucleation temperature using the classical nucleation theory. (Orig.)

  9. Growing Canopy on a College Campus: Understanding Urban Forest Change through Archival Records and Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Lara A.; Fristensky, Jason P.; Eisenman, Theodore S.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Lundgren, Robert E.; Cerwinka, Chloe E.; Hewitt, David A.; Welsh, Caitlin C.

    2017-12-01

    Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records (1870-2017), complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery (1970-2012), our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change. We organized the historical narrative into periods reflecting campus planting actions and management approaches; these periods are also connected to broader urban greening and city planning movements, such as City Beautiful and urban sustainability. University faculty in botany, landscape architecture, and urban design contributed to the design of campus green spaces, developed comprehensive landscape plans, and advocated for campus trees. A 1977 Landscape Development Plan was particularly influential, setting forth design principles and planting recommendations that enabled the dramatic canopy cover gains we observed, and continue to guide landscape management today. Our results indicate that increasing urban tree cover requires generational time scales and systematic management coupled with a clear urban design vision and long-term commitments. With the campus as a microcosm of broader trends in urban forest development, we conclude with a discussion of implications for municipal tree cover planning.

  10. Transient Structures and Possible Limits of Data Recording in Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianbo; Vanacore, Giovanni M; Yang, Zhe; Miao, Xiangshui; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2015-07-28

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) represent the leading candidates for universal data storage devices, which exploit the large difference in the physical properties of their transitional lattice structures. On a nanoscale, it is fundamental to determine their performance, which is ultimately controlled by the speed limit of transformation among the different structures involved. Here, we report observation with atomic-scale resolution of transient structures of nanofilms of crystalline germanium telluride, a prototypical PCM, using ultrafast electron crystallography. A nonthermal transformation from the initial rhombohedral phase to the cubic structure was found to occur in 12 ps. On a much longer time scale, hundreds of picoseconds, equilibrium heating of the nanofilm is reached, driving the system toward amorphization, provided that high excitation energy is invoked. These results elucidate the elementary steps defining the structural pathway in the transformation of crystalline-to-amorphous phase transitions and describe the essential atomic motions involved when driven by an ultrafast excitation. The establishment of the time scales of the different transient structures, as reported here, permits determination of the possible limit of performance, which is crucial for high-speed recording applications of PCMs.

  11. Leading change: introducing an electronic medical record system to a paramedic service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Shawn; Boak, George

    2016-05-03

    Purpose Leaders in health-care organizations introducing electronic medical records (EMRs) face implementation challenges. The adoption of EMR by the emergency medical and ambulance setting is expected to provide wide-ranging benefits, but there is little research into the processes of adoption in this sector. The purpose of this study is to examine the introduction of EMR in a small emergency care organization and identify factors that aided adoption. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews with selected paramedics were followed up with a survey issued to all paramedics in the company. Findings The user interfaces with the EMR, and perceived ease of use, were important factors affecting adoption. Individual paramedics were found to have strong and varied preferences about how and when they integrated the EMR into their practice. As company leadership introduced flexibility of use, this enhanced both individual and collective ability to make sense of the change and removed barriers to acceptance. Research limitations/implications This is a case study of one small organization. However, there may be useful lessons for other emergency care organizations adopting EMR. Practical implications Leaders introducing EMR in similar situations may benefit from considering a sense-making perspective and responding promptly to feedback. Originality/value The study contributes to a wider understanding of issues faced by leaders who seek to implement EMRs in emergency medical services, a sector in which there has been to date very little research on this issue.

  12. Contrasting records of sea-level change in the eastern and western North Atlantic during the last 300 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A. J.; Barlow, N. L. M.; Gehrels, W. R.; Saher, M. H.; Woodworth, P. L.; Scaife, R. G.; Brain, M. J.; Cahill, N.

    2014-02-01

    We present a new 300-year sea-level reconstruction from a salt marsh on the Isle of Wight (central English Channel, UK) that we compare to other salt-marsh and long tide-gauge records to examine spatial and temporal variability in sea-level change in the North Atlantic. Our new reconstruction identifies an overall rise in relative sea level (RSL) of c. 0.30 m since the start of the eighteenth century at a rate of 0.9±0.3 mm yr. Error-in-variables changepoint analysis indicates that there is no statistically significant deviation from a constant rate within the dataset. The reconstruction is broadly comparable to other tide-gauge and salt-marsh records from the European Atlantic, demonstrating coherence in sea level in this region over the last 150-300 years. In contrast, we identify significant differences in the rate and timing of RSL with records from the east coast of North America. The absence of a strong late 19th/early 20th century RSL acceleration contrasts with that recorded in salt marsh sediments along the eastern USA coastline, in particular in a well-dated and precise sea-level reconstruction from North Carolina. This suggests that this part of the North Carolina sea level record represents a regionally specific sea level acceleration. This is significant because the North Carolina record has been used as if it were globally representative within semi-empirical parameterisations of past and future sea-level change. We conclude that regional-scale differences of sea-level change highlight the value of using several, regionally representative RSL records when calibrating and testing semi-empirical models of sea level against palaeo-records. This is because by using records that potentially over-estimate sea-level rise in the past such models risk over-estimating sea-level rise in the future.

  13. Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tovi M.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Candille, Sophie I.; Musiani, Marco; Greco, Claudia; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Randi, Ettore; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Tang, Hua; Wayne, Robert K.; Barsh, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological diversity within closely related species is an essential aspect of evolution and adaptation. Mutations in the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) gene contribute to pigmentary diversity in natural populations of fish, birds, and many mammals. However, melanism in the gray wolf, Canis lupus, is caused by a different melanocortin pathway component, the K locus, that encodes a beta-defensin protein that acts as an alternative ligand for Mc1r. We show that the melanistic K locus mutation in North American wolves derives from past hybridization with domestic dogs, has risen to high frequency in forested habitats, and exhibits a molecular signature of positive selection. The same mutation also causes melanism in the coyote, Canis latrans, and in Italian gray wolves, and hence our results demonstrate how traits selected in domesticated species can influence the morphological diversity of their wild relatives. PMID:19197024

  14. Populational genetic structure of free-living maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus determined by proteic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. De Mattos

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic analysis of presumptive twenty gene loci products was conducted in hemolisates and plasma samples of twenty-eight maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus from an area in northeastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The area sampled was divided into three sub-areas, with the Mogi-Guaçu and Pardo rivers regarded as barriers to the gene flow. The polymorphism degree and heterozygosity level (intralocus and average estimated in this study were similar to those detected by other authors for maned wolves and other species of wild free-living canids. The samples of each sub-area and the total sample exhibited genotype frequencies consistent with the genetic equilibrium model. The values of the F-statistics evidenced absence of inbreeding and population subdivision and, consequently, low genetic distances were found among the samples of each area.

  15. Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Matthew C; Smith, Douglas W; Vucetich, John A; Stahler, Daniel R; Peterson, Rolf O

    2012-05-01

    1. For large predators living in seasonal environments, patterns of predation are likely to vary among seasons because of related changes in prey vulnerability. Variation in prey vulnerability underlies the influence of predators on prey populations and the response of predators to seasonal variation in rates of biomass acquisition. Despite its importance, seasonal variation in predation is poorly understood. 2. We assessed seasonal variation in prey composition and kill rate for wolves Canis lupus living on the Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park. Our assessment was based on data collected over 14 winters (1995-2009) and five spring-summers between 2004 and 2009. 3. The species composition of wolf-killed prey and the age and sex composition of wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (the primary prey for NR wolves) varied among seasons. 4. One's understanding of predation depends critically on the metric used to quantify kill rate. For example, kill rate was greatest in summer when quantified as the number of ungulates acquired per wolf per day, and least during summer when kill rate was quantified as the biomass acquired per wolf per day. This finding contradicts previous research that suggests that rates of biomass acquisition for large terrestrial carnivores tend not to vary among seasons. 5. Kill rates were not well correlated among seasons. For example, knowing that early-winter kill rate is higher than average (compared with other early winters) provides little basis for anticipating whether kill rates a few months later during late winter will be higher or lower than average (compared with other late winters). This observation indicates how observing, for example, higher-than-average kill rates throughout any particular season is an unreliable basis for inferring that the year-round average kill rate would be higher than average. 6. Our work shows how a large carnivore living in a seasonal environment displays marked seasonal variation in

  16. Climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale recorded by the Guliya ice core in Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 徐柏青; 蒲健辰

    2001-01-01

    Based on ice core records in the Tibetan Plateau and Greenland, the features and possible causes of climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale were discussed. Orbital time scale climatic change recorded in ice core from the Tibetan Plateau is typically ahead of that from polar regions, which indicates that climatic change in the Tibetan Plateau might be earlier than polar regions. The solar radiation change is a major factor that dominates the climatic change on orbital time scale. However, climatic events on sub-orbital time scale occurred later in the Tibetan Plateau than in the Arctic Region, indicating a different mechanism. For example, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events took place earlier in Greenland ice core record than in Guliya ice core record. It is reasonable to propose the hypothesis that these climatic events were affected possibly by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Therefore, ice sheet is critically important to climatic change on sub-orbital time scale in some ice ages.

  17. Changes in walking associated with perceived neighborhood safety and police-recorded crime: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary; Evenson, Kelly R; Moore, Kari; Block, Richard; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2015-04-01

    To explore the association of changes in perceived safety and police-recorded crime with changes in transport and leisure walking using longitudinal data from Chicago residents participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012). Main exposures included perceived safety (self-reported as feeling safe walking in the neighborhood and reporting violence to be a problem in the neighborhood), and one-year counts of police-recorded crime occurring within a one-mile buffer of participants' residences. Main outcomes included transport and leisure walking (self-reported and calculated as total minutes/week across four study visits). Fixed effects models assessed the association of change in perceived safety and police-recorded crime with changes in transport and leisure walking over a 10-year period for 796 adults. No associations were found between changes in perceived safety and either changes in transport or leisure walking. Residing in areas with increases in murder was associated with decreases in transport walking. However, no other associations were found with police-recorded crime. There continues to be a need to explore the benefits of cultivating safe neighborhoods that enhance resident health and well-being. Research should continue examining how community initiatives may build safe environments and community identity that promote walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental and Intrinsic Correlates of Stress in Free-Ranging Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Barbara; Fattebert, Julien; Palme, Rupert; Ciucci, Paolo; Betschart, Bruno; Smith, Douglas W; Diehl, Peter-Allan

    2015-01-01

    When confronted with a stressor, animals react with several physiological and behavioral responses. Although sustained or repeated stress can result in severe deleterious physiological effects, the causes of stress in free-ranging animals are yet poorly documented. In our study, we aimed at identifying the main factors affecting stress levels in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus). We used fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) as an index of stress, after validating the method for its application in wolves. We analyzed a total of 450 fecal samples from eleven wolf packs belonging to three protected populations, in Italy (Abruzzo), France (Mercantour), and the United States (Yellowstone). We collected samples during two consecutive winters in each study area. We found no relationship between FCM concentrations and age, sex or social status of individuals. At the group level, our results suggest that breeding pair permanency and the loss of pack members through processes different from dispersal may importantly impact stress levels in wolves. We measured higher FCM levels in comparatively small packs living in sympatry with a population of free-ranging dogs. Lastly, our results indicate that FCM concentrations are associated with endoparasitic infections of individuals. In social mammals sharing strong bonds among group members, the death of one or several members of the group most likely induces important stress in the remainder of the social unit. The potential impact of social and territorial stability on stress levels should be further investigated in free-ranging populations, especially in highly social and in territorial species. As persistent or repeated stressors may facilitate or induce pathologies and physiological alterations that can affect survival and fitness, we advocate considering the potential impact of anthropogenic causes of stress in management and conservation programs regarding wolves and other wildlife.

  19. Influence of Group Size on the Success of Wolves Hunting Bison

    OpenAIRE

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Tallian, Aimee; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most formidable prey...

  20. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Naves, Javier; Ordiz, Andrés; Quevedo, Mario; Revilla, Eloy; Delibes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  1. Environmental and Intrinsic Correlates of Stress in Free-Ranging Wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Molnar

    Full Text Available When confronted with a stressor, animals react with several physiological and behavioral responses. Although sustained or repeated stress can result in severe deleterious physiological effects, the causes of stress in free-ranging animals are yet poorly documented. In our study, we aimed at identifying the main factors affecting stress levels in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus.We used fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM as an index of stress, after validating the method for its application in wolves. We analyzed a total of 450 fecal samples from eleven wolf packs belonging to three protected populations, in Italy (Abruzzo, France (Mercantour, and the United States (Yellowstone. We collected samples during two consecutive winters in each study area. We found no relationship between FCM concentrations and age, sex or social status of individuals. At the group level, our results suggest that breeding pair permanency and the loss of pack members through processes different from dispersal may importantly impact stress levels in wolves. We measured higher FCM levels in comparatively small packs living in sympatry with a population of free-ranging dogs. Lastly, our results indicate that FCM concentrations are associated with endoparasitic infections of individuals.In social mammals sharing strong bonds among group members, the death of one or several members of the group most likely induces important stress in the remainder of the social unit. The potential impact of social and territorial stability on stress levels should be further investigated in free-ranging populations, especially in highly social and in territorial species. As persistent or repeated stressors may facilitate or induce pathologies and physiological alterations that can affect survival and fitness, we advocate considering the potential impact of anthropogenic causes of stress in management and conservation programs regarding wolves and other wildlife.

  2. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrander Elaine A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A selective sweep containing the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene is associated with size variation in domestic dogs. Intron 2 of IGF1 contains a SINE element and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP found in all small dog breeds that is almost entirely absent from large breeds. In this study, we surveyed a large sample of grey wolf populations to better understand the ancestral pattern of variation at IGF1 with a particular focus on the distribution of the small dog haplotype and its relationship to the origin of the dog. Results We present DNA sequence data that confirms the absence of the derived small SNP allele in the intron 2 region of IGF1 in a large sample of grey wolves and further establishes the absence of a small dog associated SINE element in all wild canids and most large dog breeds. Grey wolf haplotypes from the Middle East have higher nucleotide diversity suggesting an origin there. Additionally, PCA and phylogenetic analyses suggests a closer kinship of the small domestic dog IGF1 haplotype with those from Middle Eastern grey wolves. Conclusions The absence of both the SINE element and SNP allele in grey wolves suggests that the mutation for small body size post-dates the domestication of dogs. However, because all small dogs possess these diagnostic mutations, the mutations likely arose early in the history of domestic dogs. Our results show that the small dog haplotype is closely related to those in Middle Eastern wolves and is consistent with an ancient origin of the small dog haplotype there. Thus, in concordance with past archeological studies, our molecular analysis is consistent with the early evolution of small size in dogs from the Middle East. See associated opinion by Driscoll and Macdonald: http://jbiol.com/content/9/2/10

  3. Wolves Recolonizing Islands: Genetic Consequences and Implications for Conservation and Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivi Plumer

    Full Text Available After a long and deliberate persecution, the grey wolf (Canis lupus is slowly recolonizing its former areas in Europe, and the genetic consequences of this process are of particular interest. Wolves, though present in mainland Estonia for a long time, have only recently started to recolonize the country's two largest islands, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. The main objective of this study was to analyse wolf population structure and processes in Estonia, with particular attention to the recolonization of islands. Fifteen microsatellite loci were genotyped for 185 individuals across Estonia. As a methodological novelty, all putative wolf-dog hybrids were identified and removed (n = 17 from the dataset beforehand to avoid interference of dog alleles in wolf population analysis. After the preliminary filtering, our final dataset comprised of 168 "pure" wolves. We recommend using hybrid-removal step as a standard precautionary procedure not only for wolf population studies, but also for other taxa prone to hybridization. STRUCTURE indicated four genetic groups in Estonia. Spatially explicit DResD analysis identified two areas, one of them on Saaremaa island and the other in southwestern Estonia, where neighbouring individuals were genetically more similar than expected from an isolation-by-distance null model. Three blending areas and two contrasting transition zones were identified in central Estonia, where the sampled individuals exhibited strong local differentiation over relatively short distance. Wolves on the largest Estonian islands are part of human-wildlife conflict due to livestock depredation. Negative public attitude, especially on Saaremaa where sheep herding is widespread, poses a significant threat for island wolves. To maintain the long-term viability of the wolf population on Estonian islands, not only wolf hunting quota should be targeted with extreme care, but effective measures should be applied to avoid inbreeding and minimize conflicts

  4. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro B. de Toledo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP, when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics.Análises de pólen, carvões e datações C foram conduzidas em um testemunho coletado no lago Tapera (Amapá com o objetivo de interpretar a história paleoambiental desta parte da Amazônia. Uma das técnicas de análises multivariadas, Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA, foi utilizada a fim de melhor visualizar a distribuição e similaridade das amostras. Foi identificado um hiato sedimentar com duração de 5.500 anos no lago Tapera. Como o hiato ocorreu simultaneamente ao nível do mar mais alto do Holoceno, o que deveria ter aumentado o lençol freático, impedindo assim o lago de secar, é evidente que variações do nível do mar não foram importantes na

  5. High-resolution conodont oxygen isotope record of Ordovician climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Algeo, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Ordovician Period was characterized by several major events, including a prolonged 'super greenhouse' during the Early Ordovician, the 'Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE)' of the Middle and early Late Ordovician, and the Hirnantian ice age and mass extinction of the latest Ordovician (Webby et al., 2004, The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, Columbia University Press). The cause of the rapid diversification of marine invertebrates during the GOBE is not clear, however, and several scenarios have been proposed including widespread development of shallow cratonic seas, strong magmatic and tectonic activity, and climate moderation. In order to investigate relationships between climate change and marine ecosystem evolution during the Ordovician, we measured the oxygen isotopic composition of single coniform conodonts using a Cameca secondary ion mass spectrometer. Our δ18O profile shows a shift at the Early/Middle Ordovician transition that is indicative of a rapid 6 to 8 °C cooling. This cooling event marks the termination of the Early Ordovician 'super greenhouse' and may have established cooler tropical seawater temperatures that were more favorable for invertebrate animals, setting the stage for the GOBE. Additional cooling episodes occurred during the early Sandbian, early Katian, and Hirnantian, the last culminating in a short-lived (extinction. Our results differ from those of Trotter et al. (2008, 'Did cooling oceans trigger Ordovician biodiversification? Evidence from conodont thermometry,' Science 321:550-554). Instead of a slow, protracted cooling through the Early and Middle Ordovician, our high-resolution record shows that cooling occurred in several discrete steps, with the largest step being at the Early/Middle Ordovician transition.

  6. Territoriality and inter-pack aggression in gray wolves: shaping a social carnivore's life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; MacNulty, Daniel R.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Metz, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    When Rudyard Kipling wrote The Jungle Book in 1894 and included the famous line "For the strength of the Wolf is the Pack, and the strength of the Pack is the Wolf," he would have had no idea that over a century later, scientific research would back up his poetic phrase. Recent studies in Yellowstone have found that both the individual wolf and the collective pack rely on each other and play important roles in territoriality. At a time when most fairy tales and fables were portraying wolves as demonic killers or, at best, slapstick gluttons, Kipling seemed to have a respect or even reverence for the wolf. Wolves in The Jungle Book raise and mentor the main character Mowgli, with the pack's leader eventually dying to save the "man-cub" from a pack of wolves. Kipling may have extended intra- pack benevolence to a human boy for literary sake, but he was clearly enthralled with how pack members treat each other. As wolf packs are almost always family units, most commonly comprised of a breeding pair and their offspring from several years, amiable behavior within the pack is unsurprising. By contrast, wolf packs are fiercely intolerant of their neighbors, their rivals. And this competition is proving to be an important facet in the life of a wolf and its pack.

  7. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. MAIA

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%, infectious diseases, (9% and digestive system disorders (5%. The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18% and disorders of the genitourinary (10% and digestive systems (8%. Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%, infectious diseases (10%, and lesions or accidents (10%. The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4 were parental incompetence (38%, infectious diseases (9%, and digestive system disorders (7%.

  8. Birth and mortality of maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAIA O. B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the distribution of births of captive maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus and the causes of their deaths during the period from 1980 to 1998, based on the registry of births and deaths in the International Studbook for Maned Wolves. To determine birth distribution and average litter size, 361 parturitions were analyzed for the 1989-98 period. To analyze causes of mortality, the animals were divided into four groups: 1. pups born in captivity that died prior to one year of age; 2. animals born in captivity that died at more than one year of age; 3. animals captured in the wild that died at any age; and 4. all animals that died during the 1980-98 period. In group 1, the main causes of mortality were parental incompetence (67%, infectious diseases, (9% and digestive system disorders (5%. The average mortality rate for pups was 56%. Parental incompetence was responsible for 95% of pup deaths during the first week of life. In group 2, the main causes were euthanasia (18% and disorders of the genitourinary (10% and digestive systems (8%. Euthanasia was implemented due to senility, congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, and trauma. In group 3, the main causes were digestive system disorders (12%, infectious diseases (10%, and lesions or accidents (10%. The main causes of mortality of maned wolves in captivity (group 4 were parental incompetence (38%, infectious diseases (9%, and digestive system disorders (7%.

  9. The effect of fire on spatial separation between wolves and caribou

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    Hugh S. Robinson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire management is an important conservation tool in Canada’s national parks. Fires can benefit some species, while others may be negatively impacted. We used GPS and VHF collar data for 47 wolves from 12 separate packs and 153 caribou from 5 separate herds, and resource selection analysis to model the effects of fire on these species’ habitat and potential interactions. Resource selection modeling showed that wolves select for burned areas and areas close to burns, presumably due to the presence of primary prey (i.e., elk and moose, while caribou avoid burns. Fire reduced the amount of high quality caribou habitat (a direct effect, but also increased the probability of wolf-caribou overlap (an indirect effect. We delineated a spatial index of caribou “safe zones” (areas of low overlap with wolves, and found a positive relationship between the proportion of a herd’s home range represented by “safe zone” in winter and population size (P = 0.10, n=4. While currently-planned prescribed fires in Banff and Jasper reduced the amount of quality caribou habitat by up to 4%, they reduced the area of “safe zones” by up to 7%, varying by herd, location, and season. We suggest that conservation managers should account for the indirect, predator-mediated impacts of fire on caribou in addition to direct effects of habitat loss.

  10. Effect of recent climate change on Arctic Pb pollution: A comparative study of historical records in lake and peat sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Jiang Shan; Zhang Pengfei; Xu Liqiang

    2012-01-01

    Historical changes of anthropogenic Pb pollution were reconstructed based on Pb concentrations and isotope ratios in lake and peat sediment profiles from Ny-Ålesund of Arctic. The calculated excess Pb isotope ratios showed that Pb pollution largely came from west Europe and Russia. The peat profile clearly reflected the historical changes of atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic Pb into Ny-Ålesund, and the result showed that anthropogenic Pb peaked at 1960s–1970s, and thereafter a significant recovery was observed by a rapid increase of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios and a remarkable decrease in anthropogenic Pb contents. In contrast to the peat record, the longer lake record showed relatively high anthropogenic Pb contents and a persistent decrease of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios within the uppermost samples, suggesting that climate-sensitive processes such as catchment erosion and meltwater runoff might have influenced the recent change of Pb pollution record in the High Arctic lake sediments. - Highlights: ► Historical changes of anthropogenic Pb pollution in Ny-Ålesund were reconstructed. ► Anthropogenic Pb in Ny-Ålesund was largely originated from W. European and Russia. ► Anthropogenic Pb recorded in peat sediments peaked at 1960–1970s and then declined. ► High anthropogenic fluxes were found in recent change of Pb record from lake sediments. ► Climate-sensitive processes might have influenced recent Pb accumulation rate in lakes. - This manuscript reports the effects of climate-sensitive processes on historical records of Pb pollution in sediments of Arctic lakes.

  11. Deriving a sea surface temperature record suitable for climate change research from the along-track scanning radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Saunders, R. W.; Rayner, N. A.; Kent, E. C.; Old, C. P.; Berry, D.; Birks, A. R.; Blackmore, T.; Corlett, G. K.; Embury, O.; Jay, V. L.; Kennedy, J.; Mutlow, C. T.; Nightingale, T. J.; O'Carroll, A. G.; Pritchard, M. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Tett, S.

    We describe the approach to be adopted for a major new initiative to derive a homogeneous record of sea surface temperature for 1991 2007 from the observations of the series of three along-track scanning radiometers (ATSRs). This initiative is called (A)RC: (Advanced) ATSR Re-analysis for Climate. The main objectives are to reduce regional biases in retrieved sea surface temperature (SST) to less than 0.1 K for all global oceans, while creating a very homogenous record that is stable in time to within 0.05 K decade-1, with maximum independence of the record from existing analyses of SST used in climate change research. If these stringent targets are achieved, this record will enable significantly improved estimates of surface temperature trends and variability of sufficient quality to advance questions of climate change attribution, climate sensitivity and historical reconstruction of surface temperature changes. The approach includes development of new, consistent estimators for SST for each of the ATSRs, and detailed analysis of overlap periods. Novel aspects of the approach include generation of multiple versions of the record using alternative channel sets and cloud detection techniques, to assess for the first time the effect of such choices. There will be extensive effort in quality control, validation and analysis of the impact on climate SST data sets. Evidence for the plausibility of the 0.1 K target for systematic error is reviewed, as is the need for alternative cloud screening methods in this context.

  12. Diet shift of a facultative scavenger, the wolverine, following recolonization of wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jiska; Gustavsen, Line; Mysterud, Atle; May, Roel; Flagstad, Øystein; Brøseth, Henrik; Andersen, Roy; Andersen, Reidar; Steen, Harald; Landa, Arild

    2008-11-01

    1. Wolves Canis lupus L. recolonized the boreal forests in the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula during the late 1990s, but so far there has been little attention to its effect on ecosystem functioning. Wolf predation increases the availability of carcasses of large prey, especially moose Alces alces L., which may lead in turn to a diet switch in facultative scavengers such as the wolverine Gulo gulo L. 2. Using 459 wolverine scats collected during winter-spring 2001-04 for DNA identity and dietary contents, we compared diet inside and outside wolf territories while controlling for potential confounding factors, such as prey density. We tested the hypothesis that wolverine diet shifted towards moose in the presence of wolves, while taking into account possible sexual segregation between the sexes. Occurrence of reindeer, moose and small prey was modelled against explanatory covariates using logistic mixed-effects models. Furthermore, we compared diet composition and breadth among habitats and sexes. 3. Occurrence of reindeer, moose and small prey in the diet varied with prey availability and habitat. As expected, diet contained more moose and less reindeer and small prey in the presence of wolves. Their diet in tundra consisted of 40% reindeer Rangifer tarandus L., 39% moose and 9% rodents. In forest with wolf, their diet shifted to 76% moose, 18% reindeer and 5% rodents; compared to 42% moose, 32% reindeer and 15% rodents in forest without wolf. This diet switch could not be explained by higher moose density in wolf territories. Female diet consisted of more small prey than for males, but there was a tendency for females to use the highly available moose carrion opportunistically and to hunt less on small prey within wolf territories. 4. Our study highlights how wolves increase scavenging opportunities for wolverines, and how sexual differences in diet may also apply to large scavengers. Due to their more restricted home range, female wolverines are

  13. Pre- and post-industrial environmental changes as revealed by the biogeochemical sedimentary record of Drammensfjord, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smittenberg, R.H.; Baas, M.; Green, M.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The biogeochemical sedimentary record of the anoxic Drammensfjord, Norway, was investigated on a decadal to centennial time scale over the last millennium, in order to reconstruct the pre-industrial fjord environment and ecosystem and humaninduced environmental changes. The sediments were dated by

  14. Pre- and post-industrial environmental changes as revealed by the biogeochemical sedimentary record of Drammensfjord, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Smittenberg, R.H.; Baas, M.; Green, M.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2005-01-01

    The biogeochemical sedimentary record of the anoxic Drammensfjord, Norway, was investigated on a decadal to centennial time scale over the last millennium, in order to reconstruct the pre-industrial fjord environment and ecosystem and human-induced environmental changes. The sediments were dated by

  15. The sedimentary record and petrophysical logs from the Spanish Central Pyrenees: Implications for paleoclimate change in the Early Devonian

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, Ladislav; Valenzuela-Ríos, J. I.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Liao, J-Ch.; Hušková, Aneta; Calvo, H.; Hrstka, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2015), s. 350-350 ISSN 1608-8166. [International Congress on Stratigraphy /2./. STRATI 2015. 19.07.2015-23.07.2015, Graz] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : stratigraphy * Early Devonian * sedimentary record * paleoclimate change * Spanish Central Pyrenees Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Ber-Inst-Erdwiss-Univ-Graz_21_0001-0437.pdf

  16. Linking sediment-charcoal records and ecological modeling to understand causes of fire-regime change in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda B. Brubaker; Philip E. Higuera; T. Scott Rupp; Mark A. Olson; Patricia M. Anderson; Feng Sheng. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between vegetation and fire have the potential to overshadow direct effects of climate change on fire regimes in boreal forests of North America. We develop methods to compare sediment-charcoal records with fire regimes simulated by an ecological model, ALFRESCO (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) and apply these methods to evaluate potential causes of a...

  17. Diet adjustments of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, subjected to supplemental feeding in a private natural reserve, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim A. Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277. Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1% in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001, for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001, and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001, all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041, yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754. Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.

  18. A late Eocene palynological record of climate change and Tibetan Plateau uplift (Xining Basin, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Straathof, J.; Abels, H.A.; Xu, Y.; Utescher, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models suggest that Asian paleoenvironments, monsoons and continental aridification were primarily governed by tectonic uplift and sea retreat since the Eocene with potential contribution of global climate changes. However, the cause and timing of these paleoenvironmental changes remain

  19. Verification of the causes of glaciations and sea level changes using the records of calcite speleothems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shopov Yavor Y.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The luminescence of calcite speleothems displays an exponential dependence on soil temperature unless there is a dense cover of forest over the cave to dampen it. This relationship is determined primarily by the strength of solar visible and infrared radiation. It is suggested that, as a consequence, the microzonal variations of luminescence often found in speleothems can be used as a proxy index of Solar Insolation. The luminescence solar insolation proxy record of a speleothem from Jewel Cave, South Dakota, USA, was found to display millenial and centennial cycles in the record. It exhibits a rapid increase in solar insolation at 139 ± 5.5 kyrs. This increase precedes that suggested by the Orbital theory by about 10,000 years and is due to superimposition of the most powerful cycle in solar luminosity of 11.5 kyrs, upon the curve of orbital variations. The record from a speleothem in Duhlata Cave, Bulgaria matches that of South Dakota within the limits of dating error, indicating that both of these records (which are 10,000 km apart measure global solar insolation controls rather than local paleotemperature variations.

  20. Duration of immunity in red wolves (Canis rufus) following vaccination with a modified live parvovirus and canine distemper vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Case, Allison; Woodie, Kathleen; Waddell, William; Reed, Holly H

    2014-09-01

    There is growing information available regarding duration of immunity for core vaccines in both domestic and nondomestic species. Vaccination protocols in nondomestic canids have frequently followed guidelines developed for the domestic dog; however, these protocols can be inappropriate for nondomestic canids such as the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), leaving some animals susceptible to infectious disease and others at risk for contracting vaccine-induced disease. In this study, red wolves (Canis rufus) were vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and vaccination titers were followed annually for 3 yr. One hundred percent of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CDV for 3 yr and 96.9% of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CPV for 3 yr. Seroconversion for canine adenovirus was sporadic. The results of this study support decreasing the frequency of vaccine administration in the red wolf population to a triennial basis.

  1. Advance Care Planning Documentation in Electronic Health Records: Current Challenges and Recommendations for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Daniela; Panariello, Natalie; Henrich, Natalie; Hammes, Bernard; Hanson, Laura C; Meier, Diane E; Guinn, Nancy; Corrigan, Janet; Hubber, Sean; Luetke-Stahlman, Hannah; Block, Susan

    2018-04-01

    To develop a set of clinically relevant recommendations to improve the state of advance care planning (ACP) documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). Advance care planning (ACP) is a key process that supports goal-concordant care. For preferences to be honored, clinicians must be able to reliably record, find, and use ACP documentation. However, there are no standards to guide ACP documentation in the electronic health record (EHR). We interviewed 21 key informants to understand the strengths and weaknesses of EHR documentation systems for ACP and identify best practices. We analyzed these interviews using a qualitative content analysis approach and subsequently developed a preliminary set of recommendations. These recommendations were vetted and refined in a second round of input from a national panel of content experts. Informants identified six themes regarding current inadequacies in documentation and accessibility of ACP information and opportunities for improvement. We offer a set of concise, clinically relevant recommendations, informed by expert opinion, to improve the state of ACP documentation in the EHR.

  2. Regional, holocene records of the human dimension of global change: sea-level and land-use change in prehistoric Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Andrew

    1997-02-01

    Regional, Holocene records hold particular relevance for understanding the reciprocal nature of global environmental change and one of its major human dimensions: "sustainable agriculture", i.e., food production strategies which entail fewer causes of and are less susceptible to environmental change. In an epoch of accelerating anthropogenic transformation, those records reveal the protracted regional causes and consequences of change (often agricultural) in the global system as well as informing models of prehistoric, intensive agriculture which, because of long tenures and high productivities, suggest strategies for sustainable agricultural in the present. This study employs physiographic analysis and the palynological, geochemical record from cores of basin fill to understand the reciprocal relation between environmental and land-use change in the Gulf of Mexico tropical lowland, focusing on a coastal basin sensitive to sea-level change and containing vestiges of prehistoric settlement and wetland agriculture. Fossil pollen reveals that the debut of maize cultivation in the Laguna Catarina watershed dates to ca. 4100 BC, predating the earliest evidence for that cultivar anywhere else in the lowlands of Middle America. Such an early date for a cultivar so central to Neotropical agroecology and environmental change, suggests the urgency of further research in the study region. Moreover, the longest period of continuous agriculture in the basin lasted nearly three millennia (ca. 2400 BC-AD 550) despite eustatic sea-level rise. Geochemical fluxes reveal the reciprocity between land-use and environmental change: slope destabilization, basin aggradation, and eutrophication. The consequent theoretical implications pertain to both applied and basic research. Redeploying ancient agroecologies in dynamic environments necessitates reconstructing the changing operational contexts of putative high productivity and sustainability. Adjusting land use in the face of global

  3. 50-Ma Initiation of Hawaiian-Emperor Bend Records Major Change in Pacific Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Warren D.; Clague, David A.

    2006-09-01

    The Hawaiian-Emperor bend has played a prominent yet controversial role in deciphering past Pacific plate motions and the tempo of plate motion change. New ages for volcanoes of the central and southern Emperor chain define large changes in volcanic migration rate with little associated change in the chain's trend, which suggests that the bend did not form by slowing of the Hawaiian hot spot. Initiation of the bend near Kimmei seamount about 50 million years ago (MA) was coincident with realignment of Pacific spreading centers and early magmatism in western Pacific arcs, consistent with formation of the bend by changed Pacific plate motion.

  4. A 1200-Year Record of Rapid Climate Changes Across the Tropical Americas Identified from Lake Sediments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Bird, B. W.; Vuille, M.

    2009-12-01

    Well-dated, highly resolved lake sediment stratigraphies from similar catchments across the tropical Americas provide a means to investigate the timing, rate and direction of climate variability as well as providing a way to evaluate whether rapid changes occur synchronously in both hemispheres. This presentation focuses on the last 1500 years from three new high-resolution stable isotope records including Yuraicocha (12°32'S, 75°29'W), Pumacocha (10°41'S, 76° 3'36W), and Gancho (8°27'N, 80°51'W). These lakes are all sensitive to changes in P/E and the sediment records respond at subdecadal timescales. Additionally, the results from these sites are compared with lake level records from Titicaca (16°14'S, 68°37'W) and Blanca (8°19'N, 71°46'W) as well as other lake core and speleothem records from the region. The results show that in general conditions are dry across South America from ~800 AD until ~1300 AD with wetter conditions in Central America and the Caribbean. This pattern of dry conditions in tropical South America and wet conditions in the north reverses after ~1300 when conditions become wetter in South America, and drier in Central America and the Carrabin.

  5. Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo) and wolves (Canis lupus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis; Kålås, John Atle; Persson, Bertil; Åsbrink, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. 210 Po and 137 Cs have been analysed in samples of liver, kidney and muscle from 28 wolves from Sweden. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for 210 Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway. The liver samples were analysed for 210 Po and 137 Cs. Only 137 Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter 2010 and 2011, while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from 2011. The activity concentrations of 210 Po in wolves were higher for liver (range 20–523 Bq kg −1 d.w.) and kidney (range 24–942 Bq kg −1 d.w.) than muscle (range 1–43 Bq kg −1 d.w.) and blood (range 2–54 Bq kg −1 d.w.). Activity ratios, 210 Po/ 210 Pb, in wolf samples of muscle, liver and blood were in the ranges 2–77, 9–56 and 2–54. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal absorbed dose from 210 Po to wolf liver was estimated to 3500 μGy per year. Compared to wolf, the ranges of 210 Po in liver samples were lower in lynx (range 22–211 Bq kg −1 d.w.) and wolverine (range16–160 Bq kg −1 d.w.). Concentration of 137 Cs in wolf samples of muscle, liver, kidney and blood were in the ranges 70–8410 Bq kg −1 d.w., 36–4050 Bq kg −1 d.w., 31–3453 Bq kg −1 d.w. and 4–959 Bq kg −1 d.w., respectively. 137 Cs in lynx muscle and liver samples were in the ranges 44–13393 Bq kg −1 d.w. and 125–10260 Bq kg −1 d.w. The corresponding values for 137 Cs in wolverine were 22–3405 Bq kg −1 d.w. for liver and 53–4780 Bq kg −1 d.w. for muscle. The maximal absorbed dose from 137 Cs to lynx was estimated to 3000 μGy per year. - Highlights: • Annual doses from 210 Po are 1.4, 1.0 and 3.4 mGy for lynx, wolverine, and wolf. • Annual doses from 137 Cs are 3.3, 1.5 and 3.6 mGy for

  6. Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo) and wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis; Kålås, John Atle; Persson, Bertil; Asbrink, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. (210)Po and (137)Cs have been analysed in samples of liver, kidney and muscle from 28 wolves from Sweden. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for (210)Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway. The liver samples were analysed for (210)Po and (137)Cs. Only (137)Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter 2010 and 2011, while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from 2011. The activity concentrations of (210)Po in wolves were higher for liver (range 20-523 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and kidney (range 24-942 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) than muscle (range 1-43 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and blood (range 2-54 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Activity ratios, (210)Po/(210)Pb, in wolf samples of muscle, liver and blood were in the ranges 2-77, 9-56 and 2-54. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal absorbed dose from (210)Po to wolf liver was estimated to 3500 μGy per year. Compared to wolf, the ranges of (210)Po in liver samples were lower in lynx (range 22-211 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and wolverine (range16-160 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Concentration of (137)Cs in wolf samples of muscle, liver, kidney and blood were in the ranges 70-8410 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 36-4050 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 31-3453 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 4-959 Bq kg(-1) d.w., respectively. (137)Cs in lynx muscle and liver samples were in the ranges 44-13393 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 125-10260 Bq kg(-1) d.w. The corresponding values for (137)Cs in wolverine were 22-3405 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for liver and 53-4780 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for muscle. The maximal absorbed dose from (137)Cs to lynx was estimated to 3000 μGy per year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Amplified plant turnover in response to climate change forecast by Late Quaternary records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Veloz, S.; Holt, Benjamin George

    2016-01-01

    calibrated against taxa-climate relationships for the past 21,000 years. We find that incorporating long-term data into niche-based models increases the magnitude of projected future changes for plant abundances and community turnover. The larger projected changes in abundances and community turnover...

  8. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Brodie, Jedediah F; Jules, Erik S

    2010-09-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen Stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  9. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  10. Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaynes, Sarah; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Quimby, Kira A; Smith, Douglas W; Coulson, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of top-predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust their numbers to prey supply or compensate for human exploitation. However, studies to date have primarily focused on exploited wolf populations, in which density-dependent mechanisms are likely weak due to artificially low wolf densities. Using 13 years of data on 280 collared wolves in Yellowstone National Park, we assessed the effect of wolf density, prey abundance and population structure, as well as winter severity, on age-specific survival in two areas (prey-rich vs. prey-poor) of the national park. We further analysed cause-specific mortality and explored the factors driving intraspecific aggression in the prey-rich northern area of the park. Overall, survival rates decreased during the study. In northern Yellowstone, density dependence regulated adult survival through an increase in intraspecific aggression, independent of prey availability. In the interior of the park, adult survival was less variable and density-independent, despite reduced prey availability. There was no effect of prey population structure in northern Yellowstone, or of winter severity in either area. Survival was similar among yearlings and adults, but lower for adults older than 6 years. Our results indicate that density-dependent intraspecific aggression is a major driver of adult wolf survival in northern Yellowstone, suggesting intrinsic density-dependent mechanisms have the potential to regulate wolf populations at high ungulate densities. When low prey availability or high

  11. New Records and Name Changes for the Orchids in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One genus (Anoectochilus and 12 species (Agrostophyllum neoguineense, Anoectochilus papuanus, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum aemulum, B. bisepalum, B. nubigenum, B. ochroleucum, B. phreatiopse, Corybas solomonensis, Crepidium laevis, Didymoplexis striata, Epipogium roseum of orchids (Orchidaceae are first recorded to the flora of the Solomon Islands during the 2012–2015 field expeditions. Geographic data, ecological and taxonomic notes and illustrations of those species are provided. A new combination (Pinalia oligotricha and a new name (Dendrobium bougainvilleanum are also proposed for fitting recent systematic alterations within Orchidaceae.

  12. Effect of recent climate change on Arctic Pb pollution: a comparative study of historical records in lake and peat sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Pengfei; Xu, Liqiang

    2012-01-01

    Historical changes of anthropogenic Pb pollution were reconstructed based on Pb concentrations and isotope ratios in lake and peat sediment profiles from Ny-Ålesund of Arctic. The calculated excess Pb isotope ratios showed that Pb pollution largely came from west Europe and Russia. The peat profile clearly reflected the historical changes of atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic Pb into Ny-Ålesund, and the result showed that anthropogenic Pb peaked at 1960s-1970s, and thereafter a significant recovery was observed by a rapid increase of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and a remarkable decrease in anthropogenic Pb contents. In contrast to the peat record, the longer lake record showed relatively high anthropogenic Pb contents and a persistent decrease of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios within the uppermost samples, suggesting that climate-sensitive processes such as catchment erosion and meltwater runoff might have influenced the recent change of Pb pollution record in the High Arctic lake sediments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

      Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked...... to large-scale North Atlantic ocean and climate variability. AMS 14C-dating of benthic foraminifera indicates that the sediment core covers the last 4400 years and may include the termination of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). The late HTM (4.4-3.2 ka BP) is characterized by high accumulation rates...

  14. Ice volume and climate changes from a 6000 year sea-level record in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, N; Camoin, G; Eisenhauer, A; Botella, A; Milne, G A; Vella, C; Samankassou, E; Pothin, V; Dussouillez, P; Fleury, J; Fietzke, J

    2018-01-18

    Mid- to late-Holocene sea-level records from low-latitude regions serve as an important baseline of natural variability in sea level and global ice volume prior to the Anthropocene. Here, we reconstruct a high-resolution sea-level curve encompassing the last 6000 years based on a comprehensive study of coral microatolls, which are sensitive low-tide recorders. Our curve is based on microatolls from several islands in a single region and comprises a total of 82 sea-level index points. Assuming thermosteric contributions are negligible on millennial time scales, our results constrain global ice melting to be 1.5-2.5 m (sea-level equivalent) since ~5500 years before present. The reconstructed curve includes isolated rapid events of several decimetres within a few centuries, one of which is most likely related to loss from the Antarctic ice sheet mass around 5000 years before present. In contrast, the occurrence of large and flat microatolls indicates periods of significant sea-level stability lasting up to ~300 years.

  15. An age-calibrated record of upper Campanian – Maastrichtian climate change in the Boreal Realm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Schovsbo, Niels; Harlou, Rikke

    nannofossil chalk is in agreement with planktic biotic events of the latest Cretaceous and matches well with climatic trends of intermediate- and deep-waters from other oceanic basins recorded through benthic foraminiferal d18O (Barrera and Savin, 1999). However, most planktic foraminiferal d18O data do......The latest Cretaceous climate of the Boreal Realm was recorded through high-resolution bulk carbon- and oxygen-stable isotopes and a nannofossil temperature index (NTI) on the Stevns-1 core (Denmark) which recovered 456 m of upper Campanian to basal Danian chalk with ~100% recovery and an excellent...... temperatures (SSTs) in the Boreal Realm. Three warming events punctuate the overall cooling trend of the latest Cretaceous: (1) the late Campanian climatic optimum (73.9–71.6 Ma) is characterized by maximum SSTs of 20°C, (2) the mid-Maastrichtian warming (69.7–68 Ma) is characterized by stable SSTs around 17°C...

  16. Coral Records of 20th Century Central Tropical Pacific SST and Salinity: Signatures of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of regional climate changes in many regions of the world largely depend on quantifying anthropogenic trends in tropical Pacific climate against its rich background of interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. However, the strong natural climate variability combined with limited instrumental climate datasets have obscured potential anthropogenic climate signals in the region. Here, we present coral-based sea-surface temperature (SST) and salinity proxy records over the 20th century (1898-1998) from the central tropical Pacific - a region sensitive to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whose variability strongly impacts the global climate. The SST and salinity proxy records are reconstructed via coral Sr/Ca and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18Osw), respectively. On interannual (2-7yr) timescales, the SST proxy record tracks both eastern- and central-Pacific flavors of ENSO variability (R=0.65 and R=0.67, respectively). Interannual-scale salinity variability in our coral record highlights profound differences in precipitation and ocean advections during the two flavors of ENSO. On decadal (8yr-lowpassed) timescales, the central tropical Pacific SST and salinity proxy records are controlled by different sets of dynamics linked to the leading climate modes of North Pacific climate variability. Decadal-scale central tropical Pacific SST is highly correlated to the recently discovered North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO; R=-0.85), reflecting strong dynamical links between the central Pacific warming mode and extratropical decadal climate variability. Whereas decadal-scale salinity variations in the central tropical Pacific are significantly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO; R=0.54), providing a better understanding on low-frequency salinity variability in the region. Having characterized natural climate variability in this region, the coral record shows a +0.5°C warming trend throughout the last century

  17. Analysis of land use and climate change impacts by comparing river flow records for headwaters and lowland reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-11-01

    The natural flow regime of rivers has been strongly altered world-wide, resulting in ecosystem degradation and lakes drying up, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Determining whether this is due mainly to climate change or to water withdrawal for direct human use (e.g. irrigation) is difficult, particularly for saline lake basins where hydrology data are scarce. In this study, we developed an approach for assessing climate and land use change impacts based on river flow records for headwater and lowland reaches of rivers, using the case of Lake Urmia basin, in north-westen Iran. Flow regimes at upstream and downstream stations were studied before and after major dam construction and irrigation projects. Data from 57 stations were used to establish five different time intervals representing 10 different land use development periods (scenarios) for upstream (not impacted) and downstream (impacted) systems. An existing river impact (RI) index was used to assess changes in three main characteristics of flow (magnitude, timing and, intra-annual variability). The results showed that irrigation was by far the main driving force for river flow regime changes in the lake basin. All stations close to the lake and on adjacent plains showed significantly higher impacts of land use change than headwaters. As headwaters are relatively unaffected by agriculture, the non-significant changes observed in headwater flow regimes indicate a minor effect of climate change on river flows in the region. The benefit of the method developed is clear interpretation of results based on river flow records, which is useful in communicating land use and climate change information to decision makers and lake restoration planners.

  18. Common species link global ecosystems to climate change: dynamical evidence in the planktonic fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannisdal, Bjarte; Haaga, Kristian Agasøster; Reitan, Trond; Diego, David; Liow, Lee Hsiang

    2017-07-12

    Common species shape the world around us, and changes in their commonness signify large-scale shifts in ecosystem structure and function. However, our understanding of long-term ecosystem response to environmental forcing in the deep past is centred on species richness, neglecting the disproportional impact of common species. Here, we use common and widespread species of planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments to track changes in observed global occupancy (proportion of sampled sites at which a species is present and observed) through the turbulent climatic history of the last 65 Myr. Our approach is sensitive to relative changes in global abundance of the species set and robust to factors that bias richness estimators. Using three independent methods for detecting causality, we show that the observed global occupancy of planktonic foraminifera has been dynamically coupled to past oceanographic changes captured in deep-ocean temperature reconstructions. The causal inference does not imply a direct mechanism, but is consistent with an indirect, time-delayed causal linkage. Given the strong quantitative evidence that a dynamical coupling exists, we hypothesize that mixotrophy (symbiont hosting) may be an ecological factor linking the global abundance of planktonic foraminifera to long-term climate changes via the relative extent of oligotrophic oceans. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Direct north-south synchronization of abrupt climate change record in ice cores using Beryllium 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Raisbeck

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new, decadally resolved record of the 10Be peak at 41 kyr from the EPICA Dome C ice core (Antarctica is used to match it with the same peak in the GRIP ice core (Greenland. This permits a direct synchronisation of the climatic variations around this time period, independent of uncertainties related to the ice age-gas age difference in ice cores. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 10 is in the period of best synchronisation and is found to be coeval with an Antarctic temperature maximum. Simulations using a thermal bipolar seesaw model agree reasonably well with the observed relative climate chronology in these two cores. They also reproduce three Antarctic warming events observed between A1 and A2.

  20. Long memory effect of past climate change in Vostok ice core records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yuuki; Kitahara, Naoki; Kano, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Time series analysis of Vostok ice core data has been done for understanding of palaeoclimate change from a stochastic perspective. The Vostok ice core is one of the proxy data for palaeoclimate in which local temperature and precipitation rate, moisture source conditions, wind strength and aerosol fluxes of marine, volcanic, terrestrial, cosmogenic and anthropogenic origin are indirectly stored. Palaeoclimate data has a periodic feature and a stochastic feature. For the proxy data, spectrum analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were conducted to characterize periodicity and scaling property (long memory effect) in the climate change. The result of spectrum analysis indicates there exist periodicities corresponding to the Milankovitch cycle in past climate change occurred. DFA clarified time variability of scaling exponents (Hurst exponent) is associated with abrupt warming in past climate.

  1. Near-field phase-change recording using a GaN laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, Koichiro; Ichimura, Isao; Yamamoto, Kenji; Osato, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Yuji; Iida, Atsushi; Saito, Kimihiro

    2000-09-01

    We developed a 1.5-Numerical-Aperture optical setup using a GaN blue-violet laser diode. We used a 1.0 mm-diameter super-hemispherical solid immersion lens, and optimized a phase-change disk structure including the cover layer by the method of MTF simulation. The disk surface was polished by tape burnishing technique. An eye-pattern of (1-7)-coded data at the linear density of 80 nm/bit was demonstrated on the phase-change disk below a 50 nm gap height, which was realized through our air-gap servo mechanism.

  2. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen K Beck

    Full Text Available A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300-4000 cal yr BP, indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD. In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group

  3. A diatom record of recent environmental change in Lake Duluti, northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, Helena; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Westerberg, Lars-Ove

    2012-01-01

    Lake Duluti is a small, topographically closed crater lake located on the flanks of Mt Meru, northern Tanzania. Analyses of diatoms in three short sediment cores and four modern samples from Lake Duluti were used to infer past environmental changes. 210Pb and 137Cs activity profiles combined...

  4. An environmental record of changes in sedimentary organic matter from Lake Sattal in Kumaun Himalayas, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Preetam; Routh, Joyanto; Chakrapani, Govind J.

    2009-01-01

    Sattal a small mountainous lake in the Kumaun Himalayas has been impacted by various cultural activities in recent years. We explored the effects of human-induced changes in this lake by using various geochemical proxies. Shifts in TOC and N flux, C/N ratio, stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), n-alkane, and pigment concentrations in sediments indicate a steady increase in primary productivity over the last few decades. The trophic status of the lake has changed from mesotrophic to eutrophic condition. The C/N, CPI, and TAR based ratios in sediments indicate accumulation of algal matter derived primarily from in situ production, with limited input of terrestrial organic matter from the watershed. The low (between 0.1 and 1 per mille ) δ 15 N values imply N 2 -fixation by cyanobacteria, and the decrease in δ 13 C values up-core represent the effect of sewage input and land based runoff, or possible contribution from microbial biomass. The pigments change from non-N 2 fixing cyanobacterial species to the N 2 -fixing community, and are consistent with the proxy-based productivity shifts inferred in the lake. The deeper sediments are affected by post-diagenetic changes causing an increase in δ 13 C (and possibly δ 15 N) due to mineralization of organic C and N

  5. Global change revealed by palaeolimnological records from remote lakes: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Catalan, J.; Pla-Rabés, S.; Wolfe, A. P.; Smol, J. P.; Rühland, K. M.; Anderson, N. J.; Kopáček, Jiří; Stuchlík, E.; Schmidt, R.; Koinig, K. A.; Camarero, L.; Flower, R. J.; Heiri, O.; Kameník, C.; Korhola, A.; Leavitt, P. R.; Psenner, R.; Renberg, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2013), s. 513-535 ISSN 0921-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : palaeolimnology * sediments * acidifications * heavy metals * global change Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2013

  6. A complete Holocene record of trematode-bivalve infection and implications for the response of parasitism to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, John Warren; Fürsich, Franz T; Alberti, Matthias; Hethke, Manja; Liu, Chunlian

    2014-12-23

    Increasing global temperature and sea-level rise have led to concern about expansions in the distribution and prevalence of complex-lifecycle parasites (CLPs). Indeed, numerous environmental variables can influence the infectivity and reproductive output of many pathogens. Digenean trematodes are CLPs with intermediate invertebrate and definitive vertebrate hosts. Global warming and sea level rise may affect these hosts to varying degrees, and the effect of increasing temperature on parasite prevalence has proven to be nonlinear and difficult to predict. Projecting the response of parasites to anthropogenic climate change is vital for human health, and a longer term perspective (10(4) y) offered by the subfossil record is necessary to complement the experimental and historical approaches of shorter temporal duration (10(-1) to 10(3) y). We demonstrate, using a high-resolution 9,600-y record of trematode parasite traces in bivalve hosts from the Holocene Pearl River Delta, that prevalence was significantly higher during the earliest stages of sea level rise, significantly lower during the maximum transgression, and statistically indistinguishable in the other stages of sea-level rise and delta progradation. This stratigraphic paleobiological pattern represents the only long-term high-resolution record of pathogen response to global change, is consistent with fossil and recent data from other marine basins, and is instructive regarding the future of disease. We predict an increase in trematode prevalence concurrent with anthropogenic warming and marine transgression, with negative implications for estuarine macrobenthos, marine fisheries, and human health.

  7. The concerted impact of domestication and transposon insertions on methylation patterns between dogs and gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ilana Janowitz; Clark, Michelle M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Deere-Machemer, Kerry A.; Wang, Jun; Duarte, Lionel; Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E.; McCoy, Eskender L.; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Stahler, Daniel R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.

    2015-01-01

    The process of domestication can exert intense trait-targeted selection on genes and regulatory regions. Specifically, rapid shifts in the structure and sequence of genomic regulatory elements could provide an explanation for the extensive, and sometimes extreme, variation in phenotypic traits observed in domesticated species. Here, we explored methylation differences from >24,000 cytosines distributed across the genomes of the domesticated dog (Canis familiaris) and the gray wolf (C. lupus). PCA and model-based cluster analyses identified two primary groups, domestic versus wild canids. A scan for significantly differentially methylated sites (DMSs) revealed species-specific patterns at 68 sites after correcting for cell heterogeneity, with weak yet significant hyper-methylation typical of purebred dogs when compared to wolves (59% and 58%, p66%) of differentially methylated regions contained or were associated with repetitive elements, indicative of a genotype-mediated trend. However, DMSs were also often linked to functionally relevant genes (e.g. neurotransmitters). Finally, we utilized known genealogical relationships among Yellowstone wolves to survey transmission stability of methylation marks, from which we found a substantial fraction that demonstrated high heritability (both H2 and h2>0.99). These analyses provide a unique epigenetic insight into the molecular consequences of recent selection and radiation of our most ancient domesticated companion, the dog. These findings suggest selection has acted on methylation patterns, providing a new genomic perspective on phenotypic diversification in domesticated species. PMID:27112634

  8. The concerted impact of domestication and transposon insertions on methylation patterns between dogs and grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz Koch, Ilana; Clark, Michelle M; Thompson, Michael J; Deere-Machemer, Kerry A; Wang, Jun; Duarte, Lionel; Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; McCoy, Eskender L; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Stahler, Daniel R; Pellegrini, Matteo; Ostrander, Elaine A; Wayne, Robert K; Sinsheimer, Janet S; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2016-04-01

    The process of domestication can exert intense trait-targeted selection on genes and regulatory regions. Specifically, rapid shifts in the structure and sequence of genomic regulatory elements could provide an explanation for the extensive, and sometimes extreme, variation in phenotypic traits observed in domesticated species. Here, we explored methylation differences from >24 000 cytosines distributed across the genomes of the domesticated dog (Canis familiaris) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus). PCA and model-based cluster analyses identified two primary groups, domestic vs. wild canids. A scan for significantly differentially methylated sites (DMSs) revealed species-specific patterns at 68 sites after correcting for cell heterogeneity, with weak yet significant hypermethylation typical of purebred dogs when compared to wolves (59% and 58%, P 66%) of differentially methylated regions contained or were associated with repetitive elements, indicative of a genotype-mediated trend. However, DMSs were also often linked to functionally relevant genes (e.g. neurotransmitters). Finally, we utilized known genealogical relationships among Yellowstone wolves to survey transmission stability of methylation marks, from which we found a substantial fraction that demonstrated high heritability (both H(2) and h(2 ) > 0.99). These analyses provide a unique epigenetic insight into the molecular consequences of recent selection and radiation of our most ancient domesticated companion, the dog. These findings suggest selection has acted on methylation patterns, providing a new genomic perspective on phenotypic diversification in domesticated species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Diseases and parasites in wolves of the Riding Mountain National Park region, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Sallows, Tim; Forbes, Graham J; Wagner, Brent; Paquet, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    We examined wolf (Canis lupus) blood and fecal samples from the Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) region of Manitoba, Canada. In 601 fecal samples collected during two study periods in RMNP and the Duck Mountain Provincial Park and Forest (DMPPF) we found gastrointestinal helminth eggs from Alaria sp. (15.5%), Capillaria sp. (1.0%), taeniid tapeworms (30.8%), Toxascaris sp. (1.7%), Toxocara sp. (0.2%), Trichuris sp. (2.2%), and Moniezia sp. (0.5%). In addition, we found Demodex sp. (0.2%) and the protozoal cysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (37.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (1.2%), coccidia (Isospora sp. or Eimeria sp.) (1.7%), and Giardia sp. (29.5%). No fecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV, n=387) was detected. All 18 blood samples collected in RMNP showed CPV exposure and eight of 18 blood samples indicated canine distemper virus (CDV) exposure. One wolf died from CDV. Our results are consistent with previous findings on pathogens affecting wolves and with high Giardia sp. prevalence in wolves inhabiting agricultural regions.

  10. Play Behavior in Wolves: Using the '50:50' Rule to Test for Egalitarian Play Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essler, Jennifer L; Cafazzo, Simona; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kotrschal, Kurt; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Social play is known as a cooperative interaction between individuals involving multiple mechanisms. However, the extent to which the equality of individuals' play styles affects the interaction has not been studied in many species. Dyadic play between wolf puppies, as well as between puppies and adults, was studied to investigate both self-handicapping and offensive behaviors to determine the extent to which wolves engage in play styles where one individual does not dominate the play. Our results did not support the hypothesized '50:50' rule, which suggests that more advantaged individuals should show higher rates of self-handicapping behaviors in order to facilitate play with others. Adult wolves performed significantly less self-handicapping behaviors than their puppy partners, and they performed significantly more offensive behaviors than their puppy partners. While the '50:50' rule was not supported at any time during our study period, dyads consisting of two puppies had significantly more equal play than dyads consisting of one puppy and one adult. These results suggest that wolf puppies are more likely to play on equal terms with similarly-aged play partners, while the dominance status of the partners dictates offensive and self-handicapping behaviors between animals of different ages.

  11. Play Behavior in Wolves: Using the '50:50' Rule to Test for Egalitarian Play Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Essler

    Full Text Available Social play is known as a cooperative interaction between individuals involving multiple mechanisms. However, the extent to which the equality of individuals' play styles affects the interaction has not been studied in many species. Dyadic play between wolf puppies, as well as between puppies and adults, was studied to investigate both self-handicapping and offensive behaviors to determine the extent to which wolves engage in play styles where one individual does not dominate the play. Our results did not support the hypothesized '50:50' rule, which suggests that more advantaged individuals should show higher rates of self-handicapping behaviors in order to facilitate play with others. Adult wolves performed significantly less self-handicapping behaviors than their puppy partners, and they performed significantly more offensive behaviors than their puppy partners. While the '50:50' rule was not supported at any time during our study period, dyads consisting of two puppies had significantly more equal play than dyads consisting of one puppy and one adult. These results suggest that wolf puppies are more likely to play on equal terms with similarly-aged play partners, while the dominance status of the partners dictates offensive and self-handicapping behaviors between animals of different ages.

  12. Quaternary carbonate record from the equatorial Indian Ocean and its relationship with productivity changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Malmgren, B.A.

    Globigerinoides ruber. This indicates that CaCO fluctuations at this site do not show either a 3 y2 y1 .Pacific or an Atlantic pattern of CaCO fluctuations. Fluxes of CaCO 0.38 to 2.46 g cm ka in total sediment and 33 y2 y1 .BarAl ratios 0.58 to 3.93 g cm ka... show six-fold variability through the last 1370 ka, which points out that productivity changes are significant at this site. Fluxes of the fine CaCO component demonstrate a 26-fold change 0.02 to 3 y2 y1 . y2 y1 .0.52 g cm ka , whereas the coarse Ca...

  13. A Deep Learning Approach to Examine Ischemic ST Changes in Ambulatory ECG Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Xu, Yuan; Pelter, Michele M; Mortara, David W; Hu, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at risk of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI), which could lead to serious morbidity or even mortality. Early detection of myocardial ischemia can reduce damage to heart tissues and improve patient condition. Significant ST change in the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important marker for detecting myocardial ischemia during the rule-out phase of potential ACS. However, current ECG monitoring software is vastly underused due to excessive false alarms. The present study aims to tackle this problem by combining a novel image-based approach with deep learning techniques to improve the detection accuracy of significant ST depression change. The obtained convolutional neural network (CNN) model yields an average area under the curve (AUC) at 89.6% from an independent testing set. At selected optimal cutoff thresholds, the proposed model yields a mean sensitivity at 84.4% while maintaining specificity at 84.9%.

  14. Compound-specific isotope records of late-quaternary environmental change in southeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Chad S.; Taylor, Audrey K.; Spencer, Jessica; Jones, Kaylee B.

    2018-02-01

    Reconstructions of late Quaternary paleohydrology are rare from the U.S. Atlantic coastal plain (ACP). Here we present compound-specific hydrogen (δ2Halkane) and carbon (δ13Calkane) isotope analyses of terrestrially-derived n-alkanes from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake in eastern North Carolina spanning the last ∼50,000 years. Combined with pollen, charcoal, and bulk geochemical analyses, the δ2Halkane data indicate arid conditions during the late-Pleistocene, but differing edaphic conditions at the sites perhaps related to differing water table depths. The δ13Calkane data indicate a significant C4 plant component during the late Pleistocene, but other proxies indicate a sparsely-vegetated landscape. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition is marked by rapid fluctuations in δ2Halkane values that are similar to the patterns of Bølling Allerød and Younger Dryas isotope data from Greenland indicating sensitivity of the regional climate to short-lived, high-amplitude climatic events. The δ2Halkane data indicate a mesic early Holocene that supported colonization by Quercus-dominated ecosystems. Evidence of middle Holocene aridity in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina contrasts with evidence of mesic conditions on the ACP, a geographic pattern similar to modern teleconnected precipitation responses to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. A transition to Pinus-dominated ecosystems ∼5500 cal yr B.P. is accompanied by a large increase charcoal, but is not coincident with any large changes in δ2Halkane values, indicating that hydrologic change was likely not responsible for sustained late-Holocene dominance of Pinus. The lack of a change in middle Holocene hydrology and the spatiotemporally heterogeneous nature of the Quercus-Pinus transition on the ACP indicate prehistoric anthropogenic land management practices may represent the most parsimonious explanation for the regionally pervasive ecological change.

  15. Hourly changes in sea surface salinity in coastal waters recorded by Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongjie; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Haiyan; Cui, Tingwei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Lingjuan; An, Jubai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we monitored hourly changes in sea surface salinity (SSS) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary satellite ocean color images for the first time, using the Bohai Sea as a case study. We developed a simple multi-linear statistical regression model to retrieve SSS data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) based on an in situ satellite matched-up dataset (R2 = 0.795; N = 41; Range: 26.4 to 31.9 psμ). The model was then validated using independent continuous SSS measurements from buoys, with the average percentage difference of 0.65%. The model was applied to GOCI images from the dry season during an astronomical tide to characterize hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea. We found that the model provided reasonable estimates of the hourly changes in SSS and that trends in the modeled and measured data were similar in magnitude and direction (0.43 vs 0.33 psμ, R2 = 0.51). There were clear diurnal variations in the SSS of the Bohai Sea, with a regional average of 0.455 ± 0.079 psμ (0.02-3.77 psμ). The magnitude of the diurnal variations in SSS varied spatially, with large diurnal variability in the nearshore, particularly in the estuary, and small variability in the offshore area. The model for the riverine area was based on the inverse correlation between SSS and CDOM absorption. In the offshore area, the water mass of the North Yellow Sea, characterized by high SSS and low CDOM concentrations, dominated. Analysis of the driving mechanisms showed that the tidal current was the main control on hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea.

  16. Signatures of geochemical changes at methane-seeps as recorded by seep carbonates

    OpenAIRE

    Himmler, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This thesis compiles three manuscripts: (1) The first manuscript (chapter 2.1) contains petrographic and geochemical data of aragonitic seep carbonates from the Makran accretionary prism. High-resolution rare earth element (REE) analysis yield distinct total REE[aragonite] concentrations and shale-normalised REE[aragonite] patterns. The REE variations are ascribed to different pore fluid compositions and accompanied redox changes during aragonite precipitation. (2) The second manuscript (chap...

  17. Paleoenvironmental record in Lake Baikal sediments: Environmental changes in the last 160 ky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Pruner, Petr; Swann, G.; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Lang, Kamil; Novotná, Kateřina; Oberhänsli, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 237, 2-4 (2006), s. 240-254 ISSN 0031-0182 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A028; GA AV ČR IAA3032401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : lake sediments * climate change * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.822, year: 2006

  18. The role of mass spectrometry in obtaining environmental/climate change records from Coral reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, Malcolm

    2000-01-01

    Coral reefs provide the main constraint on past changes in sea level. Depending on the species, corals generally grow within a relatively narrow range of water depths, from the low tide mark to typically 5 to 10 metres depth and can be readily dated using either 14 C or U-series methods. The combination of mass spectrometry and 238 U- 230 Th dating has proved to be a particularly powerful tool

  19. High-latitude tree-ring data: Records of climatic change and ecological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graumlich, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    Tree-ring data provide critical information regarding two fundamental questions as to the role of the polar regions in global change: (1) what is the nature of climatic variability? and (2) what is the response of vegetation to climatic variability? Tree-ring-based climatic reconstructions document the variability of the climate system on time scales of years to centuries. Dendroclimatic reconstructions indicate that the climatic episodes defined on the basis of documentary evidence in western Europe (i.e., Medieval Warm Episode, ca. A.D. 1000-1300; Little Ice Age, ca. A.D. 1550-1850) can be observed at some high-latitude sites (ex., Polar Urals). Spatial variation in long-term temperature trends (ex., northern Fennoscandia vs. Polar Urals) demonstrates the importance of regional-scale climatic controls. When collated into global networks, proxy-based climatic reconstructions can be used to test hypotheses as to the relative importance of external forcing vs. internal variation in governing climatic variation. Specifically, such a global network would allow the quantification of the climatic response to various permutations of factors thought to be important in governing decadal- to centennial-scale climatic variation. Tree populations respond to annual- to centennial-scale climatic variation through changes in rates of growth, establishment, and mortality. Tree-ring studies that document multiple aspects of high-latitude treeline dynamics (i.e., the timing of tree establishment, mortality, and changes from krummholz to upright growth) indicate a complex interaction between growth form, population processes, and environmental variability. Such interactions result in varying sensitivities of high-latitude trees to climatic change

  20. Oxygen isotopes of marine mollusc shells record Eocene elevation change in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Emmanuel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Constraining paleoaltimetry of collisional orogens is critical to understand the dynamics of topographic evolution and climate/tectonics retroactions. Here, we use oxygen stable-isotope record on oyster shells, preserved in marine foreland deposits, to examine the past elevation of the Pyrenees during the Eocene. Our approach is based on the comparison with the Paris basin, an intracratonic basin not influenced by orogenic growth. The finding of a shift of 1.5‰ between 49 and 41 Ma, indicating more negative δ18Oc in the south Pyrenean foreland, is interpreted to reflect the inflow of river water sourced from higher elevation in the Pyrenees. To test this and provide paleoelevation estimate, we adopt a morphologic-hydrological model accounting for the hypsometry of drainage basin. Our best fitting model shows that the Pyrenees rose up to 2000 m. This indicates that the Pyrenees reached high elevation in the Eocene, thus providing new critical constraints on their long-term orogenic development. δ18O of marine mollusc shells are proved potentially attractive for paleoelevation studies, especially for mountain belts where elevated continental surfaces have not been preserved.

  1. Sedimentation rates and erosion changes recorded in recent sediments of Lake Piaseczno, south-eastern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Turczyński, Marek; Kinder, Małgorzata

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the dating results and basic analyses of recent sediments from Lake Piaseczno. The age of sediments was determined using the 210Pb method and constant flux: constant sedimentation (CF: CS) model. The estimated timescale was in agreement with the AMS14C date from the base of the core. The mean sediment accumulation rate during the last 100 years was calculated as 0.025 g cm-2 a-1. Based on the radiocarbon date, the rate of sediment accumulation below the 210Pb dating horizon was estimated as 0.066 g cm-2 a-1. The variability of main physical properties and sediment components along the core was analysed as well. The sediments were characterised by a very high water content (>80%). Carbonates were either not present or at a very low level (interesting record of increasing erosion intensity in the catchment area. Analysis of archival cartographic materials demonstrated that the most likely reason for the enhanced transport of minerogenic matter to the lake was deforestation caused by human activity in the beginning of the 20th century.

  2. Predicting changes in hypertension control using electronic health records from a chronic disease management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; McNaughton, Candace D; Zhang, Ping; Perer, Adam; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris; Denny, Joshua C; Kirby, Jacqueline; Lasko, Thomas; Saip, Alexander; Malin, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Common chronic diseases such as hypertension are costly and difficult to manage. Our ultimate goal is to use data from electronic health records to predict the risk and timing of deterioration in hypertension control. Towards this goal, this work predicts the transition points at which hypertension is brought into, as well as pushed out of, control. Method In a cohort of 1294 patients with hypertension enrolled in a chronic disease management program at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, patients are modeled as an array of features derived from the clinical domain over time, which are distilled into a core set using an information gain criteria regarding their predictive performance. A model for transition point prediction was then computed using a random forest classifier. Results The most predictive features for transitions in hypertension control status included hypertension assessment patterns, comorbid diagnoses, procedures and medication history. The final random forest model achieved a c-statistic of 0.836 (95% CI 0.830 to 0.842) and an accuracy of 0.773 (95% CI 0.766 to 0.780). Conclusions This study achieved accurate prediction of transition points of hypertension control status, an important first step in the long-term goal of developing personalized hypertension management plans. PMID:24045907

  3. Predicting changes in hypertension control using electronic health records from a chronic disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimeng; McNaughton, Candace D; Zhang, Ping; Perer, Adam; Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris; Denny, Joshua C; Kirby, Jacqueline; Lasko, Thomas; Saip, Alexander; Malin, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    Common chronic diseases such as hypertension are costly and difficult to manage. Our ultimate goal is to use data from electronic health records to predict the risk and timing of deterioration in hypertension control. Towards this goal, this work predicts the transition points at which hypertension is brought into, as well as pushed out of, control. In a cohort of 1294 patients with hypertension enrolled in a chronic disease management program at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, patients are modeled as an array of features derived from the clinical domain over time, which are distilled into a core set using an information gain criteria regarding their predictive performance. A model for transition point prediction was then computed using a random forest classifier. The most predictive features for transitions in hypertension control status included hypertension assessment patterns, comorbid diagnoses, procedures and medication history. The final random forest model achieved a c-statistic of 0.836 (95% CI 0.830 to 0.842) and an accuracy of 0.773 (95% CI 0.766 to 0.780). This study achieved accurate prediction of transition points of hypertension control status, an important first step in the long-term goal of developing personalized hypertension management plans.

  4. Landscape of fear in Europe: wolves affect spatial patterns of ungulate browsing in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Kleine, de C.; Churski, M.; Hooft, van W.F.; Bubnicki, J.; Jedrzejewska, B.

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivores can either directly influence ungulate populations or indirectly affect their behaviour. Knowledge from European systems, in contrast to North American systems, on how this might lead to cascading effects on lower trophic levels is virtually absent. We studied whether wolves Canis

  5. Wolves, confederates and the happy few: the influence of comprehension, agreement and target on the appreciation of irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mulken, M.J.P.; Burgers, C.F.; van der Plas, B.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehension is an important factor in the functioning of irony. Readers who are unaware of the irony in an utterance are "sheep," whereas readers who understand the irony are "wolves" (Gibbs & Izett, 2005). Factors that may impact on the attitude toward irony not only include comprehension, but

  6. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Robert J; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  7. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  8. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  9. Geological records of marine environmental changes in the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Indexes of sediment grain size, sedimentation rates, geochemical composition, heavy minerals, benthic foraminiferal fauna, indicator species of the Kuroshio Current, paleo-SST and carbonate dissolution of core E017 conformably suggest a great marine environmental change occurring at about 10.1-9.2 cal. kaBP in the southern Okinawa Trough, which may correspond to the strengthening of the Kuroshio Warm Current and re-entering the Okinawa Trough through the sea area off northeast Taiwan. The invasion of Kuroshio current has experienced a process of gradual strengthening and then weakening, and its intensity became more fluctuation during the last 5000 years. Compared to the transition of sediment grain size, geochemical composition and heavy minerals, the foraminiferal faunas show a 900-year lag, which may indicate that the invasion of Kuroshio Current and the consequent sea surface and deep-water environmental changes is a gradual process, and fauna has an obvious lag compared to environment altering. The carbonate dissolution of the Okinawa Trough has had an apparent strengthening since 9.2 cal. kaBP, and reached a maximum in the late 3000 years, which may be caused by the deep-water environmental changes due to the invasion of Kuroshio Current.

  10. Increases in the completeness of disease records in dairy databases following changes in the criteria determining whether a record counts as correct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ann-Kristina; Houe, Hans; Espetvedt, Mari N

    2012-01-01

    Background The four Nordic countries: Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE), all have national databases in which mainly records of treated animals are maintained. Recently, the completeness of locomotor disorder records in these databases has been evaluated using farmers' reco...

  11. Radicaesium 210Po and 210Pb in wolves (Canis lupus), Lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolverine (Gulo gulo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Gjeisvik, R.; Kålås, J.A.; Persson, B.; Henricsson, F.; Samuelsson, C.; Åsbrink, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland and also several other countries. Concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been analysed in muscle, liver and kidney samples of 28 wolves from Sweden and liver from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway collected during the years 2010 and 2011. For example the activity concentrations of 210 Po in liver from wolf, lynx, wolverine and wolf varied from 20-500, 22-211 Bq kg -1 , and 17-160 Bq kg - respectively. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal dose to liver of wolves is estimated to 3.5 mGy per year. Polonium-210 is accumulated to a large extent than it precursor 210 Pb. Activity ratios, 210 Po/ 210 Pb, in liver for example ranged from 9 to 56. Radiocaesium in liver shows for example a very larger variation ranging from 40-13000 Bq kg -1 in lynx. This is mainly due to the large variability in deposition from the Chernobyl accident. For wolves the 137 Cs concentration in muscle varied from 70 to 8000 Bq kg -1 d.w. The maximal dose to muscle for wolves from 137 Cs is estimated to 3.6 mGy per year. Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland and also several other countries. Concentrations of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 137 Cs have been analysed in liver samples of 28 wolves from Sweden and 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway collected during the years 2010 and 2011. The activity concentrations of 210 Po in liver from lynx, wolverine and wolf varied from 22- 211 Bq kg -1 , 17-160 Bq kg -1 d.w. and 20-523 Bq kg -1 d.w., respectively and did not differ between species. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal dose to liver is estimated to 3.5 mGy per year. Polonium-210 is accumulated to a larger extent than it precursor 210 Pb. Activity ratios, 210 Po/ 210 Pb, in liver for example ranged from 9 to 56. Radiocaesium in liver show a very larger variation ranging from 20-13000 Bq kg in lynx. This is mainly due to

  12. The fossil record as a tool in cyclo stratigraphy: the incidence of Milankovitch-scale palaeoenvironmental changes on palaeocommunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J.

    2013-06-01

    Cyclo stratigraphic analysis at the Milankovitch scale has to date mainly been approached through the sedimentary record, although palaeontological data (the fossil record) is known to provide useful evidence of orbital-scale cycles of precession, obliquity and eccentricity. Orbit ally induced marine and terrestrial palaeoenvironmental changes determine variable responses on the part of the resident communities. Aside from the disruption of communities, complex evolutionary responses including stasis, speciation and extinction phenomena may take place. Cyclic variations in the marine past-biota at the community level, or in some particular taxa, have often been associated with orbit ally induced changes in palaeoenvironmental parameters. Cyclo stratigraphic research into foraminifera, radiol aria and nanno fossil data, mainly from Cretaceous sediments, may contribute significantly to our understanding of the planktonic community's response, whereas the response of the benthic community, deriving mainly from benthic foraminifera and trace fossils, has been studied to a lesser extent. Recognition of Milankovitch cycles from terrestrial palaeocommunities is relatively scarce and based mainly on the study of Pliocene-Miocene pollen assemblages. Astronomical forced climate changes determine well known variations in the distribution of terrestrial vegetation, but can also affect the terrestrial animal community, including hominid populations (migration, dispersion and colonisation). (Author)

  13. Method for determining thermo-physical properties of specimens. [photographic recording of changes in thin film phase-change temperature indicating material in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The square root of the product of thermophysical properties q, c and k, where p is density, c is specific heat and k is thermal conductivity, is determined directly on a test specimen such as a wind tunnel model. The test specimen and a reference specimen of known specific heat are positioned at a given distance from a heat source. The specimens are provided with a coating, such as a phase change coating, to visually indicate that a given temperature was reached. A shutter interposed between the heat source and the specimens is opened and a motion picture camera is actuated to provide a time record of the heating step. The temperature of the reference specimen is recorded as a function of time. The heat rate to which both the test and reference specimens were subjected is determined from the temperature time response of the reference specimen by the conventional thin-skin calorimeter equation.

  14. Co-seismic strain changes of Wenchuan Mw7. 9 earthquake recorded by borehole strainmeters on Tibetan plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Guangyu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic strain changes of the Wenchuan Mw7. 9 earthquake recorded with three four-component borehole strainmeters showed NW-SE and roughly EW extensions, respectively, at two locations in the interior and northern part of Tibetan plateau, and NS shortening at a location south of the epicenter, in agreement with the tectonic stress field of this region. The observed values of as much as 10−7 are, however, larger than theoretical values obtained with half-space and spherical-earth dislocation theories, implying the existence of other effects, such as local crustal structure and initial stress.

  15. Early to Middle Jurassic palaeoenvironmental changes: High resolution δ13C and δ18O records from the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Hesselbo, Stephen; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    Low-Mg-calcite fossils, such as bivalves, belemnites and brachiopods, and bulk rocks have been extensively utilized to reconstruct past seawater chemistry and paleoenviron¬mental changes. Recent work on major bioevents demonstrated that particularly higher resolution stable isotope records...... are necessary to reveal short-term paleoenviron¬mental fluctuations and, in addition, to discover its causes. Here we present a new high resolution carbon and oxygen isotope dataset generated from low-Mg-calcite fossils, fossil wood and bulk rocks collected from Early to Middle Jurassic marine successions...

  16. Unpacking paleoenvironmental change across OAE2 using paired d34S records of pyrite and organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, M. R.; Gomes, M.; Fike, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrite sulfur isotopes have proven to be a powerful tool for reconstructing major changes in global redox state and the emergence of microbial metabolisms. Still, pyrite can be a challenging archive, as its formation depends on the availability of reactive iron species and can occur over multiple generations of sedimentary processes. Accordingly, pyrite δ34S records commonly have large point-to-point variability reflecting local processes. By pairing pyrite δ34S records with those of coexisting organic matter (OM), including both kerogens and extractable bitumens, we can begin to parse the various potential causes of this variability and gain greater insights into changes in the sedimentary paleoenvironment. Here, we present the first collection of records of OM δ34S for the Cretaceous, focusing on sections spanning Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2, 94 Mya), a period of globally widespread marine anoxia and carbon cycle disruption. In carbonates and shales from OAE2 in Pont d'Issole, France, pyrite and OM δ34S values vary in parallel throughout most of the section, consistent with their shared sulfide source. There are also distinct exceptions: In one interval, an excursion in pyrite δ34S is entirely absent from the organic sulfur record but associated with unusual organic sulfur redox speciation (by XAS), potentially reflecting later exposure to oxic porewaters. Across the core interval of shale deposition during OAE2, the offset between pyrite and OM δ34S values declines smoothly from +17.4 to -7.9‰, which we interpret in terms of changes in the speciation of detrital iron minerals that may have regional implications. We then compare these results with data for other well-characterized OAE2 sections, including Cismon (Italy), Tarfaya (Morocco), and the Demerara Rise (offshore Brazil), which represent environments with a variety of apparent redox states. These paired pyrite - OM δ34S profiles yield new information about how the local and global forcings

  17. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  18. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21–25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5–0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100–1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision

  19. Empirical Records of Environmental Change across the Archean-Proterozoic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Time-series geochemical analyses of scientific drill cores intersecting the Archean-Proterozoic transition suggest a coupling of environmental and biological change that culminated in the pervasive oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Elemental and multiple isotope measurements of sedimentary archives, including carbonate, shale, and banded iron-formation from Western Australia, South Africa, Brazil, and southern Canada, indicate important changes in the carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles that monitor the redox state of the oceans and the cyanobacterial buildup of atmospheric oxygen and ozone. In response, continental weathering would have increased, resulting in the enhanced delivery of sulfate and nutrients to seawater, further stimulating photoautotrophic fluxes of oxygen to surface environments. The positive feedback may additionally be responsible for the decline of atmospheric methane and surface refrigeration, represented by a series of discrete ice ages beginning around 2.4 billion years ago, due to the loss of greenhouse capacity during a time of lower solar luminosity. While speculative, the linkage of surface oxidation with enhanced nutrient supply and development of stratospheric sunscreen soon after the Archean-Proterozoic boundary suggests that the earliest perturbation in the carbon cycle may be associated with the rapid expansion of single-celled eukaryotes. Both sterol synthesis in eukaryotes and aerobic respiration require significant levels of oxygen in the ambient environment. Hence, Earth's earliest ice age(s) and onset of a modern and far more energetic carbon cycle may have been directly related to the global expansion of cyanobacteria that released oxygen to the environment, and of eukaryotes that respired it.

  20. Record of palaeoenvironmental changes in the Mid-Polish Basin during the Valanginian Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Chloé; Kujau, Ariane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Mutterlose, Joerg; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Ploch, Isabela; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2013-04-01

    The Valanginian stage displays the first major perturbation of the carbon cycle of the Cretaceous period. The Valanginian Weissert episode is associated with a positive excursion (CIE) in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg values, and the occurrence of a crisis in pelagic and neritic carbonate production (Weissert et al., 1998; Erba, 2004, Föllmi et al., 2007). As for Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), the carbon anomaly is explained by the intensification of continental biogeochemical weathering triggering an increase in marine primary productivity and organic-matter preservation. However, to the contrary of OAEs, the organic matter trapped in the Tethyan Ocean during the Valanginian is both marine and continental and the occurrence of a widespread anoxia could not be evidenced (Westermann et al., 2010; Kujau et al., 2012). The resulting marine Corg burial rates were probably not sufficient to explain the shift in δ13C values and an alternative scheme has been proposed by Westermann et al. (2010): the carbonate platform crisis combined with the storage of organic-matter on the continent may be the major triggers of the δ13C positive shift. (Westermann et al., 2010). We present the results of an analysis of the Wawal drilling core (Mid-Polish Trough), which is of particular interest because of its near-coastal setting and its exceptional preservation, demonstrated by the presence of up to 17 wt.% aragonite. The section consists in marine silty to sandy clays deposited on top of a lower Berriasian karstified limestone. It covers the Early and early Late Valanginian, and displays the onset of the positive excursion. The lack of anoxia is evidenced by trace-element and Rock-Eval data. Two intervals of phosphogenesis are emphasised that appear equivalent in time to the condensed horizons of the northern Tethyan region (Helvetic Alps). A rapid climate change toward less humid and seasonally-contrasted conditions that is similar to the northern Tethyan areas is observed

  1. The last 1000 years of ocean change in Monterey Bay, California: insights from the marine sedimentary record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, V.; Addison, J. A.; Carlin, J.; Wagner, A. J.; Barron, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    In Monterey Bay, seasonal upwelling of cold nutrient-rich waters from the California Current sustains a diverse and abundant marine phytoplankton community, serving as the base of the local marine ecosystem, and contributing to atmospheric CO2 fixation. The response of this productive area to future climate change remains uncertain, thus this study looks to examine the Monterey Bay sediment record over the last millennia to provide perspective on future changes. To accomplish this, we examined biogenic sediment as a proxy for upwelling. While there is no existing sea surface temperature (SST) record for this time frame in Monterey Bay as an independent proxy of upwelling, we compare our data against the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) alkenone SST record, and the global PAGES Ocean2K SST synthesis products to examine variability associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA), and the recent onset of industrial-era warming. Utilizing a pair of newly acquired sediment cores from the southern nearshore sector of Monterey Bay, PS1410-08GC (36.42°N, 121.54°W, depth 85 m) and PS1410-09GC (36.46°N, 121.51°W, depth 71 m), we performed sedimentological and geochemical analyses including multi-sensor core logging, computerized tomography (CT) scans, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), biogenic silica (opal), and HCNS elemental analysis. Age control for each core was determined by linearly interpolating basal 14C dates, and both sites represent high sedimentation rate areas (PS1410-08GC: 0.75 mm/yr, PS1410-09GC: 1.2 mm/yr). Despite being from a highly productive region, both cores contain relatively low concentrations of TOC, opal, and CaCO3, with total mean biogenic fractions of 7.38% and 6.67% for PS1410-08GC and -09GC, respectively, indicating significant terrigenous input throughout both records. Both cores show a decrease in bulk density and an increase in biogenic material from the MCA into the LIA at 1500 CE. A sharp increase in Monterey Bay bulk

  2. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

      Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked...... to large-scale North Atlantic ocean and climate variability. AMS 14C-dating of benthic foraminifera indicates that the sediment core covers the last 4400 years and may include the termination of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). The late HTM (4.4-3.2 ka BP) is characterized by high accumulation rates...... conditions were further characterised by limited sea ice probably related to a mild and relatively windy winter climate. After 3.2 ka BP lower fine-grained sedimentation rates, but a larger input from sea-ice rafted or aeolian coarse material prevailed. This can be related to colder atmospheric conditions...

  3. Speleothem records of changes in the South American Summer Monsoon during MIS stages 5 and 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. J.; Kanner, L.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2011-12-01

    Little information exists about the behavior of the South American Summer Monsoon prior to the Last Glacial Period. Speleothems from the Peruvian Altiplano are one possible archive of SASM intensity because oxygen isotopes of rainfall on the Altiplano are primarily controlled by the intensity of rainfall in upstream moisture source region, the Amazon Basin. Here, we present results from a two speleothems collected from Gruta de Huagapo, a cave in the central Peruvian Altiplano (12°S, 76°W, ~3800m elevation). The samples grew from approximately 115-125 ky BP and from 136-168 ky BP, spanning time periods equivalent to much of MIS stage 5e and the transition into MIS 5d and MIS 6. Chronologies were determined by U-Th dating techniques and the dates are in stratigraphic with analytical errors Titicaca (Fritz et al, 2007). At present we have isotopic data from only the youngest 10 ky of the older sample. The values are generally more depleted, with most between -16% and -17%, suggesting an intensified SASM during MIS 6 as compared to 5e. A rapid increase in δ18O occurs at ~136 ky BP. Overall the trends in the data parallel major changes in δD from EPICA, but appear to lead the Antarctic time series by ~2 ky.

  4. Sensitivity of sediment magnetic records to climate change during Holocene for the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Li, Mingkun; Zhao, Xiang; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Tian, Chengjing; Qiu, Yan; Peng, Xuechao; Hu, Qiao

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic property has been proved to be a sensitive proxy to climate change for both terrestrial and marine sediments. Based on the schedule frame established by AMS 14C dating of foraminifera, detail magnetic analyses were performed for core PC24 sediments at sampling intervals of 2 cm to discuss magnetic sensitivity of marine sediment to climate during Holocene for the northern South China Sea. The results indicated that: 1) Concentration dependent magnetic parameters are positive corresponding to variation of temperature. The frequency dependent susceptibility coefficient basically reflected the variation in humidity; 2) XARM/SIRM was more sensitive to detrital magnetite particles and SIRM/X was more effective to biogenic magnetite particles. Variations of XARM/SIRM and SIRM/X are corresponding to precipitation and temperature, respectively; 3) the Holocene Megathermal in the study area was identified as 7.5-3.4 cal. ka BP. The warmest stage of Holocene for the study area should be during 6.1 to 3.9 cal. ka BP; 4) The 8 ka cold event was characterized as cold and dry during 8.55 to 8.25 cal. ka BP; 5) During early and middle Holocene, the climate combinations were warm dry and cold wet. It turned to warm and wet after 2.7 cal. ka BP.

  5. Sensitivity of sediment magnetic records to climate change during Holocene for the northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingping eOuyang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic property has been proved to be a sensitive proxy to climate change for both terrestrial and marine sediments. Based on the schedule frame established by AMS 14C dating of foraminifera, detail magnetic analyses were performed for core PC24 sediments at sampling intervals of 2 cm to discuss magnetic sensitivity of marine sediment to climate during Holocene for the northern South China Sea. The results indicated that: 1 Concentration dependent magnetic parameters are positive corresponding to variation of temperature. The frequency dependent susceptibility coefficient basically reflected the variation in humidity; 2 XARM/SIRM was more sensitive to detrital magnetite particles and SIRM/X was more effective to biogenic magnetite particles. Variations of XARM/SIRM and SIRM/X are corresponding to precipitation and temperature, respectively; 3 the Holocene Megathermal in the study area was identified as 7.5-3.4 cal. ka BP. The warmest stage of Holocene for the study area should be during 6.1 to 3.9 cal. ka BP; 4 The 8 ka cold event was characterized as cold and dry during 8.55 to 8.25 cal. ka BP; 5 During early and middle Holocene, the climate combinations were warm dry and cold wet. It turned to warm and wet after 2.7 cal. ka BP.

  6. A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, L.; Zicheng, P.; Dong, Y.; Weiguo, L.; Zhaofeng, Z.; Jianfeng, H.; Chenlin, C.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variability during the Late Pleistocene is studied from the proxies in core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression (91??03???E, 40??47???N), Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geophysical and geochemical properties, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate content, loss on ignition and trace elements, have been determined to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the area during 32-9 ka BP. The chronology is established by uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating techniques. Our data suggest four paleoclimate stages, indicating glacial variations between cold-humid and warm-arid environments. A period of extreme humidity occurred during 31,900-19,200 yr BP is attributed the last glacial maximum (LGM). The period was followed by a warm-arid episode during 19,200-13,500 yr BP. Then a cold-humid interval during 13,500-12,700 yr BP may correspond to another cooling phases at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The last stage from 12,700 to 9000 yr BP has a trend that the climate turned warm and arid. The Lop Nur region is characterized by particularly humid stadials and arid interstadials. The climate variability in Lop Nur was constrained by global climate change because it is correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, which were observed at the northern high latitudes. The synchroneity of the palaeoclimatic events suggested that cold air activity at the northern high latitudes was the most important factor that influenced the climate evolution in the Lop Nur region. A probable mechanism that involves the migration of westerly winds is proposed to interpret this synchroneity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Rapid changes in ice core gas records - Part 1: On the accuracy of methane synchronisation of ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.

    2010-08-01

    Methane synchronisation is a concept to align ice core records during rapid climate changes of the Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events onto a common age scale. However, atmospheric gases are recorded in ice cores with a log-normal-shaped age distribution probability density function, whose exact shape depends mainly on the accumulation rate on the drilling site. This age distribution effectively shifts the mid-transition points of rapid changes in CH4 measured in situ in ice by about 58% of the width of the age distribution with respect to the atmospheric signal. A minimum dating uncertainty, or artefact, in the CH4 synchronisation is therefore embedded in the concept itself, which was not accounted for in previous error estimates. This synchronisation artefact between Greenland and Antarctic ice cores is for GRIP and Byrd less than 40 years, well within the dating uncertainty of CH4, and therefore does not calls the overall concept of the bipolar seesaw into question. However, if the EPICA Dome C ice core is aligned via CH4 to NGRIP this synchronisation artefact is in the most recent unified ice core age scale (Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010) for LGM climate conditions of the order of three centuries and might need consideration in future gas chronologies.

  8. Sedimentary records, reconstructing past trends in environmental changes and anthropogenic influences in the tropical lagoons of Tahiti and New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.M.; Fichez, R.; Chifflet, S.; Bellet, S.; Badie, C.; Trescinski, M.; Harris, P.; Bernard, C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This work was designed to assess the ability of sediments to record past environmental changes in two lagoon systems of the South Pacific. Sediment cores were retrieved by SCUBA diving from Papeete Harbour (French Polynesia) and from the Bay of Dumbea (Noumea, New-Caledonia). The sediment was dated by measuring the decrease in the activity of excess 210 Pb. For each site a comparison is made between the evolution of geochemical tracer and the major events, including those related to human activity. As the research programme called for a large number of 210 Pb measurements, a microwave oven was used to enhance the efficiency of the radiochemical treatment of the samples (Polonium extraction). This decreased significantly the time required for sample preparation. In Papeete harbour, the building of a sea-wall on the barrier reef considerably reduced inputs of ocean water in this part of the lagoon. The corresponding modification in water circulation apparently produced major changes in the chemical behaviour of heavy metal. In Noumea, sediment records for the past 50 years tend to demonstrate that recent improved management of mining sites resulted in a significant decrease in the discharge of suspended solids by the Dumbea river

  9. Hematology and blood chemistry parameters differ in free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) living in the Serra da Canastra National Park versus adjacent farmlands, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Júnior, J A; Songsasen, N; Azevedo, F C; Santos, J P; Paula, R C; Rodrigues, F H G; Rodden, M D; Wildt, D E; Morato, R G

    2009-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the specific impacts of anthropogenic factors on the health of wildlife. This study examined hematology and serum chemistry status of a prominent carnivore, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), living in, on the boundaries to, or on adjacent farmlands to the Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil. Twenty-eighty wolves were captured, and values were compared 1) between subadults (n=8 animals) and adults (n=20 animals), 2) males (n=12 animals) and females (n=16 animals), and 3) among wolves living inside the park (n=11), near the park border (n=11 animals), and in neighboring farming areas (n=6 animals). Age, gender, and wolf locations influenced (Pmaned wolves. More importantly, certain traits indicative of health are potentially compromised in wolves living in areas under anthropogenic pressure. These data lay a foundation for examining the influence of farming and local domestic species on disease susceptibility and fitness in the maned wolf.

  10. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darimont Chris T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P 13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008, which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long-term and widespread association between wolves and salmon. Seasonally, this system departs from the common wolf-ungulate model. Broad ecological implications include the potential

  11. Holocene vegetation and climate changes in the central Mediterranean inferred from a high-resolution marine pollen record (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Combourieu-Nebout

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution multiproxy study of the Adriatic marine core MD 90-917 provides new insights to reconstruct vegetation and regional climate changes over the southcentral Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas (YD and Holocene. Pollen records show the rapid forest colonization of the Italian and Balkan borderlands and the gradual installation of the Mediterranean association during the Holocene. Quantitative estimates based on pollen data provide Holocene precipitations and temperatures in the Adriatic Sea using a multi-method approach. Clay mineral ratios from the same core reflect the relative contributions of riverine (illite and smectite and eolian (kaolinite contributions to the site, and thus act as an additional proxy with which to evaluate precipitation changes in the Holocene. Vegetation climate reconstructions show the response to the Preboreal oscillation (PBO, most likely driven by changes in temperature and seasonal precipitation, which is linked to increasing river inputs from Adriatic rivers recorded by increase in clay mineral contribution to marine sediments. Pollen-inferred temperature declines during the early–mid Holocene, then increases during the mid–late Holocene, similar to southwestern Mediterranean climatic patterns during the Holocene. Several short vegetation and climatic events appear in the record, indicating the sensitivity of vegetation in the region to millennial-scale variability. Reconstructed summer precipitation shows a regional maximum (170–200 mm between 8000 and 7000 similar to the general pattern across southern Europe. Two important shifts in vegetation occur at 7700 cal yr BP (calendar years before present and between 7500 and 7000 cal yr BP and are correlated with increased river inputs around the Adriatic Basin respectively from the northern (7700 event and from the central Adriatic borderlands (7500–7000 event. During the mid-Holocene, the wet summers lead to permanent moisture all year

  12. Characterization and minimization of the stress response to trapping in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus): insights from physiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nuno; Rio-Maior, Helena; Nakamura, Mónia; Roque, Sara; Brandão, Ricardo; Álvares, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Wildlife capture is an essential management tool that induces a reactive homeostasis response in the captured animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the reactive homeostatic response to trapping in free-ranging wolves and assess the mitigation achieved by reducing the duration of restraint. Making use of wolves captured for ecological research as a model for wildlife acute stress, we characterize 25 reactive homeostasis mediators and we assess the effect on these mediators of reducing the duration of restraint in trap by using remote trap activation alarms. Free-ranging wolves trapped by leg-hold snares (n = 15) showed higher stress leukogram, tissue injury and hematocrit; while lower glucose, ions and cardiac rate compared with captive wolves. They also showed higher leukocyte count and creatine kinase; but lower hematocrit, cardiac rate and rectal body temperature compared to wolves captured by darting from a helicopter. Daily distance travelled was significantly lower up to day 12 post-capture compared to the remainder of the telemetry follow-up and this effect was more noticeable on the nocturnal distance travelled. Reducing the duration of restraint on trap significantly lowered the stress leukogram and dehydration. Daily distance travelled during the night by wolves captured using trap-alarms was significantly lower only up to day 4 post-capture compared to up to day 28 for wolves captured without trap-alarms. The capture method and duration of restraint influence the reactive homeostasis response of free-ranging wolves. Technological solutions that reduce the duration of restraint on trap significantly dampen this influence. Wildlife trapping actions should strive to minimize the delay from capture to manipulation.

  13. Data on introduced plants in Zimbabwe: Floristic changes and patterns of collection based on historical herbarium records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available National herbaria with significant historical plant collections are critical to tracking floristic changes and patterns, which include the introduction and spread of non-native plant species. To explore the importance of herbarium specimen data in understanding floristic changes in Zimbabwe, the plant collections housed by the National Herbarium (SRGH in Harare, Zimbabwe were utilized with historical specimens dating back to 1870. A list of naturalised plant taxa and collection data were compiled. A total of 2916 plant specimens were recorded, comprising of 401 taxa, 237 genera and 76 plant families. Twenty eight specimens (1.0% were collected between 1870 and 1908, prior to the establishment of the National Herbarium in 1909 and 123 specimens (4.2% were collected in the first 25 years of the establishment of the institute (1909–1934. Intensive collection of herbarium specimens of casual, naturalised and invasive alien plant species occurred between 1950 and 1970. This data demonstrates the utility of plant species data housed in the National Herbaria and how such data can be used to map floristic changes and patterns. Keywords: Casual, Floristic changes, Invasive, Naturalised, National herbarium, Zimbabwe

  14. Arctic warming, moisture increase and circulation changes observed in the Ny-Ålesund homogenized radiosonde record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, Marion; Kayser, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Radiosonde measurements obtained at the Arctic site Ny-Ålesund (78.9°N, 11.9°E), Svalbard, from 1993 to 2014 have been homogenized accounting for instrumentation discontinuities by correcting known errors in the manufacturer provided profiles. The resulting homogenized radiosonde record is provided as supplementary material at http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.845373. From the homogenized data record, the first Ny-Ålesund upper-air climatology of wind, temperature and humidity is presented, forming the background for the analysis of changes during the 22-year period. Particularly during the winter season, a strong increase in atmospheric temperature and humidity is observed, with a significant warming of the free troposphere in January and February up to 3 K per decade. This winter warming is even more pronounced in the boundary layer below 1 km, presumably amplified by mesoscale processes including e.g. orographic effects or the boundary layer capping inversion. Though the largest contribution to the increasing atmospheric water vapour column in winter originates from the lowermost 2 km, no increase in the contribution by specific humidity inversions is detected. Instead, we find an increase in the humidity content of the large-scale background humidity profiles. At the same time, the tropospheric flow in winter is found to occur less frequent from northerly directions and to the same amount more frequent from the South. We conclude that changes in the atmospheric circulation lead to an enhanced advection of warm and moist air from lower latitudes to the Svalbard region in the winter season, causing the warming and moistening of the atmospheric column above Ny-Ålesund, and link the observations to changes in the Arctic Oscillation.

  15. Population size estimation in Yellowstone wolves with error-prone noninvasive microsatellite genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Spong, Goran; Sands, Jennifer L; Rotella, Jay; Zeigle, Janet; Joe, Lawrence; Murphy, Kerry M; Smith, Douglas

    2003-07-01

    Determining population sizes can be difficult, but is essential for conservation. By counting distinct microsatellite genotypes, DNA from noninvasive samples (hair, faeces) allows estimation of population size. Problems arise because genotypes from noninvasive samples are error-prone, but genotyping errors can be reduced by multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For faecal genotypes from wolves in Yellowstone National Park, error rates varied substantially among samples, often above the 'worst-case threshold' suggested by simulation. Consequently, a substantial proportion of multilocus genotypes held one or more errors, despite multiple PCR. These genotyping errors created several genotypes per individual and caused overestimation (up to 5.5-fold) of population size. We propose a 'matching approach' to eliminate this overestimation bias.

  16. Final State of Ecosystem Containing Grass, Sheep and Wolves with Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingfeng; Pan, Qiu-Hui; Wang, Shuang

    This paper describes a cellular automata model containing movable wolves, sheep and reproducible grass. Each wolf or sheep is characterized by Penna bitstrings. In addition, we introduce the energy rule and the predator-prey mechanism for wolf and sheep. With considering age-structured, genetic strings, minimum reproduction age, cycle of the reproduction, number of offspring, we get three possible states of a predator-prey system: the coexisting one with predators and prey, the absorbing one with prey only, and the empty one where no animal survived. In this paper, we mainly discuss the effect of the number of poor genes, the energy supply (food), the minimum reproduction age, the reproductive cycle and the birth rate on the above three possible final states.

  17. Blood indicators of seasonal metabolic patterns in captive adult gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Blood samples and physical data were collected weekly from a colony of gray wolves (Canis lupus) maintained under natural weather arid light conditions. Sampling over 33 continuous months indicated that hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and thyroxine exhibited consistent circannual patterns of variation in both males and females. Hemoglobin levels peaked at 15-16 g/dl in January in females and at 16-17 g/dl in February in males, and were lowest in August at 10.5-11.5 g/dl (P patterns of hematocrit, red blood cells, and MCHC were similarly timed. Females also had a cyclic pattern of white blood cell counts and body weight; their weight peaked in early February and was lowest in August (P pattern.

  18. Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topál, József; Gergely, György; Erdohegyi, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-09-04

    Ten-month-old infants persistently search for a hidden object at its initial hiding place even after observing it being hidden at another location. Recent evidence suggests that communicative cues from the experimenter contribute to the emergence of this perseverative search error. We replicated these results with dogs (Canis familiaris), who also commit more search errors in ostensive-communicative (in 75% of the total trials) than in noncommunicative (39%) or nonsocial (17%) hiding contexts. However, comparative investigations suggest that communicative signals serve different functions for dogs and infants, whereas human-reared wolves (Canis lupus) do not show doglike context-dependent differences of search errors. We propose that shared sensitivity to human communicative signals stems from convergent social evolution of the Homo and the Canis genera.

  19. Deep circulation changes in the South Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum from Nd isotope and multi-proxy records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, R.; Abouchami, W.; Zahn, R.; Masque, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report down-core sedimentary Nd isotope (εNd) records from two South Atlantic sediment cores, MD02-2594 and GeoB3603-2, located on the western South African continental margin. The core sites are positioned downstream of the present-day flow path of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and close to the Southern Ocean, which makes them suitable for reconstructing past variability in NADW circulation over the last glacial cycle. The Fe-Mn leachates εNd records show a coherent decreasing trend from glacial radiogenic values towards less radiogenic values during the Holocene. This trend is confirmed by εNd in fish debris and mixed planktonic foraminifera, albeit with an offset during the Holocene to lower values relative to the leachates, matching the present-day composition of NADW in the Cape Basin. We interpret the εNd changes as reflecting the glacial shoaling of Southern Ocean waters to shallower depths combined with the admixing of southward flowing Northern Component Water (NCW). A compilation of Atlantic εNd records reveals increasing radiogenic isotope signatures towards the south and with increasing depth. This signal is most prominent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and of similar amplitude across the Atlantic basin, suggesting continuous deep water production in the North Atlantic and export to the South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. The amplitude of the εNd change from the LGM to Holocene is largest in the southernmost cores, implying a greater sensitivity to the deglacial strengthening of NADW at these sites. This signal impacted most prominently the South Atlantic deep and bottom water layers that were particularly deprived of NCW during the LGM. The εNd variations correlate with changes in 231Pa/230Th ratios and benthic δ13C across the deglacial transition. Together with the contrasting 231Pa/230Th: εNd pattern of the North and South Atlantic, this indicates a progressive reorganization of the AMOC to full strength during the Holocene.

  20. Lateglacial and Holocene climatic changes in south-eastern Patagonia inferred from carbonate isotope records of Laguna Potrok Aike (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlerich, M.; Mayr, C.; Gussone, N.; Hahn, A.; Hölzl, S.; Lücke, A.; Ohlendorf, C.; Rummel, S.; Teichert, B. M. A.; Zolitschka, B.

    2015-04-01

    First results of strontium, calcium, carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of bulk carbonates from a 106 m long sediment record of Laguna Potrok Aike, located in southern Patagonia are presented. Morphological and isotopic investigations of μm-sized carbonate crystals in the sediment reveal an endogenic origin for the entire Holocene. During this time period the calcium carbonate record of Laguna Potrok Aike turned out to be most likely ikaite-derived. As ikaite precipitation in nature has only been observed in a narrow temperature window between 0 and 7 °C, the respective carbonate oxygen isotope ratios serve as a proxy of hydrological variations rather than of palaeotemperatures. We suggest that oxygen isotope ratios are sensitive to changes of the lake water balance induced by intensity variations of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies and discuss the role of this wind belt as a driver for climate change in southern South America. In combination with other proxy records the evolution of westerly wind intensities is reconstructed. Our data suggest that weak SHW prevailed during the Lateglacial and the early Holocene, interrupted by an interval with strengthened Westerlies between 13.4 and 11.3 ka cal BP. Wind strength increased at 9.2 ka cal BP and significantly intensified until 7.0 ka cal BP. Subsequently, the wind intensity diminished and stabilised to conditions similar to present day after a period of reduced evaporation during the "Little Ice Age". Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr ratio) were identified as a potential lake-level indicator and point to a lowering from overflow conditions during the Glacial (∼17 ka cal BP) to lowest lake levels around 8 ka cal BP. Thereafter the strontium isotope curve resembles the lake-level curve which is stepwise rising until the "Little Ice Age". The variability of the Ca isotope composition of the sediment reflects changes in the Ca budget of the lake, indicating higher degrees of Ca utilisation during the period with

  1. From Wolves to Dogs, and Back: Genetic Composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanová, Milena; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Randi, Ettore; Caniglia, Romolo; Fabbri, Elena; Galaverni, Marco; Kutal, Miroslav; Hulva, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog is a unique dog breed that originated from hybridization between German Shepherds and wild Carpathian wolves in the 1950s as a military experiment. This breed was used for guarding the Czechoslovakian borders during the cold war and is currently kept by civilian breeders all round the world. The aim of our study was to characterize, for the first time, the genetic composition of this breed in relation to its known source populations. We sequenced the hypervariable part of the mtDNA control region and genotyped the Amelogenin gene, four sex-linked microsatellites and 39 autosomal microsatellites in 79 Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, 20 German Shepherds and 28 Carpathian wolves. We performed a range of population genetic analyses based on both empirical and simulated data. Only two mtDNA and two Y-linked haplotypes were found in Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. Both mtDNA haplotypes were of domestic origin, while only one of the Y-haplotypes was shared with German Shepherds and the other was unique to Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs. The observed inbreeding coefficient was low despite the small effective population size of the breed, possibly due to heterozygote advantages determined by introgression of wolf alleles. Moreover, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog genotypes were distinct from both parental populations, indicating the role of founder effect, drift and/or genetic hitchhiking. The results revealed the peculiar genetic composition of the Czechoslovakian Wolfdog, showing a limited introgression of wolf alleles within a higher proportion of the dog genome, consistent with the reiterated backcrossing used in the pedigree. Artificial selection aiming to keep wolf-like phenotypes but dog-like behavior resulted in a distinctive genetic composition of Czechoslovakian Wolfdogs, which provides a unique example to study the interactions between dog and wolf genomes.

  2. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP

  3. [The impact of technological change on census taking: some thoughts on implications for the 1990 round of censuses and on the statistical use of administrative records].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackstone, G J

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some general thoughts on the implications of technological change for the 1990 round of censuses and for the statistical use of administrative records. Consideration is also given to alternative methods of obtaining the type of data traditionally collected in a population census, by using these new technologies in association with administrative record systems.

  4. Long-term herbarium records reveal temperature-dependent changes in flowering phenology in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Isaac W.; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, a growing body of evidence has emerged indicating that the relationship between flowering phenology and climate may differ throughout various portions of the growing season. These differences have resulted in long-term changes in flowering synchrony that may alter the quantity and diversity of pollinator attention to many species, as well as altering food availability to pollenivorous and nectarivorous animal species. However, long-term multi-season records of past flowering timing have primarily focused on temperate environments. In contrast, changes in flowering phenology within humid subtropical environments such as the southeastern USA remain poorly documented. This research uses herbarium-based methods to examine changes in flowering time across 19,328 samples of spring-, summer-, and autumn-flowering plants in the southeastern USA from the years 1951 to 2009. In this study, species that flower near the onset of the growing season were found to advance under increasing mean March temperatures (-3.391 days/°C, p = 0.022). No long-term advances in early spring flowering or spring temperature were detected during this period, corroborating previous phenological assessments for the southeastern USA. However, late spring through mid-summer flowering exhibited delays in response to higher February temperatures (over 0.1.85 days/°C, p ≤ 0.041 in all cases). Thus, it appears that flowering synchrony may undergo significant restructuring in response to warming spring temperatures, even in humid subtropical environments.

  5. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-12-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  6. Diatom Stratigraphy of FA-1 Core, Qarun Lake, Records of Holocene Environmental and Climatic Change in Faiyum Oasis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalat Abdelfattah A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates changes in the environmental and climatic conditions in the Faiyum Oasis during the Holocene based on diatom analyses of the sediment FA-1 core from the southern seashore of the Qarun Lake. The studied FA-1 core was 26 m long and covered the time span ca. 9.000 cal. yrs BP. Diatom taxa were abundant and moderately to well-preserved throughout the core sediments. Planktonic taxa were most abundant than the benthic and epiphytic forms, which were very rare and sparsely distributed. The most dominant planktonic genera were Aulacoseira and Stephanodiscus followed by frequently distribution of Cyclostephanos and Cyclotella species. The stratigraphic distribution patterns of the recorded diatoms through the Holocene sediments explained five ecological diatom groups. These groups represent distinctive environmental conditions, which were mainly related to climatic changes through the early and middle Holocene, in addition to anthropogenic activity during the late Holocene. Comparison of diatom assemblages in the studied sediment core suggests that considerable changes occurred in water level as well as salinity. There were several high stands of the freshwater lake level during humid, warmer-wet climatic phases marked by dominance of planktonic, oligohalobous and alkaliphilous diatoms alternated with lowering of the lake level and slight increases in salinity and alkalinity during warm arid conditions evident by prevalence of brackish water diatoms.

  7. Data on introduced plants in Zimbabwe: Floristic changes and patterns of collection based on historical herbarium records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-12-01

    National herbaria with significant historical plant collections are critical to tracking floristic changes and patterns, which include the introduction and spread of non-native plant species. To explore the importance of herbarium specimen data in understanding floristic changes in Zimbabwe, the plant collections housed by the National Herbarium (SRGH) in Harare, Zimbabwe were utilized with historical specimens dating back to 1870. A list of naturalised plant taxa and collection data were compiled. A total of 2916 plant specimens were recorded, comprising of 401 taxa, 237 genera and 76 plant families. Twenty eight specimens (1.0%) were collected between 1870 and 1908, prior to the establishment of the National Herbarium in 1909 and 123 specimens (4.2%) were collected in the first 25 years of the establishment of the institute (1909-1934). Intensive collection of herbarium specimens of casual, naturalised and invasive alien plant species occurred between 1950 and 1970. This data demonstrates the utility of plant species data housed in the National Herbaria and how such data can be used to map floristic changes and patterns.

  8. Late Neolithic phytolith and charcoal records of human activities and vegetation change in Shijiahe culture, Tanjialing site, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP, the climate was warm and humid. Fire was intensively used to clear the vegetation. In the mid-period of the Shijiahe culture (c, 4400-4200 cal BP, the climate became slightly dry-cold and this was accompanied by decreasing water, leading to settlements. From c, 4200 cal BP, severe drought eroded the economic foundation of rice-cultivation. These conditions forced people to abandon the Shijiahe ancient city to find water in other regions, leading to the collapse of the Shijiahe culture.

  9. Holocene vegetation and climate change recorded in alpine bog sediments from the Borreguiles de la Virgen, Sierra Nevada, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Anderson, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution pollen and magnetic susceptibility (MS) analyses have been carried out on a sediment core taken from a high-elevation alpine bog area located in Sierra Nevada, southern Spain. The earliest part of the record, from 8200 to about 7000 cal yr BP, is characterized by the highest abundance of arboreal pollen and Pediastrum, indicating the warmest and wettest conditions in the area at that time. The pollen record shows a progressive aridification since 7000 cal yr BP that occurred in two steps, first shown by a decrease in Pinus, replaced by Poaceae from 7000 to 4600 cal yr BP and then by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Amaranthaceae from 4600 to 1200 cal yr BP. Pediastrum also decreased progressively and totally disappeared at ca. 3000 yr ago. The progressive aridification is punctuated by periodically enhanced drought at ca. 6500, 5200 and 4000 cal yr BP that coincide in timing and duration with well-known dry events in the Mediterranean and other areas. Since 1200 cal yr BP, several changes are observed in the vegetation that probably indicate the high-impact of humans in the Sierra Nevada, with pasturing leading to nutrient enrichment and eutrophication of the bog, Pinus reforestation and Olea cultivation at lower elevations.

  10. Record of Technical Change No.2 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.''

  11. Repeated fault rupture recorded by paleoenvironmental changes in a wetland sedimentary sequence ponded against the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K.; Berryman, K. R.; Cochran, U. A.; Bartholomew, T.; Turner, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    cycles were repeated 18 times at Hokuri Creek. Evidence that fault rupture was responsible for the cyclical paleoenvironmental changes at Hokuri Creek include: the average time period for each organic- and clastic-rich couplet to be deposited approximately equals the long-term average Alpine Fault recurrence interval, and the most recent events recorded at Hokuri correlate to an earthquake dated in paleoseismic trenches 100 km along strike; fault rupture is the only mechanism that can create accommodation space for 18 m of sediment to accumulate, and the sedimentary units can be traced from the outcrop to the fault trace and show tectonic deformation. The record of 18 fault rupture events at Hokuri Creek is one of the longest records of surface ruptures on a major plate boundary fault. High-resolution dating and statistical treatment of the radiocarbon data (Biasi et al., this meeting) has resulted in major advances in understanding the long-term behaviour of the Alpine Fault (Berryman et al., this meeting).

  12. Recording of X-ray diffraction patterns for the investigation of transient changes in the crystalline structure of materials subjected to the action of shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, F.; Thomer, G.

    An arrangement including a flash X-ray tube and an image intensifier has been designed and built in order to record X-ray diffraction patterns with exposure times of the order of 100nsec. This arrangement allows Laue patterns (polychromatic radiation) as well as powder patterns (copper K(α) radiation) to be recorded. Examples for record are shown. As an application to the investigation of transient changes in crystalline structures, the Debye-Scherrer patterns of potassium chloride undergoing the dynamic action of shock waves were recorded. The first results achieved are discussed [fr

  13. Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum from maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Juliana P S; Soave, Semíramis A; Turchetti, Andréia P; Pinheiro, Guilherme R G; Pessanha, Angela T; Malta, Marcelo C C; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Figueiredo, Luiza A; Gontijo, Nelder F; Paixão, Tatiane A; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Santos, Renato L

    2015-09-15

    Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is the cause of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The disease is transmitted mostly through the bite of the invertebrate vector, the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis in the New World. Although the domestic dog is considered the most important reservoir of the disease, other mammalian, including wildlife, are susceptible to infection. The goal of this study was to perform xenodiagnosis to evaluate the capacity of naturally infected maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to transmit Leishmania infantum to female sand flies (L. longipalpis). Xenodiagnoses were performed in February and August, 2013, when 77.7% (three maned wolves and four bush dogs) or 100% of the animals were positive, respectively. However, parasite loads in the engorged sand flies was low (longipalpis, although the parasite loads in engorged phlebotomines exposed to these animals were very low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A constructivist approach to popular culture and foreign policy: the case of Turkey and Valley of Wolves: Ambush

    OpenAIRE

    Yukaruc, Umut

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I argue that, as a popular text, Valley of the Wolves: Ambush functions as a site for consent production for foreign policies formed by the AKP elites within the last decade, through a process of reproduction of state identities, ideologies, and discourses at the level of narrative. This thesis positions its argument in two fields: Turkish Foreign Policy (TFP) studies and Popular Culture and World Politics (PCWP) within the larger International Relations (IR) co...

  15. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Castellini, Margaret; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to beToxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ13C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host.

  16. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  17. Compensatory selection for roads over natural linear features by wolves in northern Ontario: Implications for caribou conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica J Newton

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario are a threatened species that have experienced a substantial retraction of their historic range. Part of their decline has been attributed to increasing densities of anthropogenic linear features such as trails, roads, railways, and hydro lines. These features have been shown to increase the search efficiency and kill rate of wolves. However, it is unclear whether selection for anthropogenic linear features is additive or compensatory to selection for natural (water linear features which may also be used for travel. We studied the selection of water and anthropogenic linear features by 52 resident wolves (Canis lupus x lycaon over four years across three study areas in northern Ontario that varied in degrees of forestry activity and human disturbance. We used Euclidean distance-based resource selection functions (mixed-effects logistic regression at the seasonal range scale with random coefficients for distance to water linear features, primary/secondary roads/railways, and hydro lines, and tertiary roads to estimate the strength of selection for each linear feature and for several habitat types, while accounting for availability of each feature. Next, we investigated the trade-off between selection for anthropogenic and water linear features. Wolves selected both anthropogenic and water linear features; selection for anthropogenic features was stronger than for water during the rendezvous season. Selection for anthropogenic linear features increased with increasing density of these features on the landscape, while selection for natural linear features declined, indicating compensatory selection of anthropogenic linear features. These results have implications for woodland caribou conservation. Prey encounter rates between wolves and caribou seem to be strongly influenced by increasing linear feature densities. This behavioral mechanism-a compensatory functional response to anthropogenic

  18. High-resolution records detect human-caused changes to the boreal forest wildfire regime in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wooller, Matthew J.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2016-01-01

    Stand-replacing wildfires are a keystone disturbance in the boreal forest, and they are becoming more common as the climate warms. Paleo-fire archives from the wildland–urban interface can quantify the prehistoric fire regime and assess how both human land-use and climate change impact ecosystem dynamics. Here, we use a combination of a sedimentary charcoal record preserved in varved lake sediments (annually layered) and fire scars in living trees to document changes in local fire return intervals (FRIs) and regional fire activity over the last 500 years. Ace Lake is within the boreal forest, located near the town of Fairbanks in interior Alaska, which was settled by gold miners in AD 1902. In the 400 years before settlement, fires occurred near the lake on average every 58 years. After settlement, fires became much more frequent (average every 18  years), and background charcoal flux rates rose to four times their preindustrial levels, indicating a region-wide increase in burning. Despite this surge in burning, the preindustrial boreal forest ecosystem and permafrost in the watershed have remained intact. Although fire suppression has reduced charcoal influx since the 1950s, an aging fuel load experiencing increasingly warm summers may pose management problems for this and other boreal sites that have similar land-use and fire histories. The large human-caused fire events that we identify can be used to test how increasingly common megafires may alter ecosystem dynamics in the future.

  19. Buried palaeosols of the Nevado de Toluca: an alternative record of Late Quaternary environmental change in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, Sergey; Solleiro-Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Gama-Castro, Jorge E.; Vallejo-Gómez, Ernestina; González-Velázquez, Arelia

    2001-05-01

    Buried palaeosols of central Mexico, not previously analysed from a palaeopedological standpoint, have helped to develop a reliable regional model of Late Quaternary climatic change. This paper focuses upon morphological and micromorphological properties, particle-size distribution, and extractable Fe, Al and Si of seven palaeosols (named PT1-PT7) in the vicinity of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. The characteristics of Andic Cambisol PT1, similar to those of modern soils in semi-arid environments, indicate a drier climate in the first half of the Holocene. Humic Andosols PT2-PT4 are analogous to modern volcanic soils of humid forest environments. They show evidence that a moist palaeoclimate prevailed during marine oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 2 and 3. Luvisols PT5 and PT6, which are assumed to have formed at the end of marine OIS 5 to marine OIS 4, also indicate humid conditions. We attribute the differences between Andosols PT2-PT4 and Luvisols PT5-PT7 to variations in the duration in the pedogenesis rather than to changes in palaeoclimate. Micromorphological features of Andosol to Luvisol transition confirm that these soils form an evolutionary sequence. Being for the most part consistent with lacustrine records, the palaeosol properties do not reflect the episodes of drier climate during the Last Glacial Maximum, however, as shown by diatom and palynological data from lake sediments. Mesoclimate variations and/or incompleteness of soil memory, reflecting mostly periods of humid pedogenesis, probably provide the reason for this disagreement.

  20. An unexplored sedimentary record for the study of environmental change in mediterranean coastal environments: Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile peats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, M.-A.; Renom, P.; Romero, J.; Julia, R.; Michener, R.

    2002-01-01

    Information on seagrass paleo-ecology is very scarce because detailed seagrass paleorecords are virtually lacking. The endemic Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica conjugates two unusual features that allow the reconstruction of the past history of the plant at two different time scales. On the one hand, the study of the leaf sheaths that remain attached to the rhizomes after leaf abcision (lepidochronology), allows to differentiate up to 30 yearly cycles. On the other hand, radiocarbon dating of peat-like deposits derived from Posidonia oceanica rhizomes and roots ('mattes'), reveals a chronological organic record of the plant spanning several thousands of years. Changes in the isotopic signature (δ 13 C) of the sheaths along Posidonia rhizomes from a meadow off Medes Islands (NW Mediterranean, Spain), were highly correlated with changes in annual leave production and with water transparency. These relationships and the isotopic analysis of sheath debris from several Posidonia peats along the Spanish Mediterranean coast are used to make some preliminary inferences about long-term meadow history. Several phenomena potentially making difficult the interpretation of the information contained in Posidonia peats are critically discussed. It is concluded that a detailed study of P. oceanica peats will open new vistas in Mediterranean paleo-ecological and paleo-environmental research (author)

  1. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S; Lozhkin, A V; Brown, T A

    2008-05-20

    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicates no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.

  2. Arctic lineage-canine distemper virus as a cause of death in Apennine wolves (Canis lupus in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Di Sabatino

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV infection is a primary threat affecting a wide number of carnivore species, including wild animals. In January 2013, two carcasses of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus were collected in Ortona dei Marsi (L'Aquila province, Italy by the local Veterinary Services. CDV was immediately identified either by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry in lung and central nervous tissue samples. At the same time, severe clinical signs consistent with CDV infection were identified and taped (Videos S1-S3 from three wolves rescued in the areas surrounding the National Parks of the Abruzzi region by the Veterinary Services. The samples collected from these symptomatic animals also turned out CDV positive by RT-PCR. So far, 30 carcasses of wolves were screened and CDV was detected in 20 of them. The sequencing of the haemagglutinin gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the identified virus belonged to the CDV Arctic lineage. Strains belonging to this lineage are known to circulate in Italy and in Eastern Europe amongst domestic dogs. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CDV Arctic lineage epidemics in the wild population in Europe.

  3. Changes in plant water use efficiency over the recent past reconstructed using palaeo plant records from the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, M.; Finsinger, W.; McCarroll, D.; Wagner, F.

    2009-04-01

    The Boreal forests contains 33% of the earth's forest cover and are located at the latitude where most of the estimated global warming is predicted to occur. Warming as a consequence of rising carbon dioxide will affect evapotranspiration within the biome, with significant consequences given that water vapour is an important greenhouse gas. However, there is also a physiological forcing associated with the effects of rising carbon dioxide on plants. Higher atmospheric carbon dioxide will reduce evapotraspiration because tree stomata tend to close under elevated carbon dioxide. The warming associated with reduced evapotranspiration is known as carbon dioxide physiological forcing and it is not well constrained. Here we suggest that future predictions of evapotranspiration flux within the Boreal forest zone might be more accurately gauged by taking account of palaeo evidence of changing plant water use efficiency and stomatal density in the two most important Boreal plant species: Pinus sylvestris and Betula nana. Stable carbon isotope ratios in tree ring cellulose and stomatal density measurements, from preserved leaves falling on the forest floor, hold a record of the plant physiological changes associated with adjustment to rising carbon dioxide. We present evidence that, rather than plants simply closing their stomatal apertures under recent elevated carbon dioxide, over the last 150 years reduced evapotranspiration in the northern Boreal forest has been associated with a powerful plastic response including reductions in stomatal conductance via changes in stomatal density and pore length. Furthermore we present evidence that trees may be reaching the limits of their ability to respond plastically to rising carbon dioxide by increasing their water use efficiency.

  4. A 12,000 year record of changes in herbivore niche separation and palaeoclimate (Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Michaela; Brink, James; Horwitz, Liora Kolska; Scott, Louis; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.

    2018-01-01

    The large mammalian fauna of southern Africa is characterised by strong niche separation into grazer and browser species, with few falling into the intermediate mixed-feeder niche. Moreover, the modern fauna is reduced in species diversity compared to the Pleistocene, following the extinction of several specialized grazers in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. How did this state develop, and how might it be connected to climatic change during the Holocene? To better understand this development, we obtained extensive carbon and oxygen stable light isotope data from herbivore tooth enamel samples from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa, spanning about 12,000-500 cal. BP. This is a unique dataset since it is the only site in the southern Kalahari with a robust chronometric record and well-preserved faunal remains for the last 12,000 years without significant gaps. Combining the stable isotopes with pollen and micromammal data from Wonderwerk Cave, we have explored shifts in the proportions of C3 and C4 plants and moisture availability. Although climate remained generally semi-arid for much of this period, the results show significant hydrological and vegetation shifts in the sequence, particularly with the strengthening of summer rainfall in the mid-Holocene. The results for the sixteen herbivore species reveal a reinforcement of the grazer-browser niche partitioning through the Holocene and shows how niche specialization follows changes in local vegetation composition. In the light of this reconstruction of the local ecology we discuss grazer extinctions, human adaptations, and the drivers behind climatic changes in the summer rainfall zone of southern Africa.

  5. Faulting and erosion in the Argentine Precordillera during changes in subduction regime: Reconciling bedrock cooling and detrital records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, Julie C.; Carrapa, Barbara; Ortíz, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    The Argentine Precordillera is an archetypal retroarc fold-and-thrust belt that records tectonics associated with changing subduction regimes. The interactions between exhumation and faulting in the Precordillera were investigated using apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He and apatite fission track thermochronometry from the Precordillera and adjacent geologic domains. Inverse modeling of thermal histories constrains eastward in-sequence rock cooling associated with deformation and erosion from 18 to 2 Ma across the Central Precordillera tracking thrusting during this time. The youngest AHe ages (5-2 Ma) and highest erosion rates are located in the eastern and western extremities of the Precordillera and indicate that recent denudation is concentrated at its structural boundaries. Moreover, synchronous rapid Pliocene cooling of the Frontal Cordillera, Eastern Precordillera, and Sierra del Valle Fértil was coeval with initiation of basement-involved faulting in the foreland. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from the ca. 16-8.1 Ma Bermejo foreland basin strata suggests fluvial connectivity westward beyond the Frontal Cordillera to the Main Cordillera and Coast Range followed by an important shift in sediment provenance at ca. 10 Ma. At this time, we suggest that a substantial decrease in Permo-Triassic igneous sources in the Frontal Cordillera and concurrent increase in recycled zircons signatures of Paleozoic strata are best explained by uplift and erosion of the Precordillera during widening of the thrust-belt. Bedrock thermochronology and modeling indicate a 2-6 Myr lag time between faulting-related cooling in the hinterland and the detrital record of deformation in the foreland basin, suggesting that for tectonically active semi-arid settings, bedrock cooling may be more sensitive to onset of faulting. We suggest that high erosion rates in the Frontal Cordillera and Eastern Precordillera are associated with increased interplate coupling during shallowing of the

  6. Reconstruction of Oceanographic Changes Based on the Diatom Records of the Central Okhotsk Sea over the last 500000 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Wang Liang-Chi Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides insight into changes in sea ice conditions and the oceanographic environment over the past 500 kyr through analysis of the diatom record. Based on the relative abundance of 13 diatoms species in piston core MD012414, four types of environmental conditions in the central Okhotsk Sea over the last 330 ka BP have been distinguished: (1 open-ocean alternating with seasonal sea-ice cover in Stages 9, 5, and 1; (2 almost open-ocean free of sea-ice cover in Stages 7 and 3; (3 perennial sea-ice cover in Stages 6, 4, and 2; and (4 a warm ice-age dominated by open ocean assemblages in Stage 8. The littoral diatom species, Paralia sulcata, showed a sudden increase from the glacial period to the nterglacial period over the last 330 ka BP, except during Stage 8. Such a result implies that melting sea-ice transported terrigenous materials from the north Okhotsk Sea continental shelves to the central ocean during eglaciation. From Stage 13 to Stage 10, however, cold and warm marine conditions unexpectedly occurred in the late interglacial periods and the glacial periods, respectively. One possible reason for this is a lack of age control points from Stage 13 to Stage 10, and the different sediment accumulation rates between glacial and interglacial periods. This study suggests not only the process by which oceanographic variation of sea ice occurred, but also new significance for Paralia sulcata as an indicator in the diatom record of the Okhotsk Sea.

  7. Late Pleistocene to Holocene environmental changes as recorded in the sulfur geochemistry of coastal plain sediments, southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-G.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Shieh, Y.-N.; Liu, T.-K.

    2004-01-01

    A core, drilled at San-liao-wan in the southwestern coastal plain of Taiwan, has been analyzed for total sulfur contents, isotopic values, as well as ratios of pyritic sulfur to organic carbon. Our results demonstrate a close relationship between late Pleistocene sea-level change and the proxies generated in this study. The inorganic sulfur contents indicate that at our study site, the Holocene transgression started at ???11 ka and remained under seawater for thousands of years until the late Holocene, corresponding to a depth of 20 m in the study core. The uppermost 20 m of core shows relatively high total organic carbon (TOC) and ??34S of inorganic sulfur, suggesting a transitional environment such as muddy lagoon or marsh, before the site turned into a modern coastal plain. In the lower part of the core, at depths of 110-145 m (corresponding ages of ???12-30 ka), low sulfur contents are recorded, probably indicating fluvial sediments deposited during the oceanic isotope stage (OIS) 2, a sea-level lowstand. The lower part of the core, roughly within OIS 3, records at least two transgressions, although the transgressional signals may be somewhat obscured by subsequent weathering. The reworked origin of organic matter reported in previous studies is confirmed by our organic sulfur data; however, the marine organic source was periodically dominant. The modern high sulfate concentrations in pore water have no correlation to the other sulfur species in the sediments, probably indicating that the sulfate migrated into the site subsequent to early diagenesis. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A 31,000 year record of paleoenvironmental and lake-level change from Harding Lake, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Edwards, Mary E.; Langdon, Catherine T.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.

    2014-03-01

    Physical and geochemical proxy analyses of sediment cores from Harding Lake in central Alaska are used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental change and millennial scale fluctuations in lake level for the last ˜31,000 years. We analyzed a composite 422 cm core from the lake depocenter (42.1 m water depth) and identified 4 distinct lithologic units based on variability in dry bulk density, organic matter, biogenic silica, carbon to nitrogen mass ratios (C/N), organic matter carbon isotopes (δ13C), pollen, and elemental abundances via scanning X-ray fluorescence, with age control provided by 16 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates and 210Pb dating. In addition, we analyzed a transect of cores from 7.1 m, 10.75 m, 15.91 m, and 38.05 m water depths to identify lake level fluctuations and to characterize sediment compositional changes as a function of water depth. Organic matter content and magnetic susceptibility values in surface sediments from all transect cores show a strong correlation with water depth. Interpretation of four lithologic units with well-dated contacts produced a record of water-depth variations that is consistent with independent climate records from eastern Beringia. Basal coarse-grained sediments (quartz pebble diamicton) were deposited prior to 30,700 calendar years before present (yr BP), possibly from fluvial reworking or deflation during a period of severe aridity. Unit 1 sediments were deposited between 30,700 and 15,700 yr BP and are characterized by a low organic matter content, a high magnetic susceptibility, and low biogenic silica concentrations resulting from very low lake levels, low terrestrial and in-lake productivity and a high flux of clastic sediment. An abrupt increase in organic matter and biogenic silica concentration marks the transition into Unit 2 sediments, which were deposited between 15,700 and 9,400 yr BP when lake levels were higher and variable (relative to Unit 1). The transition to full interglacial

  9. Teamwork and Electronic Health Record Implementation: A Case Study of Preserving Effective Communication and Mutual Trust in a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anne H; Leib, Ryan K; Tonachel, Anne; Tonachel, Richard; Bowers, Danielle M; Burnard, Rachel A; Rhinehart, Catherine A; Valentim, Rahila; Bunnell, Craig A

    2016-11-01

    This article describes how trust among team members and in the technology supporting them was eroded during implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) in an adult outpatient oncology practice at a comprehensive cancer center. Delays in care of a 38-year-old woman with high-risk breast cancer occurred because of ineffective team communication and are illustrated in a case study. The case explores how the patient's trust and mutual trust between team members were disrupted because of inaccurate assumptions about the functionality of the EHR's communication tool, resultant miscommunications between team members and the patient, and the eventual recognition that care was not being effectively coordinated, as it had been previously. Despite a well-established, team-based culture and significant preparation for the EHR implementation, the challenges that occurred point to underlying human and system failures from which other organizations going through a similar process may learn. Through an analysis and evaluation of events that transpired before and during the EHR rollout, suggested interventions for preventing this experience are offered, which include: a thorough crosswalk between old and new communication mechanisms before implementation; understanding and mitigation of gaps in the communication tool's functionality; more robust training for staff, clinicians, and patients; greater consideration given to the pace of change expected of individuals; and development of models of collaboration between EHR users and vendors in developing products that support high-quality, team-based care in the oncology setting. These interventions are transferable to any organizational or system change that threatens mutual trust and effective communication.

  10. Cognitive workload changes for nurses transitioning from a legacy system with paper documentation to a commercial electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colligan, Lacey; Potts, Henry W W; Finn, Chelsea T; Sinkin, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Healthcare institutions worldwide are moving to electronic health records (EHRs). These transitions are particularly numerous in the US where healthcare systems are purchasing and implementing commercial EHRs to fulfill federal requirements. Despite the central role of EHRs to workflow, the cognitive impact of these transitions on the workforce has not been widely studied. This study assesses the changes in cognitive workload among pediatric nurses during data entry and retrieval tasks during transition from a hybrid electronic and paper information system to a commercial EHR. Baseline demographics and computer attitude and skills scores were obtained from 74 pediatric nurses in two wards. They also completed an established and validated instrument, the NASA-TLX, that is designed to measure cognitive workload; this instrument was used to evaluate cognitive workload of data entry and retrieval. The NASA-TLX was administered at baseline (pre-implementation), 1, 5 and 10 shifts and 4 months post-implementation of the new EHR. Most nurse participants experienced significant increases of cognitive workload at 1 and 5 shifts after "go-live". These increases abated at differing rates predicted by participants' computer attitudes scores (p = 0.01). There is substantially increased cognitive workload for nurses during the early phases (1-5 shifts) of EHR transitions. Health systems should anticipate variability across workers adapting to "meaningful use" EHRs. "One-size-fits-all" training strategies may not be suitable and longer periods of technical support may be necessary for some workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A study of tilt change recorded from July to October 2006 at the Phlegraean Fields (Naples, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Del Gaudio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The tiltmetric dataset of Phlegraean Fields area showed a discrete correlation with the volcanic dynamics, suggesting that tiltmetric monitoring is important for the surveillance of active volcanic areas. Tilt data recorded in 2006 at 2 stations belonging to the monitoring network of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV, National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology, Italy in the Phlegraean Fields are discussed in this paper. The acquired signals have shown a strong tiltmetric inversion that took place from the end of July 2006. After correcting tilt variations to eliminate the influence of temperature (influencing 90% of the signal at OLB station, hereafter OLB a significant value of the tilt still remains. This change is related to a local inflation episode lasting 3 months, during an unrest phase that started 2 years before. It is interesting to note that tilt amplitude is much greater at OLB than the slope of the displacement field predicted by the theoretical inflation models, but data show that this field is not homogeneous and in some areas very tilted. Moreover, in the last days before the end of tilt inversion, a low energy seismic swarm happened at about 1 km of distance from the tiltmetric station by hundreds of VT (Volcano-Tectonics and LP (Long-Period events.

  12. Core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, submitted to supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim de Araújo Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finding of remains (tracks, scats, and hairs, an analysis was made of the core area and centre of activity of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, living in a private natural reserve in which ecotourism activities are developed and these animals are daily fed bovine meat. A total of 465 samples of remains were recorded. Using the fixed kernel method, the area encompassing all samples recorded was estimated at 25.7 km², yet 50% of all samples were found in an area of only 1.5 km², representing 5.8% of the total area covered. For estimating the core area of the animals, the frequency of occurrence of the samples was determined by superimposing a 50 x 50 m cell grid over a map of the area encompassing all recorded occurrences. Based on the cells containing more than six occurrences, the animals' core area was 0.99 km², which included the place where the animals are fed. The centre of activity was located only 0.50 km from this place. The high negative correlation (r = -0.93, p A área central e o centro de atividade de lobos-guará, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, foram determinados através de seus vestígios (fezes, pegadas e pêlos em uma reserva natural particular, onde esses animais estão sujeitos à alimentação artificial e sofrem influência de atividades turísticas. No total, foram registrados 465 vestígios, sendo que 65,8% corresponderam à estação seca. Através do método Kernel fixo, a área compreendida por todos os vestígios foi de 25,7 km², sendo que 50% encontravam-se em uma área de apenas 1,5 km², o que representou 5,8% do total da área amostrada. A área central de atividade dos animais foi obtida pelo cálculo da freqüência dos registros dos vestígios através da sobreposição de uma quadrícula subdividida em células de 50 x 50 m sobre a área que abrangia todos os registros. Considerando as células com mais de seis registros a área central de atividade atribuída aos

  13. CERES Top-of-Atmosphere Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record: Accounting for in-Orbit Changes in Instrument Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman G. Loeb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES project provides observations of Earth’s radiation budget using measurements from CERES instruments onboard the Terra, Aqua and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellites. As the objective is to create a long-term climate data record, it is necessary to periodically reprocess the data in order to incorporate the latest calibration changes and algorithm improvements. Here, we focus on the improvements and validation of CERES Terra and Aqua radiances in Edition 4, which are used to generate higher-level climate data products. Onboard sources indicate that the total (TOT channel response to longwave (LW radiation has increased relative to the start of the missions by 0.4% to 1%. In the shortwave (SW, the sensor response change ranges from −0.4% to 0.6%. To account for in-orbit changes in SW spectral response function (SRF, direct nadir radiance comparisons between instrument pairs on the same satellite are made and an improved wavelength dependent degradation model is used to adjust the SRF of the instrument operating in a rotating azimuth plane scan mode. After applying SRF corrections independently to CERES Terra and Aqua, monthly variations amongst these instruments are highly correlated and the standard deviation in the difference of monthly anomalies is 0.2 Wm−2 for ocean and 0.3 Wm−2 for land/desert. Additionally, trends in CERES Terra and Aqua monthly anomalies are consistent to 0.21 Wm−2 per decade for ocean and 0.31 Wm−2 per decade for land/desert. In the LW, adjustments to the TOT channel SRF are made to ensure that removal of the contribution from the SW portion of the TOT channel with SW channel radiance measurements during daytime is consistent throughout the mission. Accordingly, anomalies in day–night LW difference in Edition 4 are more consistent compared to Edition 3, particularly for the Aqua land/desert case.

  14. Holocene vegetational and coastal environmental changes from the Lago Crispim record in northeastern Pará State, eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, H; Lima da Costa, M

    2001-04-01

    Vegetational and coastal environmental changes have been interpreted from a 600cm long and 764014C yr B.P. old sediment core from Lago Crispim located in the northeastern Pará State in northern Brazil. The radiocarbon dated sediment core was studied by multi-element geochemistry, pollen and charcoal analysis.Holocene Atlantic sea-level rise caused an elevation of local water table, which allowed the formation of organic deposits in a probably former inter-dune valley. Dense, diverse and tall Amazon rain forest, and some restinga (coastal vegetation) covered the study area at the beginning of the record at 764014C yr B.P. Mangrove vegetation developed along rivers close to the core site at that time. Subsequent decrease in less mangrove vegetation near the study site indicates a sea-level regression, beginning since around 700014C yr B.P. Lower sea-levels probably favoured the formation of a local Mauritia/Mauritiella palm swamp at 662014C yr B.P. Oscillations of higher and lower sea-level stands probably changed the size of the local palm swamp area several times between 6620 and 363014C yr B.P. Sea-level transgression at around 363014C yr B.P., caused marked coastal environmental changes: the development of mangroves near the site, the replacement of the local palm swamp by a Cyperaceae swamp, the substitution of the surrounding former Amazon rain forest and some restinga vegetation mainly by salt marshes. High amount carbonised particles suggest a strong human impact by burning on the coastal ecosystems during this late Holocene period.Highest concentrations of NaCl and also Ca, Mg and K in the upper sediment core indicate that the Atlantic was close during the late Holocene period. The core site, which is today 500m from the coastline and only 1-2m above modern sea-level, was apparently never reached by marine excursions during the Holocene.Less representation of mangrove since ca. 184014C yr B.P., may be related due to a slightly lower sea-level or to human

  15. Climate and environmental changes during the past millennium in central western Guizhou, China as recorded by Stalagmite ZJD-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tz-Shing; Liu, Zi-Qi; Li, Hong-Chun; Wan, Nai-Jung; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ku, Teh-Lung

    2011-04-01

    Stalagmite ZJD-21 (12.3-cm long) was collected from Zhijin Cave in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China. Its 210Pb profile and seven 230Th/ 234U dates indicate that the stalagmite has grown continuously for the past 1100 years. The δ18O record of ZJD-21 indicates that δ18O in the stalagmite was mainly influenced by rainfall amount and/or summer/winter rain ratio, with lighter values corresponding to wetter climatic conditions and/or more summer monsoonal rains. The ZJD-21 δ18O record suggests: (1) dry/warm climates during AD 950-1100 (overlapping with most of the Medieval Warm Period, MWP, in Europe); (2) strengthening of the summer monsoon from the MWP toward the beginning of the Little Ice Age (LIA) at AD 1250; (3) relatively wet/cold conditions occurred between AD 1250 and 1500, shown by relatively light δ18O values; (4) the summer monsoon intensity strongly declined referred by the increase δ18O trend from AD 1500 to AD 1600, perhaps resulting in dry/cold conditions; and (5) a strongly enhancement of the summer monsoon intensity appeared from AD 1700 to 1950, reflecting wet/cold conditions during the late period of the LIA. On decadal scales the monsoonal climate of central western Guizhou can be either warm/wet and cold/dry, or warm/dry and cold/wet. The δ13C variations in ZJD-21 on decadal-to-centennial scales respond mainly to vegetation changes with heavier values reflecting lesser amount of forest coverage. Prior to AD 1700, the δ13C generally co-varied with δ18O reflecting the expected more extensive vegetation growth (lighter δ13C) under wetter climate (lighter δ18O). However, during the past 300 years the δ13C increased sharply showing an opposite trend to that of δ18O. This observation strongly suggests that a decline of surface vegetation due to an artificial deforestation might have occurred - an occurrence coincident with the large-scale immigration into central western Guizhou in connection with copper-mining activities during the reign of

  16. Faunal isotope records reveal trophic and nutrient dynamics in twentieth century Yellowstone grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Nelson, Abigail A; Koch, Paul L; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-23

    Population sizes and movement patterns of ungulate grazers and their predators have fluctuated dramatically over the past few centuries, largely owing to overharvesting, land-use change and historic management. We used δ(13)C and δ(15)N values measured from bone collagen of historic and recent gray wolves and their potential primary prey from Yellowstone National Park to gain insight into the trophic dynamics and nutrient conditions of historic and modern grasslands. The diet of reintroduced wolves closely parallels that of the historic population. We suggest that a significant shift in faunal δ(15)N values over the past century reflects impacts of anthropogenic environmental changes on grassland ecosystems, including grazer-mediated shifts in grassland nitrogen cycle processes.

  17. Parasite invasion following host reintroduction: a case study of Yellowstone's wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Emily S; Cross, Paul C; Dobson, Andrew P; Smith, Douglas W; Hudson, Peter J

    2012-10-19

    Wildlife reintroductions select or treat individuals for good health with the expectation that these individuals will fare better than infected animals. However, these individuals, new to their environment, may also be particularly susceptible to circulating infections and this may result in high morbidity and mortality, potentially jeopardizing the goals of recovery. Here, using the reintroduction of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) into Yellowstone National Park as a case study, we address the question of how parasites invade a reintroduced population and consider the impact of these invasions on population performance. We find that several viral parasites rapidly invaded the population inside the park, likely via spillover from resident canid species, and we contrast these with the slower invasion of sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The spatio-temporal patterns of mange invasion were largely consistent with patterns of host connectivity and density, and we demonstrate that the area of highest resource quality, supporting the greatest density of wolves, is also the region that appears most susceptible to repeated disease invasion and parasite-induced declines. The success of wolf reintroduction appears not to have been jeopardized by infectious disease, but now shows signs of regulation or limitation modulated by parasites.

  18. Parasite invasion following host reintroduction: a case of Yellowstone’s wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Almberg, Emily S.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Smith, Douglas W.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife reintroductions select or treat individuals for good health with the expectation that these individuals will fare better than infected animals. However, these individuals, new to their environment, may also be particularly susceptible to circulating infections and this may result in high morbidity and mortality, potentially jeopardizing the goals of recovery. Here, using the reintroduction of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) into Yellowstone National Park as a case study, we address the question of how parasites invade a reintroduced population and consider the impact of these invasions on population performance. We find that several viral parasites rapidly invaded the population inside the park, likely via spillover from resident canid species, and we contrast these with the slower invasion of sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The spatio-temporal patterns of mange invasion were largely consistent with patterns of host connectivity and density, and we demonstrate that the area of highest resource quality, supporting the greatest density of wolves, is also the region that appears most susceptible to repeated disease invasion and parasite-induced declines. The success of wolf reintroduction appears not to have been jeopardized by infectious disease, but now shows signs of regulation or limitation modulated by parasites.

  19. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Maia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P 0.05. Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05. Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05, being higher in autumn (15.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL than in summer (6.6 ± 1.5 ng/mL, winter (5.3 ± 3.1 ng/mL and spring (4.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL. Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 ± 6.0 ng/mL and winter (1.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL (P < 0.05, but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  20. Adrenal activity in maned wolves is higher on farmlands and park boundaries than within protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spercoski, Katherinne M; Morais, Rosana N; Morato, Ronaldo G; de Paula, Rogério C; Azevedo, Fernanda C; May-Júnior, Joares A; Santos, Jean P; Reghelin, Angela L; Wildt, David E; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2012-11-01

    In this study we measured excreted fecal corticoid metabolites (FCM) in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) living within a protected reserve, on farmlands or in a boundary zone between the two habitats, and determined the impacts of season and reproductive status on adrenal activity. Feces were collected within a national park (n=191 samples), a park boundary zone (n=39) and on nearby farmlands (n=27), processed and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. FCM amounts from samples collected on farmlands were higher (Pwolf pairs were raising young. We then divided the samples collected during breeding season (March-August) into cycling females and male/non-cycling females based on fecal progesterone: fecal testosterone ratio. FCM concentrations of the former collected inside the park were higher than (P<0.05) than the latter group. However, there were no differences in FCM levels between the two groups for samples collected in the boundary zone and on farmlands. Furthermore, FCM concentrations of male/non-cycling females samples collected on farmlands were 2- to 5-fold higher (P<0.05) than in counterparts collected inside the park. The consistently high FCM concentrations in samples collected on farmlands indicate that, in addition to seasonality, gender and reproductive status, anthropogenic pressures also contribute to elevating adrenal steroid for individuals living in altered habitat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The scent of wolves: pyrazine analogs induce avoidance and vigilance behaviors in prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi eOsada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The common grey wolf (Canis lupus is an apex predator located at the top of the food chain in the Northern Hemisphere. It preys on rodents, rabbits, ungulates, and many other kinds of mammal. However, the behavioral evidence for, and the chemical basis of, the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on prey are unclear. Recently, the pyrazine analogs 2, 6-dimethylpyrazine, 2, 3, 5-trimethylpyrazine and 3-ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl pyrazine were identified as kairomones in the urine of wolves. When mice were confronted with a mixture of purified pyrazine analogs, vigilance behaviors, including freezing and excitation of neurons at the accessory olfactory bulb, were markedly increased. Additionally, the odor of the pyrazine cocktail effectively suppressed the approach of deer to a feeding area, and for those close to the feeding area elicited fear-related behaviors such as the tail-flag, flight, and jump actions. In this review, we discuss the transfer of chemical information from wolf to prey through the novel kairomones identified in wolf urine and also compare the characteristics of wolf kairomones with other predator-produced kairomones that affect rodents.

  2. Dosimetry of 210Po in humans, caribou, and wolves in northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effective doses from 210 Po intake with caribou meat were determined for human residents in Baker Lake and Snowdrift in the Northwest Territories of Canada and compared to doses calculated from reported 210 Po tissue activities in Alaskan and British residents. Effective doses were calculated to separate body tissues, using ICRP 60 human weighting factors and the ICRP 30 metabolic model for 210 Po. Baker Lake and Alaskan effective doses were similar at 0.4 mSv y -1 and slightly higher than Snowdrift doses (0.3 mSv y -1 ). Alaskan tissue activities indicated higher effective doses to liver, bone surfaces and red marrow and lower doses to spleen than the 210 Po metabolic model (ICRP 1979a) predicts. Effective doses to Baker Lake and Snowdrift caribou and wolves, calculated from tissue activities, ranged from 7-20 mSv y -1 using human weighting factors for comparison to human doses only. Effective doses to northern Canadians and wildlife were, respectively, 7-11% and 1.8-5 times an estimated human background of 4 mSv y - from all sources. 51 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  3. The Colorado Plateau Coring Project: A Continuous Cored Non-Marine Record of Early Mesozoic Environmental and Biotic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmis, Randall; Olsen, Paul; Geissman, John; Gehrels, George; Kent, Dennis; Mundil, Roland; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Giesler, Dominique; Schaller, Morgan; Kürschner, Wolfram; Parker, William; Buhedma, Hesham

    2017-04-01

    The early Mesozoic is a critical time in earth history that saw the origin of modern ecosystems set against the back-drop of mass extinction and sudden climate events in a greenhouse world. Non-marine sedimentary strata in western North America preserve a rich archive of low latitude terrestrial ecosystem and environmental change during this time. Unfortunately, frequent lateral facies changes, discontinuous outcrops, and a lack of robust geochronologic constraints make lithostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic correlation difficult, and thus prevent full integration of these paleoenvironmental and paleontologic data into a regional and global context. The Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP) seeks to remedy this situation by recovering a continuous cored record of early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks from the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. CPCP Phase 1 was initiated in 2013, with NSF- and ICDP-funded drilling of Triassic units in Petrified Forest National Park, northern Arizona, U.S.A. This phase recovered a 520 m core (1A) from the northern part of the park, and a 240 m core (2B) from the southern end of the park, comprising the entire Lower-Middle Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and most of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation. Since the conclusion of drilling, the cores have been CT scanned at the University of Texas - Austin, and split, imaged, and scanned (e.g., XRF, gamma, and magnetic susceptibility) at the University of Minnesota LacCore facility. Subsequently, at the Rutgers University Core Repository, core 1A was comprehensively sampled for paleomagnetism, zircon geochronology, petrography, palynology, and soil carbonate stable isotopes. LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon analyses are largely complete, and CA-TIMS U-Pb zircon, paleomagnetic, petrographic, and stable isotope analyses are on-going. Initial results reveal numerous horizons with a high proportion of Late Triassic-aged primary volcanic zircons, the age of which appears to be a close

  4. Cenozoic Uplift and Climate Change of the Northeast Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from Leaf Wax Stable Isotopic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M.; Zhuang, G.; Wu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Topics about the deformation history and uplift mechanism of Tibetan Plateau have been largely debated in the past few decades. Different geodynamic models present different predictions on the mountain building processes and hence the surface uplift history. For example, one tectonic model suggests a rapid uplift (>1.0 to 2.0 km) of the Tibetan Plateau in the period of ca. 10 to 8 Ma as result of isostatic rebound due to the removal of over-thickened mental lithosphere beneath. Whilst the stepwise uplift model infers that the high topography was growing progressively from south to north with the Northeast Tibetan Plateau being built in the Pliocene to present. In this case, the timing of Cenozoic uplift of Northeast Tibetan Plateau would provide information for distinguishing competing geodynamic processes. The stable isotope based paleoaltimetry holds the key to answering when the high topography was built. Additionally, the evolution of Cenozoic Asian climate was argued to be closely related to the high topography built up on the Tibetan Plateau since the India-Asian collision and/or impacted by the global change. To understand when the high topography was built and how the growth of Tibetan Plateau impacted the climate, we reconstructed the long-term histories of paleohydrology from hinterland and foreland basins in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We applied the compound-specific isotope hydrogen analysis to leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hn-alk) that are preserved in well-dated stratigraphic series (ca. 24 Ma to the present) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. The newly reconstructed δ2Hn-alk supports the inference of high topography on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau was built during the middle to late Miocene. Our inference is consistent with sedimentary and basement rock studies that show fundamental changes in facies and provenance and exhumation history. The new δ2Hn-alk record also reveals that the regional climate became drier since the middle Miocene following the

  5. Anoxic sediments off Central Peru record interannual to multidecadal changes of climate and upwelling ecosystem during the last two centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, D.; Sifeddine, A.; Reyss, J. L.; Vargas, G.; Velazco, F.; Salvatteci, R.; Ferreira, V.; Ortlieb, L.; Field, D.; Baumgartner, T.; Boussafir, M.; Boucher, H.; Valdés, J.; Marinovic, L.; Soler, P.; Tapia, P.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological archives in laminated sequences are present in selected areas from the upper continental Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone. We present initial results of a multidisciplinary study (the PALEOPECES project) that aims to reconstruct environmental and ecosystem variability during the past 200 years from high-resolution records. We report chronology development, sediment structure, elemental, organic, and mineralogical compositions of a box core collected at 300 m depth off Pisco, central Peru. An average sedimentation rate of 2.2 mm y-1 was estimated from downcore excess 210Pb activities for the last 100-150 years. Extending this rate further downcore indicates that a slump located at 52 cm depth from the top of the core can be correlated with a large tsunami that struck the coast of central Peru in 1746. X-ray analyses reveal laminated structures composed of couplets of light and dark laminae. Observations under polarized microscope show that light laminae are dominated by more dense, detrital and terrigenous material, while dark laminae are less dense with greater concentrations of amorphous biogenic silica. Downcore variations in dry bulk density and X-ray radioscopy of gray level show similar patterns, including a major shift at 34 cm depth (ca. mid-nineteenth century). A finely laminated sequence, which may include annual varves, is present between 34 cm depth and the slump layer. Sediment characteristics of the sequence suggest increased seasonality of terrigenous versus biogenous sedimentation during the corresponding period. In addition to a mid-nineteenth century change and considerable multidecadal variability in TOC, there is a positive trend in the past 50 years. Mineralogical analyses from a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the upper core covering the last 25 years, indicate higher concentrations of the mineral fraction (quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and illite) in

  6. Anoxic sediments off Central Peru record interannual to multidecadal changes of climate and upwelling ecosystem during the last two centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution paleo-environmental and paleo-ecological archives in laminated sequences are present in selected areas from the upper continental Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone. We present initial results of a multidisciplinary study (the PALEOPECES project that aims to reconstruct environmental and ecosystem variability during the past 200 years from high-resolution records. We report chronology development, sediment structure, elemental, organic, and mineralogical compositions of a box core collected at 300 m depth off Pisco, central Peru. An average sedimentation rate of 2.2 mm y-1 was estimated from downcore excess 210Pb activities for the last 100-150 years. Extending this rate further downcore indicates that a slump located at 52 cm depth from the top of the core can be correlated with a large tsunami that struck the coast of central Peru in 1746. X-ray analyses reveal laminated structures composed of couplets of light and dark laminae. Observations under polarized microscope show that light laminae are dominated by more dense, detrital and terrigenous material, while dark laminae are less dense with greater concentrations of amorphous biogenic silica. Downcore variations in dry bulk density and X-ray radioscopy of gray level show similar patterns, including a major shift at 34 cm depth (ca. mid-nineteenth century. A finely laminated sequence, which may include annual varves, is present between 34 cm depth and the slump layer. Sediment characteristics of the sequence suggest increased seasonality of terrigenous versus biogenous sedimentation during the corresponding period. In addition to a mid-nineteenth century change and considerable multidecadal variability in TOC, there is a positive trend in the past 50 years. Mineralogical analyses from a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the upper core covering the last 25 years, indicate higher concentrations of the mineral fraction (quartz, feldspar, kaolinite and

  7. Limnological controls on stable isotope records of late-holocene palaeoenvironment change in sw greenland: A paired lake study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; John Anderson, N.; Leng, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope records are increasingly being used in palaeoenvironmental studies of Arctic lakes. Here we compare stable isotope and elemental records (δ13C, δ15N, C/N) with high resolution XRF-derived geochemical and colour data from low Arctic lakes (SS1220 and SS85) in southwest Greenland. Lake...... SS1220 sediments are laminated gyttja whereas SS85 consist of homogeneous gyttja, both records cover the last c. 5000 years. d13C and carbon content suggest that organic matter in both lakes is predominantly autochthonous. The C/N variability, ranging between 11 and 15, is interpreted...... composition of lake sediments when there is a reasonable understanding of limnological processes, and records may be lake specific....

  8. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrew, Ashley K. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Stricker, Craig A. [U. S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Margaret Castellini, J. [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish & Game, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Salman, Mo D. [Animal Population Health Institute, Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1644 (United States); Ballweber, Lora R. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1619 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ{sup 13}C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. - Highlights: • [THg] and stable isotopes together provide insight on host-parasite-Hg interactions. • A

  9. Ecotoxicoparasitology: Understanding mercury concentrations in gut contents, intestinal helminths and host tissues of Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; O'Hara, Todd M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Margaret Castellini, J.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; Ballweber, Lora R.

    2015-01-01

    Some gastrointestinal helminths acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in which they live; thus, they may be exposed to non-essential elements, such as mercury (Hg), during feeding. The objectives of this study were: 1) determine the total mercury concentrations ([THg]) in Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and their parasites, and 2) use stable isotopes to evaluate the trophic relationships within the host. [THg] and stable isotopes (C and N) were determined for helminths, host tissues, and lumen contents from 88 wolves. Sixty-three wolves contained grossly visible helminths (71.5%). The prevalence of taeniids and ascarids was 63.6% (56/88) and 20.5% (18/88), respectively. Nine of these 63 wolves contained both taeniids and ascarids (14.3%). All ascarids were determined to be Toxascaris leonina. Taenia species present included T. krabbei and T. hydatigena. Within the GI tract, [THg] in the lumen contents of the proximal small intestine were significantly lower than in the distal small intestine. There was a significant positive association between hepatic and taeniid [THg]. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) ranged from < 1 to 22.9 in taeniids, and 1.1 to 12.3 in T. leonina. Taeniid and ascarid BAF were significantly higher than 1, suggesting that both groups are capable of THg accumulation in their wolf host. δ 13 C in taeniids was significantly lower than in host liver and skeletal muscle. [THg] in helminths and host tissues, in conjunction with stable isotope (C and N) values, provides insight into food-web dynamics of the host GI tract, and aids in elucidating ecotoxicoparasitologic relationships. Variation of [THg] throughout the GI tract, and between parasitic groups, underscores the need to further evaluate the effect(s) of feeding niche, and the nutritional needs of parasites, as they relate to toxicant exposure and distribution within the host. - Highlights: • [THg] and stable isotopes together provide insight on host-parasite-Hg interactions. • A significant

  10. A 667 year record of coseismic and interseismic Coulomb stress changes in central Italy reveals the role of fault interaction in controlling irregular earthquake recurrence intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmore, L. N. J.; Faure Walker, J. P.; Roberts, G. P.; Sammonds, P. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Cowie, P. A.

    2017-07-01

    Current studies of fault interaction lack sufficiently long earthquake records and measurements of fault slip rates over multiple seismic cycles to fully investigate the effects of interseismic loading and coseismic stress changes on the surrounding fault network. We model elastic interactions between 97 faults from 30 earthquakes since 1349 A.D. in central Italy to investigate the relative importance of co-seismic stress changes versus interseismic stress accumulation for earthquake occurrence and fault interaction. This region has an exceptionally long, 667 year record of historical earthquakes and detailed constraints on the locations and slip rates of its active normal faults. Of 21 earthquakes since 1654, 20 events occurred on faults where combined coseismic and interseismic loading stresses were positive even though 20% of all faults are in "stress shadows" at any one time. Furthermore, the Coulomb stress on the faults that experience earthquakes is statistically different from a random sequence of earthquakes in the region. We show how coseismic Coulomb stress changes can alter earthquake interevent times by 103 years, and fault length controls the intensity of this effect. Static Coulomb stress changes cause greater interevent perturbations on shorter faults in areas characterized by lower strain (or slip) rates. The exceptional duration and number of earthquakes we model enable us to demonstrate the importance of combining long earthquake records with detailed knowledge of fault geometries, slip rates, and kinematics to understand the impact of stress changes in complex networks of active faults.

  11. Geochemical and diatom records of recent changes in depositional environment of a tropical wetland, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pande, A.; Nayak, G.N.; Prasad, V.; PrakashBabu, C

    size, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio (TOC/TN), selected metals and pH) and diatom records The sub-channel (S-61) represents river environment which opens into main channel (S-60) which represents marine environment being...

  12. Being a victim or an aggressor: Different functions of triadic post-conflict interactions in wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoni, Giada; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Animals adopt different behavioral strategies to cope with the conflict of interests coming from the competition over limited resources. Starting from the study on chimpanzees, post-conflict third-party affiliation (the affiliative contact provided by a third-party toward the victim--VTA--or the aggressor--ATA) was investigated mainly in primates. Later, this post-conflict mechanism has been demonstrated also in other mammals, such as wallabies, horses, dolphins, domestic dogs, and wolves. Here, we present data on triadic post-conflict affiliation in wolves (Canis lupus lupus) by exploring some of the hypotheses already proposed for primates and never tested before in other social mammals. In this carnivore species, the study of VTA and ATA revealed that these strategies cannot be considered as a unique behavioral category since they differ in many functional aspects. VTA serves to protect the victim by reducing the likelihood of reiterated attacks from the previous aggressor and to reinforce the relationship shared by the third-party and the victim. On the other hand, ATA has a role in bystander protection by limiting the renewed attacks of the previous aggressor toward uninvolved group-members (potential third-parties). In conclusion, exploring VTA and ATA gives the opportunity to concurrently demonstrate some functional differences in triadic post-conflict affiliation according to the different targets of bystanders (victims or aggressors). The data comparison between primates and other social mammals should permit to open new lines of research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Play Behavior in Wolves: Using the ‘50:50’ Rule to Test for Egalitarian Play Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafazzo, Simona; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Kotrschal, Kurt; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Social play is known as a cooperative interaction between individuals involving multiple mechanisms. However, the extent to which the equality of individuals’ play styles affects the interaction has not been studied in many species. Dyadic play between wolf puppies, as well as between puppies and adults, was studied to investigate both self-handicapping and offensive behaviors to determine the extent to which wolves engage in play styles where one individual does not dominate the play. Our results did not support the hypothesized ‘50:50’ rule, which suggests that more advantaged individuals should show higher rates of self-handicapping behaviors in order to facilitate play with others. Adult wolves performed significantly less self-handicapping behaviors than their puppy partners, and they performed significantly more offensive behaviors than their puppy partners. While the ‘50:50’ rule was not supported at any time during our study period, dyads consisting of two puppies had significantly more equal play than dyads consisting of one puppy and one adult. These results suggest that wolf puppies are more likely to play on equal terms with similarly-aged play partners, while the dominance status of the partners dictates offensive and self-handicapping behaviors between animals of different ages. PMID:27167522

  14. Behavioral responses of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Canidae) to different categories of environmental enrichment stimuli and their implications for successful reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Young, Robert John

    2012-01-01

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1815, Canidae) is a threatened species that inhabits the cerrados of Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Captive maned wolves could be potentially used in reintroduction programs for species conservation; however, it is necessary that their behavior and cognitive abilities are conserved. Environmental enrichment is a tool used to stimulate captive animals and maintain a natural behavioral repertoire. To compare the variation of captive maned wolves' behavioral responses to environmental enrichment, we studied three maned wolves held by Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil. Foraging, interspecific, and intraspecific stimuli were offered to the animals and their responses were compared with a baseline and postenrichment treatments. The test was used to help in choosing which one of the three individuals would participate in a reintroduction project. The results showed that stimuli type did influence the animal's responses, and that individually wolves responded differently to foraging, interspecific, and intraspecific enrichment items (P80.05 for some behaviors in each enrichment category). The individual's personality seemed to influence their behavioral responses, with animals showing bold and shy responses, and this trait should be considered during decision makings for reintroduction. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Italian wolves (Canis lupus italicus Altobello, 1921 and molecular detection of taeniids in the Foreste Casentinesi National Park, Northern Italian Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Poglayen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available After centuries of massive decline, the recovery of the wolf (Canis lupus italicus in Italy is a typical conservation success story. To learn more about the possible role of parasites in the wolves' individual and population health and conservation we used non-invasive molecular approaches on fecal samples to identify individual wolves, pack membership, and the taeniids present, some of which are zoonotic. A total of 130 specimens belonging to 54 wolves from eight packs were collected and examined. Taeniid eggs were isolated using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad1. Taeniid prevalence was 40.7% for Taenia hydatigena, 22.2% for T. krabbei, 1.8% for T. polyachanta and 5.5% for Echinococcus granulosus. The prevalence of E. granulosus is discussed. Our results show that the taeniid fauna found in wolves from the Foreste Casentinesi National Park is comparable to that described for other domestic and wild Italian canids and provides insights into the wolves’ diet and their relationship with the environment.

  16. When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A R

    2015-09-01

    Domestic dogs have been recognized for their social sensitivity and aptitude in human-guided tasks. For example, prior studies have demonstrated that dogs look to humans when confronted with an unsolvable task; an action often interpreted as soliciting necessary help. Conversely, wolves persist on such tasks. While dogs' 'looking back' behaviour has been used as an example of socio-cognitive advancement, an alternative explanation is that pet dogs show less persistence on independent tasks more generally. In this study, pet dogs, shelter dogs and wolves were given up to three opportunities to open a solvable puzzle box: when subjects were with a neutral human caretaker, alone and when encouraged by the human. Wolves were more persistent and more successful on this task than dogs, with 80% average success rate for wolves versus a 5% average success rate for dogs in both the human-in and alone conditions. Dogs showed increased contact with the puzzle box during the encouragement condition, but only a moderate increase in problem-solving success. Social sensitivity appears to play an important role in pet and shelter dogs' willingness to engage in problem-solving behaviour, which could suggest generalized dependence on, or deference to, human action. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. New high-resolution record of Holocene climate change in the Weddell Sea from combined biomarker analysis of the Patriot Hills blue ice area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwill, Christopher; Turney, Chris; Baker, Andy; Ellis, Bethany; Cooper, Alan; Etheridge, David; Rubino, Mauro; Thornton, David; Fernando, Francisco; Bird, Michale; Munksgaard, Niels

    2017-04-01

    We report preliminary analysis of biomarkers (including dissolved organic matter (DOM) and DNA) from the Patriot Hills blue ice area (BIA), from the Ellsworth Mountains in the Weddell Sea Embayment. Preliminary isotopic and multiple gas analysis (CO2, CH4, N2O and CO) demonstrate that the Holocene comprises more than 50% of the 800m long BIA record, and in combination isotopic and biomarker analysis reveals a remarkable record of centennial variability through the Holocene in this sector of the Weddell Sea. Analysis using a Horiba Aqualog - which measures the fluorescence of DOM by producing a map of the fluorescence through an excitation-emission matrix (EEM) - identifies the presence of two marine protein-like components in both modern snow pit samples and within the Holocene part of Patriot Hills BIA transect. Intriguingly, the modern seasonal trends in DOM, recorded in contemporary snow pits, have relatively low signals compared to those recorded in the mid-Holocene record, suggesting a reduction in DOM signal in contemporary times. Given that the δD excess data suggests the source of precipitation has remained constant through the Holocene, the biomarker signal must relate to multi-year marine productivity signals from the Weddell Sea. The marked variability in DOM between the mid-Holocene and contemporary times can only relate to periods of sustained, enhanced biological productivity in the Weddell Sea associated with shifts in Southern Annular Mode, sea ice variability, changes in ventilation or polynya activity. Here we discuss the possible drivers of these changes and describe how this approach at this BIA could benefit conventional ice core records regionally.

  18. Reconstruction of Antarctic climate change using ice core proxy records from the coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Laluraj, C.M.; Naik, S.S.; Chaturvedi, A.

    the austral summer of 2003. The retrieved ice core samples were labelled, packed in good quality LDPE containers and subsequently shipped in -20ºC deep freezer facilities. These cores were archived in frozen conditions in custom-made expanded polypropylene...: Glaciochemistry, Stable isotope, Ice core, Solar activity, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. regions offer continuous and highly resolved long-term records of reliable information on major atmospheric parameters like temperature, composition and trace gases. Among...

  19. Local processes and regional patterns - Interpreting a multi-decadal altimetry record of Greenland Ice Sheet changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A. F.; Babonis, G. S.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van der Veen, C. J.; Khan, S. A.; Porter, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a new, comprehensive reconstruction of Greenland Ice Sheet elevation changes, generated using the Surface Elevation And Change detection (SERAC) approach. 35-year long elevation-change time series (1980-2015) were obtained at more than 150,000 locations from observations acquired by NASA's airborne and spaceborne laser altimeters (ATM, LVIS, ICESat), PROMICE laser altimetry data (2007-2011) and a DEM covering the ice sheet margin derived from stereo aerial photographs (1970s-80s). After removing the effect of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and the elastic crustal response to changes in ice loading, the time series were partitioned into changes due to surface processes and ice dynamics and then converted into mass change histories. Using gridded products, we examined ice sheet elevation, and mass change patterns, and compared them with other estimates at different scales from individual outlet glaciers through large drainage basins, on to the entire ice sheet. Both the SERAC time series and the grids derived from these time series revealed significant spatial and temporal variations of dynamic mass loss and widespread intermittent thinning, indicating the complexity of ice sheet response to climate forcing. To investigate the regional and local controls of ice dynamics, we examined thickness change time series near outlet glacier grounding lines. Changes on most outlet glaciers were consistent with one or more episodes of dynamic thinning that propagates upstream from the glacier terminus. The spatial pattern of the onset, duration, and termination of these dynamic thinning events suggest a regional control, such as warming ocean and air temperatures. However, the intricate spatiotemporal pattern of dynamic thickness change suggests that, regardless of the forcing responsible for initial glacier acceleration and thinning, the response of individual glaciers is modulated by local conditions. We use statistical methods, such as principal

  20. An oxygen isotope record from Lake Xiarinur in Inner Mongolia since the last deglaciation and its implication for tropical monsoon change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing; Chu, Guoqiang; Xie, Manman; Zhu, Qingzeng; Su, Youliang; Wang, Xisheng

    2018-04-01

    We present a high-resolution oxygen isotope record from authigenic carbonate (δ18Ocarb) from Lake Xiarinur (Inner Mongolia) since the last deglaciation. The lake is located at the modern northern limit of the monsoon, and is therefore sensitive to the extension of the East Asian summer monsoon. Based on calibration against the instrumental record, the δ18Ocar variation has been interpreted as changes in atmospheric circulation pattern on decadal time scales. On longer time scales, the δ18Ocarb in lake sediments could be mainly regulated by the relative contribution of nearby (remote) water-vapor sources associated with subtropical (tropical) monsoon through changes in the distance from sources to the site of precipitation. Increased remote water vapors from tropical monsoon would lead to lighter isotope value in our study site. Through time the δ18Ocarb record in Lake Xiarinur indicate a notable weak tropical monsoon during the Younger Dryas, a gradual increasing monsoon from the early Holocene and weakening monsoon after the middle Holocene. Oxygen isotope records from lakes and stalagmite in the Asian monsoon region across different localities show a general similar temporal pattern since the last deglaciation, and highlight a fundamental role of the tropical monsoon.

  1. Seasonal changes in peatland surface elevation recorded at GPS stations in the Red Lake Peatlands, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, A.S.; Glaser, P.H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2013-01-01

    Northern peatlands appear to hold large volumes of free-phase gas (e.g., CH4 and CO2), which has been detected by surface deformations, pore pressure profiles, and electromagnetic surveys. Determining the gas content and its impact in peat is challenging because gas storage depends on both the elastic properties of the peat matrix and the buoyant forces exerted by pore fluids. We therefore used a viscoelastic deformation model to estimate these variables by adjusting model runs to reproduce observed changes in peat surface elevation within a 1300 km2 peatland. A local GPS network documented significant changes in surface elevations throughout the year with the greatest vertical displacements associated with rapid changes in peat water content and unloadings due to melting of the winter snowpack. These changes were coherent with changes in water table elevation and also abnormal pore pressure changes measured by nests of instrumented piezometers. The deformation model reproduced these changes when the gas content was adjusted to 10% of peat volume, and Young's modulus was varied between 5 and 100 kPa as the peat profile shifted from tension to compression. In contrast, the model predicted little peat deformation when the gas content was 3% or lower. These model simulations are consistent with previous estimates of gas volume in northern peatlands and suggest an upper limit of gas storage controlled by the elastic moduli of the peat fabric.

  2. The glacial inception as recorded in the NorthGRIP Greenland ice core: timing, structure and associated abrupt temperature changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landais, Amaelle [UMR CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, IPSL/Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur -Yvette (France); Hebrew University, Institute of Earth Sciences, Givat Ram, Jerusalem (Israel); Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Jouzel, Jean; Minster, Benedicte [UMR CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, IPSL/Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur -Yvette (France); Raynaud, Dominique [LGGE, UMR CNRS-UJF, St Martin d' Heres (France); Johnsen, Sigfus [University of Copenhagen, Department of Geophysics, Copenhagen (Denmark); Huber, Christof; Leuenberger, Markus; Schwander, Jakob [University of Bern, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the glacial inception are still poorly constrained due to a lack of high resolution and cross-dated climate records at various locations. Using air isotopic measurements in the recently drilled NorthGRIP ice core, we show that no evidence exists for stratigraphic disturbance of the climate record of the last glacial inception ({proportional_to}123-100 kyears BP) encompassing Dansgaard-Oeschger events (DO) 25, 24 and 23, even if we lack sufficient resolution to completely rule out disturbance over DO 25. We quantify the rapid surface temperature variability over DO 23 and 24 with associated warmings of 10{+-}2.5 and 16{+-}2.5 C, amplitudes which mimic those observed in full glacial conditions. We use records of {delta}{sup 18}O of O{sub 2} to propose a common timescale for the NorthGRIP and the Antarctic Vostok ice cores, with a maximum uncertainty of 2,500 years, and to examine the interhemispheric sequence of events over this period. After a synchronous North-South temperature decrease, the onset of rapid events is triggered in the North through DO 25. As for later events, DO 24 and 23 have a clear Antarctic counterpart which does not seem to be the case for the very first abrupt warming (DO 25). This information, when added to intermediate levels of CO{sub 2} and to the absence of clear ice rafting associated with DO 25, highlights the uniqueness of this first event, while DO 24 and 23 appear similar to typical full glacial DO events. (orig.)

  3. Multimethod, multistate Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach for use in regional monitoring of wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, José; García, Emilio J; Llaneza, Luis; Palacios, Vicente; González, Luis Mariano; García-Domínguez, Francisco; Múñoz-Igualada, Jaime; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-08-01

    In many cases, the first step in large-carnivore management is to obtain objective, reliable, and cost-effective estimates of population parameters through procedures that are reproducible over time. However, monitoring predators over large areas is difficult, and the data have a high level of uncertainty. We devised a practical multimethod and multistate modeling approach based on Bayesian hierarchical-site-occupancy models that combined multiple survey methods to estimate different population states for use in monitoring large predators at a regional scale. We used wolves (Canis lupus) as our model species and generated reliable estimates of the number of sites with wolf reproduction (presence of pups). We used 2 wolf data sets from Spain (Western Galicia in 2013 and Asturias in 2004) to test the approach. Based on howling surveys, the naïve estimation (i.e., estimate based only on observations) of the number of sites with reproduction was 9 and 25 sites in Western Galicia and Asturias, respectively. Our model showed 33.4 (SD 9.6) and 34.4 (3.9) sites with wolf reproduction, respectively. The number of occupied sites with wolf reproduction was 0.67 (SD 0.19) and 0.76 (0.11), respectively. This approach can be used to design more cost-effective monitoring programs (i.e., to define the sampling effort needed per site). Our approach should inspire well-coordinated surveys across multiple administrative borders and populations and lead to improved decision making for management of large carnivores on a landscape level. The use of this Bayesian framework provides a simple way to visualize the degree of uncertainty around population-parameter estimates and thus provides managers and stakeholders an intuitive approach to interpreting monitoring results. Our approach can be widely applied to large spatial scales in wildlife monitoring where detection probabilities differ between population states and where several methods are being used to estimate different population

  4. Keeping the wolves at bay: antitoxins of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ting eChan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In their initial stages of discovery, prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA systems were confined to bacterial plasmids where they function to mediate the maintenance and stability of usually low- to medium-copy number plasmids through the post-segregational killing of any plasmid-free daughter cells that developed. Their eventual discovery as nearly ubiquitous and repetitive elements in bacterial chromosomes led to a wealth of knowledge and scientific debate as to their diversity and functionality in the prokaryotic lifestyle. Currently categorized into six different types designated types I – VI, type II TA systems are the best characterized. These generally comprised of two genes encoding a proteic toxin and its corresponding proteic antitoxin, respectively. Under normal growth conditions, the stable toxin is prevented from exerting its lethal effect through tight binding with the less stable antitoxin partner, forming a non-lethal TA protein complex. Besides binding with its cognate toxin, the antitoxin also plays a role in regulating the expression of the type II TA operon by binding to the operator site, thereby repressing transcription from the TA promoter. In most cases, full repression is observed in the presence of the TA complex as binding of the toxin enhances the DNA binding capability of the antitoxin. TA systems have been implicated in a gamut of prokaryotic cellular functions such as being mediators of programmed cell death as well as persistence or dormancy, biofilm formation, as defensive weapons against bacteriophage infections and as virulence factors in pathogenic bacteria. It is thus apparent that these antitoxins, as DNA-binding proteins, play an essential role in modulating the prokaryotic lifestyle whilst at the same time preventing the lethal action of the toxins under normal growth conditions, i.e., keeping the proverbial wolves at bay. In this review, we will cover the diversity and characteristics of various type II TA

  5. A ~600 kyr duration Early Pleistocene record from the West Turkana (Kenya) HSPDP drill site: elemental XRF variability to reconstruct climate change in Turkana Boy's backyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhecke, M.; Beck, C. C.; Brown, E. T.; Cohen, A.; Deino, A. L.; Feibel, C. S.; Sier, M.

    2015-12-01

    . In addition, the XRF record of the changing hydroclimate of the West Turkana Basin from 1.3 to 1.9 kyrs will be explored in relation to regional reconstructions and marine stratigraphies.

  6. A palaeoenvironmental record of natural and human change from the Auckland Isthmus, New Zealand, during the Late Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Deng, Y.; Nichol, S.L.; Shane, P.A.; Ogden, J.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-proxy analysis of a sediment core from Waiatarua, Auckland Isthmus, adds to an environmental history from the local wetland spanning the Late Glacial to modern times. Several distal tephra were recorded in the core: 8.5 ka Rotoma (reworked), 6.1 ka Tuhua (primary and reworked), most likely the 1.8 ka Taupo (the latter is previously unreported for the Auckland Isthmus), and one unidentified, possibly 665 yr BP Kaharoa. Pollen and diatom analyses of the core show that during the period c. 6000-c. 4800 yr BP, the site was a lake fringed with Cyperaceae/Leptospermum swamp. The lake became progressively shallower after c. 4800 yr BP, probably due to hydroseral infilling. Surrounding the lake was forest dominated by Dacrydium, Prumnopitys, Metrosideros, and Nestegis. Transition to the Polynesian era appears unclear because the site probably endured a hiatus due to destruction of peat by burning in European times. (author). 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. S.; Nolan, M.; McConnell, J.; Sigl, M.; Cherry, J.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored modern precipitation and ice core isotope ratios to better understand both modern and paleo climate in the Arctic. Paleoclimate reconstructions require an understanding of how modern synoptic climate influences proxies used in those reconstructions, such as water isotopes. Therefore we measured periodic precipitation samples at Toolik Lake Field Station (Toolik) in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan Arctic to determine δ18O and δ2H. We applied this multi-decadal local precipitation δ18O/temperature regression to ∼65 years of McCall Glacier (also in the Brooks Range) ice core isotope measurements and found an increase in reconstructed temperatures over the late-20th and early-21st centuries. We also show that the McCall Glacier δ18O isotope record is negatively correlated with the winter bidecadal North Pacific Index (NPI) climate oscillation. McCall Glacier deuterium excess (d-excess, δ2H - 8*δ18O) values display a bidecadal periodicity coherent with the NPI and suggest shifts from more southwestern Bering Sea moisture sources with less sea ice (lower d-excess values) to more northern Arctic Ocean moisture sources with more sea ice (higher d-excess values). Northern ice covered Arctic Ocean McCall Glacier moisture sources are associated with weak Aleutian Low (AL) circulation patterns and the southern moisture sources with strong AL patterns. Ice core d-excess values significantly decrease over the record, coincident with warmer temperatures and a significant reduction in Alaska sea ice concentration, which suggests that ice free northern ocean waters are increasingly serving as terrestrial precipitation moisture sources; a concept recently proposed by modeling studies and also present in Greenland ice core d-excess values during previous transitions to warm periods. This study also shows the efficacy and importance of using ice cores from Arctic valley glaciers in paleoclimate reconstructions.

  8. Information from uranium and thorium isotopes recorded in lake bottom sediment - Lake Kawaguchi. Attempt to evaluate environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, M.; Shimizu, T.; Sasaki, K.; Koshimizu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lake sediments, as well as ice cores and marine sediments, have been used to reveal past environmental changes caused by both natural and artificial events with local and global scales. Particles in the lake originate from soil and other suspended matter which are carried in from the inflowing water or from direct discharge (lithogenous particles), and they are also formed in the lake as a result of the growth, metabolism and death of plants and animals (autogenous particles). The settling particles contain U and Th isotopes due to lithogenous particles (soil), and adsorbed U to the particles. Thorium has an exceedingly low solubility in water and is very strongly adsorbed onto particles. If we can distinguish these two different components in the mixture of U due to lithogenous particles themselves and adsorption fractions, the former might provide useful information on past environmental changes by natural events, while the latter information on past environmental changes by artificial events. In this paper, we aimed to test the above hypothesis using data on U and Th isotopes of sediment cores (0- ca. 40 cm depth, covering periods of past several hundred years) from 3 points in Lake Kawaguchi of Fuji-Goko in Japan. By using model equation and results obtained from analysis, we distinguished U due to lithogenous and autogenous particles. And these depth profiles were compared with changes in the rainfall during the period of 1933 - 2001. Although the changes in the 238 U/ 232 Th ratios with depth for lithogenous particles and rainfall do not fluctuate synchronously, some parts of depth coincided with each other. The results suggest strongly that variation in the U and Th isotopic ratios separated by model might be helpful in tracing the past environmental changes in regional scale. To check the usefulness of this method, physical and chemical data such as grain size, grain density, water content and biogenic SiO 2 in the sediment will be further compared with the

  9. First High-Resolution Record of Late Quaternary Environmental Changes in the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, Revealed by Multi-proxy Analysis of Drift Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, J.; Ó Cofaigh, C.; Lloyd, J. M.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Kuhn, G.; Smith, J.; Ehrmann, W. U.; Esper, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is experiencing rapid mass loss and there is a pressing need to place the contemporary ice-sheet changes into a longer term context. The continental rise in this region is characterised by large sediment mounds that are shaped by westward flowing bottom currents and that resemble contouritic drifts existing offshore from the Antarctic Peninsula. Similar to the Antarctic Peninsula drifts, marine sediment cores from the poorly studied sediment mounds in the Amundsen Sea have the potential to provide reliable records of dynamical ice-sheet behaviour in West Antarctica and palaeoceanographic changes in the Southern Ocean during the Late Quaternary that can be reconstructed from their terrestrial, biogenic and authigenic components. Here we use multi-proxy data from three sediment cores recovered from two of the Amundsen Sea mounds to present the first high-resolution study of environmental changes on this part of the West Antarctic continental margin over the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Late Quaternary. Age constraints for the records are derived from biostratigraphy, AMS 14C dates and lithostratigraphy. We focus on the investigation of processes for drift formation, thereby using grain size and sortable silt data to reconstruct changes in bottom current speed and to identify episodes of current winnowing. Data on geochemical and mineralogical sediment composition and physical properties are used to infer both changes in terrigenous sediment supply in response to the advance and retreat of the WAIS across the Amundsen Sea shelf and changes in biological productivity that are mainly controlled by the duration of annual sea-ice coverage. We compare our data sets from the Amundsen Sea mounds to those from the well-studied Antarctic Peninsula drifts, thereby highlighting similarities and discrepancies in depositional processes and climatically-driven environmental changes.

  10. Modeling effects of environmental change on wolf population dynamics, trait evolution, and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Tim; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Douglas W

    2011-12-02

    Environmental change has been observed to generate simultaneous responses in population dynamics, life history, gene frequencies, and morphology in a number of species. But how common are such eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change likely to be? Are they inevitable, or do they require a specific type of change? Can we accurately predict eco-evolutionary responses? We address these questions using theory and data from the study of Yellowstone wolves. We show that environmental change is expected to generate eco-evolutionary change, that changes in the average environment will affect wolves to a greater extent than changes in how variable it is, and that accurate prediction of the consequences of environmental change will probably prove elusive.

  11. Fluvial sequences of the Maas : a 10 Ma record of neotectonics and climatic change at various time-scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.W.

    1996-01-01


    Around 10 million years ago, the interplay of tectonics, climate and sea level changed markedly in the southern North Sea Basin. One of the results was the start of rapid progradation of the Rhine/Meuse delta. The sediments of this basin-filling complex have been preserved in a number of

  12. Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993-2010) from the Climate Change Initiative project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ablain, M.; Cazenave, A.; Larnicol, G.

    2015-01-01

    .6 and 1-2 mm year(-1)). Similarly, interannual global mean sea level variations (currently uncertain to 2-3 mm) need to be monitored with better accuracy. In this paper, we present various data improvements achieved within the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) project on "Sea...

  13. 19 CFR 111.30 - Notification of change of business address, organization, name, or location of business records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... partnership, association, or corporation broker must immediately provide written notice of any of the... customs business, or any other change in the legal nature of the organization (for example, conversion of a general partnership to a limited partnership, merger with another organization, divestiture of a...

  14. Climatic and biotic changes around the Carboniferous/Permian boundary recorded in the continental basins of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opluštil, S.; Šimůnek, Z.; Zajíc, Jaroslav; Mencl, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2013), s. 114-151 ISSN 0166-5162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biotic change * Bohemian Massif * Carboniferous-Permian transition * continental basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2013

  15. Response of northern hemisphere environmental and atmospheric conditions to climate changes using Greenland aerosol records from the Eemian to the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Hemisphere experienced dramatic climate changes over the last glacial cycle, including vast ice sheet expansion and frequent abrupt climate events. Moreover, high northern latitudes during the last interglacial (Eemian) were warmer than today and may provide guidance for future climate change scenarios. However, little evidence exists regarding the environmental alterations connected to these climate changes. Using aerosol concentration records in decadal resolution from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) over the last 128,000 years we extract quantitative information on environmental changes, including the first comparison of northern hemisphere environmental conditions between the warmer than present Eemian and the early Holocene. Separating source changes from transport effects, we find that changes in the ice concentration greatly overestimate the changes in atmospheric concentrations in the aerosol source region, the latter mirroring changes in aerosol emissions. Glacial times were characterized by a strong reduction in terrestrial biogenic emissions (only 10-20% of the early Holocene value) reflecting the net loss of vegetated area in mid to high latitudes, while rapid climate changes during the glacial had essentially no effect on terrestrial biogenic aerosol emissions. An increase in terrestrial dust emissions of approximately a factor of eight during peak glacial and cold stadial intervals indicates higher aridity and dust storm activity in Asian deserts. Glacial sea salt aerosol emissions increased only moderately (by approximately 50%), likely due to sea ice expansion, while marked stadial/interstadial variations in sea salt concentrations in the ice reflect mainly changes in wet deposition en route. Eemian ice contains lower aerosol concentrations than ice from the early Holocene, due to shortened atmospheric residence time during the warmer Eemian, suggesting that generally 2°C warmer climate in high northern latitudes did not

  16. The fossil record of phenotypic integration and modularity: A deep-time perspective on developmental and evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali; Binder, Wendy J; Meachen, Julie; O'Keefe, F Robin

    2015-04-21

    Variation is the raw material for natural selection, but the factors shaping variation are still poorly understood. Genetic and developmental interactions can direct variation, but there has been little synthesis of these effects with the extrinsic factors that can shape biodiversity over large scales. The study of phenotypic integration and modularity has the capacity to unify these aspects of evolutionary study by estimating genetic and developmental interactions through the quantitative analysis of morphology, allowing for combined assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic effects. Data from the fossil record in particular are central to our understanding of phenotypic integration and modularity because they provide the only information on deep-time developmental and evolutionary dynamics, including trends in trait relationships and their role in shaping organismal diversity. Here, we demonstrate the important perspective on phenotypic integration provided by the fossil record with a study of Smilodon fatalis (saber-toothed cats) and Canis dirus (dire wolves). We quantified temporal trends in size, variance, phenotypic integration, and direct developmental integration (fluctuating asymmetry) through 27,000 y of Late Pleistocene climate change. Both S. fatalis and C. dirus showed a gradual decrease in magnitude of phenotypic integration and an increase in variance and the correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and overall integration through time, suggesting that developmental integration mediated morphological response to environmental change in the later populations of these species. These results are consistent with experimental studies and represent, to our knowledge, the first deep-time validation of the importance of developmental integration in stabilizing morphological evolution through periods of environmental change.

  17. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of

  18. A record of astronomically forced climate change in a late Ordovician (Sandbian) deep marine sequence, Ordos Basin, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qiang; Wu, Huaichun; Hinnov, Linda A.; Wang, Xunlian; Yang, Tianshui; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Shihong

    2016-07-01

    The late Ordovician Pingliang Formation on the southwestern margin of the Ordos Basin, North China, consists of rhythmic alternations of shale, limestone, and siliceous beds. To explore the possible astronomical forcing preserved in this lithological record, continuous lithological rank and magnetic susceptibility (MS) stratigraphic series were obtained from a 34 m thick section of the Pingliang Formation at Guanzhuang. Power spectral analysis of the MS and rank series reveal 85.5 cm to 124 cm, 23 cm to 38 cm, and 15 cm to 27 cm thick sedimentary cycles that in ratio match that of late Ordovician short eccentricity, obliquity and precession astronomical cycles. The power spectrum of the MS time series, calibrated to interpreted short orbital eccentricity cycles, aligns with spectral peaks to astronomical parameters, including 95 kyr short orbital eccentricity, 35.3 kyr and 30.6 kyr obliquity, and 19.6 kyr and 16.3 kyr precession cycles. The 15 cm to 27 cm thick limestone-shale couplets mainly represent precession cycles, and siliceous bed deposition may be related to both precession and obliquity forcing. We propose that precession-forced sea-level fluctuations mainly controlled production of lime mud in a shallow marine environment, and transport to the basin. Precession and obliquity controlled biogenic silica productivity, and temperature-dependent preservation of silica may have been influenced by obliquity forcing.

  19. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FOOD AS REINFORCERS FOR DOMESTIC DOGS AND HAND-REARED WOLVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Erica N; Wynne, Clive D. L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food. PMID:22851794

  20. Synthesis of a quarter-century of satellite and airborne altimetry records to resolve long-term ice sheet elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J.; Paolo, F. S.; Simonsen, S.; Gardner, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite and airborne altimetry provide the longest continuous record from which the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet can be derived, starting with the launch of ERS-1 in 1992. Accurate knowledge of the long-term mass balance is vital for understanding the geophysical processes governing the ice sheet contribution to present day sea-level rise. However, this record is comprised of several different measurement systems, with different accuracies and varying resolution. This poses a major challenge on the interpretation and reconstruction of consistent elevation-change time series for determining long-term ice sheet trends and variability. Previous studies using data from multiple satellite altimetry missions have relied on a cross-calibration technique based on crossover bias analysis to merge records from different sensors. This methodology, though accurate, limits the spatial coverage to typical resolutions of 10-50 km, restricting the approach to regional or continental-wide studies. In this study, we present a novel framework for seamless integration of heterogeneous altimetry records, using an adaptive least-squares minimization technique. The procedure allows reconstructing time series at fine spatial (sheet, including both data from the European Space Agency (ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2) and NASA (ICESat and Operation IceBridge), with future inclusion of data from NASA's ICESat-2. Mission specific errors, estimated from independent airborne measurements and crossover analysis, are propagated to derive uncertainty bounds for each individual time series. We also perform an extensive analysis of the major corrections applied to raw satellite altimetry data to assess their overall effect on the estimated uncertainty. This methodology will allow us to determine robust long-term changes in the surface elevation of grounded Antarctic ice. Such a dataset will be invaluable to advancing ice sheet assimilation efforts and to disentangle causal

  1. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  2. Changes in Black Carbon Deposition to Antarctica from Two Ice Core Records, A.D. 1850-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisiaux, Marion M.; Edward, Ross; McConnell, Joseph R.; Curran, Mark A. J.; VanOmmen, Tas D.; Smith, Andrew M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Penner, Joyce E.; Taylor, Kendrick

    2012-01-01

    Continuous flow analysis was based on a steady sample flow and in-line detection of BC and other chemical substances as described in McConnell et al. (2007). In the cold room, previously cut one meter ice core sticks of 3x3cm, are melted continuously on a heated melter head specifically designed to eliminate contamination from the atmosphere or by the external parts of the ice. The melted ice from the most inner part of the ice stick is continuously pumped by a peristaltic pump and carried to a clean lab by Teflon lines. The recorded signal is continuous, integrating a sample volume of about 0.05 mL, for which the temporal resolution depends on the speed of melting, ice density and snow accumulation rate at the ice core drilling site. For annual accumulation derived from the WAIS and Law Dome ice cores, we assumed 3.1 cm water equivalent uncertainty in each year's accumulation from short scale spatial variability (glaciological noise) which was determined from several measurements of annual accumulation in multiple parallel ice cores notably from the WAIS Divide ice core site (Banta et al., 2008) and from South Pole site (McConnell et al., 1997; McConnell et al., 2000). Refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were determined using the same method as in (Bisiaux et al., 2011) and adapted to continuous flow measurements as described by (McConnell et al., 2007). The technique uses a single particle intracavity laser induced incandescence photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, Colorado) coupled to an ultrasonic nebulizer/desolvation (CETAC UT5000) Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). All analyses, sample preparation etc, were performed in a class 100 cleanroom using anti contamination "clean techniques". The samples were not acidified.

  3. Vertical Record of Ecological Change and Carbon Storage in a Young Emergent Mississippi River Coastal Deltaic Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, A.; Twilley, R.; Bentley, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal deltaic floodplains are responsible for 40-50% of global coastal and marine carbon (C) burial and yet are often excluded from blue carbon literature. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is an unplanned Atchafalaya bayhead delta formation resulting from the dredging of the Wax Lake Outlet in 1942 to reduce downstream flooding of Morgan City. Twelve 4-5 m Vibracores were taken throughout the delta chronosequence to investigate ecological succession and C storage during the entirety of WLD's development. An oyster shell bed that can be found throughout the delta delineates the beginning of the WLD facies in 1952. As a young active delta its sediments are dominated by fine sand. However, the upper 0.4-0.7 m demonstrate a distinct transition to increased organic matter (OM) inputs, and in the upper half of this layer >90% of the C is organic. Spikes in organic matter and C content correspond to decreases in bulk density through the record. Notably, at 2.5 m depth there is a low bulk density layer corresponding to an increase in organic matter and C that is found throughout the older subaerial delta. This layer formed in 1970, a few years before WLD became subaerial in 1973 and therefore likely represents the point at which vegetation colonization began. Atomic N:P ratios, which are ecological indicators of biological influence, also demonstrate trends similar to OM and C further supporting this interpretation. With over 40 years of continuous subaerial land building, WLD provides a stark contrast to most of Louisiana's retrograding coastline and is considered a model for future sediment diversions.

  4. Sedimentary rhythms in coastal dunes as a record of intra-annual changes in wind climate (Łeba, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, J.; Lindhorst, S.; Betzler, C.; Bierstedt, S. E.; Borówka, R. K.

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that coastal dunes bear a so far unread archive of annual wind intensity. Active dunes at the Polish coast near Łeba consist of two genetic units: primary dunes with up to 18 m high eastward-dipping foresets, temporarily superimposed by smaller secondary dunes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data reveal that the foresets of the primary dunes are bundled into alternating packages imaged as either low- or high-amplitude reflections. High-amplitude packages are composed of quartz sand with intercalated heavy-minerals layers. Low-amplitude packages lack these heavy-mineral concentrations. Dune net-progradation is towards the east, reflecting the prevalence of westerly winds. Winds blowing parallel to the dune crest winnow the lee slope, leaving layers enriched in heavy minerals. Sediment transport to the slip face of the dunes is enhanced during the winter months, whereas winnowing predominantly takes place during the spring to autumn months, when the wind field is bi-directional. As a consequence of this seasonal shift, the sedimentary record of one year comprises one low- and one high-amplitude GPR reflection interval. This sedimentary pattern is a persistent feature of the Łeba dunes and recognized to resemble a sedimentary "bar code". To overcome hiatuses in the bar code of individual dunes and dune-to-dune variations in bar-code quality, dendrochronological methods were adopted to compile a composite bar code from several dunes. The resulting data series shows annual variations in west-wind intensity at the southern Baltic coast for the time period 1987 to 2012. Proxy-based wind data are validated against instrumental based weather observations.

  5. Late-Holocene vegetation dynamics in response to a changing climate and anthropogenic influences - Insights from stratigraphic records and subfossil trees from southeast Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Stančikaitė, Miglė; Miras, Yannick; Corona, Christophe; Gryguc, Gražyna; Gedminienė, Laura; Mažeika, Jonas; Stoffel, Markus

    2018-04-01

    To increase our understanding of long-term climate dynamics and its effects on different ecosystems, palaeoclimatic and long-term botanical reconstructions need to be improved, in particular in underutilized geographical regions. In this study, vegetation, (hydro)climate, and land-use changes were documented at two southeast Lithuanian peatland complexes - Čepkeliai and Rieznyčia - for the Late-Holocene period. The documentation was based on a combination of pollen, plant macrofossils, peat stratigraphic records, and subfossil trees. Our results cover the last two millennia and reveal the existence of moist conditions in Southern Lithuania between 300 and 500 CE and from 950 to 1850 CE. Conversely, changes towards warmer and/or dryer conditions have been recorded in 100, 600, and 750 CE, and since the 1850s. Significant differences with other Baltic proxies prevent deriving a complete and precise long-term reconstruction of past hydroclimatic variability at the regional scale. Yet, our results provide an important cornerstone for an improved understanding of regional climate change, i.e. in a region for which only (i) few detailed palaeobotanical studies exist and which has, in addition, been considered as (ii) an ecologically sensitive region at the interface between the temperate and boreal bioclimatic zones.

  6. Expanding research capabilities with sea ice climate records for analysis of long-term climate change and short-term variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. J.; Meier, W. N.

    2008-12-01

    Recent sea ice analysis is leading to predictions of a sea ice-free summertime in the Arctic within 20 years, or even sooner. Sea ice topics, such as concentration, extent, motion, and age, are predominately studied using satellite data. At the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), passive microwave sea ice data sets provide timely assessments of seasonal-scale variability as well as consistent long-term climate data records. Such data sets are crucial to understanding changes and assessing their impacts. Noticeable impacts of changing sea ice conditions on native cultures and wildlife in the Arctic region are now being documented. With continued deterioration in Arctic sea ice, global economic impacts will be seen as new shipping routes open. NSIDC is at the forefront of making climate data records available to address the changes in sea ice and its global impacts. By focusing on integrated data sets, NSIDC leads the way by broadening the studies of sea ice beyond the traditional cryospheric community.

  7. An Ontology of Omnipresent and Omniscient Cameras: Changes to Telejournalism and the Ubiquity of Devices for Recording Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technological devices that visually register the world has led to changes in the narrative formats of telejournalism. The various types of cameras used by television stations – surveillance, amateur, hidden and even professional ones - give broadcasters a plethora of strategies for reaching an audience who tend to dominate and distrust the well-known media languages. This paper presents a proposal for categorizing the cameras used in daily telejournalism in order to better understand the specifics of the phenomenon. Overall, all these cameras appear to be used for creating a realist aesthetic with low media interference.

  8. Dating of dipterocarp tree rings: establishing a record of carbon cycling and climatic change in the tropics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson, I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available , Fuls A, Visser A. 2002. Accurate dating with radiocarbon from the atom bomb tests. South African Journal of Science 98: 437–438. Walsh RPD. 1996. Drought frequency changes in Sabah and adjacent parts of northern Borneo since the late nineteenth... car- bon) for sample rings 158–159 (PTA 8641) was found to have two intercepts, with the bomb carbon curve corresponding to the years AD 1978� 1 or AD 1962� 1 (Table 1). Although it has been stated that samples from the modern plateau cannot...

  9. Record Statistics and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2009-01-01

    with independent random increments. The term record dynamics covers the rather new idea that records may, in special situations, have measurable dynamical consequences. The approach applies to the aging dynamics of glasses and other systems with multiple metastable states. The basic idea is that record sizes...... fluctuations of e. g. the energy are able to push the system past some sort of ‘edge of stability’, inducing irreversible configurational changes, whose statistics then closely follows the statistics of record fluctuations....

  10. Evidence for Isostatic Emergence and Holocene Environmental Change Recorded in Chironomid Assemblages and Sediment Composition of Coastal Lake T1 in SW Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, K.; Axford, Y.; Lasher, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-proxy analysis of a coastal lake in southwest Greenland near Nuuk provides evidence for regional environmental changes, including the timing of isostatic rebound and the temperature history of the area. T1 (informal name) is a small lake 50 km south of Nuuk, at 17.5 m elevation and currently isolated from glacial meltwater drainage. The lake's sediment record begins approximately 9500 cal years BP, when the site was submerged beneath sea level due to glacial isostatic depression following the Last Glacial Maximum. The record captures the transition of the environment from a submerged, glacially-influenced marine site to a non-glacially fed (and initially meromictic) freshwater lake 8600 cal years BP. Magnetic susceptibility, a proxy for sediment minerogenic content, decreased rapidly from 9500 to 8600 years BP, before abruptly stabilizing and remaining relatively low and steady for the rest of the record. The transition to a lacustrine environment was characterized by a rapid and relatively simultaneous increase in primary productivity (inferred from biogenic silica concentrations) and shift towards terrestrial versus marine sources of organic matter (inferred from carbon:nitrogen ratios and nitrogen isotopes) between 8700 and 8400 years BP. Together, these proxies and the presence of marine shells below the transition provide robust evidence for the transition from a marine environment to a freshwater lake in response to regional postglacial isostatic rebound. Within the Holocene, measures of bulk sediment composition (e.g., biogenic silica, loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility) are relatively stable. Chironomid (Insecta: Diptera: Chironomidae) assemblages, which in some environments are quantitative proxies for summer temperature changes, show species-level shifts within the Holocene that will be interpreted in this presentation alongside indicators of landscape change including carbon:nitrogen ratios, bulk sediment spectral reflectance and bulk

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, OR. (first remedial action), December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Teledyne Wah Chang (TWC) site, in Millersburg, Oregon, is an active plant used to produce nonferrous metals and products. The site consists of a 110-acre plant site, which contains the plant's former sludge ponds, and a 115-acre farm site, which contains four active wastewater sludge ponds. Portions of the TWC site are within the Willamette River's 100- and 500-year flood plain. The Wah Chang Corporation began operating a U.S. Bureau of Mines zirconium metal sponge pilot plant under contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in 1956. Additional facilities were subsequently built near the plant beginning in 1957 to produce nonferrous metals and products. The Lower River Solids Pond (LRSP) and Schmidt Lake sludge pond, which stored wastewater generated from the plant operations, are being addressed by this remedial action. The sludge in both the LRSP and Schmidt Lake contains heavy metals, organic compounds, and trace levels of radionuclides. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavation of 85,000 cubic yards of sludge with partial solidification of the sludge, followed by offsite disposal in a permitted solid waste landfill

  12. Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea during the past 1000 years: inferences from sedimentary records, hydrography and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bartholdy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Short sediment cores from the eastern Gotland Basin were investigated using a multi-proxy approach in order to reconstruct the environmental conditions of the area during the past 1000 years. Sediment data and facies were discussed in relation to hydrographic features (salinity, oxygen and climate change. During the medieval warm period (MWP, from about 900 to 1250 AD, the hydrographic and environmental conditions were similar to those of the present time (modern warm period, since about 1850: a temporally stable halocline, caused by regular saline water inflows from the North Sea, prevents vertical mixing and leads to bottom water anoxia and the deposition of laminated, organic-rich sapropels. During the period from about 1250 to 1850, referred to as the cold phase (including the Little Ice Age, the environmental conditions of the central Baltic Sea were distinctly different: the lower salinity, resulting from reduced North Sea water inflows, allowed vertical convection of the water column and long-term stable ventilation of the sea bed (oxic stage. Both the productivity of the planktonic ecosystem as well as the preservation of organic matter in the sediments improved during the warm periods. The anthropogenic impact can be identified within the recent laminated sequence by a temporal reconstruction of pollutant deposition. Our findings imply a climate-change driven shift in the environmental conditions and the ecosystem of the Baltic from the north to the south and back to the north.

  13. Evidence of cyclic climatic changes recorded in clay mineral assemblages from a continental Paleocene-Eocene sequence, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Campo, Margarita; Bauluz, Blanca; del Papa, Cecilia; White, Timothy; Yuste, Alfonso; Mayayo, Maria Jose

    2018-06-01

    The continental Paleocene-Eocene sequence investigated in this study belongs to the Salta Group, deposited in an intracontinental rift, the Salta Basin (NW Argentina), that evolved from the lower Cretaceous to the middle Paleogene, and is subdivided into the Pirgua, the Balbuena and the Santa Barbara Subgroups. The Maíz Gordo Formation (200 m thick) is the middle unit of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, deposited during late post-rift sedimentation. We studied the mineralogy of fine-grained horizons of this formation by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to examine the connection between vertical changes in clay mineralogy in alluvial sediments and paleosols, and global paleoclimatic changes registered during the Paleogene. Paleosols vary from calcic vertisols in the lowermost levels, to inseptisols and gleysols in intermediate positions, to gleyed oxisols in the upper section, indicating increased chemical weathering through time. Clay mineral relative abundances vary with a general increase in kaolinite content from bottom to top. However, at one site there are significant variations in kaolinite/muscovite (Kln/Ms) that define five cycles of kaolinite abundance and Kln/Ms. that indicate cyclic patterns of paleoprecipitation and paleotemperature. These are interpreted as several short-lived hyperthermals during the Paleocene-early Eocene in the Southern Hemisphere, which correlate with well-established episodes of warmth documented from the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. 2700 years of Mediterranean environmental change in central Italy: a synthesis of sedimentary and cultural records to interpret past impacts of climate on society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Tunno, Irene; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Florindo, Fabio; Noble, Paula; Archer, Claire; Zimmerman, Susan; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Cifani, Gabriele; Passigli, Susanna; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    Abrupt climate change in the past is thought to have disrupted societies by accelerating environmental degradation, potentially leading to cultural collapse. Linking climate change directly to societal disruption is challenging because socioeconomic factors also play a large role, with climate being secondary or sometimes inconsequential. Combining paleolimnologic, historical, and archaeological methods provides for a more secure basis for interpreting the past impacts of climate on society. We present pollen, non-pollen palynomorph, geochemical, paleomagnetic and sedimentary data from a high-resolution 2700 yr lake sediment core from central Italy and compare these data with local historical documents and archeological surveys to reconstruct a record of environmental change in relation to socioeconomic history and climatic fluctuations. Here we document cases in which environmental change is strongly linked to changes in local land management practices in the absence of clear climatic change, as well as examples when climate change appears to have been a strong catalyst that resulted in significant environmental change that impacted local communities. During the Imperial Roman period, despite a long period of stable, mild climate, and a large urban population in nearby Rome, our site shows only limited evidence for environmental degradation. Warm and mild climate during the Medieval Warm period, on the other hand, led to widespread deforestation and erosion. The ability of the Romans to utilize imported resources through an extensive trade network may have allowed for preservation of the environment near the Roman capital, whereas during medieval time, the need to rely on local resources led to environmental degradation. Cool wet climate during the Little Ice Age led to a breakdown in local land use practices, widespread land abandonment and rapid reforestation. Our results present a high-resolution regional case study that explores the effect of climate change on

  15. A Record of the Eastern Tropical Pacific of Water Column Structure Reorganization during the Rapid Climate Changes of Marine Isotope Stage 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, I. L.

    2007-05-01

    Little is known about the details of paleoceanographic changes in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) during marine isotope stage 3. Here we present a high resolution record of climate change from core ME0005A 10JC (15.7°N; 95.3°E, 1040 m water depth) collected in the Gulf of Tehuantepec spanning 48 to 38 Ka. Planktonic and benthic stable isotope records have been generated alongside Corg, carbonate, δ15N and trace metal concentrations of bulk sediments. Seasonal intense wind forced upwelling produces high Corg flux in the Gulf. In winter, high atmospheric pressures in the Gulf of Mexico and low pressures in the ETP (associated with the ITCZ) create a strong pressure gradient generally blocked by high mountains along the isthmus. A gap near the Gulf of Tehuantepec allows air to spill over into the Pacific creating a hurricane force wind (the Tehuanos) that pushes water off the broad shelf, producing non-Ekman upwelling. Corg production increases from 48 to 38 Ka in association with increasing nitrate utilization as indicated by increasing δ15N values. Conservative trace metals increase relative to non-conservative between 45 and 43 Ka simultaneously with shift to more positive benthic δ13C, while non-conservative (nutrient- like) metals increase after 43 Ka. A prominent short ~1‰ negative shift in benthic δ18O occurs at 44.5 Ka with a 0.5‰ positive step occurring at 43.5 Ka. Globigerina ruber records δ18O values of ~-1‰ between 46 and 45 Ka, decreasing by ~1‰ at 45 Ka, while δ13C values vary between 0 and 1‰. Globigerina bulloides records δ18O values of ~0.5‰ and δ13C of 1‰ between 46 and 45 Ka, but records δ18O values of ~-1‰ and δ13C of -1‰ between 44 and 42 Ka. G. bulloides is associated with winter upwelling in the region, while G. ruber is a surface dweller associated with the Costa Rica Current that enters the Gulf in summer. Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Globorotalia menardii generally record δ18O values of 0.5 to 0‰ and δ13

  16. Pressure Changes before and after Explosive Rhyolitic Bomb Ejection at Chaiten, Chile Recorded By Water Diffusion Profiles Around Tuffisite Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, H.; McGowan, E.; Castro, J. M.; Berlo, K.; James, M. R.; Owen, J.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Saubin, E.; Wehbe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The recent rhyolitic eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle have provided valuable new insights into the relationship between explosive and effusive activity, and the gas escape mechanisms that permit rapid effusion of degassed lava[1,2]. Bombs ejected during mixed explosive-effusive activity host spectacular tuffisite veins cutting both dense obsidian (Fig 1a) and highly-expanded pumice. Tuffisite veins are ash-filled fracture networks that act as ephemeral permeable pathways for gas escape in shallow conduits and lava domes. Previous studies have revealed water depletion adjacent to tuffisite veins, leading to models of fracture-triggered pressure release[2] and estimates of gas escape timescales[2,3]. We have characterised water diffusion profiles from a new suite of tuffisite-bearing Chaitén bombs, using synchrotron-source FTIR at the Diamond Light Source, Oxford, UK. Unexpectedly, one exceptionally large tuffisite vein, which is 30 mm thick (Fig. 1a, b) is mantled by zones of strong water enrichment, which enclose the usual narrow depletion zones immediately adjacent to the vein (Fig. 1c). Consistent results from different branches of this vein (Fig. 1b) indicate a similar history. The plausible range of diffusion model solutions points towards ~2-4 hours of vein pressurisation, followed by a brief pre-quench period of lower pressure conditions. In our model the vein opened during a period of overpressure at the lava dome base, sustained by gas influx from a deeper catchment extending hundreds of metres into the upper conduit. Overpressure culminated in violent bomb ejection, after which vein pressure decreased due to gas leakage to the atmosphere through the incompletely welded vein, as observed in rhyolitic bombs from Cordón Caulle (Fig. 1d). Commonly-seen water depletion zones[2,3] may therefore merely record post-fragmentation degassing. However, the enrichment zone points towards the type of deep pressurisation associated with cycles of tilt and

  17. The 7 ka pollen record of Akovitika: Key evidence for environmental change and human impact in the SW Peloponnese, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; Knipping, M.; Brückner, H.; Kraft, J. C.; Kiderlen, M.

    2009-04-01

    Detailed investigations on the Holocene stratigraphy of the lower Messenian plain (SW Peloponnese, Greece) carried out within the framework of a geoarchaeological study on the Protogeometric Poseidon Sanctuary of Akovitika indicate significant shoreline fluctuations during Holocene times. Sedimentary, geochemical, mineralogical, and microfossil analyses of 18 vibracores document a maximum landward shoreline displacement around 3000 BC. Subsequently, increased sediment loads entering the gulf predominantly at the eastern head overcompensated the decelerating eustatic sea level rise and triggered beach ridge progradation. Synopses of adjacent sediment cores reveal extended wetland formation in the swales between the sand ridges throughout the Holocene. The swamp areas enlarged continuously during the late Holocene marine regression and persisted until the large-scaled implementation of drainage measures in the 20th century. However, the strata representing former wetland environments provide excellently preserved pollen assemblages and enable detailed vegetation reconstruction of certain time windows within the past 7000 years. During early Neolithic times the lower Messenian plain was covered with open vegetation adapted to the seasonal standing water bodies. Deciduous oak forests were abundant but restricted to the surrounding marl terraces while no signs of human impact appear in the pollen record so far. In mid- to late Neolithic times initial modification of the local vegetation composition is evident. The Neogene terraces nearby were still covered with forest, albeit Pinus and evergreen oak gradually started replacing deciduous oak. Anthropogenic influence on the vegetation was moderate although the upper part of the sequence (approx. 3500 BC) contains increasing amounts of settlement indicators. Exceptionally high percentages of Erica and Cistus as well as of charcoal fragments point to extensive burning of woodland and subsequent sustained establishment of a

  18. A 3500 14C yr High-Resolution Record of Water-Level Changes in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia/Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mark B.; Binford, Michael W.; Brenner, Mark; Kelts, Kerry R.

    1997-03-01

    Sediment cores collected from the southern basin of Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru) on a transect from 4.6 m above overflow level to 15.1 m below overflow level are used to identify a new century-scale chronology of Holocene lake-level variations. The results indicate that lithologic and geochemical analyses on a transect of cores can be used to identify and date century-scale lake-level changes. Detailed sedimentary analyses of subfacies and radiocarbon dating were conducted on four representative cores. A chronology based on 60 accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurements constrains the timing of water-level fluctuations. Two methods were used to estimate the 14C reservoir age. Both indicate that it has remained nearly constant at ˜250 14C yr during the late Holocene. Core studies based on lithology and geochemistry establish the timing and magnitude of five periods of low lake level, implying negative moisture balance for the northern Andean altiplano over the last 3500 cal yr. Between 3500 and 3350 cal yr B.P., a transition from massive, inorganic-clay facies to laminated organic-matter-rich silts in each of the four cores signals a water-level rise after a prolonged mid-Holocene dry phase. Evidence of other significant low lake levels occurs 2900-2800, 2400-2200, 2000-1700, and 900-500 cal yr B.P. Several of the low lake levels coincided with cultural changes in the region, including the collapse of the Tiwanaku civilization.

  19. Summer moisture changes in the Lake Qinghai area on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau recorded from a meadow section over the past 8400 yrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhong; Liu, Xiangjun; He, Yuxin; Liu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Holocene climatic and environmental changes on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) have been widely discussed based on the climatic records from sedimentary cores. However, differences in the reconstructed climatic history from various studies in this region still exist, probably due to influence of climatic proxies from multiple factors and the chronological uncertainties in lacustrine sediments. Here we present records of terrestrial plant δ13C, soil color and total organic carbon content over the past 8400 years from a well-dated meadow section on the northeastern TP. The terrestrial plant δ13C value serves as a good summer precipitation/moisture indicator in the studied region. Soil color property and TOC content are also able to disentangle the moisture evolution history. All the data show much wet climates at 8400-7400 cal yr BP, dry climates at 7400-6000 cal yr BP and then wet conditions with fluctuation at 6000-3200 cal yr BP. Late Holocene moisture appears to be comparable with moist conditions from 6000 to 3200 cal yr BP. By further comparing the climatic variations in the Lake Qinghai area with records of the reconstructed summer temperature and the Asian Monsoon precipitation, we believe that the pattern of moisture/precipitation evolution in the Lake Qinghai area was not completely consistent with regions around Lake Qinghai, probably due to complicated interaction between the East Asian Summer Monsoon and the Indian Summer Monsoon.

  20. The visual development of hand-centered receptive fields in a neural network model of the primate visual system trained with experimentally recorded human gaze changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.

  1. Astronomically forced paleoclimate change from middle Eocene to early Oligocene: continental conditions in central China compared with the global marine isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    The early Eocene climatic optimum ended with a long interval of global cooling that began in the early Middle Eocene and ended at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. During this long-term cooling, a series of short-term warming reversals occurred in the marine realm. Here, we investigate corresponding continental climate conditions as revealed in the Qianjiang Formation of the Jianghan Basin in central China, which consists of more than 4000 m of saline lake sediments. The Qianjiang Formation includes, in its deepest sections, a halite-rich rhythmic sediment succession with dark mudstone, brownish-white siltstone and sandstone, and greyish-white halite. Alternating fresh water (humid/cool)—saline water (dry/hot) deposits reflect climate cycles driven by orbital forcing. High-resolution gamma ray (GR) logging from the basin center captures these pronounced lithological rhythms throughout the formation. Several halite-rich intervals are interpreted as short-term warming events within the middle Eocene to early Oligocene, and could be expressions of coeval warming events in the global marine oxygen isotope record, for example, the middle Eocene climate optimum (MECO) event around 41 Ma. The Eocene-Oligocene boundary is distinguished by a radical change from halite-rich to clastic sediments, indicating a dramatic climate change from warm to cool conditions. Power spectral analysis of the GR series indicates strong short (~100 kyr) eccentricity cycling during the warm/hot episodes. Amplitude modulation of the short eccentricity in the GR series occurs with a strong 405 kyr periodicity. This cycling is calibrated to the La2004 orbital eccentricity model. A climate reversal occurs at 36.5 Ma within the long-term marine cooling trend following MECO, which is reflected also in the Qianjiang GR series, with the latter indicating several brief warm/dry reversals within the trend. A ~2.6 Myr halite-rich warm interval occurs in the latest Eocene in the continental record; both

  2. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in soil records of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological research is fundamental in the process of obtaining a greater understanding on the intricate dynamics between the human species and the 'natural' environment. Deep historical processes can evaluate the complex interactions that eventually led to the human species as the dominating agent, in terms of the Earth's biotic and abiotic processes. Regional landscape studies can determine whether the human species can be evaluated as a formative element in soil formation processes during the Holocene. This study is directed to examine early anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium, between the Late Bronze Age and Early Roman Period (1050-200 AD). The introduction of an extensive agricultural system, the Celtic field system, in co-relation with demographic rise, led to increased anthropogenic pressure on the MDS landscape. Throughout the Holocene, demographic rise pressured farmers to develop increasingly efficient and innovative methods of extracting more yields per unit area farmed resulting in a decrease in land use per capita over time (Kaplan et al. 2010; Boserup, 1965,1981)). The land use per capita under Celtic field technology was relatively high compared to contemporary numbers, based on the assumption that land use per capita did not remain constant. The MDS region is a clear example of early Holocene ALCC and modification of terrestrial ecosystems due to excessive clearance of vegetation. Early Holocene ALCC resulted in ecological deficiencies in the landscape, e.g. deforestation, acceleration of podzolisation and a decrease in terrestrial carbon storage as well as water retention capacity. ALCC can impact climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to the atmosphere, and result in regional negative radiative forcing. Here we hypothesize that the previously presumed fundamental restructuring that led to a structural bipartition in the landscape due to

  3. Lake sediment multi-taxon DNA from North Greenland records early post-glacial appearance of vascular plants and accurately tracks environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, L. S.; Gussarova, C.; Boessenkool, S.

    2015-01-01

    temperatures. Lake sediments contain DNA paleorecords of the surrounding ecosystems and can be used to retrieve a variety of organismal groups from a single sample. In this study, we analyzed vascular plant, bryophyte, algal (in particular diatom) and copepod DNA retrieved from a sediment core spanning...... phases, and distinct temporal changes in plant presence were recovered. The plant DNA was mostly in agreement with expected vegetation history, but very early occurrences of vascular plants, including the woody Empetrum nigrum, document terrestrial vegetation very shortly after glacial retreat. Our study...... core. Our DNA record was stratigraphically coherent, with no indication of leaching between layers, and our cross-taxon comparisons were in accordance with previously inferred local ecosystem changes. Authentic ancient plant DNA was retrieved from nearly all layers, both from the marine and the limnic...

  4. Teaching climate change: A 16-year record of introducing undergraduates to the fundamentals of the climate system and its complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, G.; Pfirman, S. L.; Hays, J. D.; Schlosser, P.; Ting, M.

    2011-12-01

    Responding to climate change challenges in the near and far future, will require a wide range of knowledge, skills and a sense of the complexities involved. Since 1995, Columbia University and Barnard College have offered an undergraduate class that strives to provide students with some of these skills. The 'Climate System' course is a component of the three-part 'Earth Environmental Systems' series and provides the fundamentals needed for understanding the Earth's climate system and its variability. Being designed both for science majors and non-science majors, the emphasis of the course is on basic physical explanations, rather than mathematical derivations of the laws that govern the climate system. The course includes lectures, labs and discussion. Laboratory exercises primarily explore the climate system using global datasets, augmented by hands-on activities. Course materials are available for public use at http://eesc.columbia.edu/courses/ees/climate/camel_modules/ and http://ncseonline.org/climate/cms.cfm?id=3783. In this presentation we discuss the experiences, challenges and future demands of conveying the science of the Earth's Climate System and the risks facing the planet to a wide spectrum of undergraduate students, many of them without a background in the sciences. Using evaluation data we reflect how the course, the students, and the faculty have evolved over the past 16 years as the earth warmed, pressures for adaptation planning and mitigation measures increased, and public discourse became increasingly polarized.

  5. First record of plicidentine in Synapsida and patterns of tooth root shape change in Early Permian sphenacodontians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kirstin S; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Reisz, Robert R

    2014-11-01

    Recent histological studies have revealed a diversity of dental features in Permo-Carboniferous tetrapods. Here, we report on the occurrence of plicidentine (infolded dentine around the base of the tooth root) in Sphenacodontia, the first such documentation in Synapsida, the clade that includes mammals. Five taxa were examined histologically, Ianthodon schultzei, Sphenacodon ferocior, Dimetrodon limbatus, Dimetrodon grandis, and Secodontosaurus obtusidens. The tooth roots of Ianthodon possess multiple folds, which is generally viewed as the primitive condition for amniotes. Sphenacodon and D. limbatus have distinctive "four-leaf clover"-shaped roots in cross section, whereas Secodontosaurus has an elongate square shape with only subtle folding. The most derived and largest taxon examined in this study, D. grandis, has rounded roots in cross section and therefore no plicidentine. This pattern of a loss of plicidentine in sphenacodontids supports previous functional hypotheses of plicidentine, where teeth with shallow roots require folds to increase the area of attachment to the tooth-bearing element, whereas teeth with long roots do not. This pattern may also reflect differences in diet between co-occurring sphenacodontids as well as changes in feeding niche through time, specifically in the apex predator Dimetrodon.

  6. Decade to centennial resolution hydrogen isotopic record of climate change from southern New England for the past 16 kyr: proxy validation and multi-proxy comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Gao, L.; Hou, J.; Shuman, B. N.; Oswald, W.; Foster, D.

    2009-12-01

    Open system lakes in New England offer excellent archives of precipitation isotopic ratios that yield quantitative paleoclimate information. We have demonstrated previously from a lake sediment transect that hydrogen isotopic ratios of a middle-chain length fatty acid, behenic acid (BA), faithfully record precipitation isotopic ratios. We hypothesized that mid-chain n-alkyl lipids in these small lakes were primarily derived from aquatic plants that record lake water isotopic ratios. To test this hypothesis, we conducted systematic and extensive sampling of both terrestrial and aquatic plants over the past two years at two typical kettle hole lakes, Blood Pond and Rocky Pond, MA, and used a linear algebra approach to delineate percentage inputs of aquatic and terrestrial plant contributions to mid-chain n-alkyl lipids. Our results demonstrate that >92 % of the mid-chain n-alkyl lipids is derived from submerged and floating aquatic macrophytes. Our new data provide a solid basis for the application of behenic hydrogen isotopic ratios as a paleoclimate proxy from small lakes. We will present a decadal to centennial scale 16 kyr record of BA hydrogen isotopic ratios from Blood Pond, and will discuss the results in light of published pollen and lake level data. Overall, our hydrogen isotopic record is fully consistent with regional climate scenarios, including the distinctive warming at B-A events, abrupt cooling at YD event, and transition from glacial to Holcoene climate conditions. However, our high-solution isotopic data provides important new insights concerning abrupt regional climate variability. We demonstrate that the New England climate is exceptionally senstive to AMOC changes and solar forcing and that many of the abrupt climate fluctuations exert major impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, hydrology and lake levels.

  7. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  8. Searching for learning-dependent changes in the antennal lobe: simultaneous recording of neural activity and aversive olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular responses to the CS+ and the CS- in learners. Unexpectedly, we found that during conditioning trials non-learners exhibited a progressive decrease in physiological responses to odors, irrespective of their valence. This effect could neither be attributed to a fitness problem nor to abnormal dye bleaching. We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. Further studies will have to extend the search for functional plasticity related to aversive learning to other brain areas and to look on a broader range of temporal scales

  9. Patterns of integration in the canine skull: an inside view into the relationship of the skull modules of domestic dogs and wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curth, Stefan; Fischer, Martin S; Kupczik, Kornelius

    2017-12-01

    The skull shape variation in domestic dogs exceeds that of grey wolves by far. The artificial selection of dogs has even led to breeds with mismatching upper and lower jaws and maloccluded teeth. For that reason, it has been advocated that their skulls (including the teeth) can be divided into more or less independent modules on the basis of genetics, development or function. In this study, we investigated whether the large diversity of dog skulls and the frequent occurrence of orofacial disproportions can be explained by a lower integration strength between the modules of the skull and by deviations in their covariation pattern when compared to wolves. For that purpose, we employed geometric morphometric methods on the basis of 99 3D-landmarks representing the cranium (subdivided into rostrum and braincase), the mandible (subdivided into ramus and corpus), and the upper and lower tooth rows. These were taken from CT images of 196 dog and wolf skulls. First, we calculated the shape disparity of the mandible and the cranium in dogs and wolves. Then we tested whether the integration strength (measured by RV coefficient) and the covariation pattern (as analysed by partial least squares analysis) of the modules subordinate to the cranium and the mandible can explain differing disparity results. We show, contrary to our expectations, that the higher skull shape diversity in dogs is not explained by less integrated skull modules. Also, the pattern of their covariation in the dog skull can be traced back to similar patterns in the wolf. This shows that existing differences between wolves and dogs are at the utmost a matter of degree and not absolute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Wolves (Canis lupus) and Dogs (Canis familiaris) Differ in Following Human Gaze Into Distant Space But Respond Similar to Their Packmates’ Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werhahn, Geraldine; Virányi, Zsófia; Barrera, Gabriela; Sommese, Andrea; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following into distant space is defined as visual co-orientation with another individual’s head direction allowing the gaze follower to gain information on its environment. Human and nonhuman animals share this basic gaze following behavior, suggested to rely on a simple reflexive mechanism and believed to be an important prerequisite for complex forms of social cognition. Pet dogs differ from other species in that they follow only communicative human gaze clearly addressed to them. However, in an earlier experiment we showed that wolves follow human gaze into distant space. Here we set out to investigate whether domestication has affected gaze following in dogs by comparing pack-living dogs and wolves raised and kept under the same conditions. In Study 1 we found that in contrast to the wolves, these dogs did not follow minimally communicative human gaze into distant space in the same test paradigm. In the observational Study 2 we found that pack-living dogs and wolves, similarly vigilant to environmental stimuli, follow the spontaneous gaze of their conspecifics similarly often. Our findings suggest that domestication did not affect the gaze following ability of dogs itself. The results raise hypotheses about which other dog skills might have been altered through domestication that may have influenced their performance in Study 1. Because following human gaze in dogs might be influenced by special evolutionary as well as developmental adaptations to interactions with humans, we suggest that comparing dogs to other animal species might be more informative when done in intraspecific social contexts. PMID:27244538

  11. Stage 1 of the meaningful use incentive program for electronic health records: a study of readiness for change in ambulatory practice settings in one integrated delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Christopher M; Reiter, Kristin L; Weaver, Mark A; McIntyre, Molly; Mose, Jason; Thornhill, Jonathan; Malone, Robb; Weiner, Bryan J

    2014-12-14

    Meaningful Use (MU) provides financial incentives for electronic health record (EHR) implementation. EHR implementation holds promise for improving healthcare delivery, but also requires substantial changes for providers and staff. Establishing readiness for these changes may be important for realizing potential EHR benefits. Our study assesses whether provider/staff perceptions about the appropriateness of MU and their departments' ability to support MU-related changes are associated with their reported readiness for MU-related changes. We surveyed providers and staff representing 47 ambulatory practices within an integrated delivery system. We assessed whether respondent's role and practice-setting type (primary versus specialty care) were associated with reported readiness for MU (i.e., willingness to change practice behavior and ability to document actions for MU) and hypothesized predictors of readiness (i.e., perceived appropriateness of MU and department support for MU). We then assessed associations between reported readiness and the hypothesized predictors of readiness. In total, 400 providers/staff responded (response rate approximately 25%). Individuals working in specialty settings were more likely to report that MU will divert attention from other patient-care priorities (12.6% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.019), as compared to those in primary-care settings. As compared to advanced-practice providers and nursing staff, physicians were less likely to have strong confidence in their department's ability to solve MU implementation problems (28.4% vs. 47.1% vs. 42.6%, p = 0.023) and to report strong willingness to change their work practices for MU (57.9% vs. 83.3% vs. 82.0%, p management support of MU-related change, as these perceptions might be related to subsequent implementation.

  12. From lakes to sand seas: a record of early Mars climate change explored in northern Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S.; Banham, S.; Rubin, D. M.; Watkins, J. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Lewis, K. W.; Edgar, L. A.; Stack, K.; Day, M.; Lapôtre, M. G. A.; Bell, J. F., III; Ewing, R. C.; Stein, N.; Rivera-Hernandez, F.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Murray formation accumulated. The contrast in depositional environments between these units suggest that the prevailing climate in Gale crater changed, at least temporarily, from a humid environment with surface water that had potential for sustaining life, to a barren desert with reduced potential for habitability at the surface.

  13. The altered ecology of Lake Christina: A record of regime shifts, land-use change, and management from a temperate shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theissen, Kevin M.; Hobbs, William O.; Hobbs, Joy M. Ramstack; Zimmer, Kyle D.; Domine, Leah M.; Cotner, James B.; Sugita, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    We collected two sediment cores and modern submerged aquatic plants and phytoplankton from two sub-basins of Lake Christina, a large shallow lake in west-central Minnesota, and used stable isotopic and elemental proxies from sedimentary organic matter to explore questions about the pre- and post-settlement ecology of the lake. The two morphologically distinct sub-basins vary in their sensitivities to internal and external perturbations offering different paleoecological information. The record from the shallower and much larger western sub-basin reflects its strong response to internal processes, while the smaller and deeper eastern sub-basin record primarily reflects external processes including important post-settlement land-use changes in the area. A significant increase in organic carbon accumulation (3–4 times pre-settlement rates) and long-term trends in δ 13 C, organic carbon to nitrogen ratios (C/N), and biogenic silica concentrations shows that primary production has increased and the lake has become increasingly phytoplankton-dominated in the post-settlement period. Significant shifts in δ 15 N values reflect land-clearing and agricultural practices in the region and support the idea that nutrient inputs have played an important role in triggering changes in the trophic status of the lake. Our examination of hydroclimatic data for the region over the last century suggests that natural forcings on lake ecology have diminished in their importance as human management of the lake increased in the mid-1900s. In the last 50 years, three chemical biomanipulations have temporarily shifted the lake from the turbid, algal-dominated condition into a desired clear water regime. Two of our proxies (δ 13 C and BSi) measured from the higher resolution eastern basin record responded significantly to these known regime shifts. -- Highlights: ► We explore the sediment geochemistry from Lake Christina's two distinct sub-basins. ► Our geochemical data show

  14. The Imperious Need of Change Of Law 6.015/1973: A Record Public Regarding Transsexuality and the Right to Social Name Without the Power of Judicial Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Mattos do Amaral

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comes this study on changing the legal name of origin by social behalf of transgender individuals, without the need for judiciary intervention. To this end, it is imperative to change the art. 58 of Law 6.015/1973 - Laws of Public Records. Justified this amendment by the legislative admissibility already portrayed by the State in the use of the social name by transsexuals, to identify themselves various situations, including in public bodies and activities. Depicts the brief study the problem of discrimination suffered by these people in their daily lives, embedded in a society where intolerance and discrimination permeate the social fabric, fueling abuses and promoting the kick man on his journey. Relevant is the subject of analysis, as regards the conquest of rights by transgender individuals and the consequent non-discrimination in society of sexual freedoms, combined with the change in their marital name for the social name as well as the identification of sex without that to it have that bail laws that dignify man and the Judiciary. Still, due to the subject, it shows the need for without the need for transsexual name change to undergo a sex reassignment process on the grounds that such a procedure is not necessary to register peace and comfort in their transgender status.

  15. Diatom Surface Sediment Assemblages from the Bering Sea Shelf: a Tossed Salad or Faithful Recorder of 50 Years of Environmental Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, B.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Kanamaru-Shinn, K.

    2010-12-01

    Recent environmental change in the Bering Sea includes a shift from the negative to positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in 1976/77, a secondary shift in sea level pressure and sea surface temperatures in 1998, increasing sea surface temperatures, an earlier spring, an increase in the number of days that sea ice is present along the shelf-slope break, and a decrease in the number of days that sea ice is present in the Chukchi Sea and Arctic Ocean. These physical changes have manifest biological changes such as a northward migration of invertebrates and fish from the southern Bering Sea and shifts in the timing and duration of sea-ice related primary productivity and the spring bloom. We aim to see if diatom sediment assemblages are faithful recorders of these ecological changes in the Bering Sea or if bioturbation has essentially mixed today’s rapid change down core such that the signal is either muted or no longer apparent. Six continental shelf areas were examined in the Bering Sea ranging from northeast of St. Lawrence Island to the shelf-slope break in the south-central Bering Sea. Diatom assemblages from core tops collected as part of the PROBES program in the 1960s were compared to core tops taken nearby (7 m) multi-year ice so their decline may be related to the decrease in multi-year ice over the past 30 years. Additionally, in most cases, species diversity has declined over the past 50 years with Fragilariopsis oceanica and Fragilariopsis cylindrus accounting for a greater percentage of the sediment assemblages today. These two species are collectively considered indicators of seasonal sea ice; their relative abundance peaks when ice is present for 5 months per year. Ongoing down core analyses in these six areas will further reveal the nature of these assemblage changes.

  16. Concurrent Sr/Ca Ratios and Bomb Test 14C Records from a Porites evermanni Colony on Kure Atoll: SST, Climate Change, Ocean Circulation and Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, S.; Potts, D.; Siciliano, D.; Andrews, A.; Franks, R.

    2013-12-01

    Coral reefs near their latitudinal and ecological limits may be affected disproportionately by global climate changes, especially by changing sea surface temperatures (SST's). One such reef is Kure Atoll, the northernmost reef in the Hawaiian chain. Kure Atoll experiences dramatic temperature and seasonal differences throughout the year. Tracking these fluctuations is important for understanding recent physical forces affecting coral growth in such marginal reefs, and for predicting likely responses to future climate and oceanic changes. We used Sr/Ca ratios of a 50cm Porites evermanni coral core collected in Kure (September 2002) as a SST proxy for reconstructing a temperature timescale spanning the length of the core (~62 years). After cutting a 5 mm thick slab through the center growth axis and X-raying it to identify annual density banding, we extracted 4 equally-spaced samples from each annual increment to quantify, seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal SST patterns. We measured Sr and Ca concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). We then converted Sr/Ca ratios (mmol/mol) to SST using published equations, and calibrated the more recent SST estimates against satellite-based SST imagery and instrumental records from Midway Atoll (ca. 90 km to SE). We coupled the ICP-OES data with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) scans along the core to provide higher temporal resolution for interpreting intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal trends. Higher resolution of temperature dating can help us interpret strong inter-seasonal changes not readily seen with low resolution measurements, giving us the ability to track temperature anomalies at interannual and decadal timescales, such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation or La Niña/North Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Further, the SST signature from the Sr/Ca analyses are being used in conjunction with bomb radiocarbon signals in order to establish a complete

  17. Terrestrial climate variability and seasonality changes in the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP deduced from marine pollen records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dormoy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-based climate reconstructions were performed on two high-resolution pollen marines cores from the Alboran and Aegean Seas in order to unravel the climatic variability in the coastal settings of the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP (the Lateglacial, and early to mid-Holocene. The quantitative climate reconstructions for the Alboran and Aegean Sea records focus mainly on the reconstruction of the seasonality changes (temperatures and precipitation, a crucial parameter in the Mediterranean region. This study is based on a multi-method approach comprising 3 methods: the Modern Analogues Technique (MAT, the recent Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling/Generalized Additive Model method (NMDS/GAM and Partial Least Squares regression (PLS. The climate signal inferred from this comparative approach confirms that cold and dry conditions prevailed in the Mediterranean region during the Oldest and Younger Dryas periods, while temperate conditions prevailed during the Bølling/Allerød and the Holocene. Our records suggest a West/East gradient of decreasing precipitation across the Mediterranean region during the cooler Late-glacial and early Holocene periods, similar to present-day conditions. Winter precipitation was highest during warm intervals and lowest during cooling phases. Several short-lived cool intervals (i.e. Older Dryas, another oscillation after this one (GI-1c2, Gerzensee/Preboreal Oscillations, 8.2 ka event, Bond events connected to the North Atlantic climate system are documented in the Alboran and Aegean Sea records indicating that the climate oscillations associated with the successive steps of the deglaciation in the North Atlantic area occurred in both the western and eastern Mediterranean regions. This observation confirms the presence of strong climatic linkages between the North Atlantic and Mediterranean regions.

  18. Over 100 years of environmental change recorded by foraminifers and sediments in a large Gulf of Mexico estuary, Mobile Bay, AL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    The marine microfauna of Mobile Bay has been profoundly influenced by the development and expansion of the primary shipping channel over the last ˜100 years. Foraminifers and sediments from seven box cores with excess lead-210 chronology document that channel dredging and spoil disposal have altered circulation, reduced estuarine mixing, changed sedimentation patterns, and caused a faunal turnover within the bay. Beginning in the late 1800s, changes in estuarine mixing allowed for greater low-pH freshwater influence in the bay, and ultimately began environmental changes that resulted in the loss of calcareous foraminifers. By the early 1900s, box cores throughout Mobile Bay record a ˜ 100-year trend of increasing calcareous test dissolution that continues to the present. Since the completion of the current shipping channel in the 1950s, restricted tidal flushing and increased terrestrial organic matter, documented by carbon-to-nitrogen ratios, stimulated an increase in agglutinated foraminiferal densities. However, in deeper areas of the bay, hypoxic water has negatively impacted the marine microfauna. Comparisons of the present-day foraminiferal assemblage with foraminifers collected in the early 1970s indicate that the continued biologic loss of calcareous foraminifers in the bay has allowed the introduction of a new agglutinated foraminiferal species into the bay.

  19. A 350 ka record of climate change from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic: refining the pattern of climate modes by means of cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Frank

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rock magnetic, biochemical and inorganic records of the sediment cores PG1351 and Lz1024 from Lake El'gygytgyn, Chukotka peninsula, Far East Russian Arctic, were subject to a hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis in order to refine and extend the pattern of climate modes as defined by Melles et al. (2007. Cluster analysis of the data obtained from both cores yielded similar results, differentiating clearly between the four climate modes warm, peak warm, cold and dry, and cold and moist. In addition, two transitional phases were identified, representing the early stages of a cold phase and slightly colder conditions during a warm phase. The statistical approach can thus be used to resolve gradual changes in the sedimentary units as an indicator of available oxygen in the hypolimnion in greater detail. Based upon cluster analyses on core Lz1024, the published succession of climate modes in core PG1351, covering the last 250 ka, was modified and extended back to 350 ka. Comparison to the marine oxygen isotope (δ18O stack LR04 (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005 and the summer insolation at 67.5° N, with the extended Lake El'gygytgyn parameter records of magnetic susceptibility (κLF, total organic carbon content (TOC and the chemical index of alteration (CIA; Minyuk et al., 2007, revealed that all stages back to marine isotope stage (MIS 10 and most of the substages are clearly reflected in the pattern derived from the cluster analysis.

  20. Decade-centenary resolution records of climate changes in East Siberia from elements in the bottom sediments of lake Baikal for the last 150 kyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, E.L.; Phedorin, M.A.; Chebykin, E.P.; Zolotarev, K.B; Zhuchenko, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution scanning Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRXFA) was applied to investigate the downcore distribution of elements in the sediments from Lake Baikal (East Siberia). The obtained multi-element time series reveal the presence of abrupt climate shifts in East Siberia which were synchronous with the abrupt warming events in the North Atlantic and Greenland (Dansgaard-Oeschges events (D/O) during the last ice age 24-75 kyr BP. We show here the set of climatic indicators reveals all globally known climate changes from dry and cool or glacial climates to humid and warm ones, which were recorded in Northern Atlantic and East Siberia both on the orbital and millennial time scales during the last 150 kyr

  1. Decade-centenary resolution records of climate changes in East Siberia from elements in the bottom sediments of lake Baikal for the last 150 kyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, E.L. [Limnological Institute of the SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: gold@econova.nsk.su; Phedorin, M.A. [Limnological Institute of the SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Chebykin, E.P. [Limnological Institute of the SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Zolotarev, K.B [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of SB RAS, Lavrentyev prospect -11, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zhuchenko, N.A. [Limnological Institute of the SB RAS, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    High-resolution scanning Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SRXFA) was applied to investigate the downcore distribution of elements in the sediments from Lake Baikal (East Siberia). The obtained multi-element time series reveal the presence of abrupt climate shifts in East Siberia which were synchronous with the abrupt warming events in the North Atlantic and Greenland (Dansgaard-Oeschges events (D/O) during the last ice age 24-75 kyr BP. We show here the set of climatic indicators reveals all globally known climate changes from dry and cool or glacial climates to humid and warm ones, which were recorded in Northern Atlantic and East Siberia both on the orbital and millennial time scales during the last 150 kyr.

  2. County and Parish Boundaries, This was created and maintained by Johnson County Records and Tax Administration and is updated when changes occur to county boundaries, Published in 2007, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — County and Parish Boundaries dataset current as of 2007. This was created and maintained by Johnson County Records and Tax Administration and is updated when changes...

  3. How to improve change of shift handovers and collaborative grounding and what role does the electronic patient record system play? Results of a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Daniel; Hübner, Ursula

    2013-07-01

    Establishing continuity of care in handovers at changes of shift is a challenging endeavor that is jeopardized by time pressure and errors typically occurring during synchronous communication. Only if the outgoing and incoming persons manage to collaboratively build a common ground for the next steps of care is it possible to ensure a proper continuation. Electronic systems, in particular electronic patient record systems, are powerful providers of information but their actual use might threaten achieving a common understanding of the patient if they force clinicians to work asynchronously. In order to gain a deeper understanding of communication failures and how to overcome them, we performed a systematic review of the literature, aiming to answer the following four research questions: (1a) What are typical errors and (1b) their consequences in handovers? (2) How can they be overcome by conventional strategies and instruments? (3) electronic systems? (4) Are there any instruments to support collaborative grounding? We searched the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and COCHRANE for articles on handovers in general and in combination with the terms electronic record systems and grounding that covered the time period of January 2000 to May 2012. The search led to 519 articles of which 60 were then finally included into the review. We found a sharp increase in the number of relevant studies starting with 2008. As could be documented by 20 studies that addressed communication errors, omission of detailed patient information including anticipatory guidance during handovers was the greatest problem. This deficiency could be partly overcome by structuring and systematizing the information, e.g. according to Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation schema (SBAR), and by employing electronic tools integrated in electronic records systems as 23 studies on conventional and 22 articles on electronic systems showed. Despite the increase in quantity and quality of the

  4. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources.

  5. A multi-proxy record from the Quaternary Vienna Basin: Chronology, climate and environmental change at the Alpine-Carpathian transition during the last 250,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Lomax, Johanna; Frank, Christa; Preusser, Frank; Scholger, Robert; Ottner, Franz; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Dated multi-proxy records of terrestrial sequences in the Quaternary of the circum-Alpine realm are sparse. This is especially true for those exceeding the time span of the last glacial maximum as extensive glaciers eroded substantial parts of potential records. Outside formerly glaciated regions, preservation space is low in the absence of tectonic subsidence. Foreland terraces forming as a consequence of mountain range uplift may partly account for this gap but are typically dominated by coarse-grained fluvial sediments commonly reflecting only short pulses during cold stage periods. Here we analyze a terrestrial record in the Vienna Basin in order to derive regional climatic and environmental changes of the last c. 250 ka. The Vienna Basin forms as a classical pull-apart feature showing a length of almost 200 km and a width of c. 55 km. Quaternary subsidence is focused along the active Vienna Basin Transfer Fault leading to the formation of a series of narrow strike-slip (sub-) basins and grabens with the Mitterndorf sub-basin being the largest (c. 270 km²) and deepest (c.175 m). The southern part of the basin is confined by the alpine mountain front and fed by two alluvial fans highlighting up to several tens of meters thick coarse grained, massive sediments intercalated by up to few meters thick fine clastic sediments. We investigated the fan's sequence development through core and outcrop sampling applying luminescence dating, magnetostratigraphy, soil and lithofacies classification as well as malacological analysis. The latter comprise the determination and distribution of species and individuals as well as coenological analysis. Data suggest a distinct sequence development with coarse-grained massive sediments abundantly deposited during cold periods (MIS 2 and 6) and fine, overbank sediments and soils, dominantly forming during warmer, Interstadial or Interglacial periods (MIS 5 and 7). Overbanks and soils are generally rich in terrestrial mollusk

  6. Reconstruction of historical changes in northern fur seal prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific through individual-based analysis of dietary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyota, Masashi; Yonezaki, Shiroh

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed long-term dietary records of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to reconstruct historical changes in prey availability and diversity in the western North Pacific off northeastern Japan. The nominal relationships between the occurrence frequencies of fishes or squids in fur seal stomachs and the sampling locations reflected the spatial heterogeneity of fish and squid distributions along the shelf-slope-offshore continuum off northeastern Japan, whereas changes in the temporal occurrence frequencies reflected mainly the migration and foraging patterns of the fur seals. The occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs were standardized by using generalized linear models to compensate for sampling biases in space and time. The reconstructed historical trends revealed decadal shifts in relatively high prey abundance-from mackerels in the 1970s to Japanese sardine in the 1980s and myctophids/sparkling enope squids in the 1990s-that were related to decadal shifts in the oceanographic regime. The sequential increase in mackerel and Japanese sardine abundances coincided with the annual catch trends of commercial fisheries. The index of overall prey availability calculated from the standardized occurrence probabilities of fishes and squids in fur seal stomachs was fairly stable over the decades.

  7. The nitrogen doping effect on the properties of Ge-In-Sb-Te phase-change recording media investigated by blue-light laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, T.-T.; Hsieh, T.-E.; Shieh, H.-P.D.

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the thermal, optical and recrystallization properties as well as the microstructure of nitrogen-doped Ge-In-Sb-Te (GIST) phase-change material when irradiated by blue-light laser. The experimental results showed that nitrogen doping at the condition of N 2 /Ar sputtering gas flow ratio equals to 3% might enhance the recrystallization speed of GIST recording layer up to 1.5 times. However, the disk failed when too much nitrogen (N 2 /Ar ≥ 5.0%) was introduced. The data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and ellipsometry revealed changes of thermal and optical properties due to the nitrogen doping in GIST. When appropriate amount of nitrogen was added, the activation energy (E a ) of amorphous-crystalline phase transition of GIST decreased and the optical constants of amorphous and crystalline phases (except the k value of amorphous phase) gradually reduced with the increase of wavelength in the range of 600-750 nm. Modulation simulation based on the reflectively of doped GIST layers obtained from static test indicated that appropriate nitrogen doping benefited the signal characteristics of optical disks. Transmission electron microscopy observed numerous tiny precipitates uniformly distributed in the doped GIST layers. These were believed to be nitride particles generated by nitrogen doping that might offer the preferential sites for amorphous-crystalline phase transition so that the recrystallization speed was accelerated

  8. The isotope record of short- and long-term dietary changes in sheep tooth enamel: Implications for quantitative reconstruction of paleodiets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzo, A.; Balasse, M.; Passey, B. H.; Moloney, A. P.; Monahan, F. J.; Schmidt, O.

    2010-06-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of paleodiet by means of sequential sampling and carbon isotope analysis in hypsodont tooth enamel requires a precise knowledge of the isotopic enrichment between dietary carbon and carbon from enamel apatite ( ɛD-E), as well as of the timing and duration of the enamel mineralization process (amelogenesis). To better constrain these parameters, we performed a series of controlled feeding experiments on sheep ranging in age from 6 to 24 months-old. Twenty-eight lambs and 14 ewes were fed isotopically distinct diets for different periods of time, and then slaughtered, allowing the timing and rate of molar growth to be determined. High resolution sampling and stable carbon isotope analysis of breath CO 2 performed on six individuals following a diet-switch showed that 70-90% of dietary carbon had turned over in less than 24 h. Sequential sampling and carbon isotopic analysis was performed on the first (M 1) and second (M 2) lower molars of four lambs as well as on the third lower molar (M 3) of 11 ewes. The changes in diet were recorded in all molars. We found that the length of enamel matrix apposition is approximately one-quarter of the final tooth length during crown extension, and that enamel maturation spans slightly less than 3 months in M 1, and 4 months in M 2 and M 3. Portions of enamel in equilibrium with dietary carbon were used to calculate ɛD-E values. Animals on grass silage diets had values similar to previous observations, whereas animal switched to pelleted corn diets had values ca. 4‰ lower, a pattern consistent with lower methane production observed for animals fed concentrate diets. The tooth enamel forward model of Passey and Cerling (2002) closely predicted the amplitude of isotope changes recorded in tooth enamel, but slightly underestimated the rate of isotope change, suggesting that the rate of accumulation of carbonate during maturation may not be constant over time. Although stable isotope profiles in tooth

  9. Seychelles coral record of changes in sea surface temperature bimodality in the western Indian Ocean from the Mid-Holocene to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Park, W.; Schneider, B.; Reuning, L.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Camoin, G. F.; Mangini, A.; Schroeder-Ritzrau, A.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Davies, G. R.

    2014-08-01

    We report fossil coral records from the Seychelles comprising individual time slices of 14-20 sclerochronological years between 2 and 6.2 kyr BP to reconstruct changes in the seasonal cycle of western Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) compared to the present (1990-2003). These reconstructions allowed us to link changes in the SST bimodality to orbital changes, which were causing a reorganization of the seasonal insolation pattern. Our results reveal the lowest seasonal SST range in the Mid-Holocene (6.2-5.2 kyr BP) and around 2 kyr BP, while the highest range is observed around 4.6 kyr BP and between 1990 and 2003. The season of maximum temperature shifts from austral spring (September to November) to austral autumn (March to May), following changes in seasonal insolation over the past 6 kyr. However, the changes in SST bimodality do not linearly follow the insolation seasonality. For example, the 5.2 and 6.2 kyr BP corals show only subtle SST differences in austral spring and autumn. We use paleoclimate simulations of a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to compare with proxy data for the Mid-Holocene around 6 kyr BP. The model results show that in the Mid-Holocene the austral winter and spring seasons in the western Indian Ocean were warmer while austral summer was cooler. This is qualitatively consistent with the coral data from 6.2 to 5.2 kyr BP, which shows a similar reduction in the seasonal amplitude compared to the present day. However, the pattern of the seasonal SST cycle in the model appears to follow the changes in insolation more directly than indicated by the corals. Our results highlight the importance of ocean-atmosphere interactions for Indian Ocean SST seasonality throughout the Holocene. In order to understand Holocene climate variability in the countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, we need a much more comprehensive analysis of seasonally resolved archives from the tropical Indian Ocean. Insolation data alone only

  10. Hydroclimatic shifts recorded in peat archive from Rąbień mire (Central Poland) - better understanding of past climate changes using multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Pawłowski, Dominik; Okupny, Daniel; Słowińska, Sandra; Borówka, Ryszard; Kittel, Piotr; Forysiak, Jacek; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological changes are main drivers of the processes occurring in the peatland ecosystem, e.g. organic matter accumulation and decomposition. Hydroclimatic changes in mires are caused by various non-climatic factors, such as hydroseral succession or land use changes. Central Europe, namely Poland, is characterized by a transitional climate with influence o both continental and Atlantic air masses, which makes a this region a very sensitive to climate change. Here we explore a potential of multidisciplinary approach in reconstruction of past climate change and particularly hydroclimatic conditions which control in Sphagnum peatland ecosystem. We reconstructed 3300 years (between 3,500 BC and 200 BC) history of development of Rąbień mire using several biotic proxies (pollen, plant macrofossils, testate amoebae, Cladocera, Chironomidae) and geochemistry. Study site - Rąbień mire (area 42 ha) is located in central Poland and it is protected nature reserve. The origin of the mire depression is connected with the development of the thermokarst basin isolated by dunes. Rąbień mire is limnogenic, i.e. formed by the process of terrestrialisation of a water body and thickness of biogenic deposits is 6.2 m (440 cm of lacustrine sediment and 180 cm of peat). Our results demonstrate the high potential of Rąbień peat record for reconstructing the palaeohydrological dynamics. The studied time interval is characterized by two pronounced dry periods: ~2,500 to ~1,700 cal. BC and ~800 to ~600 cal. BC, and two periods of significant increases in water table: ~1,100 to ~800 cal. BC and ~600 to ~250 cal. BC. The timing of the wet shift at 600 cal. BC corresponds to wet periods in different sites from Central and Eastern Europe. Our investigation reveals a complex pattern of proxies, what might be linked to the past atmospheric circulation patterns. Extreme hydroclimatic conditions most possibly had a direct impact on the functioning of peatland ecosystems. What has been

  11. Analysis and modeling of ensemble recordings from respiratory pre-motor neurons indicate changes in functional network architecture after acute hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F Galán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have combined neurophysiologic recording, statistical analysis, and computational modeling to investigate the dynamics of the respiratory network in the brainstem. Using a multielectrode array, we recorded ensembles of respiratory neurons in perfused in situ rat preparations that produce spontaneous breathing patterns, focusing on inspiratory pre-motor neurons. We compared firing rates and neuronal synchronization among these neurons before and after a brief hypoxic stimulus. We observed a significant decrease in the number of spikes after stimulation, in part due to a transient slowing of the respiratory pattern. However, the median interspike interval did not change, suggesting that the firing threshold of the neurons was not affected but rather the synaptic input was. A bootstrap analysis of synchrony between spike trains revealed that, both before and after brief hypoxia, up to 45 % (but typically less than 5 % of coincident spikes across neuronal pairs was not explained by chance. Most likely, this synchrony resulted from common synaptic input to the pre-motor population, an example of stochastic synchronization. After brief hypoxia most pairs were less synchronized, although some were more, suggesting that the respiratory network was “rewired” transiently after the stimulus. To investigate this hypothesis, we created a simple computational model with feed-forward divergent connections along the inspiratory pathway. Assuming that 1 the number of divergent projections was not the same for all presynaptic cells, but rather spanned a wide range and 2 that the stimulus increased inhibition at the top of the network; this model reproduced the reduction in firing rate and bootstrap-corrected synchrony subsequent to hypoxic stimulation observed in our experimental data.

  12. Records of Coastal Change within a Progradational, Wave-Dominated Barrier Island: Morphostratigraphic Framework of the Southern Recurved Spit of Assateague Island, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, J. L.; Seminack, C.; DeMarco, K. R.; Hein, C. J.; Petruny, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Although generally retrogradational in nature, barrier islands commonly contain progradational segments which may preserve records of past coastal dynamics and environmental changes which affected their formation. In particular, recurved-spit ridges may record former shoreline positions on the surface, while in their stratigraphic architecture contain evidence of the processes influencing spit growth. This study uses topographic mapping and nearly 40 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) transects to investigate the pre-historic (ca. 1000-1850 C.E.) and historic elongation of Assateague Island, VA (USA) and affiliated progradation of Chincoteague Island. These data uncovered three previously unknown former tidal inlets which have no discernible surface signatures. GPR data further reveal southerly migration (up to 95 m) and closure of these tidal inlets. In addition, GPR data indicates the apparent overprinting of multiple inlets, suggesting later reoccupation of former channels. Seaward-dipping clinoforms (5-15°) indicate that, following inlet closure, the island widened and elongated through beach-ridge growth, proceeded by the development of aeolian foredune ridges. In particular, two large (5 m elevation, 150 m wide) ridges, bounded by smaller (1-3 m elevation, 20-50 m wide) ridge sets, comprise the relict recurved-spit of Assateague Island. This contrasts with the adjacent beach-ridge plain of Chincoteague Island, where surface morphology is characterized by more spatially uniform ridges (1-2 m high, 50-100 m wide). Thus, despite sharing similar internal structure as imaged in GPR, the formational processes associated with these two systems differ: the large, widely-spaced ridges of Assateague are likely indicative of punctuated progradation possibly associated with sediment pulses or complex inlet dynamics, whereas Chincoteague Island may have been built in a semi-protected environment through sediment delivered by inlet bypassing and local longshore

  13. Epidemiological changes in leishmaniasis in Spain according to hospitalization-based records, 1997-2011: raising awareness towards leishmaniasis in non-HIV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, Leishmania infantum is endemic, human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occurring both in the Peninsula, as well as in the Balearic Islands. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of leishmaniasis patients and the changes in the disease evolution after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in 1997. In this descriptive study, we used Spanish Centralized Hospital Discharge Database for the hospitalized leishmaniasis cases between 1997 and 2011. We included in the analysis only the records having leishmaniasis as the first registered diagnosis and calculated the hospitalization rates. Disease trend was described taking into account the HIV status. Adjusted odds-ratio was used to estimate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and HIV co-infection. Of the total 8010 Leishmaniasis hospitalizations records, 3442 had leishmaniasis as first diagnosis; 2545/3442 (75.6% were males and 2240/3442 (65.1% aged between 14-65 years. Regarding disease forms, 2844/3442 (82.6% of hospitalizations were due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL, while 118/3442 (3.4% hospitalizations were cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Overall, 1737/2844 of VL (61.1% were HIV negatives. An overall increasing trend was observed for the records with leishmaniasis as first diagnosis (p=0.113. Non-HIV leishmaniasis increased during this time period (p=0.021 while leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection hospitalization revealed a slight descending trend (p=0.717. Leishmaniasis-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with male sex (aOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.25-2.04, 16-64 years age group (aOR=17.4; 95%CI: 2.1-143.3, visceral leishmaniasis aOR=6.1 (95%CI: 3.27-11.28 and solid neoplasms 4.5 (95% CI: 1.65-12.04. The absence of HIV co-infection was associated with lymph/hematopoietic neoplasms (aOR=0.3; 95%CI:0.14-0.57, other immunodeficiency (aOR=0.04; 95% CI:0.01-0.32 and transplant (aOR=0.01; 95%CI:0.00-0.07. Our findings suggest a significant increase

  14. Amateur boxing in the last 59 years. Impact of rules changes on the type of verdicts recorded and implications on boxers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Massimiliano; Loosemore, Mike; Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Faina, Marcello; Zeppilli, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    Several changes have occurred in Olympic boxing (OB) in the last few decades, influencing the results in official competitions. The aim of this study was to assess how the evolution of rules changed the rate of the results that can influence boxers' health. From a web-research, the results of OB tournaments from 1952 to 2011 were reviewed (29,357 bouts). For each event, rate of knockout (KO), referee-stop contest (RSC), RSC-Head (RSCH), RSC-Injury (RSCI), RSC-Outclassed (RSCO), abandon, disqualification and points decisions were recorded. In our analysis we investigated the changes that occurred after the introduction of the standing-count rule (1964), mandatory head guard (1984), computerised scoring system (1992), RSCO (2000-2009) and modification of bout formula 3×3 min rounds (3×3, until 1997, 5×2 min rounds (5×2) until 1999, 4×2 min rounds (4×2) until 2008, 3×3 from 2009). The most important results were: (1) an RSCI rate increase (0.72-2.42%, p<0.03) after the standing-count rule; (2) a lower RSCI (0.60%, p<0.001) and higher RSCH (1.31-4.92%, p<0.001) and RSC (9.71-13.05%, p<0.03) rate with mandatory head guard; (3) a KO rate reduction (6.44-2.09%, p<0.001) with the computerised scoring system; (4) an RSC (13.15-5.91%, p<0.05) and RSCH (4.23-1.41%, p<0.001) rate reduction comparing 5×2-4×2 bouts. In the last six decades, along with rule changes in OB, a clear reduction of health challenging results was observed. In the near future, older rules will be adopted (no head guard and a manual scoring system). Continued medical surveillance is important to ensure that new rule changes do not result in poor medical outcomes for the boxers.

  15. Geochemical and paleoenvironmental record of the early to early late Aptian major episodes of accelerated change: Evidence from Sierra del Rosario, Northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Useche, Fernando; Barragán, Ricardo; Moreno-Bedmar, Josep Anton; Canet, Carles

    2015-07-01

    The lower to lower-upper Aptian succession of northern Mexico documents the drowning of the shallow-water Cupido/Cupidito carbonate platform system followed by deposition of the deep-water sediments of the La Peña Formation. Using δ13C stratigraphy, geochemical and mineralogical information coupled with previous microfacies, paleontological and total organic carbon (TOC) data from a stratigraphic section, which includes such lithological change, this study identifies distinctive episodes of accelerated global environmental change, and determines the paleoenvironmental conditions conducive to the deposition of TOC-rich intervals. Within the Cupidito unit, the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE 1a) is recorded near the base of the section and the Intra-Furcata Negative Excursion in the topmost beds of the unit. The upper part of the section, within the La Peña Formation, is correlatable with the Noire level. Organic-carbon rich intervals occur in the lower and middle part of the OAE 1a, upper part of the Cupidito unit, base of the La Peña Formation, and in the Noire level equivalent. Reducing conditions within the sediment and oxic-dysoxic at the seafloor, locally controlled, persisted both before and during OAE 1a interval in the Cupidito lagoon. Oxygen-depleted conditions (dysoxic-anoxic) were more permanent and stronger during the deposition of the base of the la Peña Formation and the Noire equivalent level. It is proposed here that deposition of the lower-middle part of the OAE 1a and the base of the La Peña Formation was influenced by climate-controlled increases in detrital and accompanying nutrient influx that supplied especially biolimiting nutrients (Fe, P), fostering marine productivity and TOC burial. Upwelling of nutrient-rich deeper waters and minor arrival of nutrients from runoff, both account for the domination of radiolaria and organic-carbon burial during the Noire level equivalent. Record of the OAE 1a time-equivalent facies in the Cupidito

  16. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  18. Population genetic structure of gray wolves (Canis lupus) in a marine archipelago suggests island-mainland differentiation consistent with dietary niche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stronen, Astrid Vik; Navid, Erin L; Quinn, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that ecological heterogeneity across space can influence the genetic structure of populations, including that of long-distance dispersers such as large carnivores. On the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758) dietary niche...... mainland and island wolves. This pattern occurs despite field observations that individuals easily traverse the 30 km wide study area and swim up to 13 km among landmasses in the region. Conclusions Natal habitat-biased dispersal (i.e., the preference for dispersal into familiar ecological environments...

  19. Reconciling late Quaternary transgressions in the Bohai Sea, China to the global sea level changes, and new linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang

    2013-04-01

    noticeable feature of these coastal sediment variations is the little internal similarity between records compared with high similarity with external forcing indicating that the coastal sediments in the south Bohai Sea integrate different influences from various environmental factors: (1) the grain-size variation represents Asian monsoon intensity which was dominated by both solar insolation (major) and global ice volume (minor) forcing; (2) the magnetic susceptibility indicates river incision processes which were sensitive to orbital tilt with influence from solar insolation; (3) the vegetation coverage responded to global ice volume coupled obliquity changes; and that (4) neither external nor internal factors could dominate the paleoenvironmental evolution on orbital timescales in an independent way, and they are both integrated in a complex pattern. Therefore, combining all of these results, we report those great similarities between regional and global sea-level patterns and the nonlinear interaction and the complex response to driving processes in a coastal evolution. However, all of these studies only used the upper part of cores within marine strata, and the rest containing lacustrine sediment is still in process. Sediment grain size, magnetic susceptibility, color reflectance were finished, and the magnetostratigraphic, environmental magnetism and element analysis are ongoing. More results about high-/low-latitude interaction and relative sea level will be released in three years, and anyone who has interests in cooperation will be welcome (Email: yi.liang82@gmail.com). References Chappell, J., Omura, A., Esat, T., McCulloch, M., Pandolfi, J., Ota, Y., Pillans, B., 1996. Reconciliation of late Quaternary sea levels derived from coral terraces at Huon Peninsula with deep sea oxygen isotope records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 141, 227-236. Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Broecker, W.S., Denton, G.H., Kong, X., Wang, Y., Zhang, R., Wang, X., 2009. Ice Age

  20. The lacustrine sediment record of Oberwinkler Maar (Eifel, Germany): Chironomid and macro-remain-based inferences of environmental changes during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, S.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Heiri, O.; Schaber, K.; Sirocko, F.

    2008-01-01

    The lacustrine record of Oberwinkler Maar (Eifel, Germany) is the northernmost continuous record documenting the Weichselian Pleniglacial in central Europe - a period characterized by multiple abrupt climate oscillations known as the Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles. Here, the results of a high-resolution

  1. Late Pliocene/Pleistocene changes in Arctic sea-ice cover: Biomarker and dinoflagellate records from Fram Strait/Yermak Plateau (ODP Sites 911 and 912)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Matthiessen, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice is a critical component in the (global) climate system that contributes to changes in the Earth's albedo (heat reduction) and biological processes (primary productivity), as well as deep-water formation, a driving mechanism for global thermohaline circulation. Thus, understanding the processes controlling Arctic sea ice variability is of overall interest and significance. Recently, a novel and promising biomarker proxy for reconstruction of Arctic sea-ice conditions was developed and is based on the determination of a highly-branched isoprenoid with 25 carbons (IP25; Belt et al., 2007; PIP25 when combined with open-water phytoplankton biomarkers; Müller et al., 2011). Here, we present biomarker data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 911 and 912, recovered from the southern Yermak Plateau and representing information of sea-ice variability, changes in primary productivity and terrigenous input during the last about 3.5 Ma. As Sites 911 and 912 are close to the modern sea-ice edge, their sedimentary records seem to be optimal for studying past variability in sea-ice coverage and testing the applicability of IP25 and PIP25 in older sedimentary sequences. In general, our biomarker records correlate quite well with other climate and sea-ice proxies (e.g., dinoflagellates, IRD, etc.). The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) The novel IP25/PIP25 biomarker approach has potential for semi-quantitative paleo-sea ice studies covering at least the last 3.5 Ma, i.e., the time interval including the onset (intensification) of major Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). (2) These data indicate that sea ice of variable extent was present in the Fram Strait/southern Yermak Plateau area during most of the time period under investigation. (3) Elevated IP25/PIP25 values indicative for an extended spring sea-ice cover, already occurred between 3.6 and 2.9 Ma, i.e., prior to the onset of major NHG. This may suggest that sea-ice and related albedo effects might

  2. Record of environmental and climatic changes in middle Pleistocene sediments from Łuków (eastern Poland on the basis of plant macroremains analysis

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    Stachowicz-Rybka Renata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lacustrine sediments at the Łuków site bear a record of the Ferdynandovian interglacial, correlated with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 13-15, including two warm periods of interglacial rank (climatostratigraphic units Ferdynandovian 1 and 2 separated by cooling/glaciation (Ferdynandovian 1/2. On the basis of plant macroremains analysis, the type of local vegetation in the lake and its surroundings as well as changes in climate, trophic conditions and water level were reconstructed in detail. Ferdynandovian 1 was a time of development of tall sedge swamps. The presence of Najas marina and N. minor also suggests high levels of eutrophication, particularly in the younger part of the climatic optimum. The occurrence of Zannichellia palustris indicates habitats of variable water level and high salt content. In the terminocratic phase of Ferdynandovian 1, the communities showed the reoccurrence of Betula nana, B. humilis and Larix sp., the disappearance of thermophilous trees, and the intensification of succession processes linked to climate cooling. In the cool Ferdynandovian 1/2, Betula nana and Cenococcum geophilum increased their frequencies, most likely due to enhanced supply of mineral matter to the basin. During Ferdynandovian 2, the next climate warming of interglacial rank, communities of aquatic vegetation with the highest share of thermophilous taxa included the extinct Aldrowanda borysthenica, Brasenia borysthenica, and Scirpus atroviroides, as well as Cyperus glomeratus, a species not presently found in the flora of Poland. Another cooling in the Sanian 2 (Elsterian 2 glaciation is indicated by the development of peat communities, with numerous Carex sp., Menyanthes trifoliata, Eriophorum vaginatum, and Andromeda polifolia, accompanied by the extinct Carex paucifloroides, Caulinia macrosperma, and Potamogeton praemaackianus.

  3. Hydro-climatic changes since 13.000 years B.P. in eastern Tibet and north of Xinjiang (China). Approach using the study of some lacustrine records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaraj, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to build the chronology of the medium and short term climatic changes that took place during the last glacial and Holocene periods using sedimentological and isotopic data obtained on cores from the Aibi lake (north of Xinjiang, China) and from the Madoi and Donxi lakes (eastern part of the Tibetan plateau). At Aibi, after the chemical, isotopic and physico-chemical characterization of the lake waters, and the sedimentological study of the laminae (granulometry and mineralogy) have been done, the measurements of 18 O and 13 C of the authigenous carbonates and of the thickness variations of laminae have evidenced the seasonal character of the laminae. The spectral analyses of the thickness variations indicate periodicities linked with the quasi-biennial oscillations (2 or 3 years) and with the solar cycles (10-11 years). East of the Tibetan plateau, the sedimentological and isotopic study of the cores from the Madoi and Donxi lakes show more humid and hot climate conditions during the lower and middle Holocene. The sedimentary record of lake Madoi show one or several lacustrine or fluvio-lacustrine phases after 13000-12000 years B.P. A high dryness period took place within the Younger Dryas chrono-zone. Since 10000 year B.P. the 3 lakes are filled with isotopically diluted waters. The last glacial-Holocene transition seems to be very sharp and located around 10000 years B.P. both in northern Xinjiang and eastern Tibet and confirm the results previously obtained in Qinghai and northern-Xinjiang. After the optimum hydrologic phase of the lower and middle Holocene, the come back of dryer conditions started at about 6000 or 5000 years B.P. and hydrological conditions became close to the present day ones since 3000 years B.P. (J.S.)

  4. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

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    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  5. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and